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Sample records for regional lung function

  1. Regional lung function evaluation with nitrogen-13

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    Ahluwalia, B; Brownell, G L; Hales, C; Kazemi, H

    1981-10-01

    Regional ventilation and perfusion studies are routinely performed with molecular nitrogen-13 (a short-lived positron emitter), a multicrystal positron camera, and a computer. These studies have the advantage of viewing with equal sensitivity all sections of the lung simultaneously. Nitrogen-13 is less soluble than xenon in blood and therefore allows more accurate ventilation imaging. The short half-life of the radiopharmaceutical allows simultaneous ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy of the lung. Unlike other imaging techniques in which the residual radioactivity persists in the lung for hours, nitrogen-13 is rapidly cleared allowing repetitive imaging. Ventilation and perfusion studies are part of the routine preoperative evaluation for lung cancer resection or for bullectomy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and for assessment of pulmonary emboli in the presence of chronic obstructive disease.

  2. Changes in regional and overall lung function after bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richez, M.; Ravez, P.; Godart, G.; Halloy, J.L.; Robience, Y.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation compares the effects of unilateral bronchography on classical pulmonary function paramerts (spirometry, CO transfer, flowvolume curve, and arterial blood gases)and radioisotopic measurements by means of 99 sup(m)Tc-labeled microspheres and 81 sup(m)Kr. The regional changes of ventilation and perfusion were quantified by a radioisotopic index, which was established for each zone of interest: explored lung and unexplored lung. The quantitative study of regional perfusion and ventilation reveals significant reduction of ventilation for lung bases, but not for lung apices. The radioisotopic measurements show a reduction of perfusion parallel to the reduction of ventilation. There is no significant correlation between traditional pulmonary function parameters and isotopic indices. Radioisotopy proved a sensitive tool for investigation of unilateral alterations. (orig.) [de

  3. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  4. Study of regional lung function with xenon 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, D.; Wagner, R.; Germain, M.; Chardon, G.

    1975-01-01

    Exploration of regional lung function includes study of the closed circuit perfusion and ventilation respectively by injection and inhalation of xenon 133. The radiation is measured across the chest using 4 fixed scintillation counters, placed opposite the subject's back, 2 per lung field. Theoretical regional values using 15 normal young subjects are determined. Three cases justified the practical interest of this method. The percentage of variation for the parameters studied was about 10%. The method proved very useful for the clinician to whom it provides a numerical assessment of regional ventilation and perfusion [fr

  5. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy; Koo, Phillip; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional avoidance

  6. Regional Lung Function Profiles of Stage I and III Lung Cancer Patients: An Evaluation for Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy

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    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy, E-mail: yevgeniy.vinogradskiy@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Waxweiller, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Koo, Phillip [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Castillo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Rusthoven, Chad; Gaspar, Laurie; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of clinical trials is underway to use 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging to preferentially spare functional lung in patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to generate data to aide with clinical trial design by retrospectively characterizing dosimetric and functional profiles for patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 118 lung cancer patients (36% stage I and 64% stage III) from 2 institutions were used for the study. A 4DCT-ventilation map was calculated using the patient's 4DCT imaging, deformable image registration, and a density-change–based algorithm. To assess each patient's spatial ventilation profile both quantitative and qualitative metrics were developed, including an observer-based defect observation and metrics based on the ventilation in each lung third. For each patient we used the clinical doses to calculate functionally weighted mean lung doses and metrics that assessed the interplay between the spatial location of the dose and high-functioning lung. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative metrics revealed a significant difference in functional profiles between the 2 stage groups (P<.01). We determined that 65% of stage III and 28% of stage I patients had ventilation defects. Average functionally weighted mean lung dose was 19.6 Gy and 5.4 Gy for stage III and I patients, respectively, with both groups containing patients with large spatial overlap between dose and high-function regions. Conclusion: Our 118-patient retrospective study found that 65% of stage III patients have regionally variant ventilation profiles that are suitable for functional avoidance. Our results suggest that regardless of disease stage, it is possible to have unique spatial interplay between dose and high-functional lung, highlighting the importance of evaluating the function of each patient and developing a personalized functional

  7. Regional differences in prediction models of lung function in Germany

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    Schäper Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ between subpopulations within Germany and whether prediction equations developed for one subpopulation are also adequate for another subpopulation. Methods Within three studies (KORA C, SHIP-I, ECRHS-I in different areas of Germany 4059 adults performed lung function tests. The available data consisted of forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate. For each study multivariate regression models were developed to predict lung function and Bland-Altman plots were established to evaluate the agreement between predicted and measured values. Results The final regression equations for FEV1 and FVC showed adjusted r-square values between 0.65 and 0.75, and for PEF they were between 0.46 and 0.61. In all studies gender, age, height and pack-years were significant determinants, each with a similar effect size. Regarding other predictors there were some, although not statistically significant, differences between the studies. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the regression models for each individual study adequately predict medium (i.e. normal but not extremely high or low lung function values in the whole study population. Conclusions Simple models with gender, age and height explain a substantial part of lung function variance whereas further determinants add less than 5% to the total explained r-squared, at least for FEV1 and FVC. Thus, for different adult subpopulations of Germany one simple model for each lung function measures is still sufficient.

  8. Relation between radiation-induced whole lung functional loss and regional structural changes in partial irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijk, Peter van; Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Faber, Hette; Steneker, Marloes N.J.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Meertens, Haarm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is characterized by dose, region, and time-dependent severe changes in lung morphology and function. This study sought to determine the relation between the structural and functional changes in the irradiated rat lung at three different phases after irradiation. Materials and Methods: Six groups of animals were irradiated to 16-22 Gy to six different lung regions, each containing 50% of the total lung volume. Before and every 2 weeks after irradiation, the breathing rate (BR) was measured, and at Weeks 8, 26, and 38 CT was performed. From the computed tomography scans, the irradiated lung tissue was delineated using a computerized algorithm. A single quantitative measure for structural change was derived from changes of the mean and standard deviation of the density within the delineated lung. Subsequently, this was correlated with the BR in the corresponding phase. Results: In the mediastinal and apex region, the BR and computed tomography density changes did not correlate in any phase. After lateral irradiation, the density changes always correlated with the BR; however, in all other regions, the density changes only correlated significantly (r 2 = 0.46-0.85, p < 0.05) with the BR in Week 26. Conclusion: Changes in pulmonary function correlated with the structural changes in the absence of confounding heart irradiation

  9. Tracking Regional Tissue Volume and Function Change in Lung Using Image Registration

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    Kunlin Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the 24-hour redistribution and reabsorption of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid delivered to the lung during a bronchoscopic procedure in normal volunteers. In this work we utilize image-matching procedures to correlate fluid redistribution and reabsorption to changes in regional lung function. Lung CT datasets from six human subjects were used in this study. Each subject was scanned at four time points before and after BAL procedure. Image registration was performed to align images at different time points and different inflation levels. The resulting dense displacement fields were utilized to track tissue volume changes and reveal deformation patterns of local parenchymal tissue quantitatively. The registration accuracy was assessed by measuring landmark matching errors, which were on the order of 1 mm. The results show that quantitative-assessed fluid volume agreed well with bronchoscopist-reported unretrieved BAL volume in the whole lungs (squared linear correlation coefficient was 0.81. The average difference of lung tissue volume at baseline and after 24 hours was around 2%, which indicates that BAL fluid in the lungs was almost absorbed after 24 hours. Regional lung-function changes correlated with the presence of BAL fluid, and regional function returned to baseline as the fluid was reabsorbed.

  10. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  11. Spirometrically gated /sup 133/Xe ventilation imaging and phase analysis for assessment of regional lung function

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    Inoue, Tomio (Kanto Teishin Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technique of performing spirometrically gated /sup 133/Xe ventilation imaging and to evaluate its clinical usefulness for the assessment of regional ventilatory function in various lung diseases. Patients rebreathed /sup 133/Xe gas through the system with constant rates signaled by a metronome. The trigger signals from the patients were recorded in a minicomputer for 60 respiratory cycles simultaneously with posterior lung images. Functional images (phase analysis images) indicating phase and amplitude of regional ventilation were constructed by the first harmonic Fourier analysis. Materials included 13 normal volunteers and patients with COPD (24), lung cancer (5), pulmonary embolism (4) and others (20). In normal controls, phase analysis images before respiratory motion correction revealed gradual decrease in amplitude from base to apex with uniform phase distribution. The amplitude and phase distribution after respiratory motion correction became even more uniform. In patients with COPD, phase analysis images showed asymmetrical and irregular amplitude distribution with non-uniform phase distribution. The standard deviation (S.D.) of phase histogram correlated well with FEVsub(1.0)% (r=0.71, p < 0.001) and down slope of flow-volume curve (r=0.55, p < 0.001), and less prominently with %VC (r=0.42, p < 0.01). Mean S.D. in patients with COPD (12.3 +- 6.5 degree, mean+-1 s.d.) was significantly larger than in normal controls (6.3 +- 1.5). Amplitude profile curve analysis revealed 83% sensitivity for the detection of abnormal spirometric respiratory function test. Data aquisition and processing of present method are rapid and easy to perform. The phase analysis of the gated ventilation images should prove useful in the clinical evaluation of patients with uneven ventilation such as COPD.

  12. Spirometrically gated 133Xe ventilation imaging and phase analysis for assessment of regional lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the technique of performing spirometrically gated 133 Xe ventilation imaging and to evaluate its clinical usefulness for the assessmentof regional ventilatory function in various lung diseases. Patients rebreathe d 133 Xe gas through the system with constant rates signaled by a metronom. The trigger signals from the patients were recorded in a minicomputer for 60 respiratory cycles simultaneously with posterior lung images. Functional images (phase analysis images) indicating phase and amplitude of regional ventilation were constructed by the first harmonic Fourier analysis. Materials included 13 normal volunteers and patients with COPD (24), lung cancer (5), pulmonary embolism (4) and others (20). In normal controls, phase analysis images before respiratory motion correction revealed gradual decrease in amplitude from base to apex with uniform phase distribution. The amplitude and phase distribution after respiratory motion correction became even more uniform. In patients with COPD, phase analysis images showed asymmetrical and irregular amplitude distribution with non-uniform phase distribution. The standard deviation (S.D.) of phase histogram correlated well with FEVsub(1.0)% (r=0.71, p<0.001) and down slope of flowvolume curve (r=0.55, p<0.001), and less prominently with %VC (r=0.42, p<0.01). Mean S.D. in patients with COPD (12.3+-6.5 degree, mean+-1 s.d.) was significantly larger than in normal controls (6.3+-1.5). Amplitude profile curve analysis revealed 83% sensitivity for the detection of abnormal spirometric respiratory function test. Data aquisition and processing of present method are rapid and easy to perform. The phase analysis of the gated ventilation images should prove useful in the clinical evaluation of patients with uneven ventilation such as COPD. (J.P.N.)

  13. Evaluation of the regional lung function revealed in radioaerosol scintigram of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Teruyasu

    1980-01-01

    We classified the findings of radioaerosol inhalation scintigrams of patients with various stages of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into 4 grades, according to the extent of peripheral irregularity and central hot spot formation; Stage I represents normal homogeneous distribution, stage II represents peripheral irregularity, stage III represents additional hot spot formation and stage IV represents further regional defect. This aerosol grading criteria was then compared with routine and specific lung function tests. The aerosol grading criterion correlated well with FEV sub(1.0)% which is a good indicator of the severity of COPD. The central hot spot formation correlated well with FEV sub(1.0)% and respiratory resistance (R.p.) determined by the oscillation method, both of which are good indicators of abnormality in central airway resistance. Peripheral irregularity correlated well with: 1) flows at 50%VC and 25%VC in a maximum forced expiratory flow volume curve; 2) closing volume (CV/VC%); 3) delta N 2 %/l in N 2 single washout test; and 4) the regional delay of 133 Xe washout process, all of which are sensitive indicators of small airway disease. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the radioaerosol scintigram reveals the regional lung function both in terms of airway resistance (R) and compliance (C). This criterion was useful in quantitatively evaluating the regional ventilation distribution of COPD and the therapeutic effect on bronchial asthma. The mechanism of aerosol praticle deposition related to characteristic central hot spot formation accompanied with peripheral irregularity in a radioaerosol scintigram of COPD, needs further exploration concerning the aerodynamic behavior of aerosol particles in the airways both during inspiration and expiration. (author)

  14. Registration-based assessment of regional lung function via volumetric CT images of normal subjects vs. severe asthmatics

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    Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Wenzel, Sally E.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Yin, Youbing; Castro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the use of image registration-derived variables associated with computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the lung acquired at multiple volumes. As an evaluation of the utility of such an imaging approach, we explored two groups at the extremes of population ranging from normal subjects to severe asthmatics. A mass-preserving image registration technique was employed to match CT images at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC) for assessment of regional air volume change and lung deformation between the two states. Fourteen normal subjects and thirty severe asthmatics were analyzed via image registration-derived metrics together with their pulmonary function test (PFT) and CT-based air-trapping. Relative to the normal group, the severely asthmatic group demonstrated reduced air volume change (consistent with air trapping) and more isotropic deformation in the basal lung regions while demonstrating increased air volume change associated with increased anisotropic deformation in the apical lung regions. These differences were found despite the fact that both PFT-derived TLC and FRC in the two groups were nearly 100% of predicted values. Data suggest that reduced basal-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was compensated by increased apical-lung air volume change and that relative increase in apical-lung air volume change in severe asthmatics was accompanied by enhanced anisotropic deformation. These data suggest that CT-based deformation, assessed via inspiration vs. expiration scans, provides a tool for distinguishing differences in lung mechanics when applied to the extreme ends of a population range. PMID:23743399

  15. Detecting regional lung properties using audio transfer functions of the respiratory system.

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    Mulligan, K; Adler, A; Goubran, R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel instrument has been developed for measuring changes in the distribution of lung fluid the respiratory system. The instrument consists of a speaker that inputs a 0-4kHz White Gaussian Noise (WGN) signal into a patient's mouth and an array of 4 electronic stethoscopes, linked via a fully adjustable harness, used to recover signals on the chest surface. The software system for processing the data utilizes the principles of adaptive filtering in order to obtain a transfer function that represents the input-output relationship for the signal as the volume of fluid in the lungs is varied. A chest phantom model was constructed to simulate the behavior of fluid related diseases within the lungs through the injection of varying volumes of water. Tests from the phantom model were compared to healthy subjects. Results show the instrument can obtain similar transfer functions and sound propagation delays between both human and phantom chests.

  16. WE-AB-202-02: Incorporating Regional Ventilation Function in Predicting Radiation Fibrosis After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer

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    Lan, F; Jeudy, J; Tseng, H; Zhou, J; D’Souza, W; Zhang, H [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Senan, S; Sornsen de Koste, J van [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of pre-therapy regional ventilation function in predicting radiation fibrosis (RF) in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. Methods: 37 stage III NSCLC patients were retrospectively studied. Patients received one cycle of cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by two to three cycles of cisplatin-etoposide concurrently with involved-field thoracic radiotherapy between 46 and 66 Gy (2 Gy per fraction). Pre-therapy regional ventilation images of the lung were derived from 4DCT via a density-change-based image registration algorithm with mass correction. RF was evaluated at 6-months post-treatment using radiographic scoring based on airway dilation and volume loss. Three types of ipsilateral lung metrics were studied: (1) conventional dose-volume metrics (V20, V30, V40, and mean-lung-dose (MLD)), (2) dose-function metrics (fV20, fV30, fV40, and functional mean-lung-dose (fMLD) generated by combining regional ventilation and dose), and (3) dose-subvolume metrics (sV20, sV30, sV40, and subvolume mean-lung-dose (sMLD) defined as the dose-volume metrics computed on the sub-volume of the lung with at least 60% of the quantified maximum ventilation status). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the predictability of these metrics for RF. Results: In predicting airway dilation, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for (V20, MLD), (fV20, fMLD), and (sV20, and sMLD) were (0.76, 0.70), (0.80, 0.74) and (0.82, 0.80), respectively. The logistic regression p-values were (0.09, 0.18), (0.02, 0.05) and (0.004, 0.006), respectively. With regard to volume loss, the corresponding AUC values for these metrics were (0.66, 0.57), (0.67, 0.61) and (0.71, 0.69), and p-values were (0.95, 0.90), (0.43, 0.64) and (0.08, 0.12), respectively. Conclusion: The inclusion of regional ventilation function improved

  17. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  18. Nonrespiratory lung function

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    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  19. Regional quantification of lung function in cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized xenon-129 and chemical shift imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carolina Campanha

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica (Radiações em Diagnóstico e Terapia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which the defective gene causes the production of unusually thick and viscous mucus that builds-up in the airways, leading to impaired ventilation and infection of lung structures. Currently, there is a lack of methods capable of routinely assessing, in a regional manner, basic p...

  20. Study of regional lung function in patients with emphysema using Xe 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, P.; Vigne, J.; Poirier, R.; Aristote, A.; Feliciano, J.M.; Kleisbauer, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In six patients with emphysema and one healthy man, the ventilation with 133 Xenon and circulation with sup(99m)Tc, labeled Albumin Microspheres were explored. Each lung is explored in the seated position by the way of gamma-camera. Three regions (upper-middle and lower), in the median side are choiced for other calculations. The curves of Xenon washout are studied by the mean of T 1/2. In order to appreciate V/Q ratios regional percentages of Xenon ventilation and percentages of MAT circulation were correlated. In diffuse emphysema, the results are very closed of normal subject; this is due to the fact that in emphysema the alterations of ventilation and perfusion are correlated and diffused. In cystic emphysema, there is no rule, results are related with ventilation of the cyst. However it must be in mind that the small capillaries ( [fr

  1. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p < 0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Posttreatment QOL was lower in patients with higher RESs in all groups, mainly owing to dyspnea (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with a higher RES had significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 and 1.43 for a moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for a severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the nonsurgical group (adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 for a moderate or severe RES). In surgically treated patients with cancer in the emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Proceedings: regional lung function in the newborn infant assessed by means of 133Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, G.

    1975-01-01

    Regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was assessed in 14 normal newborn infants and in some with respiratory distress (RDS) using a gamma camera computer system and /sup 133/Xe as tracer. The normal infants were at ages when R-L shunting through fetal channels is mainly abolished but minor L-R shunting through the ductes arteriosus still may occur. In the normal infant, distribution of ventilation and perfusion is nearly identical to that in the adult. The disappearance constants after inhalation (ventilated areas) and injection (perfused areas) are high indicating great efficiency of ventilation. This finding of high ventilatory efficiency is in accordance with direct measurements of alveolar ventilation. Despite the high efficiency, however, its distribution even in the normal infant is suprisingly uneven. The most important data is the ventilation/perfusion ratio which shows, as in the adult, relative hyperperfusion basically, while relative hyperventilation in the upper parts is less pronounced than in the adult. During RDS, uneven ventilation and perfusion distribution is much more pronounced. Another striking feature is the low ventilatory efficiency, a finding in agreement with PaCO/sub 2/ data indicating alveolar hypoventilation. Repeated studies in the same infant have demonstrated striking differences in corresponding distribution data between different studies despite similar clinical conditions suggesting that the degree of regional contribution to the overall function disturbance may vary considerably in the course of the disease.

  3. The relationship between lung function and indoor air pollution among rural women in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Aniedi Umoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burning of biomass is widely used by the rural poor for energy generation. Long term exposure to biomass smoke is believed to affect lung function and cause respiratory symptoms. Materials and Methods: Women with long term occupational exposure to burning firewood were recruited from a rural fishing community in Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on symptoms of chronic bronchitis and spirometery was performed to measure lung function. Data obtained from the subjects was compared with that from healthy controls. Results: Six hundred and eighty six women were recruited for this study made up of 342 subjects and 346 controls. Sixty eight (19.9% of the subjects had chronic bronchitis compared with eight (2.3% of the controls (χ2 = 54.0, P < 0.001. The subjects had lower values for the lung function as well as the percentage predicted values (P < 0.05. Fish smoking and chronic bronchitis were significantly associated with predicted lung volumes. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke is associated with chronic bronchitis and reduced lung functions in women engaged in fish smoking.

  4. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

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    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  5. Radiology compared with xenon—133 scanning and bronchoscopic lobar sampling as methods for assessing regional lung function in patients with emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, C. E.; Hugh-Jones, P.; Laws, J. W.; Crosbie, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Regional lung function was assessed by radiographic methods, by regional function studies using xenon-133 scans, and by lobar sampling with a mass spectrometer flow-meter at bronchoscopy in 12 patients who subsequently had bullae resected at operation. The information given by these three methods of regional assessment was subsequently compared with the findings at operation. When only one lobe was abnormal on the radiographs, these alone were adequate to locate the major site of the emphysema and the regional tests gave relatively little extra information. The xenon scan was sometimes helpful in assessing the state of the remaining lung, but this information could be deduced from the radiographs and overall lung function tests, especially the carbon monoxide transfer and mechanical measurements. Bronchoscopic sampling was helpful in determining whether the affected lobe was acting as a ventilated dead-space. When more than one lobe was affected the regional function tests supplemented the radiographs in defining the site of bullous change as well as locating dead space. Xenon scans, although widely employed for such preoperative assessments, added little to the topographical information obtained by careful radiology. The combination of radiology, lobar sampling, and overall function tests is recommended for assessing which emphysematous patients are likely to benefit from surgery. Images PMID:4685209

  6. Unevenness on aerosol inhalation lung images and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    The unevenness or inhomogeneity of aerosol deposition patterns on radioaerosol inhalation lung images has been interpreted rather qualitatively in the clinical practice. We have reported our approach to quantitatively analyze the radioactive count distribution on radioaerosol inhalation lung images in relation to the actual lung function data. We have defined multiple indexes to express the shape and the unevenness of the count distribution of the lung images. To reduce as much as possible the number of indexes to be used in the regression functions, the method of selection of variables was introduced to the multiple regression analysis. Because some variables showed greater coefficients of simple correlation, while others did not, multicollinearity of variables had to be taken into consideration. For this reason, we chose a principal components regression analysis. The multiple regression function for each item of pulmonary function data thus established from analysis of 67 subjects appeared usable as a predictor of the actual lung function: for example, % VC (vital capacity) could be estimated by using four indexes out of the multiple ones with a coefficient of multiple correlation (R) of 0.753, and FEVsub(1.0) % (forced expiratory volume in one second divided by forced expiratory volume), by 7 indexes with R = 0.921. Pulmonary function data regarding lung volumes and lung mechanics were estimated more accurately with greater R's than those for lung diffusion, but even in the latter the prediction was still statistically significant at p less than 0.01. We believe the multiple regression functions thus obtained are useful for estimating not only the overall but also the regional function of the lungs. (author)

  7. A lung function information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J. de Vries (Julius); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A lung function information system (LFIS) was developed for the data analysis of pulmonary function tests at different locations. This system was connected to the hospital information system (HIS) for the retrieval of patient data and the storage of the lung function

  8. Evaluation of the regional lung function revealed in radioaerosol scintigram of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 1. The comparison of radioaerosol scintigram with the lung function tests in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-02-01

    We classified the findings of radioaerosol inhalation scintigrams of patients with various stages of obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into 4 grades, according to the extent of peripheral irregularity and central hot spot formation; Stage I represents normal homogeneous distribution, stage II represents peripheral irregularity, stage III represents additional hot spot formation and stage IV represents further regional defect. This aerosol grading criteria was then compared with routine and specific lung function tests. The aerosol grading criterion correlated well with FEV sub(1.0)% which is a good indicator of the severity of COPD. The central hot spot formation correlated well with FEV sub(1.0)% and respiratory resistance (R.p.) determined by the oscillation method, both of which are good indicators of abnormality in central airway resistance. Peripheral irregularity correlated well with: 1) flows at 50%VC and 25%VC in a maximum forced expiratory flow volume curve; 2) closing volume (CV/VC%); 3) delta N/sub 2/%/l in N/sub 2/ single washout test; and 4) the regional delay of /sup 133/Xe washout process, all of which are sensitive indicators of small airway disease. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the radioaerosol scintigram reveals the regional lung function both in terms of airway resistance (R) and compliance (C). This criterion was useful in quantitatively evaluating the regional ventilation distribution of COPD and the therapeutic effect on bronchial asthma. The mechanism of aerosol particle deposition related to characteristic central hot spot formation accompanied with peripheral irregularity in a radioaerosol scintigram of COPD, needs further exploration concerning the aerodynamic behavior of aerosol particles in the airways both during inspiration and expiration.

  9. Assessment of regional lung functional impairment with co-registered respiratory-gated ventilation/perfusion SPET-CT images: initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Zaki, Mohammed; Yamashita, Tomio; Seto, Aska; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, respiratory-gated ventilation and perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) were used to define regional functional impairment and to obtain reliable co-registration with computed tomography (CT) images in various lung diseases. Using a triple-headed SPET unit and a physiological synchroniser, gated perfusion SPET was performed in a total of 78 patients with different pulmonary diseases, including metastatic nodules (n=15); in 34 of these patients, it was performed in combination with gated technetium-99m Technegas SPET. Projection data were acquired using 60 stops over 120 for each detector. Gated end-inspiration and ungated images were reconstructed from 1/8 data centered at peak inspiration for each regular respiratory cycle and full respiratory cycle data, respectively. Gated images were registered with tidal inspiration CT images using automated three-dimensional (3D) registration software. Registration mismatch was assessed by measuring 3D distance of the centroid of the nine selected round perfusion-defective nodules. Gated SPET images were completed within 29 min, and increased the number of visible ventilation and perfusion defects by 9.7% and 17.2%, respectively, as compared with ungated images; furthermore, lesion-to-normal lung contrast was significantly higher on gated SPET images. In the nine round perfusion-defective nodules, gated images yielded a significantly better SPET-CT match compared with ungated images (4.9±3.1 mm vs 19.0±9.1 mm, P<0.001). The co-registered SPET-CT images allowed accurate perception of the location and extent of each ventilation/perfusion defect on the underlying CT anatomy, and characterised the pathophysiology of the various diseases. By reducing respiratory motion effects and enhancing perfusion/ventilation defect clarity, gated SPET can provide reliable co-registered images with CT images to accurately characterise regional functional impairment in various lung diseases. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of quantitative regional ventilation-weighted fourier decomposition MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI and lung function testing in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaireit, Till F; Gutberlet, Marcel; Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Freise, Julia; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2018-06-01

    Ventilation-weighted Fourier decomposition-MRI (FD-MRI) has matured as a reliable technique for quantitative measures of regional lung ventilation in recent years, but has yet not been validated in COPD patients. To compare regional fractional lung ventilation obtained by ventilation-weighted FD-MRI with dynamic fluorinated gas washout MRI ( 19 F-MRI) and lung function test parameters. Prospective study. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, median age 61 [54-67] years) were included. For FD-MRI and for 19 F-MRI a spoiled gradient echo sequence was used at 1.5T. FD-MRI coronal slices were acquired in free breathing. Dynamic 19 F-MRI was performed after inhalation of 25-30 L of a mixture of 79% fluorinated gas (C 3 F 8 ) and 21% oxygen via a closed face mask tubing using a dedicated coil tuned to 59.9 MHz. 19 F washout times in numbers of breaths ( 19 F-n breaths ) as well as fractional ventilation maps for both methods (FD-FV, 19 F-FV) were calculated. Slices were matched using a landmark driven algorithm, and only corresponding slices with an overlap of >90% were coregistered for evaluation. The obtained parameters were correlated with each other using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r). FD-FV strongly correlated with 19 F-n breaths on a global (r = -0.72, P Fourier decomposition-MRI is a promising noninvasive, radiation-free tool for quantification of regional ventilation in COPD patients. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1534-1541. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. LUNG FUNCTION TESTING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Fležar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung function testing in children above five years old is standardised similarly as is in adult population (1. Nevertheless bronchial provocation testing can be more hazardous since the calibre and reactivity of childhood airway is different. We analysed the frequency of different lung function testing procedures and addressed the safety issues of bronchial provocation testing in children.Methods. We analysed lung function testing results in 517 children, older than 5 years, tested in our laboratory in threeyear period. Spirometry was done in every patient, metacholine provocation test was used as a part of diagnostic work-up in suspected asthma. In case of airway obstruction, bronchodilator test with salbutamol was used instead of a metacholine provocation test.Results. The most common procedure in children was spirometry with bronchial provocation test as a part of diagnostic work-up of obstructive syndrome (mostly asthma. 291 children required metacholine test and 153 tests were interpreted as positive. The decline in expiratory flows (forced expiratory flow in first second – FEV1 in positive tests was greater than in adult population as was the dose of metacholine, needed to induce bronchoconstriction. The compliance of children was better than in adults.Conclusions. Lung function testing in children is reliable and safe and can be done in a well-standardised laboratory that follows the regulations of such testing in adults.

  12. Interactions of heart disease and lung disease on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Barrett, C.R. Jr.; Yamashina, A.; Friedman, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of heat diseases on lung anatomy, lung function, and pulmonary nuclear test procedures, and also the effects of lung diseases on cardiac function, with particular reference to radionuclide tests. Historically, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been focused on discovering and quantifying pulmonary embolism, but the potential of nuclear tracer techniques to carry out high-precision, regional, quantitative measurements of blood flow, air flow, and membrane transport promises a much more powerful and wide-ranging diagnostic application than the search for pulmonary emboli. The authors therefore define normal anatomy and function in a framework suitable to develop the relationships between cardiac and pulmonary function, with particular attention to regional differences in lung function, since regional measurements provide a special province for radionuclide lung studies

  13. Quantitative computed tomography of lung parenchyma in patients with emphysema: analysis of higher-density lung regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to detect and evaluate the presence (or absence) of emphysema applying the density masks at specific thresholds, e.g., -910 or -950 Hounsfield Unit (HU). However, it has also been observed that subjects with similar density-mask based emphysema scores could have varying lung function, possibly indicating differences of disease severity. To assess this possible discrepancy, we investigated whether density distribution of "viable" lung parenchyma regions with pixel values > -910 HU correlates with lung function. A dataset of 38 subjects, who underwent both pulmonary function testing and CT examinations in a COPD SCCOR study, was assembled. After the lung regions depicted on CT images were automatically segmented by a computerized scheme, we systematically divided the lung parenchyma into different density groups (bins) and computed a number of statistical features (i.e., mean, standard deviation (STD), skewness of the pixel value distributions) in these density bins. We then analyzed the correlations between each feature and lung function. The correlation between diffusion lung capacity (DLCO) and STD of pixel values in the bin of -910HU lung parenchyma and lung function, which indicates that similar to the conventional density mask method, the pixel value distribution features in "viable" lung parenchyma areas may also provide clinically useful information to improve assessments of lung disease severity as measured by lung functional tests.

  14. Lung function decline in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantucci C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Tantucci, Denise ModinaUnit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: The landmark study of Fletcher and Peto on the natural history of tobacco smoke-related chronic airflow obstruction suggested that decline in the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is slow at the beginning, becoming faster with more advanced disease. The present authors reviewed spirometric data of COPD patients included in the placebo arms of recent clinical trials to assess the lung function decline of each stage, defined according to the severity of airflow obstruction as proposed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines. In large COPD populations the mean rate of FEV1 decline in GOLD stages II and III is between 47 and 79 mL/year and 56 and 59 mL/year, respectively, and lower than 35 mL/year in GOLD stage IV. Few data on FEV1 decline are available for GOLD stage I. Hence, the loss of lung function, assessed as expiratory airflow reduction, seems more accelerated and therefore more relevant in the initial phases of COPD. To have an impact on the natural history of COPD, it is logical to look at the effects of treatment in the earlier stages.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, decline, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FEV1

  15. Quantitative and regional evaluation methods for lung scintigraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichter, J.

    1982-01-01

    For the evaluation of perfusion lung scintigraphs with regard to the quantitative valuation and also with regard to the choice of the regions new criteria were presented. In addition to the usual methods of sectioning each lung lobe into upper, middle and lower level and the determination of the per cent activity share of the total activity the following values were established: the median of the activity distribution and the differences of the per cent counting rate as well as of the median of the corresponding regions of the right and left lung. The individual regions should describe the functional structures (lobe and segment structure). A corresponding computer program takes over the projection of lobe and segment regions in a simplified form onto the scintigraph with consideration of individual lung stretching. With the help of a clinical study on 60 patients and 18 control persons with 99mTc-MAA and 133 Xe-gas lung scintigraphs the following results could be determined: depending on the combination of the 32 parameters available for evaluation and the choice of regions between 4 and 20 of the 60 patients were falsely negatively classified and 1 to 2 of the 18 controls were falsely positive. The accuracy of the Tc-scintigraph proved to be better. All together using the best possible parameter combinations comparative results were attained. (TRV) [de

  16. Gender Disparity in Lung Function Abnormalities among a Population Exposed to Particulate Matter Concentration in Ambient Air in the National Capital Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. Since the women in this study were non-smokers, the PM in ambient air can be considered to be the major reason for the decline in lung function. The sources of PM pollutants in the study locations are large scale infrastructural development activities such as building and road construction activities. Narrowed lung airways can alter the airway caliber or resistance and flow rates proportional to the airway radius, especially in smaller airways. The present study suggests the need for policy makers and stake holders to take the necessary steps to identify PM sources and reduce the emissions of PM concentrations in ambient air.

  17. Association Between RT-Induced Changes in Lung Tissue Density and Global Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined lung tissue density and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing incidental partial lung RT were prospectively assessed for global (PFTs) and regional (CT and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) lung function before and, serially, after RT. The percent reductions in the PFT and the average changes in lung density were compared (Pearson correlations) in the overall group and subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Comparisons were also made between the CT- and SPECT-based computations using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 343 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 111 patients had a total of 203 concurrent post-RT evaluations of changes in lung density and PFTs available for the analyses, and 81 patients had a total of 141 concurrent post-RT SPECT images. The average increases in lung density were related to the percent reductions in the PFTs, albeit with modest correlation coefficients (range, 0.20-0.43). The analyses also indicated that the association between lung density and PFT changes is essentially equivalent to the corresponding association with SPECT-defined lung perfusion. Conclusion: We found a weak quantitative association between the degree of increase in lung density as defined by CT and the percent reduction in the PFTs.

  18. Exhaled CO, a predictor of lung function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Scharling, Henrik; Løkke, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and whether CO could provide additional information to usual measures of smoking regarding prediction of present lung function and decline in lung function over an extended period of time. METHOD: Cigarette smokers from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with valid measures of lung function and exhaled CO......; in total 3738 subjects, 2096 women and 1642 men. RESULTS: Subjects not inhaling had slightly lower exhaled CO values than those inhaling, but substantially higher values than non-smokers (PSmokers of plain cigarettes had slightly lower CO values than smokers of filter cigarettes (P...BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function and inhalation accelerates the decline further. Exhaled CO reflects the exposure of smoke to the lungs. AIM: To investigate whether self-reported inhalation and type of cigarette influenced the level of exhaled CO...

  19. Prenatal and postnatal genetic influence on lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown to what extent adult lung function genes affect lung function development from birth to childhood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the association of candidate genetic variants with neonatal lung function and lung function development until age 7 years. METHODS: Lung fun...

  20. Genetic variants affecting cross-sectional lung function in adults show little or no effect on longitudinal lung function decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Catherine; Soler Artigas, María; Hui, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic regions that influence cross-sectional lung function. Longitudinal decline in lung function also includes a heritable component but the genetic determinants have yet to be defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether...... regions associated with cross-sectional lung function were also associated with longitudinal decline and to seek novel variants which influence decline. METHODS: We analysed genome-wide data from 4167 individuals from the Busselton Health Study cohort, who had undergone spirometry (12 695 observations...... across eight time points). A mixed model was fitted and weighted risk scores were calculated for the joint effect of 26 known regions on baseline and longitudinal changes in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Potential additional regions of interest were identified and followed up in two independent cohorts. RESULTS...

  1. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life Balance Career Resources Apply for a Job Postdocs Students Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Releases - 2016 » April » Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetzlaff, R.; Eichinger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [de

  3. Study of regional lung ventilation and perfusion by xenon 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    The present work consists of a regional lung exploration after injection of xenon 133, dissolved in physiological serum, followed a few minutes later by that of 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres. The aim is three fold: first of all to study perfusion and ventilation by xenon 133, next to compare the results obtained after xenon 133 and 99 m Tc-labelled microsphere injection, lastly to establish the value of the technique and its routine application. This examination has not solved all problems of lung exploration by xenon 133. For example we deliberately kept to intraveinous injection of the gas dissolved in physiological serum, leaving aside the breathing test. Xenon 133 scintigraphy in our opinion will not tend to replace 99m Tc-labelled microsphere scintigraphy, which has irreplaceable morphological qualities, but will serve as an excellent complement. The basic advantage of xenon 133 is the regional ventilation estimate it provides allowing any anomaly of the lung parenchyma to be located immediately or conversely the functional value of the healthy lung to be established with a view to a surgical removal of a diseased zone [fr

  4. TU-G-BRA-04: Changes in Regional Lung Function Measured by 4D-CT Ventilation Imaging for Thoracic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y; Kadoya, N; Kabus, S; Loo, B; Keall, P; Yamamoto, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis: 4D-CT ventilation imaging can show the known effects of radiotherapy on lung function: (1) radiation-induced ventilation reductions, and (2) ventilation increases caused by tumor regression. Methods: Repeat 4D-CT scans (pre-, mid- and/or post-treatment) were acquired prospectively for 11 thoracic cancer patients in an IRB-approved clinical trial. A ventilation image for each time point was created using deformable image registration and the Hounsfield unit (HU)-based or Jacobian-based metric. The 11 patients were divided into two subgroups based on tumor volume reduction using a threshold of 5 cm 3 . To quantify radiation-induced ventilation reduction, six patients who showed a small tumor volume reduction (<5 cm 3 ) were analyzed for dose-response relationships. To investigate ventilation increase caused by tumor regression, two of the other five patients were analyzed to compare ventilation changes in the lung lobes affected and unaffected by the tumor. The remaining three patients were excluded because there were no unaffected lobes. Results: Dose-dependent reductions of HU-based ventilation were observed in a majority of the patient-specific dose-response curves and in the population-based dose-response curve, whereas no clear relationship was seen for Jacobian-based ventilation. The post-treatment population-based dose-response curve of HU-based ventilation demonstrated the average ventilation reductions of 20.9±7.0% at 35–40 Gy (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions, EQD2), and 40.6±22.9% at 75–80 Gy EQD2. Remarkable ventilation increases in the affected lobes were observed for the two patients who showed an average tumor volume reduction of 37.1 cm 3 and re-opening airways. The mid-treatment increase in HU-based ventilation of patient 3 was 100.4% in the affected lobes, which was considerably greater than 7.8% in the unaffected lobes. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that 4D-CT ventilation imaging shows the known

  5. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahr, Charlene S; Samarage, Chaminda R; Donnelley, Martin; Farrow, Nigel; Morgan, Kaye S; Zosky, Graeme; Boucher, Richard C; Siu, Karen K W; Mall, Marcus A; Parsons, David W; Dubsky, Stephen; Fouras, Andreas

    2016-07-27

    Computed tomography (CT) and spirometry are the mainstays of clinical pulmonary assessment. Spirometry is effort dependent and only provides a single global measure that is insensitive for regional disease, and as such, poor for capturing the early onset of lung disease, especially patchy disease such as cystic fibrosis lung disease. CT sensitively measures change in structure associated with advanced lung disease. However, obstructions in the peripheral airways and early onset of lung stiffening are often difficult to detect. Furthermore, CT imaging poses a radiation risk, particularly for young children, and dose reduction tends to result in reduced resolution. Here, we apply a series of lung tissue motion analyses, to achieve regional pulmonary function assessment in β-ENaC-overexpressing mice, a well-established model of lung disease. The expiratory time constants of regional airflows in the segmented airway tree were quantified as a measure of regional lung function. Our results showed marked heterogeneous lung function in β-ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermate controls; identified locations of airway obstruction, and quantified regions of bimodal airway resistance demonstrating lung compensation. These results demonstrate the applicability of regional lung function derived from lung motion as an effective alternative respiratory diagnostic tool.

  6. Estimation of regional lung expansion via 3D image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Kumar, Dinesh; Hoffman, Eric A.; Christensen, Gary E.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Song, Joo Hyun; Ross, Alan; Simon, Brett A.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2005-04-01

    A method is described to estimate regional lung expansion and related biomechanical parameters using multiple CT images of the lungs, acquired at different inflation levels. In this study, the lungs of two sheep were imaged utilizing a multi-detector row CT at different lung inflations in the prone and supine positions. Using the lung surfaces and the airway branch points for guidance, a 3D inverse consistent image registration procedure was used to match different lung volumes at each orientation. The registration was validated using a set of implanted metal markers. After registration, the Jacobian of the deformation field was computed to express regional expansion or contraction. The regional lung expansion at different pressures and different orientations are compared.

  7. Personality and Lung Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Luchetti, Martina; Gonzalez-Rothi, Ricardo; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-10-01

    Lung disease is a leading cause of disability and death among older adults. We examine whether personality traits are associated with lung function and shortness of breath (dyspnea) in a national cohort with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants (N = 12,670) from the Health and Retirement Study were tested for peak expiratory flow (PEF) and completed measures of personality, health behaviors, and a medical history. High neuroticism and low extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with lower PEF, and higher likelihood of COPD and dyspnea. Conscientiousness had the strongest and most consistent associations, including lower risk of PEF less than 80% of the predicted value (OR = 0.67; 0.62-0.73) and dyspnea (OR = 0.52; 0.47-0.57). Although attenuated, the associations remained significant when accounting for smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases including cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders. The associations between personality and PEF or dyspnea were similar among those with or without COPD, suggesting that psychological links to lung function are not disease dependent. In longitudinal analyses, high neuroticism (β = -0.019) and low conscientiousness (β = 0.027) predicted steeper declines in PEF. A vulnerable personality profile is common among individuals with limited lung function and COPD, predicts shortness of breath and worsening lung function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. WE-AB-202-04: Statistical Evaluation of Lung Function Using 4DCT Ventilation Imaging: Proton Therapy VS IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Q; Zhang, M; Chen, T; Yue, N; Zou, J [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Variation in function of different lung regions has been ignored so far for conventional lung cancer treatment planning, which may lead to higher risk of radiation induced lung disease. 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging provides a novel yet convenient approach for lung functional imaging as 4DCT is taken as routine for lung cancer treatment. Our work aims to evaluate the impact of accounting for spatial heterogeneity in lung function using 4DCT based lung ventilation imaging for proton and IMRT plans. Methods: Six patients with advanced stage lung cancer of various tumor locations were retrospectively evaluated for the study. Proton and IMRT plans were designed following identical planning objective and constrains for each patient. Ventilation images were calculated from patients’ 4DCT using deformable image registration implemented by Velocity AI software based on Jacobian-metrics. Lung was delineated into two function level regions based on ventilation (low and high functional area). High functional region was defined as lung ventilation greater than 30%. Dose distribution and statistics in different lung function area was calculated for patients. Results: Variation in dosimetric statistics of different function lung region was observed between proton and IMRT plans. In all proton plans, high function lung regions receive lower maximum dose (100.2%–108.9%), compared with IMRT plans (106.4%–119.7%). Interestingly, three out of six proton plans gave higher mean dose by up to 2.2% than IMRT to high function lung region. Lower mean dose (lower by up to 14.1%) and maximum dose (lower by up to 9%) were observed in low function lung for proton plans. Conclusion: A systematic approach was developed to generate function lung ventilation imaging and use it to evaluate plans. This method hold great promise in function analysis of lung during planning. We are currently studying more subjects to evaluate this tool.

  9. Lung function and postural changes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørregaard, O; Schultz, P; Ostergaard, A; Dahl, R

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postural changes on lung function in pregnant women during the first, second, third trimester and post partum. A significant decrease in FRC, PEF and FEV1 was observed as a result of the postural changes. Arterial oxygenation, MVV and DLCO remained largely the same.

  10. Genetic variants associated with lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyagarajan, Bharat; Wojczynski, Mary; Minster, Ryan L

    2014-01-01

    with exceptional longevity have not been identified. METHOD: We conducted a genome wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with lung function in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n = 3,899). Replication was performed using data from the CHARGE/SpiroMeta consortia...

  11. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  12. Lung split function test and pneumonectomy. A lower limit for operability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Dige-Petersen, H; Lund, J O

    1978-01-01

    Regional 133Xe ventilation/perfusion studies were used to predict residual lung function after pulmonary resections. The accuracy of the method was good as checked by postoperative spirometry in 11 patients. In 25 patients with impaired lung function and pulmonary cancer, who were consecutively...

  13. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    ) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children.......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint...

  14. Late regional density changes of the lung after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagane, Randi; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie Dorothea; Lokkevik, Erik; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate density changes in lung tissue, 3-4 years after postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer, based on dose dependence and regional differences. Material and methods: Sixty-one breast cancer patients, who had received computed tomography (CT) based postoperative radiotherapy, were included. CT scans were performed 35-51 months after start of radiotherapy. Dose information and CT scans from before and after radiotherapy were geometrically aligned in order to analyse changes in air-filled fraction (derived from CT density) as a function of dose for different regions of the lung. Results: Dose-dependent reduction of the air-filled fraction was shown to vary between the different regions of the lung. For lung tissue receiving about 50 Gy, the largest reduction in air-filled fraction was found in the cranial part of the lung. An increased air-filled fraction was observed for lung tissue irradiated to doses below 20 Gy, indicating compensatory response. Conclusions: The treatment-induced change in whole-lung density is a weighted response, involving the different regions, the irradiated volumes, and dose levels to these volumes. Simplistic models may therefore not be appropriate for describing the whole-lung dose-volume-response relationship following inhomogeneous irradiation

  15. Regional assessment of treatment in lung cancer using lung perfusion and ventilation images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Masaki; Teshima, Takeo; Yanagimachi, Tomohiro; Ogata, Yuuko; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    In 30 patients with lung cancer undergoing non-surgical treatment, we performed perfusion lung imaging using 99m Tc-MAA and inhalation lung studies using Technegas before and after treatment and evaluated regional perfusion and ventilation status in the lung regions where bronchogenic carcinoma was located. Regional ventilation status was preserved rather than perfusion counterpart (V>P) in 18 patients (18/30=60.0%) before treatment, while the former was better than the latter in 27 patients (27/30=90.0%) after treatment, indicating that regional ventilation status improved more significantly than regional perfusion counterpart after treatment (P=0.005). We also classified the therapeutic effect for regional perfusion and ventilation status as improved, unchanged, or worsened, respectively; improvement in regional perfusion status was observed in 17 patients (56.7%) and that in regional ventilation status in 24 patients (80.0%). There was a statistically significant correlation between improved regional perfusion and ventilation status (P=0.0018) when therapeutic effect was recognized. The patients who showed improvement in regional perfusion status after treatment always showed improved regional ventilation status, but 7 patients showed either unchanged or worsened regional perfusion status after treatment, although regional ventilation status was improved. In conclusion the pulmonary vascular beds seem more vulnerable to bronchogenic carcinoma and improvement in regional perfusion status was revealed to be more difficult than that in regional ventilation status after treatment. (author)

  16. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Youbing, E-mail: youbing-yin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Choi, Jiwoong, E-mail: jiwoong-choi@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A., E-mail: eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Tawhai, Merryn H., E-mail: m.tawhai@auckland.ac.nz [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  17. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C1 continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung. PMID:23794749

  18. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; Appel, Lawrence J; McGready, John; Cutting, Garry R

    2018-01-01

    Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression. The NHANES III (1988-94) cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female) and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female), with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014). The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States. In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  19. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health.To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1 in the general population.Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression.The NHANES III (1988-94 cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female, with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively.After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014. The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States.In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  20. A functional polymorphism at microRNA-629-binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of NBS1 gene confers an increased risk of lung cancer in Southern and Eastern Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Li, Yinyan; Cheng, Mei; Huang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Bin; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Li, Qingchu; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Weidong; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Jiachun

    2012-02-01

    The genetic variations in NBS1 gene have been reported to be associated with cancer risk. The polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of NBS1 might affect gene's function and thus contribute to cancer susceptibility. We hypothesized that these polymorphisms of NBS1 are associated with the lung cancer risk. In two independent case-control studies conducted in Southern and Eastern Chinese, we genotyped three tagSNPs (rs14448, rs13312986 and rs2735383) in Southern Chinese and then validated the discovered association in Eastern Chinese. No significant association was observed for rs13312986 and rs14448; we only found that the rs2735383CC genotype had a significantly increased risk of lung cancer under a recessive genetic model in the total 1559 cases versus 1679 controls (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-1.66, P = 0.0001) when compared with GG or GC genotypes; the rs2735383CC genotype carriers had lower messenger RNA and protein expression levels in tumor tissues than those of other genotypes as quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot shown. Luciferase assay revealed that the rs2735383C allele had a lower transcription activity than G allele, and the hsa-miR-629 but not hsa-miR-499-5P had effect on modulation of NBS1 gene in vitro. We further observed that the X-ray radiation induced more chromatid breaks in lymphocyte cells from the carriers of rs2735383CC homozygote than those from the subjects with other genotypes (P = 0.0008). Our data suggested that the rs2735383G>C variation contributes to an increased risk of lung cancer by diminishing gene's expression through binding of microRNA-629 to the polymorphic site in the 3'-UTR of NBS1 gene.

  1. Lung function evaluation in acute postradiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassem, E.; Zandwijk, N. van; Jassem, J.; Badzio, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was pulmonary function evaluation in patients with radiation pneumonitis (rp). Study group included 18 patients with symptomatic rp (8 with breast cancer, 6 with Hodgkin's disease and 4 with lung cancer) treated at the Netherland s Cancer inst. In Amsterdam between 1988 and 1994. The lung function tests were performed at the time of rp presentation and monthly thereafter and consisted of a standard spirometry: forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. (FEV1), vital capacity (VC) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) performed with the use of a single breath technique. The mean values of DLCO, VC, FEV1 and TLC at the time of rp presentation were 72.2%, 91.0% and 85.8% of predicted value (pv), respectively. The results of the a bone tests at the last examination (66.4%, 85.6%, 77.2% and 76.2% of pv), respectively, were lower than those registered at the time of rp presentation. The highest degree of functional deterioration included diffusion capacity; the mean of the lowest values of DLCO was 56.4% of pv. Usually the lowest value of DLCO accompanied the exacerbation of clinical symptoms. The results of this study demonstrated pulmonary function deterioration in patients with rp. (author)

  2. Proton magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung function and respiratory dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Puderbach, Michael; Woodhouse, Neil; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    Since many pulmonary diseases present with a variable regional involvement, modalities for assessment of regional lung function gained increasing attention over the last years. Together with lung perfusion and gas exchange, ventilation, as a result of the interaction of the respiratory pump and the lungs, is an indispensable component of lung function. So far, this complex mechanism is still mainly assessed indirectly and globally. A differentiation between the individual determining factors of ventilation would be crucial for precise diagnostics and adequate treatment. By dynamic imaging of the respiratory pump, the mechanical components of ventilation can be assessed regionally. Amongst imaging modalities applicable to this topic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a tool not relying on ionising radiation, is the most attractive. Recent advances in MRI technology have made it possible to assess diaphragmatic and chest wall motion, static and dynamic lung volumes, as well as regional lung function. Even though existing studies show large heterogeneity in design and applied methods, it becomes evident that MRI is capable to visualise pulmonary function as well as diaphragmatic and thoracic wall movement, providing new insights into lung physiology. Partly contradictory results and conclusions are most likely caused by technical limitations, limited number of studies and small sample size. Existing studies mainly evaluate possible imaging techniques and concentrate on normal physiology. The few studies in patients with lung cancer and emphysema already give a promising outlook for these techniques from which an increasing impact on improved and quantitative disease characterization as well as better patient management can be expected

  3. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthetic management of patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease is a challenging task. It is associated with increased morbidity in the form of post-operative pulmonary complications. Pre-operative optimisation of lung function helps in reducing these complications. Patients are advised to stop smoking for a period of 4–6 weeks. This reduces airway reactivity, improves mucociliary function and decreases carboxy-haemoglobin. The widely used incentive spirometry may be useful only when combined with other respiratory muscle exercises. Volume-based inspiratory devices have the best results. Pharmacotherapy of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease must be optimised before considering the patient for elective surgery. Beta 2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and systemic corticosteroids, are the main drugs used for this and several drugs play an adjunctive role in medical therapy. A graded approach has been suggested to manage these patients for elective surgery with an aim to achieve optimal pulmonary function.

  4. "Open lung ventilation optimizes pulmonary function during lung surgery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John B; Robinson, Lary A; Steighner, Michael L; Thrush, David; Reich, Richard R; Räsänen, Jukka O

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated an "open lung" ventilation (OV) strategy using low tidal volumes, low respiratory rate, low FiO2, and high continuous positive airway pressure in patients undergoing major lung resections. In this phase I pilot study, twelve consecutive patients were anesthetized using conventional ventilator settings (CV) and then OV strategy during which oxygenation and lung compliance were noted. Subsequently, a lung resection was performed. Data were collected during both modes of ventilation in each patient, with each patient acting as his own control. The postoperative course was monitored for complications. Twelve patients underwent open thoracotomies for seven lobectomies and five segmentectomies. The OV strategy provided consistent one-lung anesthesia and improved static compliance (40 ± 7 versus 25 ± 4 mL/cm H2O, P = 0.002) with airway pressures similar to CV. Postresection oxygenation (SpO2/FiO2) was better during OV (433 ± 11 versus 386 ± 15, P = 0.008). All postoperative chest x-rays were free of atelectasis or infiltrates. No patient required supplemental oxygen at any time postoperatively or on discharge. The mean hospital stay was 4 ± 1 d. There were no complications or mortality. The OV strategy, previously shown to have benefits during mechanical ventilation of patients with respiratory failure, proved safe and effective in lung resection patients. Because postoperative pulmonary complications may be directly attributable to the anesthetic management, adopting an OV strategy that optimizes lung mechanics and gas exchange may help reduce postoperative problems and improve overall surgical results. A randomized trial is planned to ascertain whether this technique will reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  6. WE-G-BRD-07: Investigation of Distal Lung Atelectasis Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using Regional Lung Volume Changes Between Pre- and Post- Treatment CT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diot, Q; Kavanagh, B; Miften, M [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a quantitative method using lung deformations to differentiate between radiation-induced fibrosis and potential airway stenosis with distal atelectasis in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Twenty-four lung patients with large radiation-induced density increases outside the high dose region had their pre- and post-treatment CT scans manually registered. They received SBRT treatments at our institution between 2002 and 2009 in 3 or 5 fractions, to a median total dose of 54Gy (range, 30–60). At least 50 anatomical landmarks inside the lung (airway branches) were paired for the pre- and post-treatment scans to guide the deformable registration of the lung structure, which was then interpolated to the whole lung using splines. Local volume changes between the planning and follow-up scans were calculated using the deformation field Jacobian. Hyperdense regions were classified as atelectatic or fibrotic based on correlations between regional density increases and significant volume contractions compared to the surrounding tissues. Results: Out of 24 patients, only 7 demonstrated a volume contraction that was at least one σ larger than the remaining lung average. Because they did not receive high doses, these shrunk hyperdense regions were likely showing distal atelectasis resulting from radiation-induced airway stenosis rather than conventional fibrosis. On average, the hyperdense regions extended 9.2 cm farther than the GTV contours but not significantly more than 8.6 cm for the other patients (p>0.05), indicating that a large offset between the radiation and hyperdense region centers is not a good surrogate for atelectasis. Conclusion: A method based on the relative comparison of volume changes between different dates was developed to identify potential lung regions experiencing distal atelectasis. Such a tool is essential to study which lung structures need to be avoided to prevent

  7. Lung function decline in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Bellia, Vincenzo; Bucchieri, Salvatore; D'Anna, Silvestre; Guerrera, Daniela; Bonsignore, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the longitudinal changes in lung function and the factors associated with FEV(1) changes over time in a sample of asthmatic subjects. FEV(1) measures were recorded every 3 months over a 5-year follow-up period. To compare all subjects independently of body size, FEV(1) values were normalized for the subject's height at the third power. We evaluated the possible effect of age, baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability on the rate of change of FEV(1). We studied 142 subjects with asthma diagnosed on the basis of validated clinical and functional criteria. FEV(1) showed a linear decay with aging in each subject. For a subject 1.65 m in height, the median overall FEV(1) decay was 40.9 mL/yr. FEV(1) decay slopes were significantly influenced by age and sex, being steeper in younger male subjects. A significant interaction was found between age and baseline FEV(1): the FEV(1) decay was significantly higher among younger asthmatics with a poorer baseline functional condition. A longer disease duration was associated with a lower FEV(1) slope. FEV(1) variability was strongly associated with an increased rate of FEV(1) decline. FEV(1) decline in patients with bronchial asthma is significantly influenced by baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability. Moreover, the rate of FEV(1) decline seems to increase in younger subjects only when the baseline function is poorer.

  8. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninaber, Maarten K., E-mail: m.k.ninaber@lumc.nl [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, Lucia J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Els Bakker, M. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A. [Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  9. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninaber, Maarten K.; Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J.; Kroft, Lucia J.M.; Els Bakker, M.; Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A.; Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  10. H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Novel Urinary Biomarkers for Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClay, Joseph L.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Isern, Nancy G.; O'Connell, Thomas M.; Wooten, Jan B.; Zedler, Barbara K.; Dasika, Madhukar S.; Webb, B.T.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Murrelle, Edward L.; Leppert, Mark F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by chronic airflow limitation, is a serious and growing public health concern. The major environmental risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking, but the biological mechanisms underlying COPD are not well understood. In this study, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy to identify and quantify metabolites associated with lung function in COPD. Plasma and urine were collected from 197 adults with COPD and from 195 adults without COPD. Samples were assayed using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer, and the resulting spectra were analyzed against quantitative spirometric measures of lung function. After correcting for false discoveries and adjusting for covariates (sex, age, smoking) several spectral regions in urine were found to be significantly associated with baseline lung function. These regions correspond to the metabolites trigonelline, hippurate and formate. Concentrations of each metabolite, standardized to urinary creatinine, were associated with baseline lung function (minimum p-value = 0.0002 for trigonelline). No significant associations were found with plasma metabolites. Two of the three urinary metabolites positively associated with baseline lung function, i.e. hippurate and formate, are often related to gut microflora. This suggests that the microbiome composition is variable between individuals with different lung function. Alternatively, the nature and origins of all three associated metabolites may reflect lifestyle differences affecting overall health. Our results will require replication and validation, but demonstrate the utility of NMR metabolomics as a screening tool for identifying novel biomarkers of lung disease or disease risk.

  11. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma.......The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma....

  12. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  13. Lung function in South African children with cystic fibrosis | Zar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of lung function in stable cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and to investigate the relationship of abnormal lung function to demographic variables, CF genotype and pulmonary colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Design: A descriptive study done at the CF clinic at Red Cross War ...

  14. Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using SPECT and prediction of postoperative respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyosi; Maruyama, Shuichiro

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and its usefulness for the prediction of respiratory function after lung resection were investigated. The lung volumes calculated in 5 patients by SPECT (threshold level 20%) using 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA), related very closely to the actually measured lung volumes. This results prompted us to calculate the total lung volume and the volume of the lobe to be resected in 18 patients with lung cancer by SPECT. Based on the data obtained, postoperative respiratory function was predicted. The predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), and maximum vital volume (MVV) showed closer correlations with the actually measured postoperative values (FVC, FEV 1.0 , MVV : r=0.944, r=0.917, r=0.795 respectively), than the values predicted by the ordinary lung perfusion scanning. This method facilitates more detailed evaluation of local lung function on a lobe-by-lobe basis, and can be applied clinically to predict postoperative respiratory function. (author)

  15. Genetic Variation in GSTP1, Lung Function, Risk of Lung Cancer, and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marianne S.; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    66,069 individuals from the white general population for two common functional variants in the glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene (GSTP1)—amino acid isoleucine 105 changed to a valine (Ile105Val) and amino acid alanine 114 changed to a valine (Ala114Val)—and recorded lung function, lung cancer......Introduction Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 metabolizes carcinogens from tobacco smoke in the lung. We tested whether genetically altered glutathione S-transferase pi 1 activity affects lung function and risk for tobacco-related cancer and mortality in the general population. Methods We genotyped......, tobacco-related cancer, and death as outcomes. Results Lung function was increased stepwise with the Ile105Val genotype overall (p

  16. Lung function in fragrance industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, G R

    2013-07-01

    Production employees in the UK fragrance industry are exposed to large numbers of chemical substances and mixtures. There is a lack of published literature describing the effects of occupational respiratory exposure in this industry. To investigate whether occupational respiratory exposure to chemicals in the UK fragrance industry is linked to a statistically significant change in lung function as measured using spirometry. A multi-site cross-sectional study in which five UK companies took part, comprising an exposed group (fragrance production and associated functions) and a control group (non-exposed industry employees, e.g. office staff). Spirometric measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow) were taken pre- and post-shift. Participants provided information on potential confounding factors (smoking, history of respiratory problems and body mass index). Post-shift measurements were compared between groups, using analysis of covariance to adjust for the baseline pre-shift measurements. A total of 112 subjects participated: 60 in the exposed group and 52 in control group (response rate 33 and 24%, respectively). Adjusted mean differences in post-shift spirometric measurements between exposed and control groups were not statistically significant. No significant effects were observed on the spirometric performance of the study population. This work is the first step in a novel area of research, and the industry would benefit from further such research.

  17. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Vazquez de Anda; R.A. Lachmann; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDisturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish

  18. Computed tomography in evaluation of regional metastases of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolova, I.G.; Velichko, S.A.; Zyryanov, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    The rate of metastatic spread of different groups of intrathoracic lymph nodes has been studied in depending on localization of the tumor by the nodes using CT method. CT-semiotic of metastatic lymph nodes was studied. The indices of the efficiency of diagnostic imaging when using CT were analyzed as well. The analysis of data obtained has shown that CT has great possibilities in evaluation of regional metastases of lung cancer

  19. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  20. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  1. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Zahraa; El Nemr, Shaza; Sinjab, Ansam; Chami, Hassan; Tfayli, Arafat; Kadara, Humam

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic) effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke) consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs), with Lebanon as an exemplar. This "cocktail" of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  2. Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Geo-Regional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa Rahal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents the most frequently diagnosed subtype of this morbid malignancy. NSCLC is causally linked to tobacco consumption with more than 500 million smokers worldwide at high risk for this fatal malignancy. We are currently lagging in our knowledge of the early molecular (e.g., genomic effects of smoking in NSCLC pathogenesis that would constitute ideal markers for early detection. This limitation is further amplified when considering the variable etiologic factors in NSCLC pathogenesis among different regions around the globe. In this review, we present our current knowledge of genomic alterations arising during early stages of smoking-induced lung cancer initiation and progression, including discussing the premalignant airway field of injury induced by smoking. The review also underscores the wider spectra and higher age-adjusted rates of tobacco (e.g., water-pipe smoke consumption, along with elevated environmental carcinogenic exposures and relatively poorer socioeconomic status, in low-middle income countries (LMICs, with Lebanon as an exemplar. This “cocktail” of carcinogenic exposures warrants the pressing need to understand the complex etiology of lung malignancies developing in LMICs such as Lebanon.

  3. Study of late effects of lung irradiation with telecobalt on lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkewitz, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of patients, one with malignant chest tumors before radiation and one more than nine months after radiation treatment of their tumors, are examined by assessment of different lung function parameters. In addition, four patients can be examined both before and more than nine months after radiation treatment for chest tumors. It is seen that the patients whose X-rays show signs of localized radiation fibrosis do not have the typical lung function problems noted in diffuse radiation fibroses. In patients with radiographic signs of localized radiation fibrosis, combined ventilation disturbances of obstruction and restriction type are more frequent and accompanied by a slight increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure. These modifications of the lung function cannot solely be attributed to the radiation treatment, as the lung function is also influenced by concomitant pulmonary affections such as chronic bronchitis or renewed growth of the irradiated tumor. (orig.) [de

  4. Lung Function Profiles among Individuals with Nonmalignant Asbestos-related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kee Park

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Lung function measurement differs in individuals with different ARDs. Monitoring of lung function among asbestos-exposed populations is a simple means of facilitating earlier interventions.

  5. Prediction of postoperative lung function after pulmonary resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Lung scintigraphy and ordinary lung function test as well as split lung function test by using bronchospirometry was performed in 78 patients with primary lung cancer and clinical significance of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy was evaluated. Results obtained from this study are as follows. 1) The ratio of right VC to total VC obtained by preoperative bronchospirometry was well correlated to the ratio of right lung count to the total lung count obtained by ventiration and/or perfusion scintigraphy (r = 0.84, r = 0.69). 2) Evaluation of the data obtained from the patients undergoing pneumonectomy indicated that the right and left VC obtained preoperatively by bronchospirometry have their clinical significance only in the form of left to right ratio not in the form their absolure value. 3) As to the reliability of predicting the residual vital capacity after pneumonectomy on the basis of left-to-right of lung scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy is more reliable than perfusion scintigraphy. 4) Irrespective of using ventilation scintigraphy or perfusion scintigraphy, Ali's formular showed high reliability in predicting the residual vital capacity as well as FEV 1.0 after lobectomy. 5) Reduction of the perfusion rate in the operated side of the lung is more marked than of the ventilation rate, resulting in a significant elevation of ventilation/perfusion ratio of the operated side of the lung. From the results descrived above, it can be said that lung ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy are very useful method to predict the residual lung function as well as the change of ventilation/perfusion ratio after pulmonary resection. (author)

  6. Estimation of gas and tissue lung volumes by MRI: functional approach of lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qanadli, S D; Orvoen-Frija, E; Lacombe, P; Di Paola, R; Bittoun, J; Frija, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of MRI for the determination of lung gas and tissue volumes. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent MRI of the thorax and pulmonary function tests [vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC)] in the supine position. MR examinations were performed at inspiration and expiration. Lung volumes were measured by a previously validated technique on phantoms. Both individual and total lung volumes and capacities were calculated. MRI total vital capacity (VC(MRI)) was compared with spirometric vital capacity (VC(SP)). Capacities were correlated to lung volumes. Tissue volume (V(T)) was estimated as the difference between the total lung volume at full inspiration and the TLC. No significant difference was seen between VC(MRI) and VC(SP). Individual capacities were well correlated (r = 0.9) to static volume at full inspiration. The V(T) was estimated to be 836+/-393 ml. This preliminary study demonstrates that MRI can accurately estimate lung gas and tissue volumes. The proposed approach appears well suited for functional imaging of the lung.

  7. Multiple image x-radiography for functional lung imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, G. K.; Mann, A.; Belev, G.; Wiebe, S.; Kuebler, W. M.; Singh, B.; Chapman, D.

    2018-01-01

    Detection and visualization of lung tissue structures is impaired by predominance of air. However, by using synchrotron x-rays, refraction of x-rays at the interface of tissue and air can be utilized to generate contrast which may in turn enable quantification of lung optical properties. We utilized multiple image radiography, a variant of diffraction enhanced imaging, at the Canadian light source to quantify changes in unique x-ray optical properties of lungs, namely attenuation, refraction and ultra small-angle scatter (USAXS or width) contrast ratios as a function of lung orientation in free-breathing or respiratory-gated mice before and after intra-nasal bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) instillation. The lung ultra small-angle scatter and attenuation contrast ratios were significantly higher 9 h post lipopolysaccharide instillation compared to saline treatment whereas the refraction contrast decreased in magnitude. In ventilated mice, end-expiratory pressures result in an increase in ultra small-angle scatter contrast ratio when compared to end-inspiratory pressures. There were no detectable changes in lung attenuation or refraction contrast ratio with change in lung pressure alone. In effect, multiple image radiography can be applied towards following optical properties of lung air-tissue barrier over time during pathologies such as acute lung injury.

  8. Longitudinal Decline in Lung Function Measurements among Saskatchewan Grain Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Pahwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the long term effects of grain dust and decline in lung function among grain elevator workers in Saskatchewan, studied over a 15-year period.

  9. Assessing regional lung mechanics by combining electrical impedance tomography and forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chuong; Spagnesi, Sarah; Munoz, Carlos; Lehmann, Sylvia; Vollmer, Thomas; Misgeld, Berno; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-08-29

    There is a lack of noninvasive pulmonary function tests which can assess regional information of the lungs. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a radiation-free, non-invasive real-time imaging that provides regional information of ventilation volume regarding the measurement of electrical impedance distribution. Forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a pulmonary function test which is based on the measurement of respiratory mechanical impedance over a frequency range. In this article, we introduce a new measurement approach by combining FOT and EIT, named the oscillatory electrical impedance tomography (oEIT). Our oEIT measurement system consists of a valve-based FOT device, an EIT device, pressure and flow sensors, and a computer fusing the data streams. Measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers at the frequencies 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, and 20 Hz. The measurements suggest that the combination of FOT and EIT is a promising approach. High frequency responses are visible in the derivative of the global impedance index ΔZeit(t,fos). $\\Delta {Z_{{\\text{eit}}}}(t,{f_{{\\text{os}}}}).$ The oEIT signals consist of three main components: forced oscillation, spontaneous breathing, and heart activity. The amplitude of the oscillation component decreases with increasing frequency. The band-pass filtered oEIT signal might be a new tool in regional lung function diagnostics, since local responses to high frequency perturbation could be distinguished between different lung regions.

  10. Lung function in type 2 diabetes: the Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonjua, Augusto A; Lazarus, Ross; Sparrow, David; Demolles, Debbie; Weiss, Scott T

    2005-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have noted that subjects with diabetes have lower lung function than non-diabetic subjects. We conducted this analysis to determine whether diabetic subjects have different rates of lung function change compared with non-diabetic subjects. We conducted a nested case-control analysis in 352 men who developed diabetes and 352 non-diabetic subjects in a longitudinal observational study of aging in men. We assessed lung function among cases and controls at three time points: Time0, prior to meeting the definition of diabetes; Time1, the point when the definition of diabetes was met; and Time2, the most recent follow-up exam. Cases had lower forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at all time points, even with adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking. In multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant covariates, there were no differences in rates of FEV1 or FVC change over time between cases and controls. Men who are predisposed to develop diabetes have decreased lung function many years prior to the diagnosis, compared with men who do not develop diabetes. This decrement in lung function remains after the development of diabetes. We postulate that mechanisms involved in the insulin resistant state contribute to the diminished lung function observed in our subjects.

  11. Abnormal lung function at preschool age asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung deformations and radiation-induced regional lung collapse in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu; Kavanagh, Brian; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Garg, Kavita [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To differentiate radiation-induced fibrosis from regional lung collapse outside of the high dose region in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods: Lung deformation maps were computed from pre-treatment and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans using a point-to-point translation method. Fifty anatomical landmarks inside the lung (vessel or airway branches) were matched on planning and follow-up scans for the computation process. Two methods using the deformation maps were developed to differentiate regional lung collapse from fibrosis: vector field and Jacobian methods. A total of 40 planning and follow-ups CT scans were analyzed for 20 lung SBRT patients. Results: Regional lung collapse was detected in 15 patients (75%) using the vector field method, in ten patients (50%) using the Jacobian method, and in 12 patients (60%) by radiologists. In terms of sensitivity and specificity the Jacobian method performed better. Only weak correlations were observed between the dose to the proximal airways and the occurrence of regional lung collapse. Conclusions: The authors presented and evaluated two novel methods using anatomical lung deformations to investigate lung collapse and fibrosis caused by SBRT treatment. Differentiation of these distinct physiological mechanisms beyond what is usually labeled “fibrosis” is necessary for accurate modeling of lung SBRT-induced injuries. With the help of better models, it becomes possible to expand the therapeutic benefits of SBRT to a larger population of lung patients with large or centrally located tumors that were previously considered ineligible.

  13. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that in...

  14. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Bojesen, Stig Egil

    2014-01-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk o...... of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk...

  15. Pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function as predictors of mortality in the Lung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Guzman Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is supposed to be classified on the basis of post-bronchodilator lung function. Most longitudinal studies of COPD, though, do not have post-bronchodilator lung function available. We used pre-and post bronchodilator lung function data from the Lung Health Study to determine whether these measures differ in their ability to predict mortality. Methods We limited our analysis to subjects who were of black or white race, on whom we had complete data, and who participated at either the 1 year or the 5 year follow-up visit. We classified subjects based on their baseline lung function, according to COPD Classification criteria using both pre- and post-bronchodilator lung function. We conducted a survival analysis and logistic regression predicting death and controlling for age, sex, race, treatment group, smoking status, and measures of lung function (either pre- or post-bronchodilator. We calculated hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI and also calculated area under the curve for the logistic regression models. Results By year 15 of the study, 721 of the original 5,887 study subjects had died. In the year 1 sample survival models, a higher FEV1 % predicted lower mortality in both the pre-bronchodilator (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81, 0.94 per 10% increase and post-bronchodilator (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90 models. The area under the curve for the respective models was 69.2% and 69.4%. Similarly, using categories, when compared to people with "normal" lung function, subjects with Stage 3 or 4 disease had similar mortality in both the pre- (HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75, 3.03 and post-bronchodilator (HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.41, 5.15 models. In the year 5 sample, when a larger proportion of subjects had Stage 3 or 4 disease (6.4% in the pre-bronchodilator group, mortality was significantly increased in both the pre- (HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.51, 4.75 and post-bronchodilator (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.63, 3

  16. Computer program for regional assessment of lung perfusion defect. Part II - verification of the algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, B.

    2002-01-01

    As described earlier, a dedicated computer program was developed for quantitative evaluation of regional lung perfusion defects, visualized by pulmonary scintigraphy. The correctness of the basic assumptions accepted to construct the algorithms and of the all program functions needed to be checked, before application of the program into the clinical routine. The aim of this study was to verified the program using various software instruments and physical models. Evaluation of the proposed method was performed using software procedures, physical lung phantom, and selected lung image.The reproducibility of lung regions, defined by the program was found excellent. No significant distortion of registered data was observed after ROI transformation into the circle and retransformation into the original shape. The obtained results comprised parametric presentation of activity defects as well as a set of numerical indices which defined extent and intensity of decreased counts density. Among these indices PD2 and DM* were proved the most suitable for the above purposes. The obtained results indicate that the algorithms used for the program construction were correct and suitable for the aim of the study. The above algorithms enable function under study to be presented graphically with true imaging of activity distribution, as well as numerical indices, defining extent and intensity of activity defects to calculated. (author)

  17. Radon and lung cancer in the Ardennes and Eifel region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Poffijn, C.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the project are to perform epidemiological studies on the role of radon in the etiology of lung cancer in the Ardennes-Eifel region and in Brittany. In each of the participating countries, Belgium, France, Germany and Luxemburg cases and controls were collected in a series of hospitals. The radon exposure for the last 35 years was reconstructed through 6 months measurements in the living and bedrooms of the different dwellings. The objectives and results of the eight contributions to the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 1 ref

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of respiratory movement and lung function; Magnetresonanztomographie der Atembewegung und Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische und Biologische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie (E010), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Lung function measurements are the domain of spirometry or plethysmography. These methods have proven their value in clinical practice, nevertheless, being global measurements the functional indices only describe the sum of all functional units of the lung. Impairment of only a single component of the respiratory pump or of a small part of lung parenchyma can be compensated by unaffected lung tissue. Dynamic imaging can help to detect such local changes and lead to earlier adapted therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seems to be perfect for this application as it is not hampered by image distortion as is projection radiography and it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful radiation like computed tomography. Unfortunately, lung parenchyma is not easy to image using MRI due to its low signal intensity. For this reason first applications of MRI in lung function measurements concentrated on the movement of the thoracic wall and the diaphragm. Recent technical advances in MRI however might allow measurements of regional dynamics of the lungs. (orig.) [German] Die Lungenfunktion wird bislang hauptsaechlich durch die Spirometrie oder Plethysmographie untersucht. Diese Methoden sind zwar sehr leistungsfaehig zur Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen, sind jedoch globale Messmethoden, deren Messparameter immer die Summe aller funktionellen Einheiten der Lunge beschreiben. Veraenderungen, die auf eine Teilkomponente der Atempumpe beschraenkt sind oder kleine Teile des Lungengewebes betreffen, koennen durch gesunde Lungenanteile kompensiert werden. Mit dynamischen bildgebenden Verfahren koennten solche regionalen Veraenderungen erfasst und so eine fruehere Therapie ermoeglicht werden. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) bietet sich hier ideal an, da sie als Schnittbildverfahren weder die Probleme der Bildverzerrung, der Projektionsverfahren noch die Strahlenbelastung der Computertomographie hat. Allerdings wird die MRT der Lunge durch das geringe Signal des

  19. Validating excised rodent lungs for functional hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M L Lilburn

    Full Text Available Ex vivo rodent lung models are explored for physiological measurements of respiratory function with hyperpolarized (hp (129Xe MRI. It is shown that excised lung models allow for simplification of the technical challenges involved and provide valuable physiological insights that are not feasible using in vivo MRI protocols. A custom designed breathing apparatus enables MR images of gas distribution on increasing ventilation volumes of actively inhaled hp (129Xe. Straightforward hp (129Xe MRI protocols provide residual lung volume (RV data and permit for spatially resolved tracking of small hp (129Xe probe volumes during the inhalation cycle. Hp (129Xe MRI of lung function in the excised organ demonstrates the persistence of post mortem airway responsiveness to intravenous methacholine challenges. The presented methodology enables physiology of lung function in health and disease without additional regulatory approval requirements and reduces the technical and logistical challenges with hp gas MRI experiments. The post mortem lung functional data can augment histological measurements and should be of interest for drug development studies.

  20. Unilateral empyema impacts the assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bläser, D; Becher, T; Schädler, D; Elke, G; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I; Pulletz, S

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to assess regional ventilation distribution in human lungs. Fluid accumulation in the pleural space as in empyema, typically occurring on one chest side, may influence the distribution of ventilation and the corresponding EIT findings. The aim of our study was to examine this effect on the assessment of regional ventilation by EIT. Six patients suffering from unilateral empyema and intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube were studied. EIT data were acquired during volume-controlled ventilation with bilateral (tidal volume (V T ): 800 ml) and unilateral ventilation (V T : 400 ml) of the right and left lungs. Mean tidal amplitudes of the EIT signal were calculated in all image pixels. The sums of these values, expressed as relative impedance change (rel. ΔZ), were then determined in whole images and functionally defined regions-of-interest (ROI). The sums of rel. ΔZ calculated during the two cases of one-lung ventilation either on the affected or unaffected side were significantly smaller than during bilateral ventilation. However, in contrast to previous findings in patients with no pleural pathology, very low values of rel. ΔZ were found when the lung on the affected side was ventilated. ROI-based analysis rendered higher values than the whole-image analysis in this case, nonetheless, the values were significantly smaller than when the unaffected side was ventilated in spite of identical V T . In conclusion, our results indicate that the presence of empyema may affect the quantitative evaluation of regional lung ventilation by EIT. (paper)

  1. Sinus surgery can improve quality of life, lung infections, and lung function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Aanaes, Kasper; Hoiby, Niels

    2017-01-01

    patients (62%). Four patients with preoperative P. aeruginosa lung colonization (25%) had no regrowth during follow-up; 2 of these had P. aeruginosa sinusitis. Sinonasal symptoms were improved 12 months after ESS and we observed a trend toward better lung function after ESS. Conclusion We demonstrated...... an improvement in CRS-related symptoms after ESS and adjuvant therapy. In selected PCD patients, the suggested regimen may postpone chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and stabilize lung function....

  2. Change in lung function in never-smokers with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Never-smokers account for a large proportion of subjects in general population studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD. However, the influence of NTM infection on the lung function of never-smokers has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine how NTM-LD impairs the lung function in never-smokers, and whether there are an association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers with NTM-LD or not. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients (1 who have never smoked during their lifetime; (2 with at least two respiratory specimens from sputum, one bronchial washing sample, or one lung tissue that were culture positive for the same NTM species; and (3 who underwent at least two pulmonary function tests. We enrolled healthy never-smokers as the control group. Results: In 22 never-smokers with NTM-LD, the median forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC at baseline was lower than those in 9 healthy never-smokers [1800 vs 2080 ml (p = 0.23 and 2230 vs 2620 ml (p = 0.06], respectively. The median change in FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was lower than that in healthy never-smokers [−70 vs 20 ml per year (p = 0.07, respectively]. On univariate analysis, baseline %-predicted FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was associated with changes in FVC (p = 0.026 and FEV1 (p = 0.013. Anti-NTM treatment was administered for at least 1 year in 19 patients (86.4%. The relationship between worsening chest CT findings and rapid progressive decline in both FVC (p = 0.66 and FEV1 (p = 0.23 were not significant. Conclusion: Never-smokers with NTM-LD showed lung function decline. There was no association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers. Keywords: Lung function, Never-smoker, Nontuberculous mycobacterial

  3. Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Magdalena; de Veer, Michael J; Cholewa, Marian; Egan, Gary F; Thompson, Bruce R

    2017-05-17

    Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. X-ray phase-contrast imaging is another emerging X-ray based methodology for Cystic Fibrosis lung assessment which provides dynamic morphological and functional information, albeit with even higher X-ray doses than HRCT. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising radiation imaging method that is garnering growing interest among researchers and clinicians working with Cystic Fibrosis patients. Recent advances in MRI have opened up the possibilities to observe lung function in real time to potentially allow sensitive and accurate assessment of disease progression. The use of hyperpolarized gas or non-contrast enhanced MRI can be tailored to clinical needs. While MRI offers significant promise it still suffers from poor spatial resolution and the development of an objective scoring system especially for ventilation assessment.

  4. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF...

  5. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tzung-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Materials and methods Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generated for each case, the first one without the incorporation of the ventilation and the second with it. The dose of the first plans was overlapped with the ventilation and analyzed. Highly-functional regions were avoided in the second treatment plans. Results For small targets in the first plans (PTV  Conclusion Radiation treatments affect functional lung more seriously in large tumor cases. With compromise of dose to other critical organs, functional treatment planning to reduce dose in highly-functional lung volumes can be achieved

  6. Functional avoidance of lung in plan optimization with an aperture-based inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Hilaire, Jason; Lavoie, Caroline; Dagnault, Anne; Beaulieu, Frederic; Morin, Francis; Beaulieu, Luc; Tremblay, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To implement SPECT-based optimization in an anatomy-based aperture inverse planning system for the functional avoidance of lung in thoracic irradiation. Material and methods: SPECT information has been introduced as a voxel-by-voxel modulation of lung importance factors proportionally to the local perfusion count. Fifteen cases of lung cancer have been retrospectively analyzed by generating angle-optimized non-coplanar plans, comparing a purely anatomical approach and our functional approach. Planning target volume coverage and lung sparing have been compared. Statistical significance was assessed by a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results: For similar target coverage, perfusion-weighted volume receiving 10 Gy was reduced by a median of 2.2% (p = 0.022) and mean perfusion-weighted lung dose, by a median of 0.9 Gy (p = 0.001). A separate analysis of patients with localized or non-uniform hypoperfusion could not show which would benefit more from SPECT-based treatment planning. Redirection of dose sometimes created overdosage regions in the target volume. Plans consisted of a similar number of segments and monitor units. Conclusions: Angle optimization and SPECT-based modulation of importance factors allowed for functional avoidance of the lung while preserving target coverage. The technique could be also applied to implement PET-based modulation inside the target volume, leading to a safer dose escalation.

  7. Signs of Gas Trapping in Normal Lung Density Regions in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodduluri, Sandeep; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric A; Newell, John D; Nath, Hrudaya; Dransfield, Mark T; Bhatt, Surya P

    2017-12-01

    A substantial proportion of subjects without overt airflow obstruction have significant respiratory morbidity and structural abnormalities as visualized by computed tomography. Whether regions of the lung that appear normal using traditional computed tomography criteria have mild disease is not known. To identify subthreshold structural disease in normal-appearing lung regions in smokers. We analyzed 8,034 subjects with complete inspiratory and expiratory computed tomographic data participating in the COPDGene Study, including 103 lifetime nonsmokers. The ratio of the mean lung density at end expiration (E) to end inspiration (I) was calculated in lung regions with normal density (ND) by traditional thresholds for mild emphysema (-910 Hounsfield units) and gas trapping (-856 Hounsfield units) to derive the ND-E/I ratio. Multivariable regression analysis was used to measure the associations between ND-E/I, lung function, and respiratory morbidity. The ND-E/I ratio was greater in smokers than in nonsmokers, and it progressively increased from mild to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity. A proportion of 26.3% of smokers without airflow obstruction had ND-E/I greater than the 90th percentile of normal. ND-E/I was independently associated with FEV 1 (adjusted β = -0.020; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.032 to -0.007; P = 0.001), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores (adjusted β = 0.952; 95% CI, 0.529 to 1.374; P smokers without airflow obstruction, and it is associated with respiratory morbidity. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  8. Fibulin-1 functions as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuan; Liu, Jian; Yin, Hai-Bing; Liu, Yi-Fei; Liu, Jun-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Fibulin-1 is a member of the fibulin gene family, characterized by tandem arrays of epidermal growth factor-like domains and a C-terminal fibulin-type module. Fibulin-1 plays important roles in a range of cellular functions including morphology, growth, adhesion and mobility. It acts as a tumor suppressor gene in cutaneous melanoma, prostate cancer and gastric cancer. However, whether fibulin-1 also acts as a tumor suppressor gene in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. We also determined the association of fibulin-1 expression with various clinical and pathological parameters, which would show its potential role in clinical prognosis. We investigated and followed up 140 lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent lung resection without pre- and post-operative systemic chemotherapy at the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from 2009 to 2013. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of fibulin-1 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. We then analyzed the correlations between fibulin-1 expression and clinicopathological variables as well as the patients' overall survival rate. Both western blot assay and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the level of fibulin-1 was downregulated in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with that of normal lung tissues. Fibulin-1 expression significantly correlated with histological differentiation (P = 0.046), clinical stage (P< 0.01), lymph node status (P = 0.038) and expression of Ki-67 (P = 0.013). More importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that fibulin-1 was an independent prognostic marker for lung adenocarcinoma, and high expression of fibulin-1 was significantly associated with better prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. The results supported our hypothesis that fibulin-1 can act as a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma progression. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Functions and mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng ZZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhenzi Peng, Chunfang Zhang, Chaojun Duan Institute of Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and there is a lack of adequate biomarkers for diagnosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are emerging as an important set of molecules because of their roles in various key pathophysiological pathways, including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. We review the current knowledge of the lncRNAs in lung cancer. In-depth analyses of lncRNAs in lung cancer have increased the number of potential effective biomarkers, thus providing options to increase the therapeutic benefit. In this review, we summarize the functions, mechanisms, and regulatory networks of lncRNAs in lung cancer, providing a basis for further research in this field. Keywords: ncRNA, tumorigenesis, biomarker, network, proliferation, apoptosis 

  10. Prediction of postoperative respiratory function of lung cancer patients using quantitative lung scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative sup(99m)Tc-MISA inhalation scan and sup(99m)Tc-MAA perfusion scan were performed in 35 patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomies. Quantitative 133 Xe ventilation-perfusion scans were also performed in 34 patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomies. To predict functional loss after lobectomy, the proportion of the No. of segments in the lobe to be resected to the No. of entire segments of that lung was provided for the study. Postoperative FVC, FEVsub(1.0) and MVV were predicted in the study, and which were compared to the respiratory function at one month after operation and more than four months after operation. The predicted postoperative respiratory function was highly correlated with the actually observed postoperative respiratory function (0.7413 lt r lt 0.9278, p lt 0.001). In this study, the postoperative respiratory function was proven to be quite accurately predicted preoperatively with combination of quantitative lung scans and spirometric respiratory function. Therefore this method is useful not only for judgement of operative indication but also for choice of operative method and for counterplan of postoperative respiratory insufficiency. (J.P.N.)

  11. Severe exacerbations and decline in lung function in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Lamm, Carl Johan

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: To evaluate the association between asthma exacerbations and the decline in lung function, as well as the potential effects of an inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, on exacerbation-related decline in patients with asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severe asthma exacerbations...... with low-dose inhaled budesonide prevents severe asthma-related events (exacerbations requiring hospitalization or emergency treatment) and decline in lung function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 315 patients who experienced at least one severe asthma exacerbation, of which 305 were analyzable...... of reduction afforded by budesonide, in patients who experienced at least one severe asthma-related event compared with those who did not, was statistically significant (P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Severe asthma exacerbations are associated with a more rapid decline in lung function. Treatment with low doses...

  12. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Andrew F T; Fouras, Andreas; Islam, M Sirajul; Wallace, Megan J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-04-01

    Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions ≈ 16.2 μm). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure

  13. Determinants of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Although regional differences in lung cancer mortality are likely to be attributable to regional differences in tobacco smoking, studies in various countries found only weak relationships. This paper aimed at explaining regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands. In a first

  14. Determinants of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kunst (Anton); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAlthough regional differences in lung cancer mortality are likely to be attributable to regional differences in tobacco smoking, studies in various countries found only weak relationships. This paper aimed at explaining regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the

  15. [System analytical approach of lung function and hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszlady, Attila; Kiss, Lajos

    2009-02-15

    The authors critically analyse the traditional views in physiology and complete them with new statements based on computer model simulations of lung function and of hemodynamics. Conclusions are derived for the clinical practice as follows: the four-dimensional function curves are similar in both systems; there is a "waterfall" zone in the pulmonary blood perfusion; the various time constants of pulmonary regions can modify the blood gas values; pulmonary capillary pressure is equal to pulmonary arterial diastole pressure; heart is not a pressure pump, but a flow source; ventricles are loaded by the input impedance of the arterial systems and not by the total vascular (ohmlike) resistance; optimum heart rate in rest depends on the length of the aorta; this law of heart rate, based on the principle of resonance is valid along the mammalian allometric line; tachycardia decreases the input impedance; using positive end expiratory pressure respirators the blood gas of pulmonary artery should be followed; coronary circulation should be assessed in beat per milliliter, the milliliter per minute may be false. These statements are compared to related references.

  16. Lung function and long-term exposure to cement dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F V; Borchsenius, L; Holstein, B

    1977-01-01

    occupational category. Each occupational category was further subdivided according to smoking habits and in all categories the well-known association between tobacco consumption and decrease in ventilatory capacity was found. White collar workers, who smoke less and had experienced better housing conditions...... throughout life had better ventilatory lung function than any of the other three occupational categories. No significant differences in lung function between cement factory workers and other blue collar workers with comparable smoking habits could be demonstrated by use of the maximal midexpiratory flow...

  17. The role of three dimensional functional lung imaging in radiation treatment planning: the functional dose-volume histogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Spencer, David P.; Sherouse, George W.; Bentel, Gunilla; Clough, Robert; Vann, Karen; Jaszczak, Ronald; Coleman, R. Edward; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: During thoracic irradiation (XRT), treatment fields are usually designed to minimize the volume of nontumor-containing lung included. Generally, functional heterogeneities within the lung are not considered. The three dimensional (3D) functional information provided by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung perfusion scans might be useful in designing beams that minimize incidental irradiation of functioning lung tissue. We herein review the pretreatment SPECT scans in 86 patients (56 with lung cancer) to determine which are likely to benefit from this technology. Methods and Materials: Prior to thoracic XRT, SPECT lung perfusion scans were obtained following the intravenous injection of ∼4 mCi of 99m Tc-labeled macro-aggregated albumin. The presence of areas of decreased perfusion, their location relative to the tumor, and the potential clinical usefulness of their recognition, were scored. Patients were grouped and compared (two-tailed chi-square) based on clinical factors. Conventional dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and functional DVHs (DV F Hs) are calculated based on the dose distribution throughout the computed tomography (CT)-defined lung and SPECT-defined perfused lung, respectively. Results: Among 56 lung cancer patients, decreases in perfusion were observed at the tumor, adjacent to the tumor, and separate from the tumor in 94%, 74%, and 42% of patients, respectively. Perfusion defects adjacent to the tumor were often large with centrally placed tumors. Hypoperfusion in regions separate from the tumor were statistically most common in patients with relatively poor pulmonary function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Considering all SPECT defects adjacent to and separate from the tumor, corresponding CT abnormalities were seen in only ∼50% and 20% of patients, respectively, and were generally not as impressive. Following XRT, hypoperfusion at and separate from the tumor persisted, while defects adjacent to the

  18. Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Petersen, AH; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was

  19. Correlation of 68Ga Ventilation-Perfusion PET/CT with Pulmonary Function Test Indices for Assessing Lung Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Siva, Shankar; Steinfort, Daniel P; Callahan, Jason; Eu, Peter; Irving, Lou B; Hicks, Rodney J; Hofman, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are routinely used to assess lung function, but they do not provide information about regional pulmonary dysfunction. We aimed to assess correlation of quantitative ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) PET/CT with PFT indices. Thirty patients underwent V/Q PET/CT and PFT. Respiration-gated images were acquired after inhalation of (68)Ga-carbon nanoparticles and administration of (68)Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Functional volumes were calculated by dividing the volume of normal ventilated and perfused (%NVQ), unmatched and matched defects by the total lung volume. These functional volumes were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). All functional volumes were significantly different in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P volume of unmatched defects (r = -0.55). Considering %NVQ only, a cutoff value of 90% correctly categorized 28 of 30 patients with or without significant pulmonary function impairment. Our study demonstrates strong correlations between V/Q PET/CT functional volumes and PFT parameters. Because V/Q PET/CT is able to assess regional lung function, these data support the feasibility of its use in radiation therapy and preoperative planning and assessing pulmonary dysfunction in a variety of respiratory diseases. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  20. Lung scan abnormalities in asthma and their correlation with lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, P.; Burton, G.H.; Seed, W.A.; Charing Cross Hospital, London

    1986-01-01

    We have used asthma as a model of airways disease to test how well an automated, quantitative method of analysis of lung scans correlates with physiological measurements of disturbed lung function and gas exchange. We studies 25 asthmatics (age 16-73) of widely differing severity (forced expiratory volume in 1-s FEV 1 22%-123% of predicted value), who had airways tests, arterial blood gas analysis, and krypton-technetium lung scans within a short time of each other. In all patients with airways obstruction and in some with normal function during remission, scans showed the typical appearances of multiple defects of ventilation and perfusion. The severity of ventilation defects was assessed from the posterior view of the krypton scan compared to an age- and sex-matched normal range to yield an underventilation score. This correlated closely with the severity of airways obstruction as measured by forced expiratory manouevres. Ventilation and perfusion defects were usually imperfectly matched; the severity of this was computed using a subtraction method applied to the counts on the posterior krypton and technetium scans. The degree of mismatch was inversely related to the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (r=-0.86). The results suggest that computer scan analysis can provide usual functional information about the lung in airways disease. (orig.)

  1. Lung function studies before and after a work shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, R G

    1983-05-01

    The lung function of 23 underground coal workers and eight surface workers at a Scottish colliery was measured immediately before and after a work shift. Changes in lung function were assessed in relation to the measured respirable dust exposure and the time of day in which the shift was worked. Large, and statistically significant, decrements of lung function during the shift were found in night-shift workers compared with workers on other shifts. Measurements derived from the forced expiratory manoeuvre, particularly FEV1, Vmax50, and Vmax25, after three vital capacity breaths of an 80% He/20% O2 mixture, showed large reductions in night-shift men, smaller reductions in afternoon-shift men, and small increases or decreases in morning-shift underground and surface workers. Within-shift changes for other tests, such as closing volume, N2 index, and volume of isoflow, did not differ significantly between shifts. No significant relationship was found between dust exposure and functional changes during a shift for any test. Lung function changes in a control group of 25 female workers not exposed to dust (hospital nurses) did not show the same large variations between day and night shifts. Examination of a further control group of 16 office workers did not show any difference in diurnal changes between smokers and non-smokers. It is concluded that these coal miners, even on permanent shift patterns, had widely different changes in their lung function cycle depending on which shift they were working. These changes did not appear to be related to dust exposure or cigarette smoking and were not consistent with other biological adaptations known to result from regular night-shift working.

  2. Neuromuscular function during a forward lunge in meniscectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Damgaard, Jacob; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force kinetics and neuromuscular activity including muscle coactivation, and medial versus lateral muscle activity during a forward lunge between the operated and contralateral legs of meniscectomized patients....... Such differences may represent early changes in neuromuscular function potentially contributing to the development of knee osteoarthritis....

  3. Assessment of respiratory symptoms and lung function among textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smokers among the exposed and unexposed workers had significantly lower lung function values than nonsmokers. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among workers in most dusty sections of the factory. Use of protective mask should be enforced. Workers in the spinning and weaving sections of ...

  4. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training. ... All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity ...

  5. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  6. Determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Anhøj, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma patients exhibit an increased rate of loss of lung function. Determinants to such decline are largely unknown and the modifying effect of steroid therapy is disputed. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate factors contributing to such decline and the possible modifying e...

  7. Lung Function Test in Asthmatics Patients in UBTH: Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-06-30

    This report describes the result of a study on lung function tests on 75 asthmatics seen within a 6-month period (January 1 to June 30, 2004) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. There was a preponderance of females (60%) to males (40%); The result also showed that a large proportion ...

  8. Determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Anhøj, J; Agertoft, L; Hedlin, G; Gulsvik, A; Bjermer, L; Carlsen, K H; Nordvall, L; Lundbäck, B; Wennergren, G; Werner, S; Bønnelykke, K; Weiss, S T

    2007-07-01

    Asthma patients exhibit an increased rate of loss of lung function. Determinants to such decline are largely unknown and the modifying effect of steroid therapy is disputed. This cross-sectional study aimed to elucidate factors contributing to such decline and the possible modifying effect of steroid treatment. We analyzed determinants of lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a Scandinavian study of 2390 subjects from 550 families. Families were selected for the presence of two or more asthmatic children as part of a genetic study, Scandinavian Asthma Genetic Study (SAGA). The primary analysis studied the association between the lung function and delay of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) after asthma diagnosis among asthmatic children and young adults with a history of regular ICS treatment (N=919). FEV(1) percent predicted (FEV(1)% pred) was 0.25% lower per year of delay from diagnosis until treatment (p=0.039). This association was significantly greater in allergy skin prick test negative children. There was no significant influence of gender, age at asthma onset, or smoking. In the secondary analysis of the whole population of 2390 asthmatics and non-asthmatics, FEV(1)% pred was inversely related to having asthmatic siblings (-7.9%; p<0.0001), asthma diagnosis (-2.7%; p=0.0007), smoking (-3.5%; p=0.0027), and positive allergy skin prick test (-0.47% per test; p=0.012), while positively related to being of female gender (1.8%; p=0.0029). Risk of AHR was higher by having asthmatic siblings (OR 2.7; p<0.0001), being of female gender (OR 2.0; p<0.0001), and having asthma (OR 2.0; p<0.0001). These data suggest that lung function is lower in asthmatics with delayed introduction of ICS therapy, smoking, and positive allergy skin prick test. Lung function is lower and AHR higher in female asthmatics and subjects with asthmatic siblings or established asthma.

  9. Automated lung tumor segmentation for whole body PET volume based on novel downhill region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangan, Cherry; Wang, Xiuying; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2010-03-01

    We propose an automated lung tumor segmentation method for whole body PET images based on a novel downhill region growing (DRG) technique, which regards homogeneous tumor hotspots as 3D monotonically decreasing functions. The method has three major steps: thoracic slice extraction with K-means clustering of the slice features; hotspot segmentation with DRG; and decision tree analysis based hotspot classification. To overcome the common problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots in automated lung tumor segmentation, DRG employs the tumors' SUV monotonicity features. DRG also uses gradient magnitude of tumors' SUV to improve tumor boundary definition. We used 14 PET volumes from patients with primary NSCLC for validation. The thoracic region extraction step achieved good and consistent results for all patients despite marked differences in size and shape of the lungs and the presence of large tumors. The DRG technique was able to avoid the problem of leakage into adjacent hotspots and produced a volumetric overlap fraction of 0.61 +/- 0.13 which outperformed four other methods where the overlap fraction varied from 0.40 +/- 0.24 to 0.59 +/- 0.14. Of the 18 tumors in 14 NSCLC studies, 15 lesions were classified correctly, 2 were false negative and 15 were false positive.

  10. A multivariate analysis of serum nutrient levels and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that estimates of intakes of a range of dietary nutrients are related to both lung function level and rate of decline, but far less evidence on the relation between lung function and objective measures of serum levels of individual nutrients. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive examination of the independent associations of a wide range of serum markers of nutritional status with lung function, measured as the one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US population-based cross-sectional study, we investigated the relation between 21 serum markers of potentially relevant nutrients and FEV1, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Systematic approaches were used to guide the analysis. Results In a mutually adjusted model, higher serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, normalized calcium, chloride, and iron were independently associated with higher levels of FEV1. Higher concentrations of potassium and sodium were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusion Maintaining higher serum concentrations of dietary antioxidant vitamins and selenium is potentially beneficial to lung health. In addition other novel associations found in this study merit further investigation.

  11. Deterioration in lung function following hemithorax irradiation for pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maasilta, P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-four patients receiving high-dose hemithorax irradiation as part of the treatment for pleural mesothelioma were studied with regard to changes in lung function following irradiation, and these changes were correlated with the radiologically-assessed lung injury. The latter was scored from 0 to 500 and found to be severe by 6 months (mean score 360), very severe by 9 months (mean score 430), and nearly total by 12 months (mean score 480) after treatment. Forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity both showed a significant decline at 1.5-2 months following the end of radiotherapy and thereafter up to the end of the 1 year follow-up period. Neither of these variables could be correlated consistently with the radiologically-assessed changes. Hypoxemia and pathological physiological shunting increased transiently 1-2 months after irradiation in 2 of the 6 patients monitored. The observed radiologically-assessed final effects of high-dose hemithorax irradiation are compatible with a total loss of lung function on the irradiated side. Before this form of treatment is used, lung function should be evaluated as for pneumonectomy

  12. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Kusztrich, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  13. Lung perfusion SPECT in predicting postoperative pulmonary function in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yoshiaki; Imaeda, Takeyoshi; Doi, Hidetaka; Kokubo, Mitsuharu; Sakai, Satoshi; Hirose, Hajime

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the availability of preoperative perfusion SPECT in predicting postoperative pulmonary function following resection. Twenty-three patients with lung cancer who were candidates for lobectomy were investigated preoperatively with spirometry, x-ray computed tomography and 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin SPECT. Their postoperative pulmonary functions were predicted with these examinations. The forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in one second were selected as parameters for overall pulmonary function. The postoperative pulmonary function was predicted by the following formula: Predicted postoperative value=observed preoperative value x precent perfusion of the lung not to be resected. The patients were reinvestigated with spirometry at 3 months and 6 months after lobectomy, and the values obtained were statistically compared with the predicted values. Close relationships were found between predicted and observed forced vital capacity (r=0.87, p<0.001), and predicted and observed forced expiratory volume in one second (r=0.90, p<0.001). The accurate prediction of pulmonary function after lobectomy could be achieved by means of lung perfusion SPECT. (author)

  14. Use of sup(81m)Kr gas for the measurement of absolute regional lung ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosil, J; Bajzer, Z; Spaventi, S [Mladen Stojanovic Clinical Hospital, Zagreb (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology; Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1977-02-01

    In this paper a new method of using sup(81m)Kr for the measurement of specific absolute regional lung ventilation is described. Experimental data suitable for the calculation of quantitative regional ventilation are provided using an adequate respiratory system for sup(81m)Kr dosage and a scintillation gamma camera interfaced to a digital computer. A simple mathematical lung model for the inhalation of sup(81m)Kr is used to determine the specific ventilation and the parameters proportional to the ventilation for the whole lung and different lung regions in patients and in healthy subjects. The lung count rate for a given region correlated well with the ventilation of that region. Clinical examples are given and discussed.

  15. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema: assessment with 99mTc-MAA perfusion and dynamic 133Xe SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    In this study the cross-sectional functional differences between the central and peripheral lung in smokers with pulmonary emphysema were evaluated by lung perfusion and dynamic xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The subjects were 81 patients with a long-term smoking history and relatively advanced emphysema, 17 non-smoker patients with non-obstructive lung diseases and six healthy non-smokers. Regional lung functional difference between the peripheral and central lung was assessed in the upper, middle and lower lung zones by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPET and dynamic 133 Xe SPET. The distribution of emphysematous changes was assessed by density-mask computed tomography (CT) images which depicted abnormally low attenuation areas (LAAs) of less than -960 Hounsfield units. Two hundred and eighty-eight (59.2%) lung zones of 63 (77.7%) patients with pulmonary emphysema showed relative preservation of lung function in the peripheral lung, with a curvilinear band of normal perfusion (a stripe sign) and a significantly faster 133 Xe half-clearance time (T 1/2 ) than in central lung (P 1/2 in the peripheral lung area (P 1/2 values and LAA distributions between the central and peripheral lung. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function seems to be a characteristic feature in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, and may indicate a lower susceptibility of peripheral parenchyma to the development of this disease. (orig.)

  16. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos S R; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure) and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity -0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s -0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001), 6MWT (-37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001) and oxygenation (-2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001), while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001), whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  17. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  18. Serum carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and lung function among Dutch elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, L.; Waart, de F.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antioxidant vitamins (provitamins) may protect against loss of lung function over time. We studied the association between serum carotenoids (-carotene, -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein), -tocopherol, and lung function among noninstitutionalized Dutch elderly age 65 to 85

  19. A unified approach for EIT imaging of regional overdistension and atelectasis in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Arnold, John H; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2012-03-01

    Patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are vulnerable to ventilator-induced lung injury. Although this syndrome affects the lung heterogeneously, mechanical ventilation is not guided by regional indicators of potential lung injury. We used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to estimate the extent of regional lung overdistension and atelectasis during mechanical ventilation. Techniques for tidal breath detection, lung identification, and regional compliance estimation were combined with the Graz consensus on EIT lung imaging (GREIT) algorithm. Nine ALI/ARDS patients were monitored during stepwise increases and decreases in airway pressure. Our method detected individual breaths with 96.0% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. The duration and volume of tidal breaths erred on average by 0.2 s and 5%, respectively. Respiratory system compliance from EIT and ventilator measurements had a correlation coefficient of 0.80. Stepwise increases in pressure could reverse atelectasis in 17% of the lung. At the highest pressures, 73% of the lung became overdistended. During stepwise decreases in pressure, previously-atelectatic regions remained open at sub-baseline pressures. We recommend that the proposed approach be used in collaborative research of EIT-guided ventilation strategies for ALI/ARDS.

  20. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  1. Magnetic resonance lung function – a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment? A phantom study and clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.

  2. Chorioamnionitis and subsequent lung function in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus H Jones

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between prematurity, gender and chorioamnionitis as determinants of early life lung function in premature infants. METHODS: Placenta and membranes were collected from preterm deliveries (<37 weeks gestational age and evaluated for histological chorioamnionitis (HCA. Patients were followed and lung function was performed in the first year of life by Raised Volume-Rapid Thoracic Compression Technique. RESULTS: Ninety-five infants (43 males born prematurely (median gestational age 34.2 weeks were recruited. HCA was detected in 66 (69% of the placentas, and of these 55(58% were scored HCA Grade 1, and 11(12% HCA Grade 2. Infants exposed to HCA Grade 1 and Grade 2, when compared to those not exposed, presented significantly lower gestational ages, higher prevalence of RDS, clinical early-onset sepsis, and the use of supplemental oxygen more than 28 days. Infants exposed to HCA also had significantly lower maximal flows. There was a significant negative trend for z-scores of lung function in relation to levels of HCA; infants had lower maximal expiratory flows with increasing level of HCA. (p = 0.012 for FEF50, p = 0.014 for FEF25-75 and p = 0.32 for FEV0.5. Two-way ANOVA adjusted for length and gestational age indicated a significant interaction between sex and HCA in determining expiratory flows (p<0.01 for FEF50, FEF25-75 and p<0.05 for FEV0.5. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that female preterm infants exposed to HCA Grade 1 and Grade 2 had significant lower lung function than those not exposed, and this effect was not observed among males. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a sex-specific negative effect of prenatal inflammation on lung function of female preterm infants. This study confirms and expands knowledge upon the known association between chorioamnionitis and early life chronic lung disease.

  3. Genetic variants in regulatory regions of microRNAs are associated with lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaipeng; Wang, Cheng; Qin, Na; Yang, Jianshui; Zhu, Meng; Dai, Juncheng; Jin, Guangfu; Shen, Hongbing; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin

    2016-07-26

    Genetic variants in regulatory regions of some miRNAs might be associated with lung cancer risk and survival. We performed a case-control study including 1341 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 1982 controls to evaluate the associations of 7 potentially functional polymorphisms in several differently expressed miRNAs with NSCLC risk. Each SNP was also tested for the association with overall survival of 1001 NSCLC patients. We identified that rs9660710 in miR-200b/200a/429 cluster and rs763354 in miR-30a were significantly associated with NSCLC risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.30, P = 0.002; OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.98, P = 0.017; respectively]. However, no significant association between variants and NSCLC death risk was observed in survival analysis. Functional annotation showed that both rs9660710 and rs763354 were located in regulatory elements in lung cancer cells. Compared to normal tissues, miR-200a-3p, miR-200a-5p, miR-200b-3p, miR-200b-5p and miR-429 were significantly increased in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tumors, whereas miR-30a-3p and miR-30a-5p were significantly decreased in tumors (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed that rs9660710 is an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) or methylation eQTL for miR-429 expression in TCGA normal tissues. Our results indicated that rs9660710 in miR-200b/200a/429 cluster and rs763354 in miR-30a might modify the susceptibility to NSCLC.

  4. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  5. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, W.; Hanekamp, M.N.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Tibboel, D.; Jongste, J.C. de; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane

  6. [Effect of dust aerosol exposure on lung function and lung histopathology in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fengfeng; Wang, Xuebin; Liu, Hua; Chen, Qizhang; Ma, Hui; Dong, Zhibao; Sang, Yingzhu

    2015-08-25

    To investigate the effect of dust aerosol exposure on lung function and lung histopathology in rats. According to random number table method, 120 Wistar male rats were divided into untreated control group, treated control group and experimental group, with 40 rats in each group. Experimental group were exposed to the wind tunnel simulation of sandstorm for 5 hours in every day; the untreated control group were put in the standard living environment next to the wind tunnel; the treated control group were exposed to the same wind tunnel simulation of sandstorm for 5 hours in every day, and the speed of wind was the same as the experimental group, but excluding dust. At different time points, the lung function and electron microscopy were performed in all rats. The level of Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn) ((0.227 ± 0.023), (0.198 ± 0.022) ml/cmH₂O, 1 cmH₂O=0.098 kPa) and forced vital capacity (FVC) ((6.24 ± 0.29), (5.59 ± 0.19) ml) were lower in the experimental group at 90 and 120 days, as compared to the untreated control group (Cdyn: (0.266 ± 0.014), (0.265 ± 0.018) ml/cmH2O; FVC: (7.15 ± 0.23), (7.17 ± 0.20) ml) and treated control group (Cdyn: (0.269 ± 0.015), (0.264 ± 0.019) ml/cmH2O; FVC: (7.14 ± 0.19), (7.15 ± 0.21) ml) (all Plung tissues had no obvious abnormalities at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days in untreated control group and treated control group. But in the experimental group, at 30 days, the endothelial cells of alveolar type I cells were swelled and the number of alveolar type II cells were increased; at 60 days, alveolar type II cells hyperplastic, basement membrane thinned and destructed; at 90 days, the number of alveolar type II cells decreased, Lamellar body evacuation; at 120 days, a lot of collagen fiber was formed in the alveolar septa. The strong sandstorm environmental exposure to a certain period of time can cause the decline of lung function and the damage of lung histopathology in rats. Exposure time was positively correlated with the

  7. Variability in EIT Images of Lung Ventilation as a Function of Electrode Planes and Body Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the variability in resistivity changes in the lung region as a function of air volume, electrode plane and body position. Six normal subjects (33.8 ± 4.7 years, range from 26 to 37 years) were studied using the Sheffield Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) portable system. Three transverse planes at the level of second intercostal space, the level of the xiphisternal joint, and midway between upper and lower locations were chosen for measurements. For each plane, sixteen electrodes were uniformly positioned around the thorax. Data were collected with the breath held at end expiration and after inspiring 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 liters of air from end expiration, with the subject in both the supine and sitting position. The average resistivity change in five regions, two 8x8 pixel local regions in the right lung, entire right, entire left and total lung regions, were calculated. The results show the resistivity change averaged over electrode positions and subject positions was 7-9% per liter of air, with a slightly larger resistivity change of 10 % per liter air in the lower electrode plane. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between supine and sitting. The two 8x8 regions show a larger inter individual variability (coefficient of variation, CV, is from 30% to 382%) compared to the entire left, entire right and total lung (CV is from 11% to 51%). The results for the global regions are more consistent. The large inter individual variability appears to be a problem for clinical applications of EIT, such as regional ventilation. The variability may be mitigated by choosing appropriate electrode plane, body position and region of interest for the analysis.

  8. A genetic approach to understanding asthma and lung function development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    that are most robustly associated with persistent and severe childhood onset asthma. However, it is unknown how the 17q21 common variants are associated with the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. In paper II,we investigated the effect of the 17q21 locus on current adult asthma and related traits......Asthma is a common heritable disease of the airways with recurrent episodes of symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction that has increased dramatically in prevalence. The disease is highly heterogeneous with varying age at onset and clinical presentation and most likely represents several...... responsiveness, but were associated with lung function growth. This suggests that these loci do not exert their effects prenatally and indicate a potential window of opportunity in early childhood for preventing lung function decline and maintaining respiratory health. The 17q21 locus harbors common variants...

  9. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Analysis of disease manifestation by region-based quantification of lung parenchyma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theilig, D., E-mail: dorothea.theilig@charite.de [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Doellinger, F. [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Kuhnigk, J.M. [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, B.; Huebner, R.H. [Charité, Department of Pneumology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Schreiter, N.; Poellinger, A. [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •The distribution of cystic lesions in LAM was evaluated with quantitative CT. •There were more cystic lesions in the central lung compared to peripheral areas. •Cystic changes were more frequent in apical two thirds compared to lower third. •Results might help to obviate the need for biopsy in more cases. -- Abstract: Purpose: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by proliferation of smooth muscle tissue that causes bronchial obstruction and secondary cystic destruction of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the typical distribution of cystic defects in LAM with quantitative volumetric chest computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: CT examinations of 20 patients with confirmed LAM were evaluated with region-based quantification of lung parenchyma. Additionally, 10 consecutive patients were identified who had recently undergone CT imaging of the lung at our institution, in which no pathologies of the lung were found, to serve as a control group. Each lung was divided into three regions (upper, middle and lower thirds) with identical number of slices. In addition, we defined a “peel” and “core” of the lung comprising the 2 cm subpleural space and the remaining inner lung area. Computerized detection of lung volume and relative emphysema was performed with the PULMO 3D software (v3.42, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen, Germany). This software package enables the quantification of emphysematous lung parenchyma by calculating the pixel index, which is defined as the ratio of lung voxels with a density <−950 HU to the total number of voxels in the lung. Results: Cystic changes accounted for 0.1–39.1% of the total lung volume in patients with LAM. Disease manifestation in the central lung was significantly higher than in peripheral areas (peel median: 15.1%, core median: 20.5%; p = 0.001). Lower thirds of lung parenchyma showed significantly less cystic changes than upper and middle lung areas combined (lower

  11. Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Bassler, Kevin; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Fujii, Wataru; Schultze, Joachim L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire. In this review, we summarise recent evidence from human studies and work with animal models of COPD with regard to altered functions of each of these myeloid cell populations. We primarily focus on the dysregulated capacity of alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators and proteases, induce oxidative stress, engulf microbes and apoptotic cells, and express surface and intracellular markers in patients with COPD. In addition, we discuss the differences in the responses between alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages/monocytes in the disease and propose how the field should advance to better understand the implications of lung macrophage functions in COPD.

  12. Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin; Aschenbrenner, Anna C.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire. In this review, we summarise recent evidence from human studies and work with animal models of COPD with regard to altered functions of each of these myeloid cell populations. We primarily focus on the dysregulated capacity of alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators and proteases, induce oxidative stress, engulf microbes and apoptotic cells, and express surface and intracellular markers in patients with COPD. In addition, we discuss the differences in the responses between alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages/monocytes in the disease and propose how the field should advance to better understand the implications of lung macrophage functions in COPD. PMID:29670919

  13. Assessment of regional ventilation and deformation using 4D-CT imaging for healthy human lungs during tidal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Nariman; Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Iyer, Krishna; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-15

    This study aims to assess regional ventilation, nonlinearity, and hysteresis of human lungs during dynamic breathing via image registration of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) scans. Six healthy adult humans were studied by spiral multidetector-row CT during controlled tidal breathing as well as during total lung capacity and functional residual capacity breath holds. Static images were utilized to contrast static vs. dynamic (deep vs. tidal) breathing. A rolling-seal piston system was employed to maintain consistent tidal breathing during 4D-CT spiral image acquisition, providing required between-breath consistency for physiologically meaningful reconstructed respiratory motion. Registration-derived variables including local air volume and anisotropic deformation index (ADI, an indicator of preferential deformation in response to local force) were employed to assess regional ventilation and lung deformation. Lobar distributions of air volume change during tidal breathing were correlated with those of deep breathing (R(2) ≈ 0.84). Small discrepancies between tidal and deep breathing were shown to be likely due to different distributions of air volume change in the left and the right lungs. We also demonstrated an asymmetric characteristic of flow rate between inhalation and exhalation. With ADI, we were able to quantify nonlinearity and hysteresis of lung deformation that can only be captured in dynamic images. Nonlinearity quantified by ADI is greater during inhalation, and it is stronger in the lower lobes (P < 0.05). Lung hysteresis estimated by the difference of ADI between inhalation and exhalation is more significant in the right lungs than that in the left lungs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  15. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  16. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cristina Brocki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure and 6-min walk test (6MWT were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity −0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s −0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001, 6MWT (−37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001 and oxygenation (−2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001, while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  17. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  18. Regional functionality of the cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, Laurens; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, advances in brain imaging, optogenetics and viral tracing have greatly advanced our understanding of the cerebellum and its connectivity. It has become clear that the cerebellum can be divided into functional units, each connected with particular brain areas involved in

  19. Genetic association between human chitinases and lung function in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminuddin, F; Akhabir, L; Stefanowicz, D; Paré, P D; Connett, J E; Anthonisen, N R; Fahy, J V; Seibold, M A; Burchard, E G; Eng, C; Gulsvik, A; Bakke, P; Cho, M H; Litonjua, A; Lomas, D A; Anderson, W H; Beaty, T H; Crapo, J D; Silverman, E K; Sandford, A J

    2012-07-01

    Two primary chitinases have been identified in humans--acid mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Mammalian chitinases have been observed to affect the host's immune response. The aim of this study was to test for association between genetic variation in the chitinases and phenotypes related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Polymorphisms in the chitinase genes were selected based on previous associations with respiratory diseases. Polymorphisms that were associated with lung function level or rate of decline in the Lung Health Study (LHS) cohort were analyzed for association with COPD affection status in four other COPD case-control populations. Chitinase activity and protein levels were also related to genotypes. In the caucasian LHS population, the baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was significantly different between the AA and GG genotypic groups of the AMCase rs3818822 polymorphism. Subjects with the GG genotype had higher AMCase protein and chitinase activity compared with AA homozygotes. For CHIT1 rs2494303, a significant association was observed between rate of decline in FEV(1) and the different genotypes. In the African American LHS population, CHIT1 rs2494303 and AMCase G339T genotypes were associated with rate of decline in FEV(1). Although a significant effect of chitinase gene alleles was found on lung function level and decline in the LHS, we were unable to replicate the associations with COPD affection status in the other COPD study groups.

  20. Evaluation of regional pulmonary function using short-lived radioactive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitaka, Tsuyoshi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the application of short-lived radioactive gases for the assessment of regional pulmonary function, particularly diffusing capacity, in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. Short-lived radioactive gases including C[sup 15]O-O, [sup 11]CO[sub 2], and [sup 11]CO were produced using a baby cyclotron for medical care. Using a [gamma] camera, breath-holding images were taken serially after inhalation of the radioactive gases. The first exponential component of time-activity curve was analyzed to obtain clearance rate, which was expressed as exponential coefficient ([lambda]). Moreover, we created a functional map which was calculated by the clearance rate of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] as a percentage. Regional clearance rates of each gas in normal volunteers revealed higher values in the lower lung field than in the upper lung field. Whole lung clearance rates ([lambda]) of each gas in patients correlated well with D[sub LCO]/V[sub A], which indicates diffusing capacity. The functional map showed decreased regional diffusion closely matched to the perfusion defects seen by [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. However, in certain interstitial lung diseases decreased clearance of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] was observed in regions having no evidence of perfusion defects. We concluded the functional map display of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] is useful indicator of the regional diffusing capacity of both the normal and diseased lung, and that it is beneficial to analyze the pathogenic physiology of diseased lungs by making a comparison between the functional map of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] and [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. (author).

  1. Scintigraphy at 3 months after single lung transplantation and observations of primary graft dysfunction and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Iversen, Martin; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2012-01-01

    procedure 3 months after single lung transplantation (SLTX). A total of 41 patients were included in the study: 20 women and 21 men with the age span of patients at transplantation being 38-66 years (mean ± SD: 54.2 ± 6.0). Patient records also included lung function tests and chest X-ray images. We found......Scintigraphy has been used as a tool to detect dysfunction of the lung before and after transplantation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the development of the ventilation-perfusion relationships in single lung transplant recipients in the first year, at 3 months after transplantation...

  2. Functional validation and comparison framework for EIT lung imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Elke, Gunnar; Meybohm, Patrick; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen). In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm), GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging), truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV) reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT.

  3. Characterizing functional lung heterogeneity in COPD using reference equations for CT scan-measured lobar volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Come, Carolyn E; Diaz, Alejandro A; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Muralidhar, Nivedita; Hersh, Craig P; Zach, Jordan A; Schroeder, Joyce; Lynch, David A; Celli, Bartolome; Washko, George R

    2013-06-01

    CT scanning is increasingly used to characterize COPD. Although it is possible to obtain CT scan-measured lung lobe volumes, normal ranges remain unknown. Using COPDGene data, we developed reference equations for lobar volumes at maximal inflation (total lung capacity [TLC]) and relaxed exhalation (approximating functional residual capacity [FRC]). Linear regression was used to develop race-specific (non-Hispanic white [NHW], African American) reference equations for lobar volumes. Covariates included height and sex. Models were developed in a derivation cohort of 469 subjects with normal pulmonary function and validated in 546 similar subjects. These cohorts were combined to produce final prediction equations, which were applied to 2,191 subjects with old GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage II to IV COPD. In the derivation cohort, women had smaller lobar volumes than men. Height positively correlated with lobar volumes. Adjusting for height, NHWs had larger total lung and lobar volumes at TLC than African Americans; at FRC, NHWs only had larger lower lobes. Age and weight had no effect on lobar volumes at TLC but had small effects at FRC. In subjects with COPD at TLC, upper lobes exceeded 100% of predicted values in GOLD II disease; lower lobes were only inflated to this degree in subjects with GOLD IV disease. At FRC, gas trapping was severe irrespective of disease severity and appeared uniform across the lobes. Reference equations for lobar volumes may be useful in assessing regional lung dysfunction and how it changes in response to pharmacologic therapies and surgical or endoscopic lung volume reduction.

  4. Functional exercise capacity, lung function and chest wall deformity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS causes changes on the compliance of the chest. These changes may be associated with impaired lung function and reduced functional exercise capacity of these adolescents. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest at different stages of AIS.Materials and methods The study was carried out in a cross-sectional design which were evaluated 27 AIS patients at different stages of the disease. For chest wall evaluation, were created geometry angles/distances (A/D, which were quantified by Software Postural Assessment. The functional exercise capacity was assessed by a portable gas analyzer during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT. Besides that, manovacuometry and spirometry were also performed.Results Linear regressions showed that oxygen uptake (peak VO2 was correlated with distance travelled in the ISWT (R2 = 0.52, maximal respiratory pressures, cough peak flow (R2 = 0.59 and some thoracic deformity markers (D1, D2 and A6.Discussion We observed that the chest wall alterations, lung function and respiratory muscle strength are related to the functional exercise capacity and may impair the physical activity performance in AIS patients.Final considerations There is correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest in AIS patients. Our results point to the possible impact of the AIS in the physical activities of these adolescents. Therefore, efforts to prevent the disease progression are extremely important.

  5. Activation of different cerebral functional regions following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To explore the brain function regions characteristics of the acupoint combination, this study observed activity changes in the brain regions of healthy volunteers after acupuncture at both Taixi (KI3) and Taichong (LR3) (KI3 + LR3) and KI3 alone using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI).

  6. Electrical impedance tomography: A new monitoring of regional distribution of lung ventilation (principle of work and clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Rade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after it's discovery in the 1980s, the Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT, became the topic of interest, primarily regarding its applicability in different diagnostic procedures and monitoring. EIT is a non-invasive procedure, with no additional harmful radiation, which can be used continuously to monitor regional distribution of ventilation, in contrast to the computerized tomography and other diagnostic procedures that have a single image of the respiratory system and its function. Additionally, EIT allows continuous visualization of the lung function at the patient bedside, with an immediate assessment of the respiratory therapeutic maneuvers effects. The results obtained by EIT are complementary to other pulmonary diagnostic procedures, primarily from radiology. In general, EIT provides additional information to the conventional pulmonary monitoring. Crucial to the implementation of lung protective ventilation concept is to determine the ideal alveolar recruitment, which maintains open and functional alveoli during ventilation, meanwhile carrying a minimal risk for lung injury with excessive breathing volume ('over distension'. EIT may be considered as a good guide for optimal adjustment of respiratory support parameters and selection of the ventilation mode. Nowadays, the technical and technological development, hardware and software improvements and experimental validation of the results in animals and volunteers, have enabled practical clinical use of EIT, a useful monitor of regional distribution of lungs ventilation.

  7. Clinical assessment of mean washout time and lung functional image by ventilatory steady state measurement with /sup 133/Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K; Hasegawa, T; Watanabe, H; Hasegawa, S; Oshima, M [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1981-04-01

    Ventilatory steady state measurement with /sup 133/Xe, using Ventil-Con (Radx) and a large area scintillation camera (Searle, LFOV) combined with a mini-computer system (Shimadzu, Scintipac 230) was employed to evaluate regional pulmonary function of 94 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), fibrosis, carcinoma and other lung diseases. In the patients with COLD, mean washout times (anti t) were markedly prolonged in whole lung fields (anti m 130 +- 33 sec.) and ventilation indices (V*/V) (*: radical) and perfusion indices (Q*/V) (*: radical) were reduced in regional zones, especially in bilateral lower lung zones. For the patients with lung fibrosis, anti t values were short and the distribution of ventilation indices were uniform, and in contrast perfusion indices were reduced in the lower lung fields. In the area most affected by carcinoma, lung volumes (V) were reduced in parallel with the regional ventilation (V*) (*: radical) and perfusion (Q*) (*: radical). As the tumor approached the hilum, the relative ventilation and perfusion of cancerous side decreased remarkably in patients with obstructive findings on bronchoscopy. The mean washout times (anti t) for /sup 133/Xe, calculated by a modified height over area method without background subtraction, were significantly longer than indicated by the data yielded by the least squares curve fitting of initial washout curve after background subtraction. Although the accuracy of these data was limited, it appeared that the prolonged anti t is a good parameter of regional ventilatory disturbance because significant correlations were found between the whole lung anti t in patients with lung diseases and their FEV 1.0% r = -0.66, RV/TLC r = 0.64, % TLC r = 0.43, PaCO/sub 2/ r = 0.41, PaO/sub 2/ r = -0.35.

  8. The incorporation of SPECT functional lung imaging into inverse radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Judith A.; Partridge, Mike; Nioutsikou, Elena; Cook, Gary; McNair, Helen A.; Cronin, Bernadette; Courbon, Frederic; Bedford, James L.; Brada, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often have inhomogeneous lung perfusion. Radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans have been accurately co-registered with lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to design radiotherapy treatments which limit dose to healthy 'perfused' lung. Patients and methods: Patients with localised NSCLC had CT and SPECT scans accurately co-registered in the planning system. The SPECT images were used to define a volume of perfused 'functioning' lung (FL). Inverse planning software was used to create 3D-conformal plans, the planning objective being either to minimise the dose to whole lungs (WL) or to minimise the dose to FL. Results: Four plans were created for each of six patients. The mean difference in volume between WL and FL was 1011.7 cm 3 (range 596.2-1581.1 cm 3 ). One patient with bilateral upper lobe perfusion deficits had a 16% reduction in FLV 2 (the percentage volume of functioning lung receiving ≥20 Gy). The remaining patients had inhomogeneous perfusion deficits such that inverse planning was not able to sufficiently optimise beam angles to avoid functioning lung. Conclusion: SPECT perfusion images can be accurately co-registered with radiotherapy planning CT scans and may be helpful in creating treatment plans for patients with large perfusion deficits

  9. Influence of pleural drain insertion in lung function of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelami Vieira, Irinea Beatriz Carvalho; Vieira, Fabiano F; Abrão, João; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal, prospective, randomized, blinded Trial to assess the influence of pleural drain (non-toxic PVC) site of insertion on lung function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the first three days post-surgery and immediately after chest tube removal. Thirty six patients scheduled for elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomly allocated into two groups: SX group (subxiphoid) and IC group (intercostal drain). Spirometry, arterial blood gases, and pain tests were recorded. Thirty one patients were selected, 16 in SX group and 15 in IC group. Postoperative (PO) spirometric values were higher in SX than in IC group (ppleural drain location on breathing. PaO(2) on the second PO increased significantly in SX group compared with IC group (pDrain with insertion in the subxiphoid region causes less change in lung function and discomfort, allowing better recovery of respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction between a novel TGFB1 haplotype and CFTR genotype is associated with improved lung function in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Lindsay A; Blackman, Scott M; Vanscoy, Lori L; McDougal, Kathryn E; Bowers, Amanda; Naughton, Kathleen M; Cutler, David J; Cutting, Garry R

    2008-07-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal single gene disorder in Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Twin and sibling analysis indicates that modifier genes, rather than allelic variation in CFTR, are responsible for most of the variability in severity of lung disease, the major cause of mortality in CF patients. We used a family-based approach to test for association between lung function and two functional SNPs (rs1800469, '-509' and rs1982073, 'codon 10') in the 5' region of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFB1), a putative CF modifier gene. Quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing of 472 CF patient-parent-parent trios revealed that both TGFB1 SNPs showed significant transmission distortion when patients were stratified by CFTR genotype. Although lung function and nutritional status are correlated in CF patients, there was no evidence of association between the TGFB1 SNPs and variation in nutritional status. Additional tagging SNPs (rs8179181, rs2278422, rs8110090, rs4803455 and rs1982072) that capture most of the diversity in TGFB1 were also typed but none showed association with variation in lung function. However, a haplotype composed of the -509 C and codon 10 T alleles along with the C allele of the 3' SNP rs8179181 was highly associated with increased lung function in patients grouped by CFTR genotype. These results demonstrate that TGFB1 is a modifier of CF lung disease and reveal a previously unrecognized beneficial effect of TGFB1 variants upon the pulmonary phenotype.

  11. Prediction of residual lung function after lung surgery, and examination of blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung using three-dimensional SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimatani, Shinji [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-01-01

    In order to predict postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery, preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion scans with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Spirometry was also performed before and 4-6 months after surgery in 40 patients. In addition, changes in blood perfusion in the pre- and postoperative lung were examined by postoperative lung perfusion scans in 18 of the 40 patients. We measured the three-dimensional (3-D) imaging volume of the operative and contralateral lungs using the volumes rendering method at blood perfusion thresholds of 20, 50 and 75%, utilizing {sup 99m}Tc-MAA lung perfusion, and predicted pulmonary function by means of the measured volumes. We examined the correlation between predicted and the measured values of postoperative pulmonary function, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV{sub 1.0}). The correlation between FEV{sub 1.0} predicted by SPECT (threshold 50%) and measured postoperative lung function resembled that between lung function predicted by the standard planar method and measured FEV{sub 1.0} in the lobectomy group. We then examined the ratios of both pre- and postoperative blood perfusion volumes obtained using 3-D imaging at lung perfusion threshold ranges of 10% each (PV20-29, PV30-39) to pre- and postoperative total perfusion (PV20-100). In the lobectomy group, the postoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value was significantly higher for the operative side lung than the preoperative PV20-29/PV20-100 value, and the postoperative PV50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-100/PV20-100 values were significantly lower than the respective preoperative values. However, in the contralateral lung, the respective pre- and postoperative PV/PV20-100 values were almost identical. These findings suggest that the rate of low blood perfusion increased while the rate of middle to high perfusion decreased in the lobectomy group in the operative

  12. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishawi, Muath [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kim, Bong [Division of Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Moore, William H. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bilfinger, Thomas V., E-mail: Thomas.bilfinger@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% {<=}50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% {<=}70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 {+-} 5 vs. 40 {+-} 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 {+-} 0.5 vs. 73 {+-} 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL{sub CO}) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 {+-} 24 vs. 69 {+-} 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL{sub CO} was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 {+-} 13 vs. 50 {+-} 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 {+-} 24 to 9 {+-} 16 (p < 0.001), and there was a trend in the COPD patients from 12 {+-} 9 to 6 {+-} 5 (p = 0.06). Conclusion: SBRT did not seem to have an effect on FEV{sub 1} and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and

  13. Pulmonary Function Testing After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy to the Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishawi, Muath; Kim, Bong; Moore, William H.; Bilfinger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical resection remains the standard of care for operable early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, some patients are not fit for surgery because of comorbidites such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and tumor volume before and after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with and without COPD in early-stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A review of prospectively collected data of Stage I and II lung cancers, all treated with SBRT, was performed. The total SBRT treatment was 60 Gy administered in three 20 Gy fractions. The patients were analyzed based on their COPD status, using their pretreatment pulmonary function test cutoffs as established by the American Thoracic Society guidelines (forced expiratory volume [FEV]% ≤50% predicted, FEV%/forced vital capacity [FVC]% ≤70%). Changes in tumor volume were also assessed by computed tomography. Results: Of a total of 30 patients with Stage I and II lung cancer, there were 7 patients in the COPD group (4 men, 3 women), and 23 in t he No-COPD group (9 men, 14 women). At a mean follow-up time of 4 months, for the COPD and No-COPD patients, pretreatment and posttreatment FEV% was similar: 39 ± 5 vs. 40 ± 9 (p = 0.4) and 77 ± 0.5 vs. 73 ± 24 (p = 0.9), respectively. The diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DL CO ) did significantly increase for the No-COPD group after SBRT treatment: 60 ± 24 vs. 69 ± 22 (p = 0.022); however, DL CO was unchanged for the COPD group: 49 ± 13 vs. 50 ± 14 (p = 0.8). Although pretreatment tumor volume was comparable for both groups, tumor volume significantly shrank in the No-COPD group from 19 ± 24 to 9 ± 16 (p 1 and FVC, but it shrank tumor volume and improved DL CO for patients without COPD.

  14. Quantitative computed tomography determined regional lung mechanics in normal nonsmokers, normal smokers and metastatic sarcoma subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Choi

    Full Text Available Extra-thoracic tumors send out pilot cells that attach to the pulmonary endothelium. We hypothesized that this could alter regional lung mechanics (tissue stiffening or accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells through interactions with host cells. We explored this with serial inspiratory computed tomography (CT and image matching to assess regional changes in lung expansion.We retrospectively assessed 44 pairs of two serial CT scans on 21 sarcoma patients: 12 without lung metastases and 9 with lung metastases. For each subject, two or more serial inspiratory clinically-derived CT scans were retrospectively collected. Two research-derived control groups were included: 7 normal nonsmokers and 12 asymptomatic smokers with two inspiratory scans taken the same day or one year apart respectively. We performed image registration for local-to-local matching scans to baseline, and derived local expansion and density changes at an acinar scale. Welch two sample t test was used for comparison between groups. Statistical significance was determined with a p value < 0.05.Lung regions of metastatic sarcoma patients (but not the normal control group demonstrated an increased proportion of normalized lung expansion between the first and second CT. These hyper-expanded regions were associated with, but not limited to, visible metastatic lung lesions. Compared with the normal control group, the percent of increased normalized hyper-expanded lung in sarcoma subjects was significantly increased (p < 0.05. There was also evidence of increased lung "tissue" volume (non-air components in the hyper-expanded regions of the cancer subjects relative to non-hyper-expanded regions. "Tissue" volume increase was present in the hyper-expanded regions of metastatic and non-metastatic sarcoma subjects. This putatively could represent regional inflammation related to the presence of tumor pilot cell-host related interactions.This new quantitative CT (QCT method for linking

  15. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.)

  16. Respiratory health and lung function in Chinese restaurant kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H S; Lee, Frank S C; Qiu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    To measure air pollutant concentrations in Chinese restaurant kitchens using different stove types and assess their influence on workers' respiratory health. 393 kitchen workers from 53 Chinese restaurants were surveyed over 16 months: 115 workers from 21 restaurants using only electric stoves and 278 workers from 32 restaurants using only gas stoves. Workers were interviewed about their respiratory symptoms and had their lung function tested. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) were measured using portable monitors and air-bag sampling. Temperature and noise levels were assessed. Median concentrations of NO, NO(2) and CO were 7.4, 1.5 and 1.6 times higher in gas-fuelled kitchens than in electric ones and average concentrations of PM(2.5) and TVOC were 81% and 78% higher, respectively. Differences were smaller for CH(4) and NMHC. Electricity-run kitchens were 4.5°C cooler and 9 dBA less noisy than gas-fuelled ones. Workers using electric cookers had significantly better lung function than their gas-using counterparts and their mean FEV(1) and FVC values were 5.4% and 3.8% higher, respectively, after adjustment for confounders. Wheeze, phlegm, cough and sore throat were more prevalent in workers using gas. The adjusted OR for having phlegm regularly was significantly higher. The poorer lung function and higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in gas-fuelled kitchens compared to those in electricity-powered kitchens may be associated with exposure to higher concentrations of toxic air pollutants generated during gas cooking.

  17. Automatic lung segmentation in functional SPECT images using active shape models trained on reference lung shapes from CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Al-Mashat, Mariam; Haris, Kostas; Aletras, Anthony H; Jögi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Maglaveras, Nicolaos; Heiberg, Einar

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system. In the training phase, lung shapes from the 57 anatomical low-dose CT images were used to construct two active shape models (right lung and left lung) which were then used for image segmentation. The algorithm was validated in 20 patients, comparing its results to reference delineation of corresponding CT images, and by comparing automatic segmentation to manual delineations in SPECT images. The Dice coefficient between automatic SPECT delineations and manual SPECT delineations were 0.83 ± 0.04% for the right and 0.82 ± 0.05% for the left lung. There was statistically significant difference between reference volumes from CT and automatic delineations for the right (R = 0.53, p = 0.02) and left lung (R = 0.69, p automatic quantification of wide range of measurements.

  18. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Liégina Silveira; Sousa, Nathalia Parente de; Barros, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira; Matias, Marcelo Silveira; Monteiro, Luana Torres; Beraldo, Marcelo do Amaral; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure.

  19. Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liégina Silveira Marinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure.

  20. Lung function parameters of healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R

    2014-06-01

    To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.

  1. Lung function study and diffusion capacity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, T; Boland, B; Beguin, C; Veriter, C; Stanescu, D; Frans, A; Lambert, M

    2000-08-01

    In humans, malnutrition alters the respiratory system in different ways. It impairs the ventilatory drive, decreases respiratory muscle strength and reduces immune competence. In addition, typical emphysema-like changes were demonstrated in starved animals. The presence of emphysema has never been demonstrated in starved humans. Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema occurs in anorexia nervosa by means of a pulmonary function study. We examined 24 women aged between 14 and 38 years (nine smokers). We studied the lung function including lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, maximal respiratory pressures and transfer factor, as well as PaO2. All respiratory tests were within normal limits with the exception of decreased maximal inspiratory (59% of predicted values) and expiratory pressures (35%), and increased residual volume (162%). Diffusion capacity (98.1 +/- 16.2%) and transfer coefficient (98.4 +/- 16.2%) were also normal. The diffusion coefficient was lower in current smokers than in those who had never smoked (P anorexia nervosa, pulmonary function tests are within normal limits with the exception of maximal pressures and residual volume. Diffusion capacity is not decreased. The present results within the limitations of the used method are not compatible with the hypothesis of starvation-induced pulmonary emphysema.

  2. WE-FG-206-08: Pulmonary Functional Imaging Biomarkers of NSCLC to Guide and Optimize Functional Lung Avoidance Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, Khadija; Capaldi, Dante PI; Parraga, Grace [Robarts Research Institute (Canada); Hoover, Douglas A; Palma, David A [Department of Medical Biophysics, Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Yaremko, Brian P [Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Functional lung avoidance radiotherapy promises optimized therapy planning by minimizing dose to well-functioning lung and maximizing dose to the rest of the lung. Patients with NSCLC commonly present with co-morbid COPD and heterogeneously distributed ventilation abnormalities stemming from emphysema, airways disease, and tumour burden. We hypothesized that pulmonary functional imaging methods may be used to optimize radiotherapy plans to avoid regions of well-functioning lung and significantly improve outcomes like quality-of-life and survival. To ascertain the utility of functional lung avoidance therapy in clinical practice, we measured COPD phenotypes in NSCLC patients enrolled in a randomized-controlled-clinical-trial prior to curative intent therapy. Methods: Thirty stage IIIA/IIIB NSCLC patients provided written informed consent to a randomized-controlled-clinical-trial ( http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02002052 ) comparing outcomes in patients randomized to standard or image-guided radiotherapy. Hyperpolarized noble gas MRI ventilation-defect-percent (VDP) (Kirby et al, Acad Radiol, 2012) as well as CT-emphysema measurements were determined. Patients were stratified based on quantitative imaging evidence of ventilation-defects and emphysema into two subgroups: 1) tumour-specific ventilation defects only (TSD), and, 2) tumour-specific and other ventilation defects with and without emphysema (TSD{sub VE}). Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves were used to characterize the performance of clinical measures as predictors of the presence of non-tumour specific ventilation defects. Results: Twenty-one out of thirty subjects (70%) had non-tumour specific ventilation defects (TSD{sub VE}) and nine subjects had ONLY tumour-specific defects (TSD). Subjects in the TSD{sub VE} group had significantly greater smoking-history (p=.006) and airflow obstruction (FEV{sub 1}/FVC) (p=.001). ROC analysis demonstrated an 87% classification rate for

  3. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Achille

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1 associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The

  4. Ex vivo lung perfusion to improve donor lung function and increase the number of organs available for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Franco; Rosso, Lorenzo; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Palleschi, Alessandro; Tosi, Davide; Mendogni, Paolo; Salice, Valentina; Ruggeri, Giulia M; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro; Nosotti, Mario; Santambrogio, Luigi; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) at the Fondazione Ca' Granda in Milan between January 2011 and May 2013. EVLP was considered if donor PaO2 /FiO2 was below 300 mmHg or if lung function was doubtful. Donors with massive lung contusion, aspiration, purulent secretions, pneumonia, or sepsis were excluded. EVLP was run with a low-flow, open atrium and low hematocrit technique. Thirty-five lung transplants from brain death donors were performed, seven of which after EVLP. EVLP donors were older (54 ± 9 years vs. 40 ± 15 years, EVLP versus Standard, P donor organs and resulted in successful transplants with lungs that would have otherwise been rejected (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01967953). © 2014 The Authors. Transplant International published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. Serum-surfactant SP-D correlates inversely to lung function in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Holmskov, Uffe; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the lungs causing infections and inflammation. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate defense lectin primarily secreted in the lungs. We investigated the influence of the SP-D Met11Thr polymorphism on CF lung function; and serum SP-D as a marker for CF...

  6. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: A case-control study. ... However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims: To ... Keywords: inflammation; lung disease; spirometry; tobacco; sedentarily; stress oxidant ...

  8. Lung function studies in diagnostics and follow-up of pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braadvik, I.

    1994-06-01

    In 66 patients the relationship between lung volumes and lung mechanics in pulmonary sarcoidosis was investigated. Lung volumes, static lung mechanics, lung resistance, dynamic lung mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest and during exercise were obtained. Fifteen functionally compromised patients received steroids during one year. They were re-investigated during the treatment and at a follow-up after an average of 7 years. In another 41 patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, the kinetics of the lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA measured over 180 minutes was explored, and compared to kinetics in healthy smokers. The relationship between lung clearance and lung volumes, lung mechanics, arterial blood gases and disease activity assessed with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and 67 Ga scintigraphy was studied. Reducing lung volumes and compliance, increased resistance and arterial oxygen tension were common. Vital capacity (VC), and changes of VC at follow-up, corresponded to the slope of the static elastic pressure/volume curve, and to the variation of it. Other static lung volumes reflected rather the position of the curve along the volume axis. Reduced VC also reflected obstruction. Forced expiratory volume in one second revealed to equal extent lung stiffness and obstruction. Lung mechanics showed abnormalities not always evident from spirometry.In 50% of the patients lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA disclosed an abnormally fast mono-exponential clearance or a bi-exponential clearance, which however differed from that in smokers. Lung clearance more readily detected abnormal function than did spirometry. Clearance did nor correlate with other investigations. 67 Ga lung activity was higher in patients with a pathologic lung clearance

  9. Effects of side lying on lung function in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, F; Dean, E; Ross, J; Abboud, R T

    1999-05-01

    Body positioning exerts a strong effect on pulmonary function, but its effect on other components of the oxygen transport pathway are less well understood, especially the effects of side-lying positions. This study investigated the interrelationships between side-lying positions and indexes of lung function such as spirometry, alveolar diffusing capacity, and inhomogeneity of ventilation in older individuals. Nineteen nonsmoking subjects (mean age=62.8 years, SD=6.8, range=50-74) with no history of cardiac or pulmonary disease were tested over 2 sessions. The test positions were sitting and left side lying in one session and sitting and right side lying in the other session. In each of the positions, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO/VA), and the slope of phase III (DN2%/L) of the single-breath nitrogen washout test to determine inhomogeneity of ventilation were measured. Compared with measurements obtained in the sitting position, FVC and FEV1 were decreased equally in the side-lying positions, but no change was observed in DLCO/VA or DN2%/L. Side-lying positions resulted in decreases in FVC and FEV1, which is consistent with the well-documented effects of the supine position. These findings further support the need for prescriptive rather than routine body positioning of patients with risks of cardiopulmonary compromise and the need to use upright positions in which lung volumes and capacities are maximized.

  10. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bauxite miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J R; de Klerk, N H; Fritschi, L; Sim, M R; Musk, A W; Benke, G; Abramson, M J; McNeil, J J

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative bauxite exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms or changes in lung function in a group of bauxite miners. Current employees at three bauxite mines in Australia were invited to participate in a survey comprising: questionnaire on demographic details, respiratory symptoms, and work history; skin prick tests for four common aeroallergens; and spirometry. A task exposure matrix was constructed for bauxite exposure in all tasks in all jobs based on monitoring data. Data were examined for associations between cumulative bauxite exposure, and respiratory symptoms and lung function, by regression analyses. The participation rate was 86%. Self-reported work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by relatively few subjects (1.5%-11.8%). After adjustment for age and smoking no significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms were identified between subjects, in the quartiles of cumulative bauxite exposure distribution. The forced expiratory volume in I s (FEV1) of the exposed group was found to be significantly lower than that for the unexposed group. After adjustment for age, height, and smoking there were no statistically significant differences between quartiles in FEVI, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEVl/FVC ratio. These data provide little evidence of a serious adverse effect on respiratory health associated with exposure to bauxite in an open-cut bauxite mine in present day conditions.

  11. Functional validation and comparison framework for EIT lung imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Grychtol

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen. In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. METHODS: We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm, GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD, several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT.

  12. Distribution of microspheres to regions of dog lung compares well with regional flow of red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, K.C.; Rehder, K.

    1986-01-01

    Dorso-caudal areas of dog lungs are better perfused than ventral regions, independent of gravity. Could this be an artifact due to regional bias in lodging of MS. The costal surfaces of 5 isolated blood perfused left lungs of dogs [constant blood flow (F), Ppa, Ppv and Palv] were imaged (gamma camera) first after injection of 141 Ce-labeled MS (15 μ), then in 0.4 sec intervals after a bolus injection of 99 Tc-labeled red blood cells (RBC). Count rates were analyzed in 6 regions. Regional flow measured by MS (flowMS) is F times regional counts divided by total counts in the first image. Regional flow measured by RBC (flowRBC) is F times peak regional counts divided by peak total counts in the 0.4 sec images. The ratio flowMS/flow RBC was greater than 1.0 (P<0.001), suggesting a systematic difference between 1.0 (P<0.001), suggesting a systematic difference between flowMS and flow RBC. More importantly, there was no difference in flowMS/flow RBC among lung regions, allowing the authors to conclude there was no regional bias of flows

  13. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  14. Quantification of ventilation distribution in regional lung injury by electrical impedance tomography and xenon computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elke, Gunnar; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz; Fuld, Matthew K; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Hoffman, Eric A; Grychtol, Bartłomiej

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) based assessment of regional ventilation under pathological conditions are required to prove that EIT can reliably quantify heterogeneous ventilation distribution with sufficient accuracy. The objective of our study was to validate EIT measurements of regional ventilation through a comparison with xenon-multidetector-row computed tomography (XeCT) in an animal model of sub-lobar lung injury. Nine anesthetized mechanically ventilated supine pigs were examined before and after the induction of lung injury in two adjacent sub-lobar segments of the right lung by saline lavage or endotoxin instillation. Regional ventilation was determined in 32 anteroposterior regions of interest in the right and left lungs and the ventilation change quantified by difference images between injury and control. Six animals were included in the final analysis. Measurements of regional ventilation by EIT and XeCT correlated well before (r s = 0.89 right, r s = 0.90 left lung) and after local injury (r s = 0.79 and 0.92, respectively). No bias and narrow limits of agreement were found during both conditions. The ventilation decrease in the right injured lung was correspondingly measured by both modalities (5.5%±1.1% by EIT and 5.4%±1.9% by XeCT, p = 0.94). EIT was inferior to clearly separate the exact anatomical location of the regional injuries. Regional ventilation was overestimated (<2%) in the most ventral and dorsal regions and underestimated (2%) in the middle regions by EIT compared to XeCT. This study shows that EIT is able to reliably discern even small ventilation changes on sub-lobar level. (paper)

  15. Regional distribution of perfusion and ventilation in hamartoangiomyomatosis of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, Shigeru; Ohsaka, Tomohisa; Nanbu, Masashi; Toyoda, Keiko; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji; Inatomi, Keiko; Kira, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    We investigated regional distribution of perfusion and ventilation in three cases of hamartoangiomyomatosis (HAM) by /sup 133/Xe gas and /sup 99m/Tc-MAA. In two cases, /sup 133/Xe washout were dominantly delayed in middle lung field and in the third case, it was delayed in upper lung field. This distribution was different from the result in the other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In most cases of COPD, /sup 133/Xe washout was prominently delayed in the lower lung field. Distribution of pulmonary perfusion in HAM were consistent with that of ventilation as in COPD.

  16. SU-E-J-86: Lobar Lung Function Quantification by PET Galligas and CT Ventilation Imaging in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslick, E; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Bailey, D; Bailey, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the lobar lung function using the novel PET Galligas ([68Ga]-carbon nanoparticle) ventilation imaging and the investigational CT ventilation imaging in lung cancer patients pre-treatment. Methods: We present results on our first three lung cancer patients (2 male, mean age 78 years) as part of an ongoing ethics approved study. For each patient a PET Galligas ventilation (PET-V) image and a pair of breath hold CT images (end-exhale and end-inhale tidal volumes) were acquired using a Siemens Biograph PET CT. CT-ventilation (CT-V) images were created from the pair of CT images using deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms and the Hounsfield Unit (HU) ventilation metric. A comparison of ventilation quantification from each modality was done on the lobar level and the voxel level. A Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the difference in mean percentage contribution of each lobe to the total lung function between the two modalities. For each patient, a voxel-wise Spearmans correlation was calculated for the whole lungs between the two modalities. Results: The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated strong agreement between PET-V and CT-V for assessment of lobar function (r=0.99, p<0.001; range mean difference: −5.5 to 3.0). The correlation between PET-V and CT-V at the voxel level was moderate(r=0.60, p<0.001). Conclusion: This preliminary study on the three patients data sets demonstrated strong agreement between PET and CT ventilation imaging for the assessment of pre-treatment lung function at the lobar level. Agreement was only moderate at the level of voxel correlations. These results indicate that CT ventilation imaging has potential for assessing pre-treatment lobar lung function in lung cancer patients

  17. Evaluation of Lung Function in Liver Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, L; Sankarankutty, A K; Silva, O C; Mente, E D

    2018-04-01

    A wide variety of pulmonary conditions are found in cirrhotic patients and may compromise the pleura, diaphragm, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature, influencing the results of liver transplantation. To evaluate the pulmonary function (lung capacities, volumes, and gasometric study) of patients with liver cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation. Cirrhotic patients, subdivided into 3 groups stratified by liver disease severity using the Child-Pugh-Turcotte score, were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In spirometry, the parameters evaluated were total lung capacity, forced volume in the first second, and the relationship between forced volume in the first minute and forced vital capacity. Blood gas analysis was performed. In the control group, arterial oxygenation was evaluated by peripheral oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. Of the 55 patients (75% men, 51 ± 12.77 years), 11 were Child A (73% men, 52 ± 14.01 years), 23 were Child B (75% men, 51 ± 12.77 years), and 21 were Child C (95% men, 50 ± 12.09 years). The control group had 20 individuals (50% men, 47 ± 8.15 years). Pulmonary capacities and volumes by the parameters evaluated were within the normal range. Arterial blood gas analysis detected no hypoxemia, but a tendency to low partial gas pressure was noted. In this population of cirrhotic patients the parameters of spirometry were normal in relation to the lung capacities and volumes in the different groups. No hypoxemia was detected, but a tendency to hypocapnia in the blood gas was noted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The effect of patient-specific factors on radiation-induced regional lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garipagaoglu, Melahat; Munley, Michael T.; Hollis, Donna; Poulson, Jean M.; Bentel, Gunilla C.; Sibley, Gregory; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Fan Ming; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Coleman, R. Edward; Marks, Lawrence B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of patient-specific factors on radiation (RT)-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion. Methods: Fifty patients (32 lung carcinoma, 7 Hodgkin's disease, 9 breast carcinoma and 2 other thoracic tumors) had pre-RT and ≥24-week post-RT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion images to assess the dose dependence of RT-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion. The SPECT data were analyzed using a normalized and non-normalized approach. Furthermore, two different mathematical methods were used to assess the impact of patient-specific factors on the dose-response curve (DRC). First, DRCs for different patient subgroups were generated and compared. Second, in a more formal statistical approach, individual DRCs for regional lung injury for each patient were fit to a linear-quadratic model (reduction = coefficient 1 x dose + coefficient 2 x dose 2 ). Multiple patient-specific factors including tobacco history, pre-RT diffusion capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), chemotherapy exposure, disease type, and mean lung dose were explored in a multivariate analysis to assess their impact on the coefficients. Results: None of the variables tested had a consistent impact on the radiation sensitivity of regional lung (i.e., the slope of the DRC). In the formal statistical analysis, there was a suggestion of a slight increase in radiation sensitivity in the dose range >40 Gy for nonsmokers (vs. smokers) and in those receiving chemotherapy (vs. no chemotherapy). However, this finding was very dependent on the specific statistical and normalization method used. Conclusion: Patient-specific factors do not have a dramatic effect on RT-induced reduction in regional lung perfusion. Additional studies are underway to better clarify this issue. We continue to postulate that patient-specific factors will impact on how the summation of regional injury translates into whole organ injury

  19. Lung function discordance in monozygotic twins and associated differences in blood DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolund, Anneli C S; Starnawska, Anna; Miller, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lung function is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality, with accelerated lung function decline reported to have immense consequences for the world's healthcare systems. The lung function decline across individual's lifetime is a consequence of age-related changes in lung...... as TGF-β-receptor-related genes, may be involved in the cross-sectional level and longitudinal change in lung function in middle-aged monozygotic twins....... and genetic factors. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression, with increasing evidence linking aberrant DNA methylation levels with a number of common human diseases. In this study, we investigated possible associations between genome-wide DNA methylation levels and lung function...

  20. Lung function and functional capacity among foundry workers using effective risk control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Negreiros, Alexandher; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled dust in the environment can trigger specific reactions in the airways and cause various respiratory diseases. Evaluate the lung function and functional capacity of foundry workers who are exposed to metals and use effective control measures. A cross-sectional study was realized with 108 workers at a bronze foundry and machining plant and in maintenance at a private university, both in Brazil. The workers were divided into two groups: the study group exposed to metals but using risk control measues and a control group not exposed to metal work. The Medical Research Council Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered, and lung function and functional capacity were evaluated. Comparative statistics were used to identify differences in the outcome measures between the two groups. The groups had similar personal and anthropometric characteristics and time on the job. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow presented no significant differences between the groups. And there was also no statistically significant difference between groups in functional capacity as assessed by performance on the six-minute walk test. Foundry industry workers in Brazil who were exposed to metal but used risk control measures had similar lung function and functional capacity when compared to the control group who were not exposed to metal. This is a positive results and maybe related to age, time exposure and control of occupational hazards. However, these workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.

  1. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients.

  2. Effects of bronchoscopy on lung function in asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Christina; Bleecker, Eugene R; Peters, Stephen; Pascual, Rodolfo; Krings, Jeffrey; Smith, Regina; Hastie, Annette T; Moore, Wendy C

    2017-10-01

    To better understand the changes in pulmonary physiology related to asthma severity following bronchoscopy, we performed scheduled pre- and post-procedure spirometry on subjects undergoing bronchoscopy in our research program. Control subjects and asthma subjects were recruited for bronchoscopy. On the day of bronchoscopy, subjects underwent spirometry pre-bronchoscopy and then up to three sets within 2 hour following the completion of bronchoscopy. A subset of patients had a second bronchoscopy after 2 weeks of treatment with oral prednisolone (40mg daily). A total of 92 subjects had at least one bronchoscopy (12 control subjects, 56 nonsevere asthma (NSA), 24 severe asthma (SA)). The SA and NSA groups had similar decreases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (-20±13% vs.-19±16%, p = 0.92) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (-20±12% vs.-20±14%, p = 0.80), but no change in FEV1/FVC ratio. The control and NSA group had more rapid recovery of both FEV1 and FVC by 2 hour compared to the SA group (p = 0.01). In the subset of 36 subjects (22 NSA, 14 SA) who underwent a second bronchoscopy following the administration of oral prednisolone for 14 days, steroids resulted in more rapid recovery of lung function (p NSA subjects recovered more quickly than SA subjects. Treatment with oral corticosteroids was associated with a quicker recovery of FEV1 which suggests an inflammatory mechanism for these changes in lung compliance.

  3. A cross sectional study on lung functions in athletes, singers, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity when performed regularly has beneficial effects on the various systems of the body, pulmonary functions inclusive. This study was aimed at determining the effect singing and athletics have on the lung functions as compared to sedentary lifestyle, and whether athletes differ in lung functions from singers in ...

  4. Lifetime Exposure to Ambient Pollution and Lung Function in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary B; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros; Mittleman, Murray A; Gold, Diane R

    2016-04-15

    Few studies have examined associations between exposure to air pollution and childhood lung function after implementation of strict air quality regulations in the 1990s. To assess traffic-related pollution exposure and childhood lung function. We geocoded addresses for 614 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy in the Boston area 1999-2002 and followed them until a mid-childhood visit (median age, 7.7). We calculated the proximity of the home to the nearest major roadway. We estimated first year of life, lifetime, and prior-year exposure to particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) by a hybrid model using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth, and to black carbon (BC) by a land-use regression model. Residential proximity to roadway and prior-year and lifetime PM2.5 and BC exposure were all associated with lower FVC. Associations with FEV1 were also negative and proportionally similar. Pollution exposures were not associated with the FEV1/FVC ratio or bronchodilator response. Compared with distances greater than or equal to 400 m, living less than 100 m from a major roadway was associated with lower FVC (-98.6 ml; -176.3 to -21.0). Each 2 μg/m(3) increment in prior-year PM2.5 was associated with lower FVC (-21.8 ml; -43.9 to 0.2) and higher odds of FEV1 less than 80% predicted (1.41; 1.03-1.93). Each 0.2 μg/m(3) increment in prior-year BC was associated with a 38.9 ml (-70.4 to -7.3) lower FVC. Estimates of long-term exposure to ambient pollution, including proximity to major roadway, PM2.5, and BC (a traffic-related PM2.5 constituent), were associated with lower lung function in this Boston-area cohort of children with relatively low pollution exposures.

  5. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  6. Loss of lung function after chemo-radiotherapy for NSCLC measured by perfusion SPECT/CT: Correlation with radiation dose and clinical morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farr, Katherina P; Møller, Ditte S; Khalil, Azza A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to assess dose and time dependence of radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in regional lung function measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the lung and relate these changes to the symptomatic endpoint of radiation pneumonitis (RP......) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: NSCLC patients scheduled to receive curative RT of minimum 60 Gy were included prospectively in the study. Lung perfusion SPECT/CT was performed before and three months after RT. Reconstructed SPECT/CT data were registered...

  7. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema: assessment with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion and dynamic {sup 133}Xe SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In this study the cross-sectional functional differences between the central and peripheral lung in smokers with pulmonary emphysema were evaluated by lung perfusion and dynamic xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The subjects were 81 patients with a long-term smoking history and relatively advanced emphysema, 17 non-smoker patients with non-obstructive lung diseases and six healthy non-smokers. Regional lung functional difference between the peripheral and central lung was assessed in the upper, middle and lower lung zones by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPET and dynamic {sup 133}Xe SPET. The distribution of emphysematous changes was assessed by density-mask computed tomography (CT) images which depicted abnormally low attenuation areas (LAAs) of less than -960 Hounsfield units. Two hundred and eighty-eight (59.2%) lung zones of 63 (77.7%) patients with pulmonary emphysema showed relative preservation of lung function in the peripheral lung, with a curvilinear band of normal perfusion (a stripe sign) and a significantly faster {sup 133}Xe half-clearance time (T{sub 1/2}) than in central lung (P<0.0001). Of these lung zones, 256 (88.8%) showed central-dominant LAA distributions on density-mask CT images, but the remaining 32 zones did not show any regional preference in LAA distribution. Conversely, 117 (24.0%) lung zones of 19 (23.4%) patients showed periphery-dominant perfusion defects and LAA distributions, with significantly prolonged T{sub 1/2} in the peripheral lung area (P<0.0001). The remaining 81 lung zones of the patients with pulmonary emphysema and all the lung zones of the healthy subjects and patients with non-obstructive lung diseases did not show a stripe sign, and no differences were observed in T{sub 1/2} values and LAA distributions between the central and peripheral lung. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function seems to be a characteristic feature in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, and may indicate a

  8. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollengode Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT, yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  9. Magnetic induction pneumography: a planar coil system for continuous monitoring of lung function via contactless measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doga Gursoy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of lung function is of particular interest to the mechanically ventilated patients during critical care. Recent studies have shown that magnetic induction measurements with single coils provide signals which are correlated with the lung dynamics and this idea is extended here by using a 5 by 5 planar coil matrix for data acquisition in order to image the regional thoracic conductivity changes. The coil matrix can easily be mounted onto the patient bed, and thus, the problems faced in methods that use contacting sensors can readily be eliminated and the patient comfort can be improved. In the proposed technique, the data are acquired by successively exciting each coil in order to induce an eddy-current density within the dorsal tissues and measuring the corresponding response magnetic field strength by the remaining coils. The recorded set of data is then used to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution by means of algorithms that minimize the residual norm between the estimated and measured data. To investigate the feasibility of the technique, the sensitivity maps and the point spread functions at different locations and depths were studied. To simulate a realistic scenario, a chest model was generated by segmenting the tissue boundaries from NMR images. The reconstructions of the ventilation distribution and the development of an edematous lung injury were presented. The imaging artifacts caused by either the incorrect positioning of the patient or the expansion of the chest wall due to breathing were illustrated by simulations.

  10. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976....... Association between socioeconomic factors and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at study entry was analysed by linear regression. The relation between socioeconomic factors and risk of admission to hospital for COPD from study entry until 1993 was assessed...... by register linkage. Education and income were independently associated with FEV1 and FVC. The age- and height-adjusted difference in FEV1 (mean+/-SEM) between the highest and lowest level of education and income was 259+/-31 mL in females and 400+/-39 mL in males. After additional adjustment for quantity...

  11. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Palladino, Grazia Pia; Logrieco, Giuseppe; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Susca, Antonia; Logrieco, Antonio; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2014-02-18

    Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

  12. Measurements of regional lung water with 0-15 labeled water and CO-15 labeled carboxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmeke, H.J.; Schober, O.; Lehr, L.; Junker, D.; Meyer, G.J.; Fitschen, J.; Bossaller, C.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of regional vascular lung water is only practicable by external imaging since it is the only method which allows analysis of many regions. 0-15 was produced by our medical cyclotron (MC-35) via the N-14(d,n)0-15 reaction and processed to H 2 O-15 as the diffusible and to CO-15-hemiglobin autologous erythrocytes - as the intravascular tracer. The activity over both lungs applied as a bolus into the right atrium (5-10 mCi/1 sec) was followed by a positron camera (4200; Cycl. Corp.). Data acquisition and analysis was done in a pdp 11-55 computer system. Mean transit times were computed by the 'height over area' and the 'ratio of moments' method. The extravascular lung water per unit of plasma volume (ELW/Vp) was calculated according to Fazio et al. (1976).The lungs were divided into six zones. 47 investigations in 27 patients were caried out (controls, patients with heart failure, and critically ill with respiratory distress). As expected critically ill patients (ELW/Vp = 0.39+-0.19/0.66+-0.21) demonstrated a higher ELW/Vp than those suffering from myocardial insufficiency (ELW/V = 0.30+-0.13) or controls (ELW/Vp = 0.22+-0.11). Various factors involved in the measurement of lung water are mentioned. Because of methodological considerations and the worse discrimination concerning of the 'ratio of moments' method we prefer the 'height over area' analysis in the determination of transit times. The scintigraphic estimation of the so defind regional lung water is possible as the discrimination of groups is; the follow up or quantification of regional lung water of a patient in clinical routine work seems to be not yet established under the demonstrated conditions. (Author)

  13. A Dual Lung Scan for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis before and after Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chong Heon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    In 20 normal cases and 39 pulmonary tuberculosis cases, regional pulmonary arterial blood flow measurement and lung perfusion scans by {sup 131}I-Macroaggregated albumin, lung inhalation scans by colloidal {sup 198}Au and spirometries by respirometer were done at the Radiological Research Institute. The measured lung function tests were compared and the results were as the following: 1) The normal distribution of pulmonary blood flow was found to be 54.5{+-}2.82% to the right lung and 45.5{+-}2.39% to the left lung. The difference between the right and left pulmonary arterial blood flow was significant statistically (p<0.01). In the minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be 52.5{+-}5.3% to the right lung and 47.5{+-}1.0% to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was in the right lung, and 56.2{+-}4.4% to the right lung and 43.8{+-}3.1% to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was in the left lung. The difference of pulmonary arterial blood flow between the right and left lung was statistically not significant compared with the normal distribution. In the moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be 26.9{+-}13.9% to the right lung and 73.1{+-}13.9% to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was more severe in the right lung, and 79.6{+-}12.8% to the right lung and 20.4{+-}13.0% to the left lung when the tuberculous lesion was more severe in the left lung. These were found to be highly significant statistically compared with the normal distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow (p<0.01). When both lungs were evenly involved, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be 49.5{+-}8.01% to the right lung and 50.5{+-}8.01% to the left lung. In the far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the average distribution of pulmonary arterial blood flow was found to be 18.5{+-}11.6% to the right lung and 81

  14. Investigations of the regional pulmonary function by means of 133Xe and a multichannel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Woytowicz, A.; Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of radiospirometric investigation based on a modification of the method described by Ball et al. is reported. The measurements were carried out in sitting position of the patients after intravenous and inhalatory administration of 133 Xe with a four-channel radiological unit for functional investigations. The results of the measurements were recorded in linear scale with a four-channel writer. Frequency of beats was read from these curves and following indices were calculated for each of four tested regions of the lungs: ventilation index, perfusion index, ventilation-perfusion quotient, total pulmonary capacity in a given region in percent of the total capacity of both lungs, residual volume in a given region in percent of the total residual volume of both lungs, vital capacity in a given region in percent of the total vital capacity of both lungs, residual volume in a given region in percent of the total pulmonary capacity in this region, percent one-minute expiration. Variability coefficients of different indices calculated from two determinations in a group of 10 patients with pulmonary diseases were from 2.05 to 5.9%. For illustration of the effectiveness of the method the results of determinations of regional pulmonary function in 10 healthy subjects, a patient with chronic bronchitis and a patient with upper right lobe cirrhosis are presented. (author)

  15. Time evolution of regional CT density changes in normal lung after IMRT for NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Schytte, Tine; Bertelsen, Anders; Bentzen, Søren M.; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the clinical radiobiology of radiation induced lung disease in terms of regional computed tomography (CT) density changes following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 387 follow-up CT scans in 131 NSCLC patients receiving IMRT to a prescribed dose of 60 or 66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions were analyzed. The dose-dependent temporal evolution of the density change was analyzed using a two-component model, a superposition of an early, transient component and a late, persistent component. Results: The CT density of healthy lung tissue was observed to increase significantly (p 12 months. Conclusions: The radiobiology of lung injury may be analyzed in terms of CT density change. The initial transient change in density is consistent with radiation pneumonitis, while the subsequent stabilization of the density is consistent with pulmonary fibrosis

  16. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Nefedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total lung capacity (TLC, lung capacity (LC, forced LC (FLC, intrathoracic volume (ITV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 , (FEV1 /LC%, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximum expiratory flow rate (MEFR25, MEFR50, MEFR75, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SB/VА, РаО2 , and РаСО2 were determined in 43 patients with exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA before, during, and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids, hemapheresis, ambroxol, and fluimucil. Lung function became better in more than half (53.5% of the patients and worse in one fourth (25.6%; a combination of positive and negative functional changes was detected in 14.0%. Improved lung function was noted in 75.0, 50.0, and 38.5% of the patients with acute, subacute, and chronic EAA, respectively. Deterioration of lung function was determined in 46.2, 22.2, and 8.3% of the patients with chronic, subacute, and acute alveolitis, respectively. Better lung function manifested itself mainly as positive changes in lung volumes and capacities and pulmonary gas exchange function, less frequently as improved bronchial patency in the patients with acute and subacute EAA whereas the rate of positive functional changes in lung volumes and capacities, bronchial patency, and pulmonary gas exchange function was equal in those with chronic EAA. Poorer lung function appeared as negative changes in lung volumes and capacities in the patients with acute EAA, as worse pulmonary gas exchange function and negative changes in lung volumes and capacities and deteriorated bronchial patency in those with subacute and chronic EAA.

  17. Conservation of small-airway function by tacrolimus/cyclosporine conversion in the management of bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, M P; Lewis, M E; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Wilson, I C; Bonser, R S

    2000-12-01

    We studied serial lung function in 11 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome who were treated with tacrolimus conversion following lung or heart-lung transplantation. Our results show that tacrolimus conversion slows the decline of lung function in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The attenuation continues for at least 1 year following conversion.

  18. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  19. Assessment of lung function in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmann, Sylvère; Gutt, Bodo; Roemmler-Zehrer, Josefine; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Huber, Rudolf M; Schopohl, Jochen; Angstwurm, Matthias W

    2017-07-01

    Acromegaly is associated with increased mortality due to respiratory disease. To date, lung function in patients with acromegaly has only been assessed in small studies, with contradicting results. We assessed lung function parameters in a large cohort of patients with acromegaly. Lung function of acromegaly patients was prospectively assessed using spirometry, blood gas analysis and body plethysmography. Biochemical indicators of acromegaly were assessed through measurement of growth hormone and IGF-I levels. This study was performed at the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral center in Germany. We prospectively tested lung function of 109 acromegaly patients (53 male, 56 female; aged 24-82 years; 80 with active acromegaly) without severe acute or chronic pulmonary disease. We compared lung volume, air flow, airway resistance and blood gases to normative data. Acromegaly patients had greater lung volumes (maximal vital capacity, intra-thoracic gas volume and residual volume: P  acromegaly. Female patients had significantly altered lung function in terms of subclinical airway obstruction. In our cross-sectional analysis of lung function in 109 patients with acromegaly, lung volumes were increased compared to healthy controls. Additionally, female patients showed signs of subclinical airway obstruction. There was no difference between patients with active acromegaly compared with patients biochemically in remission. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Discovery and Evaluation of Polymorphisms in the and Promoter Regions for Risk of Korean Lung Cancer

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    Jae Sook Sung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AKT is a signal transduction protein that plays a central role in the tumorigenesis. There are 3 mammalian isoforms of this serine/threonine protein kinase-AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3-showing a broad tissue distribution. We first discovered 2 novel polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G and AKT3 -811 A/G, and we confirmed 6 known polymorphisms (AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, AKT3 -675 A/-, and AKT3 -244 C/T of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter region in 24 blood samples of Korean lung cancer patients using direct sequencing. To evaluate the role of AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms in the risk of Korean lung cancer, genotypes of the AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G, AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, and AKT3 -675 A/- were determined in 360 lung cancer patients and 360 normal controls. Statistical analyses revealed that the genotypes and haplotypes in the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions were not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population. These results suggest that polymorphisms of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions do not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in the Korean population.

  1. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers : association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Hoop, Bartjan; Zanen, Pieter; Gietema, Hester; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van Ginneken, Bram; Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian; van Klaveren, Rob J; Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Groen, Hendricus; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Prokop, Mathias; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  2. Computer-controlled mechanical lung model for application in pulmonary function studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); J.E.W. Beneken; J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA computer controlled mechanical lung model has been developed for testing lung function equipment, validation of computer programs and simulation of impaired pulmonary mechanics. The construction, function and some applications are described. The physical model is constructed from two

  3. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...

  4. Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children : The ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Agius, Raymond M.; Beelen, Rob; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Eeftens, Marloes; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Kluemper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Moelter, Anna; Schultz, Erica S.; Simpson, Angela; Sugiri, Dorothea; Svartengren, Magnus; von Berg, Andrea; Wijga, Alet H.; Pershagen, Goeran; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence for adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function of children. Quantitative summaries of the effects of air pollution on lung function, however, are lacking due to large differences among studies. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between

  5. CT-quantified emphysema distribution is associated with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, F.A.A.M.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Ginneken, B. van; de Jong, P. A.; Prokop, M.; Lammers, J.W.; Zanen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Emphysema distribution is associated with COPD. It is however unknown whether CT-quantified emphysema distribution (upper/lower lobe) is associated with lung function decline in heavy (former) smokers.587 male participants underwent lung CT-scanning and pulmonary function testing at baseline and

  6. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  7. Effective avoidance of a functional spect-perfused lung using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): An update of a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenkov, Konstantin; Singh, Shalini; Christian, Judith A.; Partridge, Mike; Nioutsikou, Elena; Cook, Gary; Bedford, James L.; Brada, Michael

    2009-01-01

    IMRT and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) plans of 25 patients with non-small cell lung (NSCLC) were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of functional lung (FL) defined by a SPECT perfusion scan. IMRT resulted in significant reduction of functional V 20 and mean lung dose in stage III patients with inhomogeneous hypoperfusion. If the dose to FL is shown to be the determinant of lung toxicity, IMRT would allow for effective dose escalation by specific avoidance of functional lung.

  8. Surgical results of lung cancer with sarcoid reaction in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Okami, Jiro; Oda, Kazuyuki; Takami, Koji; Kodama, Ken; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane

    2007-01-01

    There have been few reports of sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes associated with lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical results of lung cancer with sarcoid reaction. Of 1733 lung cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment in our institute from 1990 to 2004, we reviewed 22 patients (1.3%) with sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes of lung cancer. On pre-operative computed tomography (CT), mediastinal lymph node swelling was detected in 19 patients (86%) as clinical N3 disease (c-N3) in six or as c-N2 in 13, while three patients were classified as c-N0. To these 19 patients, lymph node status was histologically checked by mediastinoscopy in four patients, sternotomy approach in two and open mini-thoracotomy in 13. Because the sampling-biopsy nodes showed no tumor metastasis, radical surgery was promptly performed. However, four patients (18%) were finally judged to have pathological lymph node positive disease. Five patients were in pathological stage (p-stage) IA, nine in p-stage IB, five in p-stage IIB, two in p-stage IIIA, and one in stage IIIB. The overall 3-, and 5-year survival rates of these patients were 85.2 and 77.7%, respectively, with no significant difference compared to those of the remaining patients without sarcoid reaction. Because lung cancer patients with sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes frequently show mediastinal lymph node swelling on CT, radical resection should be performed after confirming the node status by appropriate sampling biopsy. It seems that surgical results of lung cancers with sarcoid reaction in the regional nodes are not prognostically different from those without sarcoid reaction. (author)

  9. The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Harris

    Full Text Available Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart were associated with obstructive spirometry and low lung density on computed tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants age 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measures of microvascular function included retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and, in a subset, myocardial blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging. Spirometry was measured following ATS/ERS guidelines. Low attenuation areas (LAA were measured on lung fields of cardiac computed tomograms. Regression models adjusted for pulmonary and cardiac risk factors, medications and body size. Among 3,397 participants, retinal venular caliber was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1 (P<0.001 and FEV(1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P = 0.04. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with FEV(1 (P = 0.002 but not FEV(1/FVC. Myocardial blood flow (n = 126 was associated with lower FEV(1 (P = 0.02, lower FEV(1/FVC (P = 0.001 and greater percentage LAA (P = 0.04. Associations were of greater magnitude among smokers. Low lung function was associated with microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart, and low lung density was associated with impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion. These cross-sectional results suggest that microvascular damage with end-organ dysfunction in all circulations may pertain to the lung, that lung dysfunction may contribute to systemic microvascular disease, or that there may be a shared predisposition.

  10. Clinical value of CT-based preoperative software assisted lung lobe volumetry for predicting postoperative pulmonary function after lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Hoffknecht, Petra; Dicken, Volker; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Lange, Tobias; Thomas, Michael; Heindel, Walter

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate a morphology-based approach for prediction of postoperative forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after lung resection from preoperative CT scans. Fifteen Patients with surgically treated (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) bronchogenic carcinoma were enrolled in the study. A preoperative chest CT and pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were performed. CT scans were analyzed by prototype software: automated segmentation and volumetry of lung lobes was performed with minimal user interaction. Determined volumes of different lung lobes were used to predict postoperative FEV1 as percentage of the preoperative values. Predicted FEV1 values were compared to the observed postoperative values as standard of reference. Patients underwent lobectomy in twelve cases (6 upper lobes; 1 middle lobe; 5 lower lobes; 6 right side; 6 left side) and pneumonectomy in three cases. Automated calculation of predicted postoperative lung function was successful in all cases. Predicted FEV1 ranged from 54% to 95% (mean 75% +/- 11%) of the preoperative values. Two cases with obviously erroneous LFT were excluded from analysis. Mean error of predicted FEV1 was 20 +/- 160 ml, indicating absence of systematic error; mean absolute error was 7.4 +/- 3.3% respective 137 +/- 77 ml/s. The 200 ml reproducibility criterion for FEV1 was met in 11 of 13 cases (85%). In conclusion, software-assisted prediction of postoperative lung function yielded a clinically acceptable agreement with the observed postoperative values. This method might add useful information for evaluation of functional operability of patients with lung cancer.

  11. Physiological gas exchange mapping of hyperpolarized 129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL and MOXE in a model of regional radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Brandon; Stirrat, Elaine; Jelveh, Salomeh; Hope, Andrew; Santyr, Giles

    2018-02-01

    To map physiological gas exchange parameters using dissolved hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe in a rat model of regional radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) with spiral-IDEAL and the model of xenon exchange (MOXE). Results are compared to quantitative histology of pulmonary tissue and red blood cell (RBC) distribution. Two cohorts (n = 6 each) of age-matched rats were used. One was irradiated in the right-medial lung, producing regional injury. Gas exchange was mapped 4 weeks postirradiation by imaging dissolved-phase HP 129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL at five gas exchange timepoints using a clinical 1.5 T scanner. Physiological lung parameters were extracted regionally on a voxel-wise basis using MOXE. Mean gas exchange parameters, specifically air-capillary barrier thickness (δ) and hematocrit (HCT) in the right-medial lung were compared to the contralateral lung as well as nonirradiated control animals. Whole-lung spectroscopic analysis of gas exchange was also performed. δ was significantly increased (1.43 ± 0.12 μm from 1.07 ± 0.09 μm) and HCT was significantly decreased (17.2 ± 1.2% from 23.6 ± 1.9%) in the right-medial lung (i.e., irradiated region) compared to the contralateral lung of the irradiated rats. These changes were not observed in healthy controls. δ and HCT correlated with histologically measured increases in pulmonary tissue heterogeneity (r = 0.77) and decreases in RBC distribution (r = 0.91), respectively. No changes were observed using whole-lung analysis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of mapping gas exchange using HP 129 Xe in an animal model of RILI 4 weeks postirradiation. Spatially resolved gas exchange mapping is sensitive to regional injury between cohorts that was undetected with whole-lung gas exchange analysis, in agreement with histology. Gas exchange mapping holds promise for assessing regional lung function in RILI and other pulmonary diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley

  12. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Elasticity Functions Based On 4DCT Images to Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Response to Radiation for Patients with Lung Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, H; Li, H; Gordon, J; Chetty, I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor local control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients

  13. TU-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Elasticity Functions Based On 4DCT Images to Predict Tumor and Normal Tissue Response to Radiation for Patients with Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, H; Li, H; Gordon, J; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate radiotherapy outcomes by incorporating 4DCT-based physiological and tumor elasticity functions for lung cancer patients. Methods: 4DCT images were acquired from 28 lung SBRT patients before radiation treatment. Deformable image registration (DIR) was performed from the end-inhale to the end-exhale using a B-Spline-based algorithm (Elastix, an open source software package). The resultant displacement vector fields (DVFs) were used to calculate a relative Jacobian function (RV) for each patient. The computed functions in the lung and tumor regions represent lung ventilation and tumor elasticity properties, respectively. The 28 patients were divided into two groups: 16 with two-year tumor local control (LC) and 12 with local failure (LF). The ventilation and elasticity related RV functions were calculated for each of these patients. Results: The LF patients have larger RV values than the LC patients. The mean RV value in the lung region was 1.15 (±0.67) for the LF patients, higher than 1.06 (±0.59) for the LC patients. In the tumor region, the elasticity-related RV values are 1.2 (±0.97) and 0.86 (±0.64) for the LF and LC patients, respectively. Among the 16 LC patients, 3 have the mean RV values greater than 1.0 in the tumors. These tumors were located near the diaphragm, where the displacements are relatively large.. RV functions calculated in the tumor were better correlated with treatment outcomes than those calculated in the lung. Conclusion: The ventilation and elasticity-related RV functions in the lung and tumor regions were calculated from 4DCT image and the resultant values showed differences between the LC and LF patients. Further investigation of the impact of the displacements on the computed RV is warranted. Results suggest that the RV images might be useful for evaluation of treatment outcome for lung cancer patients.

  14. A polymorphism in miR-1262 regulatory region confers the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaipeng; Chen, Mengxi; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Cheng; Qin, Na; Liang, Cheng; Song, Ci; Dai, Juncheng; Jin, Guangfu; Shen, Hongbing; Lin, Dongxin; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that the majority of disease-associated loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are enriched in non-coding regions, such as the promoter, enhancer or non-coding RNA genes. Thus, we performed a two-stage case-control study to systematically evaluate the association of genetic variants in miRNA regulatory regions (promoter and enhancer) with lung cancer risk in 7,763 subjects (discovery stage: 2,331 cases and 3,077 controls; validation stage: 1,065 cases and 1,290 controls). As a result, we identified that rs12740674 (C > T) in miR-1262 enhancer was significantly associated with the increased risk of lung cancer (additive model in discovery stage: adjusted OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.13-1.53, p = 3.846 × 10 -4 in Nanjing GWAS; adjusted OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.00-1.44, p = 0.041 in Beijing GWAS; validation stage: adjusted OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.03-1.41, p = 0.024). In meta-analysis, the p value for the association between rs12740674 and lung cancer risk reached 6.204 × 10 -6 (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.13-1.36). Using 3DSNP database, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data and functional assays, we observed that the risk T allele of rs12740674 reduced the expression level of miR-1262 in lung tissue through chromosomal looping, and overexpression of miR-1262 inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation probably through targeting the expression levels of ULK1 and RAB3D. Our findings confirmed the important role that genetic variants of noncoding sequence play in lung cancer susceptibility and indicated that rs12740674 in miR-1262 may be biologically relevant to lung carcinogenesis. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Lung deposition of sub-micron aerosols calculated as a function of age and breathing rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of lung deposition and especially of regional deposition, of aerosols in the sub-micron size range have been so few that it is worthwhile establishing a method of calculation. A computer routine has therefore been developed to calculate aerosol deposition in successive bronchial and bronchiolar generations of the Weibel 'A' model of human lung for the sub-micron size range where deposition occurs solely by diffusion. This model can be scaled to represent lungs at various ages and vital capacities. Some calculated results are presented here and compared with measurements of lung deposition made under carefully controlled conditions in humans. (author)

  16. Morpho-Functional 1H-MRI of the Lung in COPD: Short-Term Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram J Jobst

    Full Text Available Non-invasive end-points for interventional trials and tailored treatment regimes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD for monitoring regionally different manifestations of lung disease instead of global assessment of lung function with spirometry would be valuable. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRI allows for a radiation-free assessment of regional structure and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term reproducibility of a comprehensive morpho-functional lung MRI protocol in COPD.20 prospectively enrolled COPD patients (GOLD I-IV underwent 1H-MRI of the lung at 1.5T on two consecutive days, including sequences for morphology, 4D contrast-enhanced perfusion, and respiratory mechanics. Image quality and COPD-related morphological and functional changes were evaluated in consensus by three chest radiologists using a dedicated MRI-based visual scoring system. Test-retest reliability was calculated per each individual lung lobe for the extent of large airway (bronchiectasis, wall thickening, mucus plugging and small airway abnormalities (tree in bud, peripheral bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, consolidations, nodules, parenchymal defects and perfusion defects. The presence of tracheal narrowing, dystelectasis, pleural effusion, pulmonary trunk ectasia, right ventricular enlargement and, finally, motion patterns of diaphragma and chest wall were addressed.Median global scores [10(Q1:8.00;Q3:16.00 vs.11(Q1:6.00;Q3:15.00] as well as category subscores were similar between both timepoints, and kappa statistics indicated "almost perfect" global agreement (ĸ = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.81-0.91. Most subscores showed at least "substantial" agreement of MRI1 and MRI2 (ĸ = 0.64-1.00, whereas the agreement for the diagnosis of dystelectasis/effusion (ĸ = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.00-0.93 was "moderate" and of tracheal abnormalities (ĸ = 0.21, 95%CI = 0.00-0.75 "fair". Most MRI acquisitions showed at least diagnostic quality at

  17. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R; McAughey, J

    2009-01-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212 Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  18. Associations of IL6 polymorphisms with lung function decline and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Qing; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Shumansky, Karey; Zhang, Xuekui; Akhabir, Loubna; Sin, Don D; Man, S F Paul; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Wise, Robert A; Paré, Peter D; Sandford, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine which likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. There is a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), −174G/C, in the promoter region of IL6. We hypothesized that IL6 SNPs influence susceptibility for impaired lung function and COPD in smokers. Methods Seven and 5 SNPs in IL6 were genotyped in two nested case-control samples derived from the Lung Health Study (LHS) based on phenotypes of rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) over 5 years and baseline FEV1 at the beginning of the LHS. Serum IL6 concentrations were measured for all subjects. A partially overlapping panel of 9 IL6 SNPs was genotyped in 389 COPD cases from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 420 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). Results In the LHS, three IL6 SNPs were associated with FEV1 decline (0.023 ≤ P ≤ 0.041 in additive models). Among them the IL6_−174C allele was associated with rapid decline of lung function. The association was more significant in a genotype-based analysis (P = 0.006). In the NETT-NAS study, IL6_−174G/C and four other IL6 SNPs, all of which are in linkage disequilibrium with IL6_−174G/C, were associated with susceptibility to COPD (0.01 ≤ P ≤ 0.04 in additive genetic models). Conclusion Our results suggest that the IL6_−174G/C SNP is associated with rapid decline of FEV1 and susceptibility to COPD in smokers. PMID:19359268

  19. Survey of clinical infant lung function testing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey L; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Ascher, Simon B; Hornik, Christoph P; Arets, H G M; Davis, Stephanie D; Hall, Graham L

    2014-02-01

    Data supporting the clinical use of infant lung function (ILF) tests are limited making the interpretation of clinical ILF measures difficult. To evaluate current ILF testing practices and to survey users regarding the indications, limitations and perceived clinical benefits of ILF testing. We created a 26-item survey hosted on the European Respiratory Society (ERS) website between January and May 2010. Notifications were sent to members of the ERS, American Thoracic Society and the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Responses were sought from ILF laboratory directors and pediatric respirologists. The survey assessed the clinical indications, patient populations, equipment and reference data used, and perceived limitations of ILF testing. We received 148 responses with 98 respondents having ILF equipment and performing testing in a clinical capacity. Centers in North America were less likely to perform ≥50 studies/year than centers in Europe or other continents (13% vs. 41%). Most respondents used ILF data to either "start a new therapy" (78%) or "help decide about initiation of further diagnostic workup such as bronchoscopy, chest CT or serological testing" (69%). Factors reported as limiting clinical ILF testing were need for sedation, uncertainty regarding clinical impact of study results and time intensive nature of the study. Clinical practices associated with ILF testing vary significantly; centers that perform more studies are more likely to use the results for clinical purposes and decision making. The future of ILF testing is uncertain in the face of the limitations perceived by the survey respondents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interaction of dependent and non-dependent regions of the acutely injured lung during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Rettig, Jordan S; Arnold, John H; Wolf, Gerhard K; Smallwood, Craig D; Boyd, Theonia K

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of treating acute lung injury with recruitment manoeuvres is controversial. An impediment to settling this debate is the difficulty in visualizing how distinct lung regions respond to the manoeuvre. Here, regional lung mechanics were studied by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre in a porcine model with acute lung injury. The following interaction between dependent and non-dependent regions consistently occurred: atelectasis in the most dependent region was reversed only after the non-dependent region became overdistended. EIT estimates of overdistension and atelectasis were validated by histological examination of lung tissue, confirming that the dependent region was primarily atelectatic and the non-dependent region was primarily overdistended. The pulmonary pressure–volume equation, originally designed for modelling measurements at the airway opening, was adapted for EIT-based regional estimates of overdistension and atelectasis. The adaptation accurately modelled the regional EIT data from dependent and non-dependent regions (R 2 > 0.93, P < 0.0001) and predicted their interaction during recruitment. In conclusion, EIT imaging of regional lung mechanics reveals that overdistension in the non-dependent region precedes atelectasis reversal in the dependent region during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre. (paper)

  1. Does Regional Lung Strain Correlate With Regional Inflammation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome During Nonprotective Ventilation? An Experimental Porcine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Jaime; Hurtado, Daniel; Villarroel, Nicolás; Bruhn, Alejandro; Bugedo, Guillermo; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Borges, João Batista

    2018-06-01

    It is known that ventilator-induced lung injury causes increased pulmonary inflammation. It has been suggested that one of the underlying mechanisms may be strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lung regional strain correlates with regional inflammation in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Retrospective analysis of CT images and positron emission tomography images using [F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. University animal research laboratory. Seven piglets subjected to experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome and five ventilated controls. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages, followed by 210 minutes of injurious mechanical ventilation using low positive end-expiratory pressures (mean, 4 cm H2O) and high inspiratory pressures (mean plateau pressure, 45 cm H2O). All animals were subsequently studied with CT scans acquired at end-expiration and end-inspiration, to obtain maps of volumetric strain (inspiratory volume - expiratory volume)/expiratory volume, and dynamic positron emission tomography imaging. Strain maps and positron emission tomography images were divided into 10 isogravitational horizontal regions-of-interest, from which spatial correlation was calculated for each animal. The acute respiratory distress syndrome model resulted in a decrease in respiratory system compliance (20.3 ± 3.4 to 14.0 ± 4.9 mL/cm H2O; p < 0.05) and oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2, 489 ± 80 to 92 ± 59; p < 0.05), whereas the control animals did not exhibit changes. In the acute respiratory distress syndrome group, strain maps showed a heterogeneous distribution with a greater concentration in the intermediate gravitational regions, which was similar to the distribution of [F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake observed in the positron emission tomography images, resulting in a positive spatial correlation between both variables (median R = 0.71 [0.02-0.84]; p < 0.05 in five of seven animals

  2. Bronchodilator response of advanced lung function parameters depending on COPD severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarenbäck L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Linnea Jarenbäck,1 Göran Eriksson,1 Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson1 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Background: COPD is defined as partly irreversible airflow obstruction. The response pattern of bronchodilators has not been followed in advanced lung function parameters. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate bronchodilator response pattern in advanced lung function parameters in a continuous fashion along forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 percent predicted (%p in COPD patients and controls. Patients and methods: Eighty-one smokers/ex-smokers (41 controls and 40 COPD performed spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry and single-breath helium dilution carbon monoxide diffusion at baseline, after salbutamol inhalation and then after an additional inhalation of ipratropium. Results: Most pulmonary function parameters showed a linear increase in response to decreased FEV1%p. The subjects were divided into groups of FEV1%p <65 and >65, and the findings from continuous analysis were verified. The exceptions to this linear response were inspiratory capacity (IC, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC and expiratory resistance (Rex, which showed a segmented response relationship to FEV1%p. IC and FVC, with break points (BP of 57 and 58 FEV1%p respectively, showed no response above, but an incresed slope below the BP. In addition, in patients with FEV1%p <65 and >65, response of FEV1%p did not correlate to response of volume parameters. Conclusion: Response of several advanced lung function parameters differs depending on patients’ baseline FEV1%p, and specifically response of volume parameters is most pronounced in COPD patients with FEV1%p <65. Volume and resistance responses do not follow the flow response measured with FEV1 and may thus be used as a

  3. Lower lung function associates with cessation of menstruation: UK Biobank data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, André F S; Strachan, David P; Gómez Real, Francisco; Burney, Peter G J; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of cessation of menstruation on lung function. The aims of the study were to examine the association of lung function with natural and surgical cessation of menstruation, and assess whether lower lung function is associated with earlier age at cessation of menstruation.The study was performed in 141 076 women from the UK Biobank, who had provided acceptable and reproducible spirometry measurements and information on menstrual status. The associations of lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), spirometric restriction (FVC menstruation and age at cessation of menstruation were assessed using regression analysis.Women who had natural cessation of menstruation showed a lower FVC (-42 mL; 95% CI -53- -30) and FEV 1 (-34 mL; 95% CI -43- -24) and higher risk of spirometric restriction (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% CI 1.18-1.37) than women still menstruating. These associations were stronger in women who had had a hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. The earlier the natural cessation of menstruation, the lower the lung function. There was no clear association of lung function with age at hysterectomy and/or oophorectomy. Airflow obstruction was not associated with cessation of menstruation.Lower lung function associates with cessation of menstruation, especially if it occurs early in life. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Regional Lung Density Changes After Radiation Therapy for Tumors in and Around Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinli; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Foltz, Rodney J.; Hollis, Donna R.; Light, Kim L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Kelsey, Christopher R.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the temporal nature of regional lung density changes and to assess whether the dose-dependent nature of these changes is associated with patient- and treatment-associated factors. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 118 patients with interpretable pre- and post-radiation therapy (RT) chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated. Changes in regional lung density were related to regional dose to define a dose-response curve (DRC) for RT-induced lung injury using three-dimensional planning tools and image fusion. Multiple post-RT follow-up CT scans were evaluated by fitting linear-quadratic models of density changes on dose with time as the covariate. Various patient- and treatment-related factors were examined as well. Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in regional lung density at nearly all post-RT follow-up intervals. The population volume-weighted changes evolved over the initial 6-month period after RT and reached a plateau thereafter (p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, patient age greater than 65 years (p = 0.003) and/or the use of pre-RT surgery (p < 0.001) were associated with significantly greater changes in CT density at both 6 and 12 months after RT, but the magnitude of this effect was modest. Conclusions: There appears to be a temporal nature for the dose-dependent increases in lung density. Nondosimetric clinical factors tend to have no, or a modest, impact on these changes.

  5. A comprehensive evaluation of potential lung function associated genes in the SpiroMeta general population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'en Obeidat

    Full Text Available Lung function measures are heritable traits that predict population morbidity and mortality and are essential for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Variations in many genes have been reported to affect these traits, but attempts at replication have provided conflicting results. Recently, we undertook a meta-analysis of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS results for lung function measures in 20,288 individuals from the general population (the SpiroMeta consortium.To comprehensively analyse previously reported genetic associations with lung function measures, and to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in these genomic regions are associated with lung function in a large population sample.We analysed association for SNPs tagging 130 genes and 48 intergenic regions (+/-10 kb, after conducting a systematic review of the literature in the PubMed database for genetic association studies reporting lung function associations.The analysis included 16,936 genotyped and imputed SNPs. No loci showed overall significant association for FEV(1 or FEV(1/FVC traits using a carefully defined significance threshold of 1.3×10(-5. The most significant loci associated with FEV(1 include SNPs tagging MACROD2 (P = 6.81×10(-5, CNTN5 (P = 4.37×10(-4, and TRPV4 (P = 1.58×10(-3. Among ever-smokers, SERPINA1 showed the most significant association with FEV(1 (P = 8.41×10(-5, followed by PDE4D (P = 1.22×10(-4. The strongest association with FEV(1/FVC ratio was observed with ABCC1 (P = 4.38×10(-4, and ESR1 (P = 5.42×10(-4 among ever-smokers.Polymorphisms spanning previously associated lung function genes did not show strong evidence for association with lung function measures in the SpiroMeta consortium population. Common SERPINA1 polymorphisms may affect FEV(1 among smokers in the general population.

  6. Lung segmentectomy: does it offer a real functional benefit over lobectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charloux, Anne; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2017-12-31

    Anatomical segmentectomy has been developed to offer better pulmonary function preservation than lobectomy, in stage IA lung cancer. Despite the retrospective nature of most of the studies and the lack of randomised studies, a substantial body of literature today allows us to evaluate to what extent lung function decreases after segmentectomy and whether segmentectomy offers a real functional benefit over lobectomy. From the available series, it emerges that the mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) is low, ranging from -9% to -24% of the initial value within 2 months and -3 to -13% 12 months after segmentectomy. This reduction in lung function is significantly lower than that induced by lobectomy, but saves only a few per cent of pre-operative FEV 1 Moreover, the published results do not firmly establish the functional benefit of segmentectomy over lobectomy in patients with poor lung function. Some issues remain to be addressed, including whether video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy may preserve lung function better than VATS lobectomy in patients with poor lung function, especially within the early days after surgery, and whether this may translate to lowering the functional limit for surgery. Eventually, trials comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and segmentectomy functional consequences are warranted. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  7. Lung segmentectomy: does it offer a real functional benefit over lobectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Charloux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical segmentectomy has been developed to offer better pulmonary function preservation than lobectomy, in stage IA lung cancer. Despite the retrospective nature of most of the studies and the lack of randomised studies, a substantial body of literature today allows us to evaluate to what extent lung function decreases after segmentectomy and whether segmentectomy offers a real functional benefit over lobectomy. From the available series, it emerges that the mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 is low, ranging from −9% to −24% of the initial value within 2 months and −3 to −13% 12 months after segmentectomy. This reduction in lung function is significantly lower than that induced by lobectomy, but saves only a few per cent of pre-operative FEV1. Moreover, the published results do not firmly establish the functional benefit of segmentectomy over lobectomy in patients with poor lung function. Some issues remain to be addressed, including whether video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS segmentectomy may preserve lung function better than VATS lobectomy in patients with poor lung function, especially within the early days after surgery, and whether this may translate to lowering the functional limit for surgery. Eventually, trials comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and segmentectomy functional consequences are warranted.

  8. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  9. Trends in incidence of lung cancer in Croatia from 2001 to 2013: gender and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroglavić, Katarina Josipa; Polić Vižintin, Marina; Tripković, Ingrid; Šekerija, Mario; Kukulj, Suzana

    2017-10-31

    To provide an overview of the lung cancer incidence trends in the City of Zagreb (Zagreb), Split-Dalmatia County (SDC), and Croatia in the period from 2001 to 2013. Incidence data were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry. For calculating incidence rates per 100 000 population, we used population estimates for the period 2001-2013 from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Age-standardized rates of lung cancer incidence were calculated by the direct standardization method using the European Standard Population. To describe incidence trends, we used joinpoint regression analysis. Joinpoint analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in lung cancer incidence in men in all regions, with an annual percentage change (APC) of -2.2% for Croatia, 1.9% for Zagreb, and -2.0% for SDC. In women, joinpoint analysis showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence for Croatia, with APC of 1.4%, a statistically significant increase of 1.0% for Zagreb, and no significant change in trend for SDC. In both genders, joinpoint analysis showed a significant decrease in age-standardized incidence rates of lung cancer, with APC of -1.3% for Croatia, -1.1% for Zagreb, and -1.6% for SDC. There was an increase in female lung cancer incidence rate and a decrease in male lung cancer incidence rate in Croatia in 2001-20013 period, with similar patterns observed in all the investigated regions. These results highlight the importance of smoking prevention and cessation policies, especially among women and young people.

  10. Lung transplantation in the rat. III. Functional studies in iso- and allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marck, K.W.; Prop, J.; Wildevuur, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Recently a microsurgical technique for orthotopic left lung transplantation in the rat was developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the operation itself and of an unmodified rejection reaction on the function of the transplanted rat lung. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in 59 rats (34 isografts and 25 allografts). Isografts demonstrated a mean left lung perfusion of 23.1% in the first two postoperative weeks. Seven out of the 10 animals, subjected to a repeated scintigraphy 5-10 weeks later, had an increased graft perfusion, resulting in an almost normal mean left lung perfusion of 34.8%. At that time chest roentgenography revealed a good aeration of the grafts, that at autopsy had a normal aspect. Allografts showed an initial mean left lung perfusion (24.6%) similar to the isografts, which, however, declined sharply a few days later (4.3%). At that time chest roentgenography revealed totally opalescent grafts that at autopsy had the hepatized aspect characteristic of lung allograft rejection. These results of isogeneic and allogeneic lung transplantation in the rat were comparable with those of canine auto- and allotransplantation. For immunogenetic and economical reasons lung transplantation in the rat is a good alternative animal model in lung transplantation research

  11. Assessing the Effects of Fibrosis on Lung Function by Light Microscopy-Coupled Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilecki, Bartosz; Sørensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary diseases such as fibrosis are characterized by structural abnormalities that lead to impairment of proper lung function. Stereological analysis of serial tissue sections allows detection and quantitation of subtle changes in lung architecture. Here, we describe a stereology-based method...

  12. A Correlation of Symptomatology with Lung Function in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... rhinosinusitis is associated with worse asthma control in children and .... score with lung volumes of patients with allergic rhinosinusitis in our .... greater cough reflex sensitivity of the female airway, the impact of hormones on ...

  13. Protective mechanical ventilation does not exacerbate lung function impairment or lung inflammation following influenza A infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Graeme R; Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Hantos, Zoltan; Sly, Peter D

    2009-11-01

    The degree to which mechanical ventilation induces ventilator-associated lung injury is dependent on the initial acute lung injury (ALI). Viral-induced ALI is poorly studied, and this study aimed to determine whether ALI induced by a clinically relevant infection is exacerbated by protective mechanical ventilation. Adult female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 10(4.5) plaque-forming units of influenza A/Mem/1/71 in 50 microl of medium or medium alone. This study used a protective ventilation strategy, whereby mice were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and mechanically ventilated for 2 h. Lung mechanics were measured periodically throughout the ventilation period using a modification of the forced oscillation technique to obtain measures of airway resistance and coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance. Thoracic gas volume was measured and used to obtain specific airway resistance, tissue damping, and tissue elastance. At the end of the ventilation period, a bronchoalveolar lavage sample was collected to measure inflammatory cells, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and protein leak. Influenza infection caused significant increases in inflammatory cells, protein leak, and deterioration in lung mechanics that were not exacerbated by mechanical ventilation, in contrast to previous studies using bacterial and mouse-specific viral infection. This study highlighted the importance of type and severity of lung injury in determining outcome following mechanical ventilation.

  14. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  15. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  16. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...

  17. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3 He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129 Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3 He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129 Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129 Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO 2 ) by observation of 129 Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO 2 by observation of 129 Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3 He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129 Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO 2 that accounts for both traditional T 1 decay from pO 2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output

  19. REGIONAL LOGISTICS CENTER: FORMATION AND FUNCTIONING SPESIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tkach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence of the definition of logistics centers is defined, the main provisions concerning the formation of the logistics center are defined. The formation of a logistic hub is analyzed. The structure of the transport-logistic center is proposed. The basic requirements for the location of the regional logistics center and the principles of its operation are determined. The financial and financial mechanism of a typical logistics center and their effective functioning are presented. It is proved that the most important component of the logistics center is transport. Key words: logistics centers, logistics, hub, distribution centers, transport and logistics centers, regional logistic centers, logistics complex, transport, transport-logistic system.

  20. The biology, function and clinical implications of exosomes in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Lv, Tangfeng; Zhang, Qun; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhan, Ping; Zhu, Suhua; Zhang, Jianya; Song, Yong

    2017-10-28

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by all types of cells, and can also be found in various body fluids. Increasing evidence implicates that exosomes confer stability and can deliver their cargos such as proteins and nucleic acids to specific cell types, which subsequently serve as important messengers and carriers in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the biogenesis and components of exosomes mainly in lung cancer, we summarize their function in lung carcinogenesis (epithelial mesenchymal transition, oncogenic cell transformation, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune response in tumor microenvironment), and importantly we focus on the clinical potential of exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutics in lung cancer. In addition, we also discuss current challenges that might impede the clinical use of exosomes. Further studies on the functional roles of exosomes in lung cancer requires thorough research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Andrew J; Malhotra, Deepti; Boezen, H Marike; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Postma, Dirkje S; Wong, Vivien; Akhabir, Loubna; He, Jian-Qing; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Paré, Peter D; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-08-01

    An oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the lung contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental risk factors. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) is a critical molecule in the lung's defense mechanism against oxidants. We investigated whether polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway affected the rate of decline of lung function in smokers from the Lung Health Study (LHS)(n = 547) and in a replication set, the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 533). We selected polymorphisms in NFE2L2 in genes that positively or negatively regulate NFE2L2 transcriptional activity and in genes that are regulated by NFE2L2. Polymorphisms in 11 genes were significantly associated with rate of lung function decline in the LHS. One of these polymorphisms, rs11085735 in the KEAP1 gene, was previously shown to be associated with the level of lung function in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort but not with decline of lung function. Of the 23 associated polymorphisms in the LHS, only rs634534 in the FOSL1 gene showed a significant association in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort with rate of lung function decline, but the direction of the association was not consistent with that in the LHS. In summary, despite finding several nominally significant polymorphisms in the LHS, none of these associations were replicated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort, indicating lack of effect of polymorphisms in the NFE2L2 pathway on the rate of decline of lung function.

  2. Surfactant nebulisation : lung function, surfactant distribution and pulmonary blood flow distribution in lung lavaged rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Peter H.; Heikamp, A; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Surfactant nebulisation is a promising alternative to surfactant instillation in newborns with the respiratory distress syndrome. Although less surfactant is deposited in the lung, it improves gas exchange, probably due to a superior distribution. We hypothesize that a more uniform

  3. Best lung function equations for the very elderly selected by survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin R; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated which equations best predicted the lung function of a cohort of nonagenarians based on which best accounted for subsequent survival.In 1998, we measured lung function, grip strength and dementia score (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)) in a population-based sample of 2262 Danes...... with a hazard ratio for death of 1, 1.16, 1.32 and 1.60 respectively, compared with equations derived with the inclusion of elderly subjects.We conclude that extrapolating from NHANES III equations to predict lung function in nonagenarians gave better survival predictions from spirometry than when employing...... equations derived using very elderly subjects with possible selection bias. These findings can help inform how future lung function equations for the elderly are derived....

  4. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley P Kirychuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.

  5. Airway hyperresponsiveness and development of lung function in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    with and without airway hyperresponsiveness. In a repeated measures regression model with adjustment for asthma and smoking, airway hyperresponsiveness was independently associated with reduced rates of growth in lung function in both sexes of 23 ml/year. Reduced growth rates resulted in deficits in maximal......BACKGROUND: Long-term longitudinal studies of lung function from childhood to adulthood are important in linking our understanding of childhood risk factors to adult disease. Airway hyperresponsiveness has been shown to independently affect lung function growth in studies of adolescence....... The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that airway hyperresponsiveness has an independent deleterious effect on lung function in adolescence that extends into adulthood. METHODS: A random population sample (n = 983) aged 7-17 from Copenhagen was followed longitudinally for 20 years with four...

  6. Effects of Body Mass Index on Lung Function Index of Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiao; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Changan; Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung function indexes in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 10, 592 participants. The linear relationship between lung function and BMI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis, and the correlation between BMI and lung function was assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was positively related with the decreasing of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (P <0.05), the increasing of FVC% predicted value (FVC%pre) and FEV1% predicted value (FEV1%pre). These suggested that Chinese people can restrain the decline of lung function to prevent the occurrence and development of COPD by the control of BMI.

  7. Clinical features and lung function in HIV-infected children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and determine clinical predictors of poor lung function. Methods. ... 2 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, South Africa. 3 Menzies ... HAZ were classified as stunted.[15]. The ... Dental caries. 14/40 (35.0).

  8. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    in relation to asthma, chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, and lung function level at examination 2 (1981-1983) or lung function decline established from examinations 1 (1976-1978) to 2 using 4 measures (FEV(1) slope, FEV(1) relative slope, American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine......BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976......, the increasing trend in the HR (95% CI) by quartiles of the FEV(1) slope reached a maximum of 3.77 (2.76-5.15) for males, 6.12 (4.63-8.10) for females, and 4.14 (1.57-10.90) for never-smokers. Significant increasing trends were also observed for mortality, with females at higher risk. CONCLUSION: Lung function...

  9. mCOPD: Mobile Phone Based Lung Function Diagnosis and Exercise System for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...

  10. Spirometry quality in adults with very severe lung function impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Enright, Paul; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    Some technologists worry that patients with very severe lung disease are unable to complete several spirometry maneuvers, which require considerable effort. We retrospectively selected all spirometry tests with an FEV1 30,000 subjects tested during the 3-y period) had adequate quality spirometry. Subjects with airway obstruction were less likely to meet FVC repeatability goals. A poor spirometry quality grade was associated with a very low FVC and a low body mass index, but not older age. Severe lung disease should not be used as an excuse for not meeting spirometry quality goals. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. High-sensitive C-reactive protein is associated with reduced lung function in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Mikkelsen, Dennis; Hancox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    levels of CRP at age 20 yrs were associated with a greater reduction in both FEV(1) and forced vital capacity between ages 20 and 29 yrs. The findings show that higher levels of C-reactive protein in young adults are associated with subsequent decline in lung function, suggesting that low-grade systemic...... inflammation in young adulthood may lead to impaired lung function independently of the effects of smoking, obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, asthma and eosinophilic inflammation....

  12. The prognostic importance of lung function in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kasper Karmark; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Akkan, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF).......The purpose of the present study was to determine the prognostic importance for all-cause mortality of lung function variables obtained by spirometry in an unselected group of patients admitted with heart failure (HF)....

  13. Lung cancer in hilar region: the resectability evaluation with dual phase enhanced EBCT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Zhou Xuhui; Li Xiangmin; Fan Miao; Meng Quanfei; Peng Qian; Tan Zhiyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of duralphase enhanced electronic beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans in resectability evaluation of lung cancer located in hilar region. Methods: Dual phase enhanced EBCT scans were available for 40 cases that were initially diagnosed as 'carcinoma of lung' in hilar region. The relations between masses and trachea, bronchi, hilar and mediastinal great vessels were analyzed and compared with operation. Results: 38 cases in our series confirmed by operation and pathological examination were divided two groups: respectable (28 cases) and non-resectable (10 cases) groups. 25 cases in the former group were consistent with operation, accounting for 89.3%, and 8 cases, in the latter group, accounting for 80%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of dural-phase enhanced EBCT scan evaluating the relations between masses and hilar and mediastinal structure were as follows: 92.6%, 72.7% and 86.8%. Conclusion: Dural-phase enhanced EBCT scans can provide precise and feasible pre-operative evaluation of lung cancer in hilar region. (authors)

  14. A correlation of symptomatology with lung function in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients' biodata, symptoms, and signs were obtained using a specially designed form. The symptoms were scored using nasal symptom scoring protocol and the lung volumes determined using spirometry. The data were collated and analyzed using SPSS Version 15 statistical software. Results: There were 300 patients ...

  15. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness in preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Duiverman (Eric)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractIt is hypothesized that childhood asthma, especially when not well controlled, may constitute a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood (Cropp, 1985), It is unknown whether lung injury during early life is a risk factor for the development of COLD in adulthood, Asthma often

  16. Effects on pulmonary function of whole lung irradiation for Wilm's tumour in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, M.R.; Lemerle, J.; Jean, R.; Rufin, P.; Scheinmann, P.; Paupe, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of whole lung irradiation on lung function was investigated in 48 children treated for Wilm's tumour with pulmonary metastases. Lung function tests were performed before irradiation and were repeated annually for as long as possible, the length of follow-up varying from two to 17 years. A reduction in both lung volume and in dynamic compliance was clearly observed. In some patients these changes occurred in the early post-irradiation months, but in most the decrease observed progressed over longer periods of time. Static pressure volume curves, bloodgases, and carbon monoxide transfer were normal. These findings make it unlikely that post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis was involved. Another explanation for the decreased lung volume and dynamic compliance might be failure of alveolar multiplication. Muscular injury is unlikely as the patients were able to produce normal transthoracic pressures. A failure of chest wall growth is also possible and would explain the progressive restrictive impairment but not the early lung function changes. It is suggested that the early effects detected in some patients were the result of lung injury and that later effects resulted from impaired chest wall growth. (author)

  17. Voluntary pulmonary function screening with GOLD standard: an effective and simple approach to detect lung obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyu; Gong, Wei; Tian, Yao; Yang, Min

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of lung obstruction is probably underestimated. Early detection and screening may alter the course and prognosis associated with lung disease. We investigated the effectiveness of voluntary lung function screening program and the agreement between the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and the lower limit of normal (LLN) standard for public screening in Xi'an China. Pulmonary function testing was conducted on volunteers recruited from eight community centers in Xi'an, China between July and August 2012. Participants underwent three forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuvers. The maneuver with the best FEV1 was retained. Participants filled out a medical history survey before undergoing pulmonary function testing. Patients that self-reported lung disease on the health survey were excluded from the analysis. A total of 803 volunteers participated in this study. And 722 participants (93.8%) did not self-report chronic lung disease and were analyzed. Of these participants, 143 subjects (19.8%) were diagnosed by GOLD standard and 134 subjects (18.6%) had obstruction with LLN definition. GOLD definition can identify more asymptomatic subjects (19.1%) with respect to LLN. GOLD definition can detect more lung obstruction in elder subjects compared with young people, the difference is significant (P=0.0007). The overall agreement between the 2 methods was good: the kappa estimate was 0.822. The agreement in subjects aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years was good: the kappa estimate was 0.82, 0.936 and 0.907 respectively and the agreement in subjects aged 18-29 was inferior: the kappa estimate was only 0.555. Voluntary lung function screening program with GOLD standard may be a simple and effective approach to ensuring high yield detection of lung obstruction in subjects aged 40-69.

  18. Lung functions among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, Mohamed; Shayo, Grace; Mamuya, Simon; Mpembeni, Rose; Jusabani, Ahmed; Mugusi, Ferdinand

    2016-04-23

    Approximately 40-60 % of patients remain sufferers of sequela of obstructive, restrictive or mixed patterns of lung disease despite treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The prevalence of these abnormalities in Tanzania remains unknown. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 501 patients with PTB who had completed at least 20 weeks of treatment. These underwent spirometry and their lung functions were classified as normal or abnormal (obstructive, restrictive or mixed). Logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with abnormal lung functions. Abnormal lung functions were present in 371 (74 %) patients. There were 210 (42 %) patients with obstructive, 65 (13 %) patients with restrictive and 96 (19 %) patients with mixed patterns respectively. Significant factors associated with abnormal lung functions included recurrent PTB (Adj OR 2.8, CI 1.274 - 6.106), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) negative status (Adj OR 1.7, CI 1.055 - 2.583), age more than 40 years (Adj OR 1.7, CI 1.080 - 2.804) and male sex (Adj OR 1.7, CI 1.123 - 2.614). The prevalence of abnormal lung functions is high and it is associated with male sex, age older than 40 years, recurrent PTB and HIV negative status.

  19. Preserving Functional Lung Using Perfusion Imaging and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Advanced-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Jang, Si Young; Liu, H. Helen; Guerrero, Thomas; Wang, Xuanmin; Gayed, Isis W.; Erwin, William D.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Jeter, Melenda; Yaremko, Brian P.; Borghero, Yerko O.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mohan, Radhe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess quantitatively the impact of incorporating functional lung imaging into intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with advanced-stage NSCLC who underwent radiotherapy were included in this study. Before radiotherapy, each patient underwent lung perfusion imaging with single-photon-emission computed tomography and X-ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT). The SPECT-CT was registered with simulation CT and was used to segment the 50- and 90-percentile hyperperfusion lung (F50 lung and F90 lung). Two IMRT plans were designed and compared in each patient: an anatomic plan using simulation CT alone and a functional plan using SPECT-CT in addition to the simulation CT. Dosimetric parameters of the two types of plans were compared in terms of tumor coverage and avoidance of normal tissues. Results: In incorporating perfusion information in IMRT planning, the median reductions in the mean doses to the F50 and F90 lung in the functional plan were 2.2 and 4.2 Gy, respectively, compared with those in the anatomic plans. The median reductions in the percentage of volume irradiated with >5 Gy, >10 Gy, and >20 Gy in the functional plans were 7.1%, 6.0%, and 5.1%, respectively, for F50 lung, and 11.7%, 12.0%, and 6.8%, respectively, for F90 lung. A greater degree of sparing of the functional lung was achieved for patients with large perfusion defects compared with those with relatively uniform perfusion distribution. Conclusion: Function-guided IMRT planning appears to be effective in preserving functional lung in locally advanced-stage NSCLC patients

  20. Leukemia inhibitory factor in rat fetal lung development: expression and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nogueira-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are members of the family of the glycoprotein 130 (gp130-type cytokines. These cytokines share gp130 as a common signal transducer, which explains why they show some functional redundancy. Recently, it was demonstrated that IL-6 promotes fetal lung branching. Additionally, LIF has been implicated in developmental processes of some branching organs. Thus, in this study LIF expression pattern and its effects on fetal rat lung morphogenesis were assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot in fetal rat lungs of different gestational ages, ranging from 13.5 to 21.5 days post-conception. Throughout all gestational ages studied, LIF was constitutively expressed in pulmonary epithelium, whereas LIFRα was first mainly expressed in the mesenchyme, but after pseudoglandular stage it was also observed in epithelial cells. These results point to a LIF epithelium-mesenchyme cross-talk, which is known to be important for lung branching process. Regarding functional studies, fetal lung explants were cultured with increasing doses of LIF or LIF neutralizing antibodies during 4 days. MAPK, AKT, and STAT3 phosphorylation in the treated lung explants was analyzed. LIF supplementation significantly inhibited lung growth in spite of an increase in p44/42 phosphorylation. On the other hand, LIF inhibition significantly stimulated lung growth via p38 and Akt pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study describes that LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα are constitutively expressed during fetal lung development and that they have an inhibitory physiological role on fetal lung branching.

  1. Anatomical pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging segmentation for regional structure-function measurements of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F. [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Svenningsen, S.; Eddy, R. L.; Capaldi, D. P. I.; Sheikh, K. [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Fenster, A.; Parraga, G., E-mail: gparraga@robarts.ca [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) and x-ray computed-tomography have provided strong evidence of spatially and temporally persistent lung structure-function abnormalities in asthmatics. This has generated a shift in their understanding of lung disease and supports the use of imaging biomarkers as intermediate endpoints of asthma severity and control. In particular, pulmonary {sup 1}H MRI can be used to provide quantitative lung structure-function measurements longitudinally and in response to treatment. However, to translate such biomarkers of asthma, robust methods are required to segment the lung from pulmonary {sup 1}H MRI. Therefore, their objective was to develop a pulmonary {sup 1}H MRI segmentation algorithm to provide regional measurements with the precision and speed required to support clinical studies. Methods: The authors developed a method to segment the left and right lung from {sup 1}H MRI acquired in 20 asthmatics including five well-controlled and 15 severe poorly controlled participants who provided written informed consent to a study protocol approved by Health Canada. Same-day spirometry and plethysmography measurements of lung function and volume were acquired as well as {sup 1}H MRI using a whole-body radiofrequency coil and fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo sequence at a fixed lung volume (functional residual capacity + 1 l). We incorporated the left-to-right lung volume proportion prior based on the Potts model and derived a volume-proportion preserved Potts model, which was approximated through convex relaxation and further represented by a dual volume-proportion preserved max-flow model. The max-flow model led to a linear problem with convex and linear equality constraints that implicitly encoded the proportion prior. To implement the algorithm, {sup 1}H MRI was resampled into ∼3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} isotropic voxel space. Two observers placed seeds on each lung and on the background of 20 pulmonary {sup 1}H MR images

  2. The rostral medulla of bullfrog tadpoles contains critical lung rhythmogenic and chemosensitive regions across metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mitchell D; Iceman, Kimberly E; Harris, Michael B; Taylor, Barbara E

    2018-06-08

    The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO 2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO 2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages. Whole-nerve recordings of respiratory burst activity in cranial and spinal nerves were made from intact or transected brainstems isolated from tadpoles during early or late stages of metamorphosis. Brainstems were transected at the level of the trigeminal nerve, removing rostral structures including the nucleus isthmi, midbrain, and locus coeruleus, or transected at the level of the glossopharyngeal nerve, removing the putative buccal oscillator and caudal medulla. Removal of caudal structures stimulated the frequency of lung ventilatory bursts and revealed a hypercapnic response in normally unresponsive preparations derived from early stage tadpoles. In preparations derived from late stage tadpoles, removal of rostral or caudal structures reduced lung burst frequency, while CO 2 responsiveness was retained. Our results illustrate that structures within the rostral medulla are capable of sensing CO 2 throughout metamorphic development. Similarly, the region controlling lung ventilation appears to be contained in the rostral medulla throughout metamorphosis. This work offers insight into the consistency of rhythmic respiratory and chemosensitive capacities during metamorphosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Functional image-based radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Emma L.; Bragg, Christopher M.; Wild, Jim M.; Hatton, Matthew Q.F.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the incorporation of data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or hyperpolarized helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging ( 3 He-MRI) into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods: Seven scenarios were simulated that represent cases of NSCLC with significant functional lung defects. Two independent IMRT plans were produced for each scenario; one to minimise total lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V 20 ), and the other to minimise only the functional lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (FV 20 ). Dose-volume characteristics and a plan quality index related to planning target volume coverage by the 95% isodose (V PTV95 /FV 20 ) were compared between anatomical and functional plans using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results: Compared to anatomical IMRT plans, functional planning reduced FV 20 (median 2.7%, range 0.6-3.5%, p = 0.02), and total lung V 20 (median 1.5%, 0.5-2.7%, p = 0.02), with a small reduction in mean functional lung dose (median 0.4 Gy, 0-0.7 Gy, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in target volume coverage or organ-at-risk doses. Plan quality index was improved for functional plans (median increase 1.4, range 0-11.8, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Statistically significant reductions in FV 20 , V 20 and mean functional lung dose are possible when IMRT planning is supplemented by functional information derived from SPECT or 3 He-MRI.

  4. The influence of gravity on regional lung blood flow in humans: SPECT in the upright and head-down posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, M; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by intravenous injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with 99m Tc or 113m In, in the upright and head-down posture, respectively, during tidal breathing. Both radiotracers remain fixed in the lung after administration. The distribution of radioactivity was mapped using quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) corrected for attenuation and scatter. All images were obtained supine during tidal breathing. A shift from upright to the head-down posture caused a clear redistribution of blood flow from basal to apical regions. We conclude that posture plays a role for the distribution of lung blood flow in upright humans, and that the influence of posture, and thereby gravity, is much greater in the upright and head-down posture than in horizontal postures. However, the results of the study demonstrate that lung structure is the main determinant of regional blood flow and gravity is a secondary contributor to the distribution of lung blood flow in the upright and head-down positions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a dual-isotope quantitative SPECT method, we demonstrated that although a shift in posture redistributes blood flow in the direction of gravity, the results are also consistent with lung structure being a greater determinant of regional blood flow than gravity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use modern imaging methods to quantify the shift in regional lung blood flow in humans at a change between the upright and head-down postures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Using quantitative breath sound measurements to predict lung function following resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keus Leendert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting postoperative lung function is important for estimating the risk of complications and long-term disability after pulmonary resection. We investigated the capability of vibration response imaging (VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function in patients with intrathoracic malignancies. Methods Eighty-five patients with intrathoracic malignancies, considered candidates for lung resection, were prospectively studied. The projected postoperative (ppo lung function was calculated using: perfusion scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy, and VRI. Two sets of assessments made: one for lobectomy and one for pneumonectomy. Clinical concordance was defined as both methods agreeing that either a patient was or was not a surgical candidate based on a ppoFEV1% and ppoDLCO% > 40%. Results Limits of agreement between scintigraphy and VRI for ppo following lobectomy were -16.47% to 15.08% (mean difference = -0.70%;95%CI = -2.51% to 1.12% and for pneumonectomy were -23.79% to 19.04% (mean difference = -2.38%;95%CI = -4.69% to -0.07%. Clinical concordance between VRI and scintigraphy was 73% for pneumonectomy and 98% for lobectomy. For patients who had surgery and postoperative lung function testing (n = 31, ppoFEV1% using scintigraphic methods correlated with measured postoperative values better than projections using VRI, (adjusted R2 = 0.32 scintigraphy; 0.20 VRI, however the difference between methods failed to reach statistical significance. Limits of agreement between measured FEV1% postoperatively and ppoFEV1% based on perfusion scintigraphy were -16.86% to 23.73% (mean difference = 3.44%;95%CI = -0.29% to 7.16%; based on VRI were -19.56% to 28.99% (mean difference = 4.72%;95%CI = 0.27% to 9.17%. Conclusions Further investigation of VRI as an alternative to lung scintigraphy for prediction of postoperative lung function is warranted.

  6. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, Ward; Hanekamp, Manon N; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Nieuwhof, Eveline M; Hop, Wim C J; Tibboel, Dick; de Jongste, Johan C; Merkus, Peter J F M

    2011-03-01

    To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are lacking. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Outpatient clinic of a tertiary level pediatric hospital. The cohort consisted of 64 infants; 33 received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for meconium aspiration syndrome, 14 for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, four for sepsis, six for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate, and seven for respiratory distress syndrome of infancy. Evaluation was at 6 mos and 12 mos; 39 infants were evaluated at both time points . None. Functional residual capacity and forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity were measured and expressed as z score. Mean (sem) functional residual capacities in z score were 0.0 (0.2) and 0.2 (0.2) at 6 mos and 12 mos, respectively. Mean (sem) forced expiratory flow was significantly below average (z score = 0) (p capacity significantly above normal: mean (sem) z score = 1.2 (0.5). Infants treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have normal lung volumes and stable forced expiratory flows within normal range, although below average, within the first year of life. There is reason to believe, therefore, that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation either ameliorates the harmful effects of mechanical ventilation or somehow preserves lung function in the very ill neonate.

  7. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paulin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease.

  8. Intrauterine and early postnatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; de la Cruz, Oscar Asensio; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; de Dicastillo, Maria D Martinez López; Zabaleta, Carlos; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution on lung function at preschool age remain unexplored. We examined the association of exposure to air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal life with lung function in preschoolers. Lung function was assessed with spirometry in preschoolers aged 4.5 years (n=620) participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) cohort. Temporally adjusted land use regression (LUR) models were applied to estimate individual residential exposures to benzene and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) during specific trimesters of pregnancy and early postnatal life (the first year of life). Recent and current (1 year and 1 week before lung function testing, respectively) exposures to NO₂ and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were also assessed. Exposure to higher levels of benzene and NO₂ during pregnancy was associated with reduced lung function. FEV1 estimates for an IQR increase in exposures during the second trimester of pregnancy were -18.4 mL, 95% CI -34.8 to -2.1 for benzene and -28.0 mL, 95% CI -52.9 to -3.2 for NO₂. Relative risk (RR) of low lung function (<80% of predicted FEV1) for an IQR increase in benzene and NO₂ during the second trimester of pregnancy were 1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.46 and 1.30, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.76, respectively. Associations for early postnatal, recent and current exposures were not statistically significant. Stronger associations appeared among allergic children and those of lower social class. Prenatal exposure to residential traffic-related air pollution may result in long-term lung function deficits at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. SURVIVAL OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS RESIDING IN TOMSK REGION (2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Choynzonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year survival of 3482 lung cancer patients residing in Tomsk region was studied. Based on the populationbased cancer registry data, the observed, corrected and relative survival rates were calculated by the actuarial method taking into consideration age, sex, disease stage and place of residence of the patients. Survival rates were lower in males than in females: the difference in the overall observed survival (OS rate was from 5.1 % (8-year OS to 7.3 % (2-year OS. An inverse relationship between survival and cancer spread was observed. Survival rates were higher for urban populations than for rural populations. The analysis indicated that most lung cancer cases were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Survival rates demonstrated relatively equal levels of cancer care in different regions of Russia. When comparing survival rates in Tomsk region with those in Europe and the USA, it was shown that one-year survival was lower in Tomsk region than in Europe and the USA, thus indicating more effective cancer screening programs in European countries and the USA.

  10. Regional process redesign of lung cancer care: a learning health system pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung-Kee-Fung, M; Maziak, D E; Pantarotto, J R; Smylie, J; Taylor, L; Timlin, T; Cacciotti, T; Villeneuve, P J; Dennie, C; Bornais, C; Madore, S; Aquino, J; Wheatley-Price, P; Ozer, R S; Stewart, D J

    2018-02-01

    The Ottawa Hospital (toh) defined delay to timely lung cancer care as a system design problem. Recognizing the patient need for an integrated journey and the need for dynamic alignment of providers, toh used a learning health system (lhs) vision to redesign regional diagnostic processes. A lhs is driven by feedback utilizing operational and clinical information to drive system optimization and innovation. An essential component of a lhs is a collaborative platform that provides connectivity across silos, organizations, and professions. To operationalize a lhs, we developed the Ottawa Health Transformation Model (ohtm) as a consensus approach that addresses process barriers, resistance to change, and conflicting priorities. A regional Community of Practice (cop) was established to engage stakeholders, and a dedicated transformation team supported process improvements and implementation. The project operationalized the lung cancer diagnostic pathway and optimized patient flow from referral to initiation of treatment. Twelve major processes in referral, review, diagnostics, assessment, triage, and consult were redesigned. The Ottawa Hospital now provides a diagnosis to 80% of referrals within the provincial target of 28 days. The median patient journey from referral to initial treatment decreased by 48% from 92 to 47 days. The initiative optimized regional integration from referral to initial treatment. Use of a lhs lens enabled the creation of a system that is standardized to best practice and open to ongoing innovation. Continued transformation initiatives across the continuum of care are needed to incorporate best practice and optimize delivery systems for regional populations.

  11. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); Wiedemann, Baerbel; Tümmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, H.; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); Ballmann, M.; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudi...

  12. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Sibylle; G?rlich, Dennis; den Reijer, Martijn; Wiedemann, B?rbel; T?mmler, Burkhard; Ellemunter, Helmut; D?bbers, Angelika; K?ster, Peter; Ballmann, Manfred; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Gro?e-Onnebrink, J?rg; Heuer, Eberhardt; Sextro, Wolfgang; Mainz, Jochen G.; Hammermann, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads. Methods Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-ce...

  13. Application of the homology method for quantification of low-attenuation lung region in patients with and without COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mizuho Nishio,1 Kazuaki Nakane,2 Yutaka Tanaka3 1Clinical PET Center, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Hyogo, Japan; 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine and Health Science, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, Chibune General Hospital, Osaka, Japan Background: Homology is a mathematical concept that can be used to quantify degree of contact. Recently, image processing with the homology method has been proposed. In this study, we used the homology method and computed tomography images to quantify emphysema.Methods: This study included 112 patients who had undergone computed tomography and pulmonary function test. Low-attenuation lung regions were evaluated by the homology method, and homology-based emphysema quantification (b0, b1, nb0, nb1, and R was performed. For comparison, the percentage of low-attenuation lung area (LAA% was also obtained. Relationships between emphysema quantification and pulmonary function test results were evaluated by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. In addition to the correlation, the patients were divided into the following three groups based on guidelines of the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Group A, nonsmokers; Group B, smokers without COPD, mild COPD, and moderate COPD; Group C, severe COPD and very severe COPD. The homology-based emphysema quantification and LAA% were compared among these groups.Results: For forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, the correlation coefficients were as follows: LAA%, -0.603; b0, -0.460; b1, -0.500; nb0, -0.449; nb1, -0.524; and R, -0.574. For forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the coefficients were as follows: LAA%, -0.461; b0, -0.173; b1, -0.314; nb0, -0.191; nb1, -0.329; and R, -0.409. Between Groups A and B, difference in nb0 was significant (P-value = 0.00858, and those in the other types of quantification were not significant.Conclusion: Feasibility of the

  14. Should regional ventilation function be considered during radiation treatment planning to prevent radiation-induced complications?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Fujun; Jeudy, Jean; D’Souza, Warren; Tseng, Huan-Hsin; Zhou, Jinghao; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: haozhang@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Senan, Suresh; Sornsen de Koste, J. R. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam 1007 MB (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of pretherapy regional ventilation function in predicting radiation fibrosis (RF) in stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with stage III NSCLC were retrospectively studied. Patients received one cycle of cisplatin–gemcitabine, followed by two to three cycles of cisplatin–etoposide concurrently with involved-field thoracic radiotherapy (46–66 Gy; 2 Gy/fraction). Pretherapy regional ventilation images of the lung were derived from 4D computed tomography via a density change–based algorithm with mass correction. In addition to the conventional dose–volume metrics (V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40}, and mean lung dose), dose–function metrics (fV{sub 20}, fV{sub 30}, fV{sub 40}, and functional mean lung dose) were generated by combining regional ventilation and radiation dose. A new class of metrics was derived and referred to as dose–subvolume metrics (sV{sub 20}, sV{sub 30}, sV{sub 40}, and subvolume mean lung dose); these were defined as the conventional dose–volume metrics computed on the functional lung. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate these metrics in predicting hallmark characteristics of RF (lung consolidation, volume loss, and airway dilation). Results: AUC values for the dose–volume metrics in predicting lung consolidation, volume loss, and airway dilation were 0.65–0.69, 0.57–0.70, and 0.69–0.76, respectively. The respective ranges for dose–function metrics were 0.63–0.66, 0.61–0.71, and 0.72–0.80 and for dose–subvolume metrics were 0.50–0.65, 0.65–0.75, and 0.73–0.85. Using an AUC value = 0.70 as cutoff value suggested that at least one of each type of metrics (dose–volume, dose–function, dose–subvolume) was predictive for volume loss and airway dilation, whereas lung consolidation

  15. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carolina Guimarães; Duarte, Maria do Carmo M B; Prado, Cecília Maciel; Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti de; Andrade, Lívia B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (PedsQL(TM)), muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (plife when compared to the sedentary children (plife score (plife and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. CT Densitometry of the Lung in Healthy Nonsmokers with Normal Pulmonary Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Tack Sun; Chae, Eun Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Jung, Young Ju; Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the upper normal limit of low attenuation area in healthy nonsmokers. A total of 36 nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function test underwent a CT scan. Six thresholds (-980 --930 HU) on inspiration CT and two thresholds (-950 and -910 HU) on expiration CT were used for obtaining low attenuation area. The mean lung density was obtained on both inspiration CT and expiration CT. Descriptive statistics of low attenuation area and the mean lung density, evaluation of difference of low attenuation area and the mean lung density in both sex and age groups, analysis of the relationship between demographic information and CT parameters were performed. Upper normal limit for low attenuation area was 12.96% on inspiration CT (-950 HU) and 9.48% on expiration CT (-910 HU). Upper normal limit for the mean lung density was -837.58 HU on inspiration CT and 686.82 HU on expiration CT. Low attenuation area and the mean lung density showed no significant differences in both sex and age groups. Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with low attenuation area on inspiration CT (-950 HU, r = -0.398, p = 0.016) and positively correlated with the mean lung density on inspiration CT (r 0.539, p = 0.001) and expiration CT (r = 0.432, p = 0.009). Age and body surface area were not correlated with low attenuation area or the mean lung density. Low attenuation area on CT densitometry of the lung could be found in healthy nonsmokers with normal pulmonary function, and showed negative association with BMI. Reference values, such as range and upper normal limit for low attenuation area in healthy subjects could be helpful in quantitative analysis and follow up of early emphysema, using CT densitometry of the lung.

  17. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Junge

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF. However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads.Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors.195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001. Patients with exacerbations (n = 60, S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84 and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44 had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103. Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066 and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078. IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001, S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016, SCVs (p = 0.0209, exacerbations (p = 0.0041 and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195 or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496.In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669760.

  18. Radiation-Induced Reductions in Regional Lung Perfusion: 0.1-12 Year Data From a Prospective Clinical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junan; Ma Jinli; Zhou Sumin; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Wong, Terence Z.; Folz, Rodney J.; Evans, Elizabeth S.; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Clough, Robert; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the time and regional dependence of radiation therapy (RT)-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion 0.1-12 years post-RT, as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) lung perfusion. Materials/Methods: Between 1991 and 2005, 123 evaluable patients receiving RT for tumors in/around the thorax underwent SPECT lung perfusion scans before and serially post-RT (0.1-12 years). Registration of pre- and post-RT SPECT images with the treatment planning computed tomography, and hence the three-dimensional RT dose distribution, allowed changes in regional SPECT-defined perfusion to be related to regional RT dose. Post-RT follow-up scans were evaluated at multiple time points to determine the time course of RT-induced regional perfusion changes. Population dose response curves (DRC) for all patients at different time points, different regions, and subvolumes (e.g., whole lungs, cranial/caudal, ipsilateral/contralateral) were generated by combining data from multiple patients at similar follow-up times. Each DRC was fit to a linear model, and differences statistically analyzed. Results: In the overall groups, dose-dependent reductions in perfusion were seen at each time post-RT. The slope of the DRC increased over time up to 18 months post-RT, and plateaued thereafter. Regional differences in DRCs were only observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, and appeared due to tumor-associated changes in regional perfusion. Conclusions: Thoracic RT causes dose-dependent reductions in regional lung perfusion that progress up to ∼18 months post-RT and persists thereafter. Tumor shrinkage appears to confound the observed dose-response relations. There appears to be similar dose response for healthy parts of the lungs at different locations.

  19. Oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue from patients with COPD is clustered in functionally significant sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M Pastukh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Viktor M Pastukh1, Li Zhang2, Mykhaylo V Ruchko1, Olena Gorodnya1, Gina C Bardwell1, Rubin M Tuder2, Mark N Gillespie11Department of Pharmacology and Center for Lung Biology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, USA; 2Program in Translational Lung Research, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Lung tissue from COPD patients displays oxidative DNA damage. The present study determined whether oxidative DNA damage was randomly distributed or whether it was localized in specific sequences in either the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. The DNA damage-specific histone, gamma-H2AX, was detected immunohistochemically in alveolar wall cells in lung tissue from COPD patients but not control subjects. A PCR-based method was used to search for oxidized purine base products in selected 200 bp sequences in promoters and coding regions of the VEGF, TGF-β1, HO-1, Egr1, and β-actin genes while quantitative Southern blot analysis was used to detect oxidative damage to the mitochondrial genome in lung tissue from control subjects and COPD patients. Among the nuclear genes examined, oxidative damage was detected in only 1 sequence in lung tissue from COPD patients: the hypoxic response element (HRE of the VEGF promoter. The content of VEGF mRNA also was reduced in COPD lung tissue. Mitochondrial DNA content was unaltered in COPD lung tissue, but there was a substantial increase in mitochondrial DNA strand breaks and/or abasic sites. These findings show that oxidative DNA damage in COPD lungs is prominent in the HRE of the VEGF promoter and in the mitochondrial genome and raise the intriguing possibility that genome and sequence-specific oxidative DNA damage could contribute to transcriptional dysregulation and cell fate decisions in COPD.Keywords: DNA damage, VEGF hypoxic response element, mtDNA, COPD

  20. Clinical use of pulmonary function tests and high-resolution tomography in interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, Clara P; Mejia M, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases is generally arrived at by clinical history, physical examination, and radiologic images, especially high-resolution CT-scanning. It is important to note that, while these diseases have different clinical and histological characteristics, they share a basic pattern of abnormal lung function. With regard to high-resolution tomography, the characteristics of these diseases are similar, although there are specific differences that can be helpful for correct diagnosis. These diseases have severe consequences on respiratory gas exchange. These alterations, combined with other abnormalities of lung function, cause the signs and symptoms and have an impact on quality of life. The use of physiologic parameters is not only helpful for diagnosis, but can also assess severity, help to define the consequences of treatment, and aid in the follow-up. Although some pulmonary function tests can remain completely normal with severe radiographic findings, 10% of patients have impaired lung function before radiologic changes. High-resolution tomography is an essential imaging tool for the study of these patients. This is true not only for diagnosis, but also with regard to clinical parameters and follow-up. Its prognostic use is continually gaining importance. In this article we assess the clinical use of pulmonary function tests and high-resolution tomography in interstitial lung diseases.

  1. Metal dust exposure and lung function deterioration among steel workers: an exposure-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Nurul Ainun; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2016-07-01

    Metallic dust is a heterogeneous substance with respiratory sensitizing properties. Its long term exposure adversely affected lung function, thus may cause acute or chronic respiratory diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a steel factory in Terengganu, Malaysia to assess the metal dust exposure and its relationship to lung function values among 184 workers. Metal dust concentrations values (Co, Cr, and Ni) for each worker were collected using air personal sampling. Lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC) were determined using spirometer. Exposure to cobalt and chromium were 1-3 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL) while nickel was not exceeding the PEL. Cumulative of chromium was the predictor to all lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC). Frequency of using mask was positively associated with FVC (Adj b = 0.263, P = 0.011) while past respiratory illnesses were negatively associated with %FEV 1 /FVC (Adj b = -1.452, P = 0.026). Only few workers (36.4%) were found to wear their masks all times during the working hours. There was an exposure-response relationship of cumulative metal dust exposure with the deterioration of lung function values. Improvement of control measures as well as proper and efficient use or personal protection equipment while at work could help to protect the respiratory health of workers.

  2. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  3. Motor Functions of the Broca's Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Broca's region in the dominant cerebral hemisphere is known to mediate the production of language but also contributes to comprehension. This region evolved only in humans and is constituted of Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus. There is, however, evidence that Broca's region overlaps, at least in part, with the ventral…

  4. Accelerated decline in lung function in smoking women with airway obstruction: SAPALDIA 2 cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemp Elisabeth

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine if effects from smoking on lung function measured over 11 years differ between men and women. Methods In a prospective population based cohort study (Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults current smokers in 1991 (18 – 60 yrs were reassessed in 2002 (n = 1792. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate effects from pack-years of cigarettes smoked to 1991 and mean packs of cigarettes smoked per day between 1991 and 2002 on change in lung volume and flows over the 11 years. Results In both sexes, packs smoked between assessments were related to lung function decline but pack-years smoked before 1991 were not. Mean annual decline in FEV1 was -10.4 mL(95%CI -15.3, -5.5 per pack per day between assessments in men and -13.8 mL(95%CI-19.5,-8.1 in women. Decline per pack per day between 1991 and 2002 was lower in women who smoked in 1991 but quit before 2002 compared to persistent smokers (-6.4 vs -11.6 mL, p = 0.05 but this was not seen in men (-14.3 vs -8.8 mL p = 0.49. Smoking related decline was accelerated in men and women with airway obstruction, particularly in women where decline in FEV1 was three fold higher in participants with FEV1/FVC Conclusion There are differences in effects from smoking on lung function between men and women. Lung function recovers faster in women quitters than in men. Women current smokers with airway obstruction experience a greater smoking related decline in lung function than men.

  5. Experimental estimation of regional lung water volume by histogram of pulmonary CT numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shiro; Momoki, Shigeru; Asai, Toshihiko; Shimada, Takeshi; Tamano, Masahiro; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were made to assess the ability of pulmonary CT numbers to quantitatively determine regional water volume in cases of pulmonary congestion or edema associated with left heart failure. In vitro experiment revealed a good linear correlation between the volume of injected water and the determined CT number of polyethylene tube packed with sponge. In the subsequent in vivo experiment with 10 adult mongrel dogs, lung water volumes obtained by pulmonary CT numbers were found to be consistent with the actual volumes. Pulmonary CT numbers for water volume proved to become parameters to quantitatively evaluate pulmonary congestion or edema. (Namekawa, K)

  6. Clinico-pathology of lung cancer in a regional cancer center in Northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sanjeet Kumar; Singh, Thaudem Tomcha; Sharma, Takhenchangbam Dhaneshor; Amrithalingam, Venkatesan

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there have been important changes in trends amongst gender, histology and smoking patterns of lung cancer cases. This retrospective study was conducted on 466 patients with lung cancer who were registered in Regional Cancer Center, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Manipur from January 2008 to December 2012. Most were more than 60 years of age (67.8%) with a male: female ratio of 1.09:1. Some 78.8% of patients were chronic smokers with male smoker to female smoker ratio of 1.43:1. Consumption of alcohol was found in 29.4%, both smoking and alcohol in 27.5%, betel nut chewing in 37.9% and tobacco chewing in 25.3%. A history of tuberculosis was present in 16.3% of patients. The most frequent symptom was coughing (36.6%) and most common radiological presentation was a mass lesion (70%). Most of the patients had primary lung cancer in the right lung (60.3%). The most common histological subtype was squamous cell carcinoma (49.1%), also in the 40-60 year age group (45.9%), more than 60 year age group (51.6%), males (58.1%) and females (41.8%). As many as 91.9% of squamous cell carcinoma patients had a history of smoking. About 32.5% of patients had distant metastasis at presentation with brain (23.8%) and positive malignant cells in pleural effusions (23.1%) as common sites. The majority of patients were in stage III (34.4%), stage IV (32.5%) and stage II (30.2%). Our analysis suggests that the gender gap has been narrowed such that about half of the patients diagnosed with lung cancer are women in this part of India. This alarming rise in female incidence is mainly attributed to an increased smoking pattern. Squamous cell carcinoma still remains the commonest histological subtype. Most of the patients were elderly aged and presented at locally or distantly advanced stages.

  7. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M; Wiesenberger, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  8. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are not sufficient to guide esophageal function testing in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, S; Zheng, J; Wood, R K; Shimpi, R A; Hartwig, M G; Chow, S-C; Leiman, D A

    2018-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal dysmotility are prevalent in patients with advanced lung disease and are associated with graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. As a result, many transplant centers perform esophageal function testing as part of the wait-listing process but guidelines for testing in this population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe whether symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux correlate with abnormal results on pH-metry and high-resolution manometry and can be used to identify those who require testing. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 226 lung transplant candidates referred for high-resolution manometry and pH-metry over a 12-month period in 2015. Demographic data, results of a standard symptom questionnaire and details of esophageal function testing were obtained. Associations between the presence of symptoms and test results were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. The most common lung disease diagnosis was interstitial lung disease (N = 131, 58%). Abnormal pH-metry was seen in 116 (51%) patients and the presence of symptoms was significantly associated with an abnormal study (p advanced lung disease, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux increase the likelihood of elevated acid exposure on pH-metry but were not associated with dysmotility. Given the proportion of asymptomatic patients with abnormal studies and associated post-transplant risks, a practice of universal high-resolution manometry and pH-metry testing in this population is justifiable.

  10. Functional capacities of lungs and thorax in beagles after prolonged residence at 3,100 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R L; Cassidy, S S; Grover, R F; Schutte, J E; Epstein, R H

    1985-12-01

    Functional capacities of the lungs and thorax in beagles taken to high altitude as adults for 33 mo or in beagles raised from puppies at high altitude were compared with functional capacities in corresponding sets of beagles kept simultaneously at sea level. Comparisons were made after reacclimatization to sea level. Lung volumes, airway pressures, esophageal pressures, CO diffusing capacities (DLCO), pulmonary blood flow, and lung tissue volume (Vt) were measured by a rebreathing technique at inspired volumes ranging from 15 to 90 ml/kg. In beagles raised from puppies we measured anatomical distribution of intrathoracic air and tissue using X-ray computed tomography at transpulmonary pressures of 20 cm H2O. Lung and thoracic distensibility, DLCO, and Vt were not different between beagles that had been kept at high altitude for 33 mo as adults and control subjects kept simultaneously at sea level. Lung distensibility, DLCO, and Vt were significantly greater in beagles raised at high altitude than control subjects raised simultaneously at sea level. Thoracic distensibility was not increased in beagles raised at high altitude; the larger lung volume was accommodated by a lower diaphragm, not a larger rib cage.

  11. Effect of phrenic nerve palsy on early postoperative lung function after pneumonectomy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Gregor J; Mauss, Karl; Carboni, Giovanni L; Hoksch, Beatrix; Kuster, Roland; Ott, Sebastian R; Schmid, Ralph A

    2013-12-01

    The issue of phrenic nerve preservation during pneumonectomy is still an unanswered question. So far, its direct effect on immediate postoperative pulmonary lung function has never been evaluated in a prospective trial. We conducted a prospective crossover study including 10 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between July 2011 and July 2012. After written informed consent, all consecutive patients who agreed to take part in the study and in whom preservation of the phrenic nerve during operation was possible, were included in the study. Upon completion of lung resection, a catheter was placed in the proximal paraphrenic tissue on the pericardial surface. After an initial phase of recovery of 5 days all patients underwent ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic motion followed by lung function testing with and without induced phrenic nerve palsy. The controlled, temporary paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm was achieved by local administration of lidocaine 1% at a rate of 3 mL/h (30 mg/h) via the above-mentioned catheter. Temporary phrenic nerve palsy was accomplished in all but 1 patient with suspected catheter dislocation. Spirometry showed a significant decrease in dynamic lung volumes (forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity; p phrenic nerve palsy causes a significant impairment of dynamic lung volumes during the early postoperative period after pneumonectomy. Therefore, in these already compromised patients, intraoperative phrenic nerve injury should be avoided whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  13. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...... of repetitions necessary to yield satisfactory reliability. Nineteen healthy subjects performed four trials of a forward lunge on two different days. The movement time, impulses of the ground reaction forces (IFz, IFy), knee joint kinematics and dynamics during the forward lunge were calculated. The relative...... reliability was determined by calculation of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The IFz, IFy and the positive work of the knee extensors showed excellent reliability (ICC >0.75). All other variables demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.4>ICCreliability increased when more than...

  14. Quantative pre-surgical lung function estimation with SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale L.; Timmins, Sophi; Harris, Benjamin E.; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Roach, Paul J.; Willowson, Kathy P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To develop methodology to predict lobar lung function based on SPECT/CT ventilation 6 k perfusion (V/Q) scanning in candidates for lobectomy for lung cancer. This combines two development areas from our group: quantitative SPECT based on CT-derived corrections for scattering and attenuation of photons, and SPECT V/Q scanning with lobar segmentation from CT Six patients underwent baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT) including spirometry, measurement of DLCO and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. A SPECT/CT V/Q scan was acquired at baseline. Using in-house software each lobe was anatomically defined using CT to provide lobar ROIs which could be applied to the SPECT data. From these, individual lobar contribution to overall function was calculated from counts within the lobe and post-operative FEVl, DLCO and V02 peak were predicted. This was compared with the quantitative planar scan method using 3 rectangular ROIs over each lung.

  15. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children and adults with asthma and impaired lung function have been reported to have low-grade systemic inflammation, but it is unknown whether this inflammation starts before symptoms and in particular whether low-grade inflammation is present in asymptomatic neonates with reduced...... lung function. ObjectiveWe sought to investigate the possible association between neonatal lung function and biomarkers of systemic inflammation.  Methods: Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL8 (IL-8) were measured at age 6 months in 300 children.......  Results: The neonatal forced expiratory volume at 0.5 seconds was inversely associated with hs-CRP (β-coefficient, −0.12; 95% CI, −0.21 to −0.04; P approach, including hs-CRP, IL-6...

  16. Geriatric Assessment and Functional Decline in Older Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, L; Kenis, C; Schallier, D; Vansteenkiste, J; Nackaerts, K; Vanacker, L; Vandewalle, N; Flamaing, J; Lobelle, J P; Milisen, K; De Grève, J; Wildiers, H

    2017-10-01

    Older patients with lung cancer are a heterogeneous population making treatment decisions complex. This study aims to evaluate the value of geriatric assessment (GA) as well as the evolution of functional status (FS) in older patients with lung cancer, and to identify predictors associated with functional decline and overall survival (OS). At baseline, GA was performed in patients ≥70 years with newly diagnosed lung cancer. FS measured by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was reassessed at follow-up to define functional decline and OS was collected. Predictors for functional decline and OS were determined. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included in this study. At baseline, GA deficiencies were present in all domains and ADL and IADL were impaired in 51 and 63% of patients, respectively. At follow-up, functional decline in ADL was observed in 23% and in IADL in 45% of patients. In multivariable analysis, radiotherapy was predictive for ADL decline. No other predictors for ADL or IADL decline were identified. Stage and baseline performance status were predictive for OS. Older patients with lung cancer present with multiple deficiencies covering all geriatric domains. During treatment, functional decline is observed in almost half of the patients. None of the specific domains of the GA were predictive for functional decline or survival, probably because of the high impact of the aggressiveness of this tumor type leading to a poor prognosis.

  17. A prospective study of the impact of diabetes mellitus on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment: The Saku study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Nao; Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Asayama, Kei; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Izawa, Satoshi; Ohno, Yuko

    2018-05-01

    To assess the impact of diabetes on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. This 5-year prospective study included 7524 participants aged 40-69years without lung function impairment at baseline who underwent a comprehensive medical check-up between April 2008 and March 2009 at Saku Central Hospital. Diabetes was defined by fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0mmol/l (126mg/dl), HbA1c≥6.5% (48mmol/mol), or a history of diabetes, as determined by interviews conducted by the physicians. Restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment were defined as forced vital capacity (FVC) impairment or until March 2014. During the follow-up period, 171 and 639 individuals developed restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment, respectively. Individuals with diabetes had a 1.6-fold higher risk of restrictive lung function impairment than those without diabetes after adjusting for sex, age, height, abdominal obesity, smoking status, exercise habits, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and baseline lung function [multivariable-adjusted HR and 95% CI; 1.57 (1.04-2.36)]. In contrast, individuals with diabetes did not have a significantly higher risk of obstructive lung function impairment [multivariable-adjusted HR and 95% CI; 0.93 (0.72-1.21)]. Diabetes was associated with restrictive lung function impairment but not obstructive lung function impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Weight history from birth through childhood and youth in relation to adult lung function, in Danish juvenile obese and non-obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bua, J; Prescott, E; Schack-Nielsen, L

    2005-01-01

    ) and who participated in a follow-up examination in 1981-1983 (age range: 25-48 y). Birth weight, childhood weight and height measurements from 7 to 13 y of age were obtained from school health records. Current BMI and lung function were assessed at follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen and adjacent regions......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of birth weight, body mass index (BMI) during childhood and youth, and current BMI with adult lung function. DESIGN: Population-based longitudinal study of juvenile obese and non-obese men, who were identified at draft board examination (age range: 19-27 y......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In total, 193 juvenile obese men at draft board examination and 205 randomly selected nonobese controls from the same population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lung function measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC), adjusted for age and height...

  19. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE DETECTION BASED ON STATISTICAL REGION MERGING AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Aghabalaei Khordehchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world that can be treated if the lung nodules are detected in their early stages of growth. This study develops a new framework for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules thorough a fully-automatic analysis of Computed Tomography (CT images. In the present work, the multi-layer CT data is fed into a pre-processing step that exploits an adaptive diffusion-based smoothing algorithm in which the parameters are automatically tuned using an adaptation technique. After multiple levels of morphological filtering, the Regions of Interest (ROIs are extracted from the smoothed images. The Statistical Region Merging (SRM algorithm is applied to the ROIs in order to segment each layer of the CT data. Extracted segments in consecutive layers are then analyzed in such a way that if they intersect at more than a predefined number of pixels, they are labeled with a similar index. The boundaries of the segments in adjacent layers which have the same indices are then connected together to form three-dimensional objects as the nodule candidates. After extracting four spectral, one morphological, and one textural feature from all candidates, they are finally classified into nodules and non-nodules using the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed framework has been applied to two sets of lung CT images and its performance has been compared to that of nine other competing state-of-the-art methods. The considerable efficiency of the proposed approach has been proved quantitatively and validated by clinical experts as well.

  20. Decreased lung function after preschool wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in children at risk to develop asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Singh, Anne Marie; Danov, Zoran; Evans, Michael D; Jackson, Daniel J; Burton, Ryan; Roberg, Kathy A; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Pappas, Tressa E; Gangnon, Ronald; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Preschool rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses predict an increased risk of childhood asthma; however, it is not clear how specific viral illnesses in early life relate to lung function later on in childhood. To determine the relationship of virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function in a longitudinal cohort of children at risk for asthma. Two hundred thirty-eight children were followed prospectively from birth to 8 years of age. Early life viral wheezing respiratory illnesses were assessed by using standard techniques, and lung function was assessed annually by using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function were assessed by using mixed-effect linear regression. Children with RV wheezing illness demonstrated significantly decreased spirometry values, FEV(1) (P = .001), FEV(0.5) (P Children who wheezed with respiratory syncytial virus or other viral illnesses did not have any significant differences in spirometric or impulse oscillometry indices when compared with children who did not. Children diagnosed with asthma at ages 6 or 8 years had significantly decreased FEF(25-75) (P = .05) compared with children without asthma. Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of decreased lung function up to age 8 years in a high-risk birth cohort. Whether low lung function is a cause and/or effect of RV wheezing illnesses is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of gender specific anthropometric characteristics on lung function in young competitive triathletes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Hanapi M; Zainudin, Hakimi A; Knight, Victor F; Lumley, Steven A; Subramanium, Ananthan S; Caszo, Brinnell A; Gnanou, Justin V

    2017-04-01

    Anthropometric and lung function characteristics of triathletes are important for the implementation of individual specific training and recovery recommendations. However, limited data are available for these parameters in triathletes. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize and examine the gender differences of lung function and anthropometry parameters in competitive triathletes from Malaysia. Body composition assessment and lung function tests were performed on sixteen competitive triathletes (nine male and seven female). The subject's body composition profile including muscle mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), and percent body fat was measured using a bio-impedance segmental body composition analyzer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured by Quark PFT2 spirometer. The anthropometric measurements revealed that male triathletes were significantly taller than female triathletes and had significantly more protein and skeletal muscle mass. The female triathletes, however, had significantly higher percent body fat. Male triathletes had statistically significant higher FVC and FEV1 than female triathletes. Both the male and female triathletes showed a positive correlation between height, fat free mass and the lung function markers FVC and FEV1. This association was not seen with Body Mass Index (BMI) in female triathletes. The data from our study shows that anthropometric parameters are directly linked to lung function of a triathlete. We also found the relationship between BMI and lung function to be gender specific in triathletes and is dependent on the body protein and fat content. Hence, body composition characterization is essential and provides valuable information for developing individual specific training modules.

  2. Regional measurement of ventilation and perfusion to detect subtle lung abnormalities in coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, H.; Liu, J.; Brill, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between regional pulmonary ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) uniquely determines the amount of gas exchange that occurs in the lungs. Therefore, the pixel-by-pixel distributions of V and Q were measured with continuously inhaled Kr-81m and i.v. injected Tc-99m MAA, respectively, in a group of 71 subjects exposed to coal dust and then compared with those from a control group of 9 healthy volunteers. Each subject sat upright with his back against a large-field-of-view scintillation camera; 500,000 count images were obtained, analyzed by computer, and then displayed in a 64 x 64 matrix. Individual pixel values of V and Q were correlated by a best-fit regression line, whose slope was proportional to the overall V/Q ratio. The slopes of individual groups of nonsmokers, ex-smokers, and smokers (0.83-0.85) were significantly greater (p < 0.02) than the slope of the controls (0.70 +/- 0.07). In addition, the authors found that the skewness of plots of frequency distribution of V/Q and of V and Q vs V/Q for the individual patient groups was statistically different from that of the normals (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis of local and Q values therefore appears to be a potentially useful, non-invasive method to evaluate subtle regional lung impairment

  3. Measurement of radon concentration in dwellings in the region of highest lung cancer incidence in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoliana, B.; Rohmingliana, P.C.; Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of radon exhalation from soil and its concentration in indoor is found to be helpful in many investigations such as health risk assessment and others as radiation damage to bronchial cells which eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. The fact that Aizawl District, Mizoram, India has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) in India as declared by Population Based Cancer Registry Report 2008 indicates the need for quantification of radon and its anomalies attached to it. Measurement of radon concentration had been carried out inside the dwellings in Aizawl district, Mizoram. A time integrated method of measurement was employed by using a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) type (LR-115 films) kept in a twin cup dosimeter for measurement of concentration of radon and thoron. The dosimeters were suspended over bed rooms or living rooms in selected dwellings. They were deployed for a period of about 120 days at a time in 63 houses which were selected according to their place of location viz. fault region, places where fossil remains were found and geologically unidentified region. After the desired period of exposure, the detectors were retrieved and chemically etched which were then counted by using a spark counter. The recorded nuclear tract densities are then converted into air concentrations of Radon and Thoron

  4. Outcome following radiotherapy for loco-regionally recurrent non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.; Yeghiaian-Alvandi, R.; Foroudi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Local and regional recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer is reported to occur in 13-20% of treatment failures after resection. Reported post-recurrent median survival following radiotherapy ranges from 9 to 14 months. This study examines survival following radiotherapy alone for patients with loco-regionally recurring non-small cell lung cancer after initial surgery. Fifty-five patients, receiving radiotherapy at Westmead Hospital between 1979 and 1997, were eligible for study. Data were collected retrospectively by reviewing patient records. The end-point was overall survival. Symptom control was also recorded. Prognostic factors for analysis included age, sex, original presenting stage, disease-free interval (DFI), performance status, site of recurrence, treatment intent and dose. The median overall survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval: 8.1-13.0). Survival following treatment with radical intent was 26 months compared to 10.5 months for patients treated with palliative intent (P = 0.025). There was no significant difference in survival for short (<2 years) or long DFI, performance status, radiation dose, age, sex, site of recurrence or stage. Most patients (55%) had partial or complete resolution of symptoms. Radiotherapy results in overall post-recurrence median survival of nearly 1 year, consistent with previous published data. Radical treatment intent predicts better prognosis as a result of patient selection and higher dose. Radiotherapy is effective at palliating symptoms of this disease Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  5. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  6. Prenatal determinants of neonatal lung function in high-risk newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Loland, Lotte; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2009-01-01

    newborns, the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood, in a single-center research clinic dedicated solely to this longitudinal birth cohort study. Lung function was determined at 1 month of age by infant spirometry (the raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression technique) and bronchial...... had 7% lower baseline forced expiratory volume at 0.5 second. Sex or parental atopic disease did not affect the neonatal lung function and bronchial responsiveness. Maternal intake of paracetamol during the third trimester was associated with doubling of the bronchial responsiveness in the neonates...

  7. Pattern of loco-regional failure after definitive radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, Tine; Nielsen, Tine Bjørn; Brink, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    , and occurrence of distant metastasis. It is challenging to evaluate loco-regional control after definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC since it is difficult to distinguish between radiation-induced damage to the lung tissue and tumour progression/recurrence. In addition it may be useful to distinguish between...... intrapulmonary failure and mediastinal failure to be able to optimize radiotherapy in order to improve loco-regional control even though it is not easy to discriminate between the two sites of failure. Material and methods. This study is a retrospective analysis of 331 NSCLC patients treated with definitive...... with mediastinal relapse. Conclusion. We conclude that focus should be on increasing doses to intrapulmonary tumour volume, when dose escalation is applied to improve local tumour control in NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, since most recurrences are located here....

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 modulates regional effects of injurious mechanical ventilation in rodent lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moo Suk; He, Qianbin; Edwards, Michael G; Sergew, Amen; Riches, David W H; Albert, Richard K; Douglas, Ivor S

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation induces heterogeneous lung injury by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB. Mechanisms regulating regional injury and protective effects of prone positioning are unclear. To determine the key regulators of the lung regional protective effects of prone positioning in rodent lungs exposed to injurious ventilation. Adult rats were ventilated with high (18 ml/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] 0) or low Vt (6 ml/kg; PEEP 3 cm H(2)O; 3 h) in supine or prone position. Dorsal-caudal lung mRNA was analyzed by microarray and MAPK phosphatases (MKP)-1 quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MKP-1(-/-) or wild-type mice were ventilated with very high (24 ml/kg; PEEP 0) or low Vt (6-7 ml/kg; PEEP 3 cm H(2)O). The MKP-1 regulator PG490-88 (MRx-108; 0.75 mg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline was administered preventilation. Injury was assessed by lung mechanics, bronchioalveolar lavage cell counts, protein content, and lung injury scoring. Immunoblotting for MKP-1, and IκBα and cytokine ELISAs were performed on lung lysates. Prone positioning was protective against injurious ventilation in rats. Expression profiling demonstrated MKP-1 20-fold higher in rats ventilated prone rather than supine and regional reduction in p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation. MKP-1(-/-) mice experienced amplified injury. PG490-88 improved static lung compliance and injury scores, reduced bronchioalveolar lavage cell counts and cytokine levels, and induced MKP-1 and IκBα. Injurious ventilation induces MAPK in an MKP-1-dependent fashion. Prone positioning is protective and induces MKP-1. PG490-88 induced MKP-1 and was protective against high Vt in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner. MKP-1 is a potential target for modulating regional effects of injurious ventilation.

  9. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  10. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertyishniy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  11. Impact of field number and beam angle on functional image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Bilal A.; Bragg, Chris M.; Wild, Jim M.; Swinscoe, James A.; Lawless, Sarah E.; Hart, Kerry A.; Hatton, Matthew Q.; Ireland, Rob H.

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of beam angles and field number on functionally-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) normal lung avoidance treatment plans that incorporate hyperpolarised helium-3 magnetic resonance imaging (3He MRI) ventilation data. Eight non-small cell lung cancer patients had pre-treatment 3He MRI that was registered to inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy planning computed tomography. IMRT plans that minimised the volume of total lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (V20) were compared with plans that minimised 3He MRI defined functional lung receiving  ⩾20 Gy (fV20). Coplanar IMRT plans using 5-field manually optimised beam angles and 9-field equidistant plans were also evaluated. For each pair of plans, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare fV20 and the percentage of planning target volume (PTV) receiving 90% of the prescription dose (PTV90). Incorporation of 3He MRI led to median reductions in fV20 of 1.3% (range: 0.2-9.3% p  =  0.04) and 0.2% (range: 0 to 4.1%; p  =  0.012) for 5- and 9-field arrangements, respectively. There was no clinically significant difference in target coverage. Functionally-guided IMRT plans incorporating hyperpolarised 3He MRI information can reduce the dose received by ventilated lung without comprising PTV coverage. The effect was greater for optimised beam angles rather than uniformly spaced fields.

  12. Longitudinal study of lung function in a cohort of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellerman, A; Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) have pronounced stasis of their respiratory secretions and therefore recurrent lower airway infections, which raises concerns for the development of lung function. Twenty four patients with PCD have been studied prospectively with a standardized regime...... patients entering as children (forced vital capacity (FVC) 70 versus 85% predicted; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 59 versus 72% pred). The lung damage did not relate to the type of ciliary dyskinesia. During the subsequent surveillance of the groups for a median of 14 and 7 yrs...... in our clinic for 2-16 yrs with clinic visits, including spirometry 2-4 times per year, daily physiotherapy and monthly sputum cultures with subsequent specific antibiotic treatment. Lung function was significantly lower in the 12 PCD patients entering the cohort as adults when compared to the PCD...

  13. The Japan Lung Cancer Society–Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology consensus-based computed tomographic atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itazawa, Tomoko; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Komiyama, Takafumi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Yuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Sakai, Shuji; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus-based computed tomographic (CT) atlas that defines lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer based on the lymph node map of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). A project group in the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) initially prepared a draft of the atlas in which lymph node Stations 1–11 were illustrated on axial CT images. Subsequently, a joint committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) and the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) was formulated to revise this draft. The committee consisted of four radiation oncologists, four thoracic surgeons and three thoracic radiologists. The draft prepared by the JROSG project group was intensively reviewed and discussed at four meetings of the committee over several months. Finally, we proposed definitions for the regional lymph node stations and the consensus-based CT atlas. This atlas was approved by the Board of Directors of JLCS and JASTRO. This resulted in the first official CT atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer authorized by the JLCS and JASTRO. In conclusion, the JLCS–JASTRO consensus-based CT atlas, which conforms to the IASLC lymph node map, was established.

  14. Evolution of the respiratory function after irradiation of the two lungs (about 50 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulier, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    Whole chest irradiation to a dose of 870 rets, i.e. 1500 rads in 4 sessions over 7 days, causes only minimal functional reduction in patients whose pulmonary function was normal prior to radiation therapy. This reduction is the result of combination of a mild restrictive syndrome (decreased vital capacity and residual volume) and a slight impairment in gas transfer. The changes in the gas transfer do not seem to be related to the restrictive syndrome. They would appear to be due to changes in the gas exchange zone other than a restriction of the gas exchange surface. A comparison of the results with those in the literature shows that there is a distinct relationship between the dose delivered to the lung and the functional reduction in the gas transfer zone. The reduction (DT) increases exponentially with the biologically active dose (in rets). The lungs tolerance dose calculated from the results of lung function studies corresponds to that evaluated by Abbatucci et al. on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria; it is very close to 900 rets. An increase in this dose would inevitably result in a deterioration in function that would rapidly become too severe: a 20% reduction in alveolararterial 'ductance' would be too great even for patients whose lung function was normal prior to radiation therapy. The recommended total dose of 870 rets already exposes the patient to a risk of a 5% (+-10%) reduction in gas exchange. Function studies prior to radiation therapy are indispensible: the radiotherapist remains, of course, the sole judge of the advisability of lung irradiation, but it is imperative that the physiologist participate in the post-irradiation follow-up [fr

  15. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Gender-Age-Physiology Index Stage for Predicting Future Lung Function Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Margaret L; Xia, Meng; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Tayob, Nabihah; Brown, Kevin K; Wells, Athol U; Schmidt, Shelley L; Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease with variable course. The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) Index and staging system uses clinical variables to stage mortality risk. It is unknown whether clinical staging predicts future decline in pulmonary function. We assessed whether the GAP stage predicts future pulmonary function decline and whether interval pulmonary function change predicts mortality after accounting for stage. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (N = 657) were identified retrospectively at three tertiary referral centers, and baseline GAP stages were assessed. Mixed models were used to describe average trajectories of FVC and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (Dlco). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether declines in pulmonary function ≥ 10% in 6 months predict mortality after accounting for GAP stage. Over a 2-year period, GAP stage was not associated with differences in yearly lung function decline. After accounting for stage, a 10% decrease in FVC or Dlco over 6 months independently predicted death or transplantation (FVC hazard ratio, 1.37; Dlco hazard ratio, 1.30; both, P ≤ .03). Patients with GAP stage 2 with declining pulmonary function experienced a survival profile similar to patients with GAP stage 3, with 1-year event-free survival of 59.3% (95% CI, 49.4-67.8) vs 56.9% (95% CI, 42.2-69.1). Baseline GAP stage predicted death or lung transplantation but not the rate of future pulmonary function decline. After accounting for GAP stage, a decline of ≥ 10% over 6 months independently predicted death or lung transplantation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of chemically modified nanostructured PLGA on functioning of lung and breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lijuan Zhang,1 Thomas J Webster21Department of Chemistry, 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanotopographies with alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption on the functioning of healthy and cancerous lung and breast cells, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which promotes tumor angiogenesis and secretion.Methods: We used a well established cast-mold technique to create nanoscale surface features on PLGA. Some of the nanomodified PLGA films were then exposed to alginate and chitosan. Surface roughness and the presence of protein was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Surface energy was quantified by contact angle measurement.Results: Nanostructured PLGA surfaces with 23 nm features decreased synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells compared with conventional PLGA. Preadsorbing alginate further decreased cancer cell function, with nanostructured PLGA preadsorbed with alginate achieving the greatest decrease in synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells. In contrast, compared with nonmodified smooth PLGA, healthy cell functions were either not altered (ie, breast or were enhanced (ie, lung by use of nanostructured features and alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption.Conclusion: Using this technique, we developed surface nanometric roughness and modification of surface chemistry that could selectively decrease breast and lung cancer cell functioning without the need for chemotherapeutics. This technique requires further study in a wide range of anticancer and regenerative medicine applications.Keywords: breast, lung, cancer, nanotechnology, alginate, chitosan

  17. Enhanced Heme Function and Mitochondrial Respiration Promote the Progression of Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M.; Sullivan, Laura A.; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  18. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  19. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Fang-Yi; Nandi, Suvobroto; Salgia, Ravi; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Jer-Wei; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsu, Han-Shui; Huang, Shiu-Feng Kathy; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Kanteti, Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients. We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68

  20. Normative values and anthropometric determinants of lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Respiratory diseases represent some of the most common causes of hospital visits in childhood. Most of our decision making rely on clinical assessment without the benefit of objective measures of pulmonary function. The ability to measure pulmonary function provides a tool that can ...

  1. Examination of post operative split lung function using quantitative xenon 133 (133Xe) inhalation scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omote, Yoshiharu; Maeda, Tomio; Ikeda, Koichiro; Kubo, Yoshihiko

    1992-01-01

    133 Xe inhalation scan and ordinary lung function testing were performed three times in 34 patients undergoing pulmonary resection: before surgery, and one and six months postoperatively. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1.0 ) were used as spirometric parameters. From the 133 Xe inhalation scan, a split lung capacity (right to left, upper, middle and lower) and T1/2 (time required for half of the inhalation of 133 Xe gas to be expired) were calculated by computer and used as indices of split lung capacity and ventilation, respectively. The predicted postoperative lung functions were calculated using preoperative spirometric respiratory function and 133 Xe inhalation data according to the formula reported by Ali and associates. At sixth postoperative month, both predicted FVC (r=0.895, p 1.0 (r=0.897, p<0.001) correlated highly with those actually observed. These results appear to be very useful for preoperative evaluation of operative indications and the choice of surgical method. The ratios of observed to predicted lung capacity in the post operative state were examined by splitting the right and left lung and the means±S.D.(%) were 80.5±9.7% on the operated side and 119.2±11.7% on the opposite side one month after surgery. Six months after surgery, the corresponding figures were 111.0±5.6% and 96.7±16.4%. The post operative T1/2 values on the operated sides were about 2.4 times the preoperative values at one month after surgery but returned to the preoperative values by the six postoperative month. From these results, it can be said that respiratory functions after pulmonary resection are maintained primarily by compensatory lung function of opposite and operated sides at one and six months, respectively. These results also provide valuable information on postoperative respiratory care for patients who have undergone lung resection. (author)

  2. Functional mechanism of lung mosaic CT attenuation: assessment with deep-inspiration breath-hold perfusion SPECT-CT fusion imaging and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, K; Yasuhiko, K; Iwanaga, H; Tokuda, O; Matsunaga, N

    2009-01-01

    The functional mechanism of lung mosaic computed tomography attenuation (MCA) in pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and obstructive airway disease (OAD) has not yet been fully clarified. To clarify the mechanism of MCA in these diseases by assessing the relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at MCA sites with the use of automated deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. Subjects were 42 PVD patients (31 pulmonary thromboembolism, four primary/two secondary pulmonary hypertension, and five Takayasu arteritis), 12 OAD patients (five acute asthma, four obliterative bronchiolitis, and three bronchiectasis), and 12 normal controls, all of whom had MCA on DIBrH CT. The relationship between regional lung function and CT attenuation change at the lung slices with MCA was assessed using DIBrH perfusion SPECT-CT fusion images and non-breath-hold Technegas SPECT. The severity of perfusion defects with or without MCA was quantified by regions-of-interest analysis. On DIBrH CT and perfusion SPECT, in contrast to no noticeable CT attenuation abnormality and fairly uniform perfusion in controls, 60 MCA and 274 perfusion defects in PVD patients, and 18 MCA and 61 defects in OAD patients were identified, with a total of 77 ventilation defects on Technegas SPECT in all patients. SPECT-CT correlation showed that, throughout the 78 MCA sites of all patients, lung perfusion was persistently decreased at low CT attenuation and preserved at intervening high CT attenuation, while lung ventilation was poorly correlated with CT attenuation change. The radioactivity ratios of reduced perfusion and the intervening preserved perfusion at the 78 perfusion defects with MCA were significantly lower than those at the remaining 257 defects without MCA (P<0.0001). Although further validation is required, our results indicate that heterogeneous pulmonary arterial

  3. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Nae Park

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162, univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042. In male ever-smokers (n = 69, lung functions (FVC and FEV1 were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83, lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026. Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.

  4. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of regional lymph nodes of lung cancer in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Naomichi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    1991-01-01

    Enhanced MR imagings were performed on thirty-one patients with lung cancer by intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). A spin-echo pulse sequence (SE 400/40) with 0.5-T MR system was used. The Gd-DTPA enhancement of lymph nodes was studied for 67 nodes (29 metastatic lymph nodes and 38 non-metastatic lymph nodes) on the hilar and mediastinal region. The mean signal intensity of metastatic lymph nodes was enhanced higher than that of non-metastatic lymph nodes (p<0.001). On the criterion of the signal intensity change (the cutoff point: 800 S.I) at 5 minutes after administration, the diagnostic rates on retrospective study showed a sensitivity of 79 %, a specificity of 84 % and an overall accuracy of 82%. These data show higher rates than those of the size criteria. This study suggests a significant potential for improved detection of lymph node metastasis of lung cancer with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. (author)

  5. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  6. Effects of Exposure to Welding Fume on Lung Function: Results from the German WELDOX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M; Hoffmeyer, F; Gawrych, K; Lotz, A; Heinze, E; Berresheim, H; Merget, R; Harth, V; Van Gelder, R; Hahn, J-U; Hartwig, A; Weiß, T; Pesch, B; Brüning, T

    2015-01-01

    The association between exposure to welding fume and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been insufficiently clarified. In this study we assessed the influence of exposure to welding fume on lung function parameters. We investigated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and expiratory flow rates in 219 welders. We measured current exposure to respirable particles and estimated a worker's lifetime exposure considering welding techniques, working conditions and protective measures at current and former workplaces. Multiple regression models were applied to estimate the influence of exposure to welding fume, age, and smoking on lung function. We additionally investigated the duration of working as a welder and the predominant welding technique. The findings were that age- and smoking-adjusted lung function parameters showed no decline with increasing duration, current exposure level, and lifetime exposure to welding fume. However, 15% of the welders had FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal, but we could not substantiate the presence of an association with the measures of exposure. Adverse effects of cigarette smoking were confirmed. In conclusion, the study did not support the notion of a possible detrimental effect of exposure to welding fume on lung function in welders.

  7. Rural-urban disparity in lung function parameters of Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-demographic, nutritional status as well as lung function parameters measured using incentive Spirometry (MIR Spirolab III srl, Italy) of the children were obtained and compared among the rural and urban children. Results: A total of 250 children (128 rural and 122 urban) aged 9 to 17 years participated in the ...

  8. Aging-related trajectories of lung function in the general population-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Engelfriet, Peter M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Schipper, Maarten; Wouters, Inge M; Boezen, Marike; Smit, Henriëtte A; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Picavet, H Susan J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore trajectories of lung function decline with age in the general population, and to study the effect of sociodemographic and life style related risk factors, in particular smoking and BMI. For this purpose, we used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study (DCS)

  9. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeck, Lucas; Soriano, Joan B.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Biasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Gomez Marin, Jose M.; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Christobal; Soler-Cataluna, Juan J.; de Torres, Juan P.; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R.; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-01-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function. The

  10. Airway remodeling and long-term decline in lung function in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that frequently shows progression of airway obstruction. There are indications that ongoing airway inflammation is responsible for the more severe hyperresponsiveness, lower lung function, and accelerated loss of forced expiratory volume in 1 second. At this moment,

  11. Detection of COPD, lung function decline and emphysema progression in heavy smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis has improved our insights in important determinants of lung function decline and emphysema progression in heavy smokers. Secondly, it improved our insight on the question which threshold of FEV1/FVC is most appropriate in diagnosing COPD. We showed in chapter 2 that

  12. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  13. Factors associated with worse lung function in cystic fibrosis patients with persistent staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, S. (Sibylle); Görlich, D. (Dennis); Reijer, M.D. (Martijn Den); B. Wiedemann (Baerbel); B. Tümmler (Burkhard); H. Ellemunter; Dübbers, A. (Angelika); Küster, P. (Peter); M. Ballmann; Koerner-Rettberg, C. (Cordula); Große-Onnebrink, J. (Jörg); Heuer, E. (Eberhardt); Sextro, W. (Wolfgang); Mainz, J.G. (Jochen G.); Hammermann, J. (Jutta); Riethmüller, J. (Joachim); Graepler-Mainka, U.M. (Ute M.); Staab, D. (Doris); Wollschläger, B. (Bettina); Szczepanski, R. (Rüdiger); A. Schuster (Antje); Tegtmeyer, F.-K. (Friedrich-Karl); Sutharsan, S. (Sivagurunathan); Wald, A. (Alexandra); Nofer, J.-R. (Jerzy-Roch); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); Becker, K. (Karsten); Peters, G. (Georg); Kahl, B.C. (Barbara C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in

  14. Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierodiakonou, Despo; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Melly, Steve; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike; Vonk, Judith M.; Williams, Paul V.; Shapiro, Gail G.; McKone, Edward F.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Lumley, Thomas; Fuhlbrigge, Anne N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel; Weiss, Scott T.; Gold, Diane R.

    BACKGROUND: Although ambient air pollution has been linked to reduced lung function in healthy children, longitudinal analyses of pollution effects in asthmatic patients are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate pollution effects in a longitudinal asthma study and effect modification by

  15. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Gruzieva, Olena; Mölter, Anna; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; Fuertes, Elaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; de Hoogh, Kees; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Klümper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Krämer, Ursula; Korek, Michal; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriëtte A; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Wang, Meng; Wolf, Kathrin; Pershagen, Göran; Gehring, Ulrike

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  16. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.; Hoek, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Mölter, A.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Custovic, A.; Cyrys, J.; Fuertes, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffmann, B.; De Hoogh, K.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Krämer, U.; Korek, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Tsai, M.Y.; Wang, M.; Wolf, K.; Pershagen, G.; Gehring, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  17. Pulmonary function change in patients with Sauropus androgynus-related obstructive lung disease 15 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ying Ou

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: After an acute deterioration, patients with S androgynus-related obstructive lung disease had a stationary pulmonary function over a period of 15 years, and their clinical manifestations were less severe than age- and FEV1-matched COPD patients. A further study with a larger sample size may be needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  19. Effect of endotoxin and allergens on neonatal lung function and infancy respiratory symptoms and eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing-Karahagopian, V.; Gugten, A.C. van der; Ent, C.K. van der; Uiterwaal, C.; Jongh, M. de; Oldenwening, M.; Brunekreef, B.; Gehring, U.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to endotoxin and allergens in house dust has been found to be associated with childhood wheeze and asthma. Neonatal lung function is rarely examined in relation to this exposure. OBJECTIVES To assess the association between exposure to endotoxin, house dust mite and cat

  20. A comparative estimation of the adrenal function in surgical and combined treatment of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, I.A.; Berntstejn, M.I.; Evtyukhin, A.I.; Shul'ga, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The functional state of the adrenal glands during surgical and combinated treatment was examined in 38 radically operated patients with pulmonary cancer. Irradiation of lung cancer patients was found to stimulate the adrenal glands activity followed by reduction of their potentialities, manifested in a less marked increase of the catecholamines level and decreased 11-OCS level in blood during surgical treatment

  1. NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandford, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Deepti; Boezen, H. Marike; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wong, Vivien; Akhabir, Loubna; He, Jian-Qing; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.; Pare, Peter D.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Sandford AJ, Malhotra D, Boezen HM, Siedlinski M, Postma DS, Wong V, Akhabir L, He JQ, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD, Biswal S. NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Physiol Genomics 44: 754-763, 2012. First published June 12, 2012;

  2. Association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serapinas Danielius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a well established inherited risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; however, alpha-1 antitrypsin level may result in different lung function reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible associations of alpha-1 antitrypsin level and lung function in COPD patients with different alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotypes. Methods. Serum alpha-1 antitrypsin concentration from patients (n = 1,167 with COPD, defined according to the GOLD criteria, were analyzed by nephelometry, and alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype was determined by means of isoelectric-focusing. Results. In COPD patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (MM, a significant negative association of lung function (FEV1 with serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (r = -0.511; p < 0.05 and C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations (r = -0.583; p < 0.05 was detected; moreover, the level of alpha-1 antitrypsin positively correlated with CRP concentration (r = 0.667; p < 0.05. Conclusions. In patients without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, detected negative association of alpha-1 antitrypsin level with FEV1 and positive association with the CRP level defined the importance of alpha-1 antitrypsin for lung function in COPD patients.

  3. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  4. Superoxide Dismutase 3 Polymorphism Associated with Reduced Lung Function in Two Large Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Bowler, Russell P; Juul, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    . Measurements and Main Results: Genotyping the Copenhagen City Heart Study identified 35 E1/I1 homozygotes, 1,050 heterozygotes, and 8,008 noncarriers (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: P = 0.93). Using quadruple lung function measurements, we found that E1/I1 homozygotes had 7% lower FVC % predicted (P = 0...

  5. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age

  6. Long term high flow heated oxygen treatment in COPD – lung function and physical ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Despite this, a progressive loss of lung function and physical ability is expected in COPD. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) warmed and humidified oxygen-enriched air, 20...

  7. Waist circumference, BMI, and lung function in 8-year-old children : The PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Wijga, Alet H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) may be associated with lung function in children, as observed in adults. Methods Height, weight, waist circumference, and lung function (FVC and FEV1) were measured during a medical examination in 1,058 eight-year-old children

  8. Change in lung function and morbidity from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in alpha1-antitrypsin MZ heterozygotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A deteriorating effect of severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ genotype) on lung function is well known, whereas the role of intermediate deficiency (MZ genotype) remains uncertain.......A deteriorating effect of severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (ZZ genotype) on lung function is well known, whereas the role of intermediate deficiency (MZ genotype) remains uncertain....

  9. Time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Gabi; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas; Hopman, Maria T E

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time-courses of lung function and respiratory muscle pressure generating capacity after spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Multi-centre, prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: One hundred and nine subjects with recent, motor complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: Lung function and

  10. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine associations between...... with reduced lung function (FEV1 %predicted valuediseases may have...

  11. Region of interest-based versus whole-lung segmentation-based approach for MR lung perfusion quantification in 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, M.; Sommer, V.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zoellner, F.G. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zahn, K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Schaible, T. [Heidelberg University, Department of Paediatrics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    With a region of interest (ROI)-based approach 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show reduced MR lung perfusion values on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral. This study evaluates whether results can be reproduced by segmentation of whole-lung and whether there are differences between the ROI-based and whole-lung measurements. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantified in 30 children after CDH repair. Quantification results of an ROI-based (six cylindrical ROIs generated of five adjacent slices per lung-side) and a whole-lung segmentation approach were compared. In both approaches PBF and PBV were significantly reduced on the ipsilateral side (p always <0.0001). In ipsilateral lungs, PBF of the ROI-based and the whole-lung segmentation-based approach was equal (p=0.50). In contralateral lungs, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimated PBF in comparison to the whole-lung segmentation approach by approximately 9.5 % (p=0.0013). MR lung perfusion in 2-year-old children after CDH is significantly reduced ipsilaterally. In the contralateral lung, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimates perfusion, which can be explained by exclusion of the most ventral parts of the lung. Therefore whole-lung segmentation should be preferred. (orig.)

  12. Region of interest-based versus whole-lung segmentation-based approach for MR lung perfusion quantification in 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.; Sommer, V.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W.; Zoellner, F.G.; Zahn, K.; Schaible, T.

    2016-01-01

    With a region of interest (ROI)-based approach 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show reduced MR lung perfusion values on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral. This study evaluates whether results can be reproduced by segmentation of whole-lung and whether there are differences between the ROI-based and whole-lung measurements. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantified in 30 children after CDH repair. Quantification results of an ROI-based (six cylindrical ROIs generated of five adjacent slices per lung-side) and a whole-lung segmentation approach were compared. In both approaches PBF and PBV were significantly reduced on the ipsilateral side (p always <0.0001). In ipsilateral lungs, PBF of the ROI-based and the whole-lung segmentation-based approach was equal (p=0.50). In contralateral lungs, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimated PBF in comparison to the whole-lung segmentation approach by approximately 9.5 % (p=0.0013). MR lung perfusion in 2-year-old children after CDH is significantly reduced ipsilaterally. In the contralateral lung, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimates perfusion, which can be explained by exclusion of the most ventral parts of the lung. Therefore whole-lung segmentation should be preferred. (orig.)

  13. Aging effects on airflow dynamics and lung function in human bronchioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JongWon; Heise, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Angela M; Pidaparti, Ramana M

    2017-01-01

    The mortality rate for patients requiring mechanical ventilation is about 35% and this rate increases to about 53% for the elderly. In general, with increasing age, the dynamic lung function and respiratory mechanics are compromised, and several experiments are being conducted to estimate these changes and understand the underlying mechanisms to better treat elderly patients. Human tracheobronchial (G1 ~ G9), bronchioles (G10 ~ G22) and alveolar sacs (G23) geometric models were developed based on reported anatomical dimensions for a 50 and an 80-year-old subject. The aged model was developed by altering the geometry and material properties of the model developed for the 50-year-old. Computational simulations using coupled fluid-solid analysis were performed for geometric models of bronchioles and alveolar sacs under mechanical ventilation to estimate the airflow and lung function characteristics. The airway mechanical characteristics decreased with aging, specifically a 38% pressure drop was observed for the 80-year-old as compared to the 50-year-old. The shear stress on airway walls increased with aging and the highest shear stress was observed in the 80-year-old during inhalation. A 50% increase in peak strain was observed for the 80-year-old as compared to the 50-year-old during exhalation. The simulation results indicate that there is a 41% increase in lung compliance and a 35%-50% change in airway mechanical characteristics for the 80-year-old in comparison to the 50-year-old. Overall, the airway mechanical characteristics as well as lung function are compromised due to aging. Our study demonstrates and quantifies the effects of aging on the airflow dynamics and lung capacity. These changes in the aging lung are important considerations for mechanical ventilation parameters in elderly patients. Realistic geometry and material properties need to be included in the computational models in future studies.

  14. Predictions of lung cancer based on county averages for indoor radon versus the historic incidence of regional lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Chrosniak, C.E.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    After a decade of effort to determine the health risk associated with indoor radon, the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency have prevailed in the US, and 4 pCi/1 is commonly used as an Action Level. Proposals by other groups supporting lower or higher Action Levels have failed, largely due to paucity of information supporting any particular level of indoor radon. The authors' studies have compared indoor radon for zip code and county size areas with parameters such as geology, precipitation and home construction. Their attempts to verify the relative levels of lung cancer using US-EPA estimates of radon-vs-cancer have not been supportive of the EPA risk estimates. In general, when they compare the number of lung cancer cases in particular geological or geographical areas with the indoor radon levels in that area, they find the EPA predicted number of lung cancer cases to exceed the total number of lung cancer cases from all causes. Comparisons show a correlation between the incidence of lung cancer and indoor radon, but the level of risk is about 1/10 that proposed by the US-EPA. Evidently the assumptions used in their studies are flawed. Even though they find lower risk estimates using many counties in several states, fundamental flaws must be present in this type of investigation. Care must be taken in presenting health risks to the general population in cases, such as in indoor radon, where field data do not support risk estimates obtained by other means

  15. Lung region extraction based on the model information and the inversed MIP method by using chest CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihiro; Miguchi, Ryosuke; Okumura, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Tateno, Yukio; Iinuma, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Toru.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a lung region extraction method based on the model information and the inversed MIP method in the Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT). Original model is composed of typical 3-D lung contour lines, a body axis, an apical point, and a convex hull. First, the body axis. the apical point, and the convex hull are automatically extracted from the input image Next, the model is properly transformed to fit to those of input image by the affine transformation. Using the same affine transformation coefficients, typical lung contour lines are also transferred, which correspond to rough contour lines of input image. Experimental results applied for 68 samples showed this method quite promising. (author)

  16. CHRNA3 genotype, nicotine dependence, lung function and disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2012-01-01

    The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism has been associated to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and nicotine dependence in case-control studies with high smoking exposure; however, its influence on lung function and COPD severity in the general population is largely unknown. We...... genotyped 57,657 adult individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, of whom 34,592 were ever-smokers. Information on spirometry, hospital admissions, smoking behaviour and use of nicotinic replacement therapy was recorded. In homozygous (11%), heterozygous (44%) and noncarrier (45%) ever...

  17. Genetic variation in HTR4 and lung function: GWAS follow-up in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, John S; Li, Huiling; DeGraff, Laura M; Flake, Gordon; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pulmonary function. Proving that there is a causal relationship between GWAS SNPs, many of which are noncoding and without known functional impact, and these traits has been elusive. Furthermore, noncoding GWAS-identified SNPs may exert trans-regulatory effects rather than impact the proximal gene. Noncoding variants in 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4 (HTR4) are associated with pulmonary function in human GWASs. To gain insight into whether this association is causal, we tested whether Htr4-null mice have altered pulmonary function. We found that HTR4-deficient mice have 12% higher baseline lung resistance and also increased methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) as measured by lung resistance (27%), tissue resistance (48%), and tissue elastance (30%). Furthermore, Htr4-null mice were more sensitive to serotonin-induced AHR. In models of exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, bleomycin, and allergic airway inflammation induced by house dust mites, pulmonary function and cytokine profiles in Htr4-null mice differed little from their wild-type controls. The findings of altered baseline lung function and increased AHR in Htr4-null mice support a causal relationship between genetic variation in HTR4 and pulmonary function identified in human GWAS. © FASEB.

  18. Impact of airway obstruction on lung function in very preterm infants at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Reiss, Irwin; Gortner, Ludwig; Schüler, Daniel; Weber, Katrin; Lindemann, Hermann

    2008-11-01

    Morbidity and mortality in preterm infants is significantly determined by the development of pulmonary complications. We thus investigated the impact of obstructive ventilatory disorders on lung function in very preterm infants with a history of respiratory distress syndrome and/or bronchopulmonary dysplasia using repeated body plethysmographic measurements before and after bronchodilation. Lung function, including effective airway resistance (Raw), specific conductance (SGaw), functional residual capacity (FRCbox), and total respiratory system compliance (Crs, multiple occlusion technique) was assessed in 27 preterm infants pound31 wks gestational age at a median postmenstrual age of 38 wks after mild oral sedation before and after inhalation of nebulized salbutamol (1.25 mg/2.5 mL; PARI JuniorBOY N) using the MasterScreen Baby Body (Jaeger, Hoechberg, Germany). In preterm infants median Raw was initially found to be within the normal range as determined for healthy term newborns, but decreased significantly after administration of salbutamol; SGaw changed accordingly. FRCbox was significantly reduced compared with healthy term newborns (16.6 vs. 19.6 mL/kg, mean) and decreased further after bronchodilation, whereas Crs was not significantly altered. This is the first report quantifying the important impact of obstructive ventilatory disorders on lung function in very preterm infants at term. Besides its important role in preterm lung function consecutive overinflation could furthermore be shown to mask reduction of lung volume in these infants. Thus, body plethysmographic measurements seem to be an important diagnostic tool in preterm infants at term before hospital discharge in order to quantify ventilation disorders and to define therapeutic strategies.

  19. Influence of stapling the intersegmental planes on lung volume and function after segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshida, Kumiko; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Okabe, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Dividing the intersegmental planes with a stapler during pulmonary segmentectomy leads to volume loss in the remnant segment. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of segment division methods on preserved lung volume and pulmonary function after segmentectomy. Using image analysis software on computed tomography (CT) images of 41 patients, the ratio of remnant segment and ipsilateral lung volume to their preoperative values (R-seg and R-ips) was calculated. The ratio of postoperative actual forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) per those predicted values based on three-dimensional volumetry (R-FEV1 and R-FVC) was also calculated. Differences in actual/predicted ratios of lung volume and pulmonary function for each of the division methods were analysed. We also investigated the correlations of the actual/predicted ratio of remnant lung volume with that of postoperative pulmonary function. The intersegmental planes were divided by either electrocautery or with a stapler in 22 patients and with a stapler alone in 19 patients. Mean values of R-seg and R-ips were 82.7 (37.9-140.2) and 104.9 (77.5-129.2)%, respectively. The mean values of R-FEV1 and R-FVC were 103.9 (83.7-135.1) and 103.4 (82.2-125.1)%, respectively. There were no correlations between the actual/predicted ratio of remnant lung volume and pulmonary function based on the division method. Both R-FEV1 and R-FVC were correlated not with R-seg, but with R-ips. Stapling does not lead to less preserved volume or function than electrocautery in the division of the intersegmental planes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of spray dried insulin microparticles to bypass deposition in the extrathoracic region and maximize total lung dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Keith T; Rao, Nagaraja; Weers, Jeffry G; Huang, Daniel; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-25

    Inhaled drugs all too often deliver only a fraction of the emitted dose to the target lung site due to deposition in the extrathoracic region (i.e., mouth and throat), which can lead to increased variation in lung exposure, and in some instances increases in local and systemic side effects. For aerosol medications, improved targeting to the lungs may be achieved by tailoring the micromeritic properties of the particles (e.g., size, density, rugosity) to minimize deposition in the mouth-throat and maximize the total lung dose. This study evaluated a co-solvent spray drying approach to modulate particle morphology and dose delivery characteristics of engineered powder formulations of insulin microparticles. The binary co-solvent system studied included water as the primary solvent mixed with an organic co-solvent, e.g., ethanol. Factors such as the relative rate of evaporation of each component of a binary co-solvent mixture, and insulin solubility in each component were considered in selecting feedstock compositions. A water-ethanol co-solvent mixture with a composition range considered suitable for modulating particle shell formation during drying was selected for experimental investigation. An Alberta Idealized Throat model was used to evaluate the in vitro total lung dose of a series of spray dried insulin formulations engineered with different bulk powder properties and delivered with two prototype inhalers that fluidize and disperse powder using different principles. The in vitro total lung dose of insulin microparticles was improved and favored for powders with low bulk density and small primary particle size, with reduction of deposition in the extrathoracic region. The results demonstrated that a total lung dose >95% of the delivered dose can be achieved with engineered particles, indicating a high degree of lung targeting, almost completely bypassing deposition in the mouth-throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional evaluation of lung by Xe-133 lung ventilation scintigraphy before and after lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in patients with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Taichi; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuhei

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the respiratory functions of patients with pulmonary emphysema who underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) by the mean transit time (MTT) with Xe-133 lung ventilation scintigraphy, forced expiration volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), residual volume (RV), distance walked in 6 min (6-min walk), and the Hugh-Jones classification (H-J classification) before and after LVRS. In 69 patients with pulmonary emphysema (62 men, 7 women; age range, 47-75 years; mean age, 65.4 years±6.1, preoperative H-J classification, III (two were II)-V) who underwent LVRS, all preoperative and postoperative parameters (MTT 3 weeks after LVRS and the others 3 months after LVRS) were judged statistically by the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and Odds ratio. Every postoperative parameter was improved with a significant difference (P<0.05) compared to preoperative parameters. MTT at 3 weeks after LVRS was not associated with %FEV1.0 and the H-J classification at 3 months after LVRS, but was associated with RV and a 6-min walk at 3 months after LVRS. MTT was useful for the clinical evaluation of aerobic capability after LVRS. (author)

  2. Quantitation of global and regional left ventricular function by MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, RJ; Reiber, JHC; Reiber, JHC; VanDerWall, EE

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides several imaging strategies for assessing left ventricular function. As a three-dimensional imaging technique, all measurements can be performed without relying on geometrical assumptions. Global and regional function parameters can be derived from

  3. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luis IG; Ind, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC. The cause of this is unclear, but acute bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis may be relevant. Bullous lung disease, barotrauma and cannabis smoking have been recognised in case reports and small series. More work is needed to address the effects of cannabis on lung function, imaging and histological changes. PMID:27763599

  4. Improved survival prediction from lung function data in a large population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Pedersen, O.F.; Lange, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating tung function to survival commonly express lung function impairment as a percent of predicted but this retains age, height and sex bias. We have studied alternative methods of expressing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for predicting all cause and airway related lung disease.......1 respectively. Cut levels of lung function were used to categorise impairment and the HR for multivariate prediction of all cause and airway related lung disease mortality were 10 and 2044 respectively for the worst category of FEV1/ht(2) compared to 5 and 194 respectively for the worst category of FEV1PP....... In univariate predictions of all cause mortality the HR for FEV1/ht(2) categories was 2-4 times higher than those for FEV1PP and 3-10 times higher for airway related tung disease mortality. We conclude that FEV1/ht(2) is superior to FEV1PP for predicting survival. in a general population and this method...

  5. Systemic Inflammation and Lung Function Impairment in Morbidly Obese Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Huisstede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and asthma are associated. There is a relationship between lung function impairment and the metabolic syndrome. Whether this relationship also exists in the morbidly obese patients is still unknown. Hypothesis. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with the metabolic syndrome causes inflammation in the lungs and, hence, lung function impairment. Methods. This is cross-sectional study of morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative screening for bariatric surgery. Metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the revised NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results. A total of 452 patients were included. Patients with the metabolic syndrome (n=293 had significantly higher blood monocyte (mean 5.3 versus 4.9, P=0.044 and eosinophil percentages (median 1.0 versus 0.8, P=0.002, while the total leukocyte count did not differ between the groups. The FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly lower in patients with the metabolic syndrome (76.7% versus 78.2%, P=0.032. Blood eosinophils were associated with FEV1/FVC ratio (adj. B −0.113, P=0.018. Conclusion. Although the difference in FEV1/FVC ratio between the groups is relatively small, in this cross-sectional study, and its clinical relevance may be limited, these data indicate that the presence of the metabolic syndrome may influence lung function impairment, through the induction of relative eosinophilia.

  6. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied.

  7. Characteristics, predictors and prospects of lung function among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for airflow limitation in addition to its other multi-systemic deleterious effects. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement offers an opportunity to assess ventilatory function abnormalities in cigarette smokers. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine ventilatory ...

  8. Aquaporin 5 polymorphisms and rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia N Hansel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Aquaporin-5 (AQP5 can cause mucus overproduction and lower lung function. Genetic variants in the AQP5 gene might be associated with rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. METHODS: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AQP5 were genotyped in 429 European American individuals with COPD randomly selected from the NHLBI Lung Health Study. Mean annual decline in FEV(1 % predicted, assessed over five years, was calculated as a linear regression slope, adjusting for potential covariates and stratified by smoking status. Constructs containing the wildtype allele and risk allele of the coding SNP N228K were generated using site-directed mutagenesis, and transfected into HBE-16 (human bronchial epithelial cell line. AQP5 abundance and localization were assessed by immunoblots and confocal immunofluorescence under control, shear stress and cigarette smoke extract (CSE 10% exposed conditions to test for differential expression or localization. RESULTS: Among continuous smokers, three of the five SNPs tested showed significant associations (0.02>P>0.004 with rate of lung function decline; no associations were observed among the group of intermittent or former smokers. Haplotype tests revealed multiple association signals (0.012>P>0.0008 consistent with the single-SNP results. In HBE16 cells, shear stress and CSE led to a decrease in AQP5 abundance in the wild-type, but not in the N228K AQP5 plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in AQP5 were associated with rate of lung function decline in continuous smokers with COPD. A missense mutation modulates AQP-5 expression in response to cigarette smoke extract and shear stress. These results suggest that AQP5 may be an important candidate gene for COPD.

  9. Predicting Structure-Function Relations and Survival following Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Treatment of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoñedo, Jarred R; Suki, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR. We find that (1) LVRS efficacy can be predicted based on pre-surgical network structure; (2) macroscopic functional improvements following bLVR are related to microscopic changes in mechanical force heterogeneity; and (3) both techniques improve aspects of survival and quality of life influenced by lung compliance, albeit while accelerating disease progression. Our model predictions yield unique insights into the microscopic origins underlying emphysema progression before and after lung volume reduction.

  10. Time course of lung function changes in atypical pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusiglio, L N; Stalder, H; Junod, A F

    1980-01-01

    We measured pulmonary function in each of 21 patients suffering from "atypical", non-bacterial pneumonia during the acute illness and during convalescence (two to 18 months) to study the course and the nature of functional impairment at different stages of the disease. In six patients, no aetiological agent was found. An aetiological agent was identified in 15 of the patients: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (seven patients), influenza A (three patients), parainfluenza 3 (one patient), varicella (two patients), Q fever (one patient), coxsackie B3 (one patient). At the time of admission we observed a restrictive pattern in 52%, an obstructive pattern (decreased FEV1/FVC ratio) in 52% abnormalities in distribution of ventilation (abnormal slope of phase 3) in 63%, and abnormalities in gas exchange (increased AaDO2) in 75% of the patients. The frequency of abnormalities in these pulmonary function tests decreased dramatically after two to four weeks and nearly disappeared in most patients during convalescence. The only major residual abnormality was a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio in five subjects, four of whom were smokers. However, when MMEF and V75 were measured at this stage, their average value for all the groups of patients with the exclusion of the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, was markedly reduced. These data suggest that small airways involvement can be demonstrated during the convalescence of patients recovering from various types of atypical pneumonia other than those caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. PMID:7444825

  11. Lung function and airway inflammation in rats following exposure to combustion products of carbon-graphite/epoxy composite material: comparison to a rodent model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Gregory S; Grasman, Keith A; Kimmel, Edgar C

    2003-02-01

    Pulmonary function and inflammation in the lungs of rodents exposed by inhalation to carbon/graphite/epoxy advanced composite material (ACM) combustion products were compared to that of a rodent model of acute lung injury (ALI) produced by pneumotoxic paraquat dichloride. This investigation was undertaken to determine if short-term exposure to ACM smoke induces ALI; and to determine if smoke-related responses were similar to the pathogenic mechanisms of a model of lung vascular injury. We examined the time-course for mechanical lung function, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung, and the expression of three inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Male Fischer-344 rats were either exposed to 26.8-29.8 g/m(3) nominal concentrations of smoke or were given i.p. injections of paraquat dichloride. Measurements were determined at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days post exposure. In the smoke-challenged rats, there were no changes in lung function indicative of ALI throughout the 7-day observation period, despite the acute lethality of the smoke atmosphere. However, the animals showed signs of pulmonary inflammation. The expression of TNF-alpha was significantly increased in the lavage fluid 1 day following exposure, which preceded the maximum leukocyte infiltration. MIP-2 levels were significantly increased in lavage fluid at days 2, 3, and 7. This followed the leukocyte infiltration. IFN-gamma was significantly increased in the lung tissue at day 7, which occurred during the resolution of the inflammatory response. The paraquat, which was also lethal to a small percentage of the animals, caused several physiologic changes characteristic of ALI, including significant decreases in lung compliance, lung volumes/capacities, distribution of ventilation, and gas exchange capacity. The expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 increased significantly in the lung tissue as well as in the

  12. Focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose irradiation down-regulated organ development-related functions and up-regulated the immune response in mouse pulmonary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jin, Hee; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Ga-Young; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2016-01-27

    Despite the emergence of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of medically inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients, the molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose radiation have not been fully characterized. This study was designed to identify molecular changes induced by focal high-dose irradiation using a mouse model of SBRT. Central areas of the mouse left lung were focally-irradiated (3 mm in diameter) with a single high-dose of radiation (90 Gy). Temporal changes in gene expression in the irradiated and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions were analyzed by microarray. For comparison, the long-term effect (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation on a diffuse region of lung was also measured. The majority of genes were down-regulated in the focally-irradiated lung areas at 2 to 3 weeks after irradiation. This pattern of gene expression was clearly different than gene expression in the diffuse region of lungs exposed to low-dose radiation. Ontological and pathway analyses indicated these down-regulated genes were mainly associated with organ development. Although the number was small, genes that were up-regulated after focal irradiation were associated with immune-related functions. The temporal patterns of gene expression and the associated biological functions were also similar in non-irradiated neighboring lung regions, although statistical significance was greatly reduced when compared with those from focally-irradiated areas of the lung. From network analysis of temporally regulated genes, we identified inter-related modules associated with diverse functions, including organ development and the immune response, in both the focally-irradiated regions and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions. Focal exposure of lung tissue to high-dose radiation induced expression of genes associated with organ development and the immune response. This pattern of gene expression was also observed in non

  13. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation by reference to symptoms, spirometric lung function and emphysema, as assessed with HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joegi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Ekberg, Marie [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Jonson, Bjoern [Lund University, Department of Clinical Physiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden); Bozovic, Gracijela [Lund University, Skaane University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation which is not fully reversible. Despite the heterogeneity of COPD, its diagnosis and staging is currently based solely on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}). FEV{sub 1} does not explain the underlying pathophysiology of airflow limitation. The relationship between FEV{sub 1}, symptoms and emphysema extent is weak. Better diagnostic tools are needed to define COPD. Tomographic lung scintigraphy [ventilation/perfusion single photon emission tomography (V/P SPECT)] visualizes regional V and P. In COPD, relations between V/P SPECT, spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and symptoms have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate how lung function imaging and obstructive disease grading undertaken using V/P SPECT correlate with symptoms, spirometric lung function and degree of emphysema assessed with HRCT in patients with COPD. Thirty patients with stable COPD were evaluated with the Medical Research Council dyspnoea questionnaire (MRC) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ). Spirometry was performed. The extent of emphysema was assessed using HRCT. V/P SPECT was used to assess V/P patterns, total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease. The total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease, assessed with V/P SPECT, significantly correlated with emphysema extent (r = 0.66-0.69, p < 0.0001) and spirometric lung function (r = 0.62-0.74, p < 0.0005). The correlation between emphysema extent and spirometric lung function was weaker. No correlation between MRC, CCQ and objective measurements was found. V/P SPECT is sensitive to early changes in COPD. V/P SPECT also has the possibility to identify comorbid disease. V/P SPECT findings show a significant correlation with emphysema extent and spirometric lung function. We therefore recommend that scintigraphic signs of COPD, whenever found, should be

  14. Ventilation/perfusion SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation by reference to symptoms, spirometric lung function and emphysema, as assessed with HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joegi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Ekberg, Marie; Jonson, Bjoern; Bozovic, Gracijela

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation which is not fully reversible. Despite the heterogeneity of COPD, its diagnosis and staging is currently based solely on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). FEV 1 does not explain the underlying pathophysiology of airflow limitation. The relationship between FEV 1 , symptoms and emphysema extent is weak. Better diagnostic tools are needed to define COPD. Tomographic lung scintigraphy [ventilation/perfusion single photon emission tomography (V/P SPECT)] visualizes regional V and P. In COPD, relations between V/P SPECT, spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and symptoms have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate how lung function imaging and obstructive disease grading undertaken using V/P SPECT correlate with symptoms, spirometric lung function and degree of emphysema assessed with HRCT in patients with COPD. Thirty patients with stable COPD were evaluated with the Medical Research Council dyspnoea questionnaire (MRC) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ). Spirometry was performed. The extent of emphysema was assessed using HRCT. V/P SPECT was used to assess V/P patterns, total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease. The total reduction in lung function and degree of obstructive disease, assessed with V/P SPECT, significantly correlated with emphysema extent (r = 0.66-0.69, p < 0.0001) and spirometric lung function (r = 0.62-0.74, p < 0.0005). The correlation between emphysema extent and spirometric lung function was weaker. No correlation between MRC, CCQ and objective measurements was found. V/P SPECT is sensitive to early changes in COPD. V/P SPECT also has the possibility to identify comorbid disease. V/P SPECT findings show a significant correlation with emphysema extent and spirometric lung function. We therefore recommend that scintigraphic signs of COPD, whenever found, should be reported. V

  15. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  16. Functional evaluation of the anorectal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerri, F.; Curtolo, S.; Muzzio, P.C.; Pittarello, F.; Dodi, G.

    1991-01-01

    Defecography is a method allowing the morphodynamic evaluation of the anorectal region. The technique needs two complementary times: 'phase' defecography and dynamic defecography. In the series of patients affected with severe constipation, 2 groups could be identified. Group A included those patients (mean age: 38.7 years) in whom no significant changes were observed in anorectal angle from pubococcygeal line in comparison with normal subjects (student's t-test). Group B included those patients (mean age : 63.3 years) in whom significant reduction was observed in anorectal angle on straining, together with increased distance of anorectal angle from pubococcygeal line on squeezing in comparison with normal subjects (Students t-test). In constipated patients narrowed anal canal was observed (60%), together with rectocele (42.6%), mucosal prolapse (27.8%), rectal prolapse (18%) and solitary ulcer (14.7%). In idiopathic incontonence patients (mean age: 63.3 years), increased distance was observed of anorectal angle from pubococcygeal line on squeezing, in the most severe cases, even at rest, with the patient sitting (Student's t-test). In incontinent patients larger anal canal was observed (67.6%), together with rectocele (36.7%), mucosal prolapse (14.7%), and rectal prolapse (11.7%)

  17. The concentration of iron in real-world geogenic PM₁₀ is associated with increased inflammation and deficits in lung function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Zosky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many communities around the world that are exposed to high levels of particulate matter <10 µm (PM₁₀ of geogenic (earth derived origin. Mineral dusts in the occupational setting are associated with poor lung health, however very little is known about the impact of heterogeneous community derived particles. We have preliminary evidence to suggest that the concentration of iron (Fe may be associated with the lung inflammatory response to geogenic PM₁₀. We aimed to determine which physico-chemical characteristics of community sampled geogenic PM₁₀ are associated with adverse lung responses. METHODS: We collected geogenic PM₁₀ from four towns in the arid regions of Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were exposed to 100 µg of particles and assessed for inflammatory and lung function responses 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days post-exposure. We assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and correlated these with lung outcomes in the mice using principal components analysis and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: Geogenic particles induced an acute inflammatory response that peaked 6 hours post-exposure and a deficit in lung mechanics 7 days post-exposure. This deficit in lung mechanics was positively associated with the concentration of Fe and particle size variability and inversely associated with the concentration of Si. CONCLUSIONS: The lung response to geogenic PM₁₀ is complex and highly dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles. In particular, the concentration of Fe in the particles may be a key indicator of the potential population health consequences for inhaling geogenic PM₁₀.

  18. Quantitative computed tomography for the prediction of pulmonary function after lung cancer surgery: a simple method using simulation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Li, Tao-Sheng; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2009-03-01

    The prediction of pulmonary functional reserve is mandatory in therapeutic decision-making for patients with resectable lung cancer, especially those with underlying lung disease. Volumetric analysis in combination with densitometric analysis of the affected lung lobe or segment with quantitative computed tomography (CT) helps to identify residual pulmonary function, although the utility of this modality needs investigation. The subjects of this prospective study were 30 patients with resectable lung cancer. A three-dimensional CT lung model was created with voxels representing normal lung attenuation (-600 to -910 Hounsfield units). Residual pulmonary function was predicted by drawing a boundary line between the lung to be preserved and that to be resected, directly on the lung model. The predicted values were correlated with the postoperative measured values. The predicted and measured values corresponded well (r=0.89, plung cancer surgery and helped to identify patients whose functional reserves are likely to be underestimated. Hence, this modality should be utilized for patients with marginal pulmonary function.

  19. Lung-dominant connective tissue disease among patients with interstitial lung disease: prevalence, functional stability, and common extrathoracic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD, positive antinuclear antibody (ANA results (≥ 1/320, with or without specific autoantibodies, and at least one clinical feature suggestive of connective tissue disease (CTD. RESULTS: Of the 1,998 patients screened, 52 initially met the criteria for a diagnosis of LD-CTD: 37% were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years; and the median follow-up period was 48 months. During follow-up, 8 patients met the criteria for a definitive diagnosis of a CTD. The remaining 44 patients comprised the LD-CTD group, in which the most prevalent extrathoracic features were arthralgia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The most prevalent autoantibodies in this group were ANA (89% and anti-SSA (anti-Ro, 27%. The mean baseline and final FVC was 69.5% and 74.0% of the predicted values, respectively (p > 0.05. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia patterns were found in 45% and 9% of HRCT scans, respectively; 36% of the scans were unclassifiable. A similar prevalence was noted in histological samples. Diffuse esophageal dilatation was identified in 52% of HRCT scans. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 22 patients; 17 showed a scleroderma pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In our LD-CTD group, there was predominance of females and the patients showed mild spirometric abnormalities at diagnosis, with differing underlying ILD patterns that were mostly unclassifiable on HRCT and by histology. We found functional stability on follow-up. Esophageal dilatation on HRCT and scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy were frequent findings and might come to serve as diagnostic criteria.

  20. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Regional Factors and Lung Cancer Mortality in China, 1973-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoping; Wang, Limin; Zhu, Li

    2017-04-01

    Background: China's lung cancer crude death rate has increased 6.9-fold from 1973 to 2014. During this time, the country experienced extremely rapid economic growth and social change. It is important to understand the effects of risk factors on lung cancer mortality (LCM) for better allocation of limited resources of cancer prevention and control in China. Methods: Using three nationwide mortality surveys from 1973 to 2005, Global Health Data Exchange data in 2013, three nationwide smoking surveys from 1984 to 2013, four population censuses from 1964 to 2000, and other datasets, we have compiled datasets and developed spatial random effect models to assess the association of various area-level-contributing factors on LCM. Spatial scan statistics are used to detect high-risk clusters of LCM. Results: LCM is higher in urban and more industrialized areas (RR = 1.17) compared with those in rural areas. The level of industrial development's effect is higher for men, which accounts for about 70% of all LCM. Smoking is positively associated with regional variation of LCM rates, and the effect is higher for women than for men. Conclusions: The geographic pattern of high LCM in China is different from that of Western countries. LCM is positively associated with higher socioeconomic status, with more urbanized areas at a higher level of industrial development. Impact: There is a need to further explore additional risk in the high-risk clusters. The study is about China, but this situation may happen in other countries experiencing rapid industrialization and other developing countries. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 569-77. ©2017 AACR See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Effects of inhaled coal fly ash on lung biochemistry and function in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.A.; Chen, L.C.; Ryan, I.; Gordon, I.; Amdur, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    The ultrafine fraction of particles produced during the combustion of coal are the most difficult to remove with control devices and are retained longest in the atmosphere. Combustion of a high-sulfur coal, such as Illinois No. 6, produces a significant quantity of sulfuric acid, most of which is absorbed to the surface of those particles smaller than 1 μm in diameter. Particles smaller than 0.05 μm in diameter, moreover, consist largely of sulfuric acid; since these particles penetrate to the deepest regions of the lung, exposure to coal fly ash can result in the administration of large doses of acid to the alveolar tissues. Using a combustion system that generates coal fly ash similar to that collected in flue gas, guinea pigs were exposed for 2 h to aerosols produced from Illinois No. 6 (mean aerodynamic diameter 0.2 μm) at concentrations of 5 and 20 mg/m 3 . The animals were lavaged at 24 h post-exposure and levels of dehydrogenase (LDH), β-glucuronidase (β-GC), and protein were compared to those of control animals. After 24 h, no changes in levels of LDH and β-GC were seen in the lavage fluid from both high-dose and low-dose animals. Slight, but statistically significant elevations in protein concentration were measured in the high-dose exposure group. The total cell number in the lavage fluid was also found exposure group. The total cell number in the lavage fluid was also found to be exchanged following both exposures. It was previously found that exposure to 5 mg/M 3 of Illinois No. 6 fly ash results in immediate reductions in pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco), total lung capacity (TLC), and vital capacity, and that both DLco and TLC values are not completely restored to normal 96 h post-exposure. These results suggest that the alterations in pulmonary function resulting from exposure to acidic coal fly ash are not accompanied by major inflammatory changes in lavage fluid

  3. TU-G-BRA-02: Can We Extract Lung Function Directly From 4D-CT Without Deformable Image Registration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipritidis, J; Woodruff, H; Counter, W; Keall, P; Hofman, M; Siva, S; Callahan, J; Le Roux, P; Hardcastle, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic CT ventilation imaging (CT-VI) visualizes air volume changes in the lung by evaluating breathing-induced lung motion using deformable image registration (DIR). Dynamic CT-VI could enable functionally adaptive lung cancer radiation therapy, but its sensitivity to DIR parameters poses challenges for validation. We hypothesize that a direct metric using CT parameters derived from Hounsfield units (HU) alone can provide similar ventilation images without DIR. We compare the accuracy of Direct and Dynamic CT-VIs versus positron emission tomography (PET) images of inhaled "6"8Ga-labelled nanoparticles (‘Galligas’). Methods: 25 patients with lung cancer underwent Galligas 4D-PET/CT scans prior to radiation therapy. For each patient we produced three CT- VIs. (i) Our novel method, Direct CT-VI, models blood-gas exchange as the product of air and tissue density at each lung voxel based on time-averaged 4D-CT HU values. Dynamic CT-VIs were produced by evaluating: (ii) regional HU changes, and (iii) regional volume changes between the exhale and inhale 4D-CT phase images using a validated B-spline DIR method. We assessed the accuracy of each CT-VI by computing the voxel-wise Spearman correlation with free-breathing Galligas PET, and also performed a visual analysis. Results: Surprisingly, Direct CT-VIs exhibited better global correlation with Galligas PET than either of the dynamic CT-VIs. The (mean ± SD) correlations were (0.55 ± 0.16), (0.41 ± 0.22) and (0.29 ± 0.27) for Direct, Dynamic HU-based and Dynamic volume-based CT-VIs respectively. Visual comparison of Direct CT-VI to PET demonstrated similarity for emphysema defects and ventral-to-dorsal gradients, but inability to identify decreased ventilation distal to tumor-obstruction. Conclusion: Our data supports the hypothesis that Direct CT-VIs are as accurate as Dynamic CT-VIs in terms of global correlation with Galligas PET. Visual analysis, however, demonstrated that different CT-VI algorithms

  4. TU-G-BRA-02: Can We Extract Lung Function Directly From 4D-CT Without Deformable Image Registration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, J; Woodruff, H; Counter, W; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hofman, M; Siva, S; Callahan, J; Le Roux, P [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hardcastle, N [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic CT ventilation imaging (CT-VI) visualizes air volume changes in the lung by evaluating breathing-induced lung motion using deformable image registration (DIR). Dynamic CT-VI could enable functionally adaptive lung cancer radiation therapy, but its sensitivity to DIR parameters poses challenges for validation. We hypothesize that a direct metric using CT parameters derived from Hounsfield units (HU) alone can provide similar ventilation images without DIR. We compare the accuracy of Direct and Dynamic CT-VIs versus positron emission tomography (PET) images of inhaled {sup 68}Ga-labelled nanoparticles (‘Galligas’). Methods: 25 patients with lung cancer underwent Galligas 4D-PET/CT scans prior to radiation therapy. For each patient we produced three CT- VIs. (i) Our novel method, Direct CT-VI, models blood-gas exchange as the product of air and tissue density at each lung voxel based on time-averaged 4D-CT HU values. Dynamic CT-VIs were produced by evaluating: (ii) regional HU changes, and (iii) regional volume changes between the exhale and inhale 4D-CT phase images using a validated B-spline DIR method. We assessed the accuracy of each CT-VI by computing the voxel-wise Spearman correlation with free-breathing Galligas PET, and also performed a visual analysis. Results: Surprisingly, Direct CT-VIs exhibited better global correlation with Galligas PET than either of the dynamic CT-VIs. The (mean ± SD) correlations were (0.55 ± 0.16), (0.41 ± 0.22) and (0.29 ± 0.27) for Direct, Dynamic HU-based and Dynamic volume-based CT-VIs respectively. Visual comparison of Direct CT-VI to PET demonstrated similarity for emphysema defects and ventral-to-dorsal gradients, but inability to identify decreased ventilation distal to tumor-obstruction. Conclusion: Our data supports the hypothesis that Direct CT-VIs are as accurate as Dynamic CT-VIs in terms of global correlation with Galligas PET. Visual analysis, however, demonstrated that different CT

  5. Functional imaging of the lung using a gaseous contrast agent: {sup 3}Helium-magnetic resonance imaging; Funktionelle Bildgebung der Lunge mit gasfoermigem Kontrastmittel: {sup 3}Helium-Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gast, K.K.; Heussel, C.P. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany); Schreiber, W.G. [AG Medizinische Physik, Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Current imaging methods of the lung concentrate on morphology as well as on the depiction of the pulmonary parenchyma. The need of an advanced and more subtle imaging technology compared to conventional radiography is met by computed topograhy as the method of choice. Nevertheless, computed tomography yields very limited functional information. This is to be derived from arterial blood gas analysis, spirometry and body plethysmography. These methods, however, lack the scope for regional allocation of any pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lung has been advanced by the use of hyperpolarised {sup 3}Helium as an inhaled gaseous contrast agent. The inhalation of the gas provides functional data by distribution, diffusion and relaxation of its hyperpolarised state. Because anatomical landmarks of the lung can be visualised as well, functional information can be linked with regional information. Furthermore, the method provides high spatial and temporal resolution and lacks the potential side-effects of ionising radiation. Four different modalities have been established: 1. Spin density imaging studies the distribution of gas, normally after a single inhalation of contrast gas in inspiratory breath hold. 2. Dynamic cine imaging studies the distribution of gas with respect to regional time constants of pulmonary gas inflow. 3. Diffusion weighted imaging can exhibit the presence and severity of pulmonary airspace enlargement, as in pulmonary emphysema. 4. Oxygen sensitive imaging displays intrapulmonary oxygen partial pressure and its distribution. Currently, the method is limited by comparably high costs and limited availability. As there have been recent developments which might bring this modality closer to clinical use, this review article will comprise the methodology as well as the current state of the art and standard of knowledge of magnetic resonance imaging of the lung using hyperpolarised {sup 3}Helium. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Shallow and Deep Learning Methods on Classifying the Regional Pattern of Diffuse Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Guk Bae; Jung, Kyu-Hwan; Lee, Yeha; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Namkug; Jun, Sanghoon; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A

    2017-10-17

    This study aimed to compare shallow and deep learning of classifying the patterns of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Using high-resolution computed tomography images, two experienced radiologists marked 1200 regions of interest (ROIs), in which 600 ROIs were each acquired using a GE or Siemens scanner and each group of 600 ROIs consisted of 100 ROIs for subregions that included normal and five regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticular opacity, emphysema, and honeycombing). We employed the convolution neural network (CNN) with six learnable layers that consisted of four convolution layers and two fully connected layers. The classification results were compared with the results classified by a shallow learning of a support vector machine (SVM). The CNN classifier showed significantly better performance for accuracy compared with that of the SVM classifier by 6-9%. As the convolution layer increases, the classification accuracy of the CNN showed better performance from 81.27 to 95.12%. Especially in the cases showing pathological ambiguity such as between normal and emphysema cases or between honeycombing and reticular opacity cases, the increment of the convolution layer greatly drops the misclassification rate between each case. Conclusively, the CNN classifier showed significantly greater accuracy than the SVM classifier, and the results implied structural characteristics that are inherent to the specific ILD patterns.

  7. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  8. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  9. A Dual Lung Scan for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis before and after Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chong Heon

    1967-01-01

    In 20 normal cases and 39 pulmonary tuberculosis cases, regional pulmonary arterial blood flow measurement and lung perfusion scans by 131 I-Macroaggregated albumin, lung inhalation scans by colloidal 198 Au and spirometries by respirometer were done at the Radiological Research Institute. The measured lung function tests were compared and the results were as the following: 1) The normal distribution of pulmonary blood flow was found to be 54.5±2.82% to the right lung and 45.5±2.39% to the left lung. The difference between the right and left pulmonary arterial blood flow was significant statistically (p 131 I-MAA in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was as follows: a) In the pretreated minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, the decreased area of pulmonary arterial blood flow was corresponding to the chest roentgenogram, but the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow was more extensive than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram in the apparently healed minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. b) In the pretreated moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the diseased area was corresponding to the chest roentgenogram, but the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow was more extensive in the treated moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis as in the treated minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. c) Pulmonary arterial blood flow in the patients with far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after chemotherapy were almost similar to the chest roentgenogram. Especially the decrease of pulmonary arterial blood flow to the cavity was usually greater than had been expected from the chest roentgenogram. 3) Lung inhalation scan by colloidal 198 Au in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was as follows: a) In the minimal pulmonary tuberculosis, lung inhalation scan showed almost similar decrease of radioactivity corresponding to the chest roentgenogram. b) In the moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculosis the decrease

  10. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-dose budesonide treatment improves lung function in patients with infrequent asthma symptoms at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    symptom frequency groups (Figure). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, once-daily, low-dose budesonide treatment plus usual asthma medication improves lung function in patients with mild, recent-onset asthma. These beneficial effects were seen even in patients with the lowest baseline asthma symptom frequency (0......RATIONALE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective in low doses for improving asthma outcomes, including lung function. In the past, ICS treatment was recommended for patients with 'persistent' asthma, defined by symptoms >2 days/week.1 However, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS...... in patients with less frequent symptoms at presentation. This was investigated in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4-66 years (median 21 years) with a history of recent-onset mild asthma (11 years...

  12. Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Analyses of Lung Function in Toluene Diisocyanate Production Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei Lin; Storey, Eileen; Cassidy, Laura D; Doney, Brent; Conner, Patrick R; Collins, James J; Carson, Michael; Molenaar, Don

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate lung function among toluene diisocyanate (TDI) production workers. One hundred ninety-seven U.S workers performed spirometry from 2006 through 2012. Results were compared within the study cohort and with U.S. population measures. A mixed-effects model assessed factors affecting repeated forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) measurements. The cohort's mean FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) percent reference values, although greater than 90%, were significantly lower and the prevalence of abnormal spirometry (predominantly restrictive pattern) was significantly higher than in the U.S. Differences in lung function among workers with higher cumulative TDI exposure were in the direction of an exposure effect, but not significant. We found little evidence of an adverse effect of TDI exposure on longitudinal spirometry in these workers. The association between TDI exposure and the increasing prevalence of a restrictive pattern needs further exploration.

  13. Effects of ozone exposure on lung function in man: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, L J

    1981-01-01

    Ozone, an important component of photochemical smog, has a decided impact on lung function in man. In this review, the effects of zone on human lung function are discussed with particular attention to levels which are near the threshold of producing no effect. Attempts to define dose-response relationships and effects on sensitive subject populations are described. The relationship between exercise and ozone toxicity is presented in addition to the potential impact of ambient ozone exposure on athletic performance. Effects of ozone on respiratory symptoms and the interaction of ozone with other pollutants are briefly examined. Considerable attention has been directed at the phenomenon of adaptation to repeated ozone exposure and to possible mechanism of action of ozone.

  14. Use of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography-Based Ventilation Imaging to Correlate Lung Dose and Function With Clinical Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao, Zhongxing; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based ventilation is an emerging imaging modality that can be used in the thoracic treatment planning process. The clinical benefit of using ventilation images in radiation treatment plans remains to be tested. The purpose of the current work was to test the potential benefit of using ventilation in treatment planning by evaluating whether dose to highly ventilated regions of the lung resulted in increased incidence of clinical toxicity. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment 4DCT data were used to compute pretreatment ventilation images for 96 lung cancer patients. Ventilation images were calculated using 4DCT data, deformable image registration, and a density-change based algorithm. Dose–volume and ventilation-based dose function metrics were computed for each patient. The ability of the dose–volume and ventilation-based dose–function metrics to predict for severe (grade 3+) radiation pneumonitis was assessed using logistic regression analysis, area under the curve (AUC) metrics, and bootstrap methods. Results: A specific patient example is presented that demonstrates how incorporating ventilation-based functional information can help separate patients with and without toxicity. The logistic regression significance values were all lower for the dose–function metrics (range P=.093-.250) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, P=.331-.580). The AUC values were all greater for the dose–function metrics (range, 0.569-0.620) than for their dose–volume equivalents (range, 0.500-0.544). Bootstrap results revealed an improvement in model fit using dose–function metrics compared to dose–volume metrics that approached significance (range, P=.118-.155). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study that attempts to correlate lung dose and 4DCT ventilation-based function to thoracic toxicity after radiation therapy. Although the results were not significant at the .05 level, our data suggests

  15. Biological clearance and committed dose equivalent in pulmonary region from inhaled radioaerosols for lung scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, P.S.; Sharma, S.M.; Raghunath, B.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    Biological clearance half-lives (Tsub(b)) of different /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled compounds from each lung have been determined, after administering the radioaerosol to normal subjects using the BARC dry aerosol generation and inhalation system. Based on these experimental clearance half-lives, the committed dose equivalent to the lungs has been computed using both the ICRP lung model and MIRD-11 values.

  16. Biological clearance and committed dose equivalent in pulmonary region from inhaled radioaerosols for lung scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.; Sharma, S.M.; Raghunath, B.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    Biological clearance half-lives (Tsub(b)) of different 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled compounds from each lung have been determined, after administering the radioaerosol to normal subjects using the BARC dry aerosol generation and inhalation system. Based on these experimental clearance half-lives, the committed dose equivalent to the lungs has been computed using both the ICRP lung model and MIRD-11 values. (author)

  17. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  18. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Negahdar, M; Yamamoto, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy of a novel functional lung imaging method that utilizes single-inhalation, single-energy xenon CT (Xe-CT) lung ventilation scans, and to compare it against the current clinical standard, ventilation single-photon emission CT (V-SPECT). Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, 14 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy received two successive single inhalation, single energy (80keV) CT images of the entire lung using 100% oxygen and a 70%/30% xenon-oxygen mixture. A subset of ten patients also received concurrent SPECT ventilation scans. Anatomic reproducibility between the two scans was achieved using a custom video biofeedback apparatus. The CT images were registered to each other by deformable registration, and a calculated difference image served as surrogate xenon ventilation map. Both lungs were partitioned into twelve sectors, and a sector-wise correlation was performed between the xenon and V-SPECT scans. A linear regression model was developed with forced expiratory volume (FEV) as a predictor and the coefficient of variation (CoV) as the outcome. Results: The ventilation comparison for five of the patients had either moderate to strong Pearson correlation coefficients (0.47 to 0.69, p<0.05). Of these, four also had moderate to strong Spearman correlation coefficients (0.46 to 0.80, p<0.03). The patients with the strongest correlation had clear regional ventilation deficits. The patient comparisons with the weakest correlations had more homogeneous ventilation distributions, and those patients also had diminished lung function as assessed by spirometry. Analysis of the relationship between CoV and FEV yielded a non-significant trend toward negative correlation (Pearson coefficient −0.60, p<0.15). Conclusion: Significant correlations were found between the Xe-CT and V-SPECT ventilation imagery. The results from this small cohort of patients indicate that single inhalation, single energy Xe-CT has the potential to

  19. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Negahdar, M [IBM Research Center, San Jose, California (United States); Yamamoto, T [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the efficacy of a novel functional lung imaging method that utilizes single-inhalation, single-energy xenon CT (Xe-CT) lung ventilation scans, and to compare it against the current clinical standard, ventilation single-photon emission CT (V-SPECT). Methods: In an IRB-approved clinical study, 14 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy received two successive single inhalation, single energy (80keV) CT images of the entire lung using 100% oxygen and a 70%/30% xenon-oxygen mixture. A subset of ten patients also received concurrent SPECT ventilation scans. Anatomic reproducibility between the two scans was achieved using a custom video biofeedback apparatus. The CT images were registered to each other by deformable registration, and a calculated difference image served as surrogate xenon ventilation map. Both lungs were partitioned into twelve sectors, and a sector-wise correlation was performed between the xenon and V-SPECT scans. A linear regression model was developed with forced expiratory volume (FEV) as a predictor and the coefficient of variation (CoV) as the outcome. Results: The ventilation comparison for five of the patients had either moderate to strong Pearson correlation coefficients (0.47 to 0.69, p<0.05). Of these, four also had moderate to strong Spearman correlation coefficients (0.46 to 0.80, p<0.03). The patients with the strongest correlation had clear regional ventilation deficits. The patient comparisons with the weakest correlations had more homogeneous ventilation distributions, and those patients also had diminished lung function as assessed by spirometry. Analysis of the relationship between CoV and FEV yielded a non-significant trend toward negative correlation (Pearson coefficient −0.60, p<0.15). Conclusion: Significant correlations were found between the Xe-CT and V-SPECT ventilation imagery. The results from this small cohort of patients indicate that single inhalation, single energy Xe-CT has the potential to

  20. Biomarkers to identify ILD and predict lung function decline in scleroderma lung disease or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Barry; Branagan, Peter; Moloney, Fiachra; Haroon, Muhammad; O'Connell, Oisin J; O'Connor, Terence M; O'Regan, Kevin; Harney, Sinead; Henry, Michael T

    2015-09-14

    SSc-ILD and IPF demonstrate significant morbidity and mortality. Predicting disease progression is challenging in both diseases. We sought a serum biomarker that could identify patients with SSc-ILD or IPF and prospectively predict short-term decline in lung function in these patients. 10 healthy controls, 5 SSc w/o ILD, 6 SSc-ILD and 13 IPF patients underwent venesection. An array of cytokines including KL-6, SP-D and MMP7 were measured. PFTs were obtained at baseline and six months. Cytokine measurements were correlated with PFTs. KL-6 in IPF patients (633 ng/ml, IQR 492-1675) was significantly elevated compared to controls (198 ng/ml, IQR 52-360, p<0.01) and SSc w/o ILD patients (192 ng/ml, IQR 0-524, p<0.05); KL-6 in SSc-ILD patients (836 ng/ml, IQR 431-1303) was significantly higher than in controls (p<0.05). SP-D was significantly higher in IPF patients (542 ng/ml, IQR 305-577) compared to controls (137 ng/ml, IQR 97-284, p<0.01) or to SSc w/o ILD patients (169 ng/ml, IQR 137-219, p<0.05). In comparison with controls (0.0 ng/ml, IQR 0.0-0.6), MMP7 was significantly higher in both IPF patients (2.85 ng/ml, IQR 1.5-3.6, p<0.05) and SSc-ILD patients (5.41 ng/ml, IQR 2.6-7.2, p<0.001). Using a cut-off level of 459ng/ml for KL-6 and of 1.28 ng/ml for MMP7, 18 out of 19 patients with ILD had a serum value of either KL-6 or MMP7 above these thresholds. For all ILD patients, baseline serum SP-D correlated with ΔFVC %pred over six months (r=-0.63, p=0.005, 95% CI -0.85 to -0.24). Combining KL-6 with MMP7 may be a useful screening tool for patients at risk of ILD. SP-D may predict short-term decline in lung function.

  1. Normalization of the collage regions of iterated function systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbing; Zhang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Fractal graphics, generated with iterated function systems (IFS), have been applied in broad areas. Since the collage regions of different IFS may be different, it is difficult to respectively show the attractors of iterated function systems in a same region on a computer screen using one program without modifying the display parameters. An algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. A set of transforms are repeatedly applied to modify the coefficients of the IFS so that the collage region of the resulted IFS changes toward the unit square. Experimental results demonstrate that the collage region of any IFS can be normalized to the unit square with the proposed method.

  2. [The Evaluation of Medical Demographic and Economic Losses of the Region Conditioned by Mortality of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukov, R A; Modestov, A A; Safontsev, I P; Slepov, E V; Narkevich, A N

    2017-11-01

    The article presents evaluation of medical demographic and economic losses of population of the Krasnoyarskii kraii conditioned by mortality of lung cancer in 2010-2014 using DALY technology. In the Krasnoyarskii kraii, during 2010-2014 64,712 individuals died because of lung cancer. The mortality of male population surpasses corresponding indices of mortality of females up to 3.9 times. In the region, the standardized indicator mortality of lung cancer among males annually surpasses the same indicator among females at maximum up to 8.1 times. The DALY maximal absolute losses of among males were registered in 2010 and 2013 and fell on age group of 55-59 years and among females on the age group of 60-64 years in 2014. The maximal (up to 5.2 times) difference in values of DALY indicator was established in 2010 between male and female population. the maximal gap in in DALY indices between male and female population was established in the age of 55-59 years. Almost half of DALY losses among males was established in 2013 and among females in 2014. The total losses of gross regional product in the region because of mortality conditioned by lung cancer made up to 29.8 billions of rubles in 2010-2014.

  3. Pulmonary function tests as outcomes for systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Melissa; Hoa, Sabrina; Hudson, Marie; Schwartzman, Kevin; Steele, Russell

    2018-06-30

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We performed a systematic review to characterise the use and validation of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) as surrogate markers for systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) progression.Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. Included studies either used at least one PFT measure as a longitudinal outcome for SSc-ILD progression ( i.e. outcome studies) and/or reported at least one classical measure of validity for the PFTs in SSc-ILD ( i.e. validation studies).This systematic review included 169 outcome studies and 50 validation studies. Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ( D LCO ) was cumulatively the most commonly used outcome until 2010 when it was surpassed by forced vital capacity (FVC). FVC (% predicted) was the primary endpoint in 70.4% of studies, compared to 11.3% for % predicted D LCO Only five studies specifically aimed to validate the PFTs: two concluded that D LCO was the best measure of SSc-ILD extent, while the others did not favour any PFT. These studies also showed respectable validity measures for total lung capacity (TLC).Despite the current preference for FVC, available evidence suggests that D LCO and TLC should not yet be discounted as potential surrogate markers for SSc-ILD progression. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  4. The Use of Radioactive Gases in the Evaluation of Lung Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclntyre, W.J.; Inkley, S.R.

    1970-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for the evaluation of lung ventilation and perfusion based on measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the lung tissues after their respective administration by inhalation and injection. Radioactive substances used for such investigations include 133 Xe administered either by inhalation as a gas or by injection as a saline solution, 15 O 2 , C 15 O and C 15 O 2 administered by inhalation as gases and macroaggregated 131 I-labelled albumin administered by injection as a suspension. Methods used for the measurement of radioactivity in the lungs include methods based on the use of fixed multiple-detector systems, methods based on the use of single- or multiple-detector scanning systems and methods based on the use of gamma camera systems. In general, only relative measurements of radioactivity are required. The main physical problems in such measurements are shown to arise from uncertainty regarding the degree of absorption of the low-energy 133 Xe γ radiation in the body tissues and from the statistical errors inherent in the recording of fast dynamic changes. The radioisotope 135 Xe is shown to offer certain advantages over 133 Xe for the evaluation of lung function. (author)

  5. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes, John

    2013-02-07

    A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as "Bicycle Boulevards." We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function. We recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes - a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride. We found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations. These results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers and city planners to expand infrastructure to

  6. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function in Poultry Confinement Workers in Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kirychuk, Shelley P; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Dosman, James A; Juorio, Victor; Feddes, John JR; Willson, Philip; Classen, Henry; Reynolds, Stephen J; Guenter, Wilhelm; Hurst, Thomas S

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether poultry production methods impact respiratory health, and whether poultry farmers have more respiratory symptoms and lower lung function than comparison control groups.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SETTING: Provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba during the winters of 1997 to 1999. POPULATION: Three hundred three poultry workers, 241 grain farmers and 206 nonfarming control subjects were studied. Poultry workers were further classified according to the ...

  7. Glutathione S-transferase genotypes modify lung function decline in the general population: SAPALDIA cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the environmental and genetic risk factors of accelerated lung function decline in the general population is a first step in a prevention strategy against the worldwide increasing respiratory pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Deficiency in antioxidative and detoxifying Glutathione S-transferase (GST gene has been associated with poorer lung function in children, smokers and patients with respiratory diseases. In the present study, we assessed whether low activity variants in GST genes are also associated with accelerated lung function decline in the general adult population. Methods We examined with multiple regression analysis the association of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes with annual decline in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 during 11 years of follow-up in 4686 subjects of the prospective SAPALDIA cohort representative of the Swiss general population. Effect modification by smoking, gender, bronchial hyperresponisveness and age was studied. Results The associations of GST genotypes with FEV1, FVC, and FEF25–75 were comparable in direction, but most consistent for FEV1. GSTT1 homozygous gene deletion alone or in combination with GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with excess decline in FEV1 in men, but not women, irrespective of smoking status. The additional mean annual decline in FEV1 in men with GSTT1 and concurrent GSTM1 gene deletion was -8.3 ml/yr (95% confidence interval: -12.6 to -3.9 relative to men without these gene deletions. The GSTT1 effect on the FEV1 decline comparable to the observed difference in FEV1 decline between never and persistent smoking men. Effect modification by gender was statistically significant. Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic GSTT1 deficiency is a prevalent and strong determinant of accelerated lung function decline in the male general population.

  8. Visceral adiposity is associated with cytokines and decrease in lung function in women with persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Capelo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is associated with a risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and decreased lung function. However, it is not known whether asthma control is influenced by the accumulation of adipose tissue in the various abdominal compartments. Objective: To determine associations among abdominal adiposity distribution, asthma control, lung function and cytokines in women. Methods and design: In this cross-sectional study of asthmatic women, data on demographic variables, comorbid conditions, disease history, anthropometric and spirometric measurements were collected. Subcutaneous (SAT and visceral (VAT adipose tissues were measured by ultrasound, and the steatosis level was obtained. Asthma control was assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA criteria. Atopy was defined on the basis of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E and/or skin prick testing. Cytokine levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs. Results: Eighty-three asthmatic women were included, 37% of whom had uncontrolled asthma. After controlling for variables, a negative association between asthma control and VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio was observed. VAT was negatively associated with respiratory parameters after controlling for explanatory variables. In an adjusted model, body mass index (BMI and SAT were inversely associated with the adiponectin serum level and VAT was associated with the interleukin 6 level. In conclusion, visceral obesity was negatively associated with asthma control and lung function; and positively associated with increased levels of interleukin 6 in women. We hypothesize that women should be studied as a separate group, and we suggest further studies with a control group to know if the uncontrolled asthmatic group is directly affected by visceral adipose inflammatory markers. Keywords: Asthma, Woman, Abdominal obesity, Lung function, Cytokines, Asthma control

  9. Scavenger receptor AI/II truncation, lung function and COPD: a large population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor A-I/II (SRA-I/II) on alveolar macrophages is involved in recognition and clearance of modified lipids and inhaled particulates. A rare variant of the SRA-I/II gene, Arg293X, truncates the distal collagen-like domain, which is essential for ligand recognition. We tested...... whether the Arg293X variant is associated with reduced lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population....

  10. Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanes, Øistein; Bertelsen, Randi J; Lygre, Stein H L; Carsin, Anne E; Antó, Josep M; Forsberg, Bertil; García-García, José M; Gullón, José A; Heinrich, Joachim; Holm, Mathias; Kogevinas, Manolis; Urrutia, Isabel; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Moratalla, Jesús M; Le Moual, Nicole; Lytras, Theodore; Norbäck, Dan; Nowak, Dennis; Olivieri, Mario; Pin, Isabelle; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Skorge, Trude D; Villani, Simona; Jarvis, Debbie; Zock, Jan P; Svanes, Cecilie

    2018-05-01

    Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. Long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and airway obstruction. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) investigated a multicenter population-based cohort at three time points over 20 years. A total of 6,235 participants with at least one lung function measurement from 22 study centers, who in ECRHS II responded to questionnaire modules concerning cleaning activities between ECRHS I and ECRHS II, were included. The data were analyzed with mixed linear models adjusting for potential confounders. As compared with women not engaged in cleaning (ΔFEV 1  = -18.5 ml/yr), FEV 1 declined more rapidly in women responsible for cleaning at home (-22.1; P = 0.01) and occupational cleaners (-22.4; P = 0.03). The same was found for decline in FVC (ΔFVC = -8.8 ml/yr; -13.1, P = 0.02; and -15.9, P = 0.002; respectively). Both cleaning sprays and other cleaning agents were associated with accelerated FEV 1 decline (-22.0, P = 0.04; and -22.9, P = 0.004; respectively). Cleaning was not significantly associated with lung function decline in men or with FEV 1 /FVC decline or airway obstruction. Women cleaning at home or working as occupational cleaners had accelerated decline in lung function, suggesting that exposures related to cleaning activities may constitute a risk to long-term respiratory health.

  11. Mannose binding lectin (MBL levels predict lung function decline in severe asthma

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    Ilonka. H. van Veen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that activation of the complement system in asthma contributes to ongoing inflammation, tissue damage and airway remodeling. Mannose binding lectin (MBL is a pattern recognition molecule that serves as the key mediator of the lectin pathway of complement activation. MBL levels are genetically determined and vary widely amongst individuals. In the present study we hypothesized that high MBL levels in asthma are associated with increased loss of lung function over time, as a consequence of inflammatory tissue damage. We measured serum MBL levels by ELISA in 68 patients with severe asthma and prospectively determined the change in post-bronchodilator (pb FEV1 over a mean period of 5.7 years. The relationship between MBL and change in pbFEV1 (FEV1 was analysed using (multiple regression analysis and corrected for possible confounders (age, sex, age of onset, asthma duration, and pbFEV1. The median (range MBL level was 332 (10.8-3587 ng·ml–1. MBL was significantly associated with FEV1 (p<0.04. Patients with a high MBL level (332 ng·ml–1 had an increased risk of lung function decline compared to those with low MBL levels (OR (CI: 3.16 (1.14-8.79, p = 0.027; the excess decline being 42 ml·yr–1 (p = 0.01. We conclude that a high MBL level is associated with an increased decline in lung function in patients with severe asthma. MBL might provide a clue towards better understanding of the pathophysiology of ongoing inflammation and subsequent decline in lung function of patients with severe asthma.

  12. High Mallampati score, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: triple insult to lung function?

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    Nazia Uzma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the combined effect of high Mallampati score, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA on lung function as measured by spirometry. Our results showed that the combination of sleep apnea, obesity and high Mallampati score resulted in a degree of restriction that was significantly greater than that produced by each factor alone. These observations underscore the importance of factoring in the Mallampati score in the assessment of respiratory disease.

  13. Role of dystrophin in airway smooth muscle phenotype, contraction and lung function.

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    Pawan Sharma

    Full Text Available Dystrophin links the transmembrane dystrophin-glycoprotein complex to the actin cytoskeleton. We have shown that dystrophin-glycoprotein complex subunits are markers for airway smooth muscle phenotype maturation and together with caveolin-1, play an important role in calcium homeostasis. We tested if dystrophin affects phenotype maturation, tracheal contraction and lung physiology. We used dystrophin deficient Golden Retriever dogs (GRMD and mdx mice vs healthy control animals in our approach. We found significant reduction of contractile protein markers: smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (smMHC and calponin and reduced Ca2+ response to contractile agonist in dystrophin deficient cells. Immunocytochemistry revealed reduced stress fibers and number of smMHC positive cells in dystrophin-deficient cells, when compared to control. Immunoblot analysis of Akt1, GSK3β and mTOR phosphorylation further revealed that downstream PI3K signaling, which is essential for phenotype maturation, was suppressed in dystrophin deficient cell cultures. Tracheal rings from mdx mice showed significant reduction in the isometric contraction to methacholine (MCh when compared to genetic control BL10ScSnJ mice (wild-type. In vivo lung function studies using a small animal ventilator revealed a significant reduction in peak airway resistance induced by maximum concentrations of inhaled MCh in mdx mice, while there was no change in other lung function parameters. These data show that the lack of dystrophin is associated with a concomitant suppression of ASM cell phenotype maturation in vitro, ASM contraction ex vivo and lung function in vivo, indicating that a linkage between the DGC and the actin cytoskeleton via dystrophin is a determinant of the phenotype and functional properties of ASM.

  14. Acute changes in lung function associated with proximity to a steel plant: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Cakmak, Sabit; Mahmud, Mamun; Weichenthal, Scott A; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Thomson, Errol; Vincent, Renaud; Broad, Gayle; Liu, Ling

    2013-05-01

    Steel production is a major industry worldwide yet there is relatively little information on the pulmonary effects of air quality near steel manufacturing plants. The aim of this study was to examine how lung function changes acutely when healthy subjects are situated near a steel plant which is adjacent to a residential area. Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to spend 5 consecutive, 8-hour days in a residential neighborhood approximately 0.9km from a steel plant, or approximately 4.5km away at a college campus. Subjects crossed-over between sites after a nine-day washout period. Lung function was measured daily at both sites along with air pollutants including SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles. Diffusion capacity and pulse oximetry were also examined. Compared with the college site, the forced expiratory volume in 1-second/forced vital capacity, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume were lower near the steel plant by 0.67% (95% CI: 0.28, 1.06),1.62% (95% CI: 0.50, 2.75), 1.54% (95% CI: 0.68, 2.39), 3.54% (95% CI: 1.95, 5.13) and 11.3% (95% CI: 4.92, 17.75), respectively. Diffusion capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1s, and pulse oximetry were also lower near the plant but these effects were not statistically significant. Sulfur dioxide, ultrafine particulates, and oxides of nitrogen were greater near the steel plant site compared to the college site. Spending short periods of time near a steel plant is associated with a decrease in lung function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between lung function impairment and quantitative computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mets, O.M. [Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Murphy, K. [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.W. [Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Gietema, H.A.; Jong, P.A. de [Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, B. van [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Prokop, M. [Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To determine the relationship between lung function impairment and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of air trapping and emphysema in a population of current and former heavy smokers with and without airflow limitation. In 248 subjects (50 normal smokers; 50 mild obstruction; 50 moderate obstruction; 50 severe obstruction; 48 very severe obstruction) CT emphysema and CT air trapping were quantified on paired inspiratory and end-expiratory CT examinations using several available quantification methods. CT measurements were related to lung function (FEV{sub 1}, FEV{sub 1}/FVC, RV/TLC, Kco) by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Quantitative CT measurements of emphysema and air trapping were strongly correlated to airflow limitation (univariate r-squared up to 0.72, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the combination of CT emphysema and CT air trapping explained 68-83% of the variability in airflow limitation in subjects covering the total range of airflow limitation (p < 0.001). The combination of quantitative CT air trapping and emphysema measurements is strongly associated with lung function impairment in current and former heavy smokers with a wide range of airflow limitation. (orig.)

  16. The relationship between lung function impairment and quantitative computed tomography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mets, O.M.; Murphy, K.; Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.W.; Gietema, H.A.; Jong, P.A. de; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between lung function impairment and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements of air trapping and emphysema in a population of current and former heavy smokers with and without airflow limitation. In 248 subjects (50 normal smokers; 50 mild obstruction; 50 moderate obstruction; 50 severe obstruction; 48 very severe obstruction) CT emphysema and CT air trapping were quantified on paired inspiratory and end-expiratory CT examinations using several available quantification methods. CT measurements were related to lung function (FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, RV/TLC, Kco) by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Quantitative CT measurements of emphysema and air trapping were strongly correlated to airflow limitation (univariate r-squared up to 0.72, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the combination of CT emphysema and CT air trapping explained 68-83% of the variability in airflow limitation in subjects covering the total range of airflow limitation (p < 0.001). The combination of quantitative CT air trapping and emphysema measurements is strongly associated with lung function impairment in current and former heavy smokers with a wide range of airflow limitation. (orig.)

  17. Lung function testing according leptin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Radchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD belongs to urgent medical and social problems of our time. Prognosis of COPD is often determined by a comorbidity, in particular obesity. The key chain, which unites COPD and obesity, is systemic inflammation, in the development of which the hormone of fatty tissue leptin plays an important role. The presence of receptors to leptin in the alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells, in smooth muscle tissue and submucous bronchial membrane allowes to assume that leptin takes pathogenetic part in COPD progression. The aim of our research was to estimate the leptin level in COPD patient and analyze changes of the respiratory function depending on it. Methods. We have been examined 26 patients with exacerbation of COPD (13 male and 13 female, 58 y.o. and 20 healthy people representative by gender, age and body mass. The level of serum leptin has been defined by the solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent analysis, lung function – by computed testing. Results and conclusion. With the leptin level increase all of the lung function parameters progressively decreased, most significant - forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow. Patients with hyperleptinemia had significantly lower measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and vital lungs capacity. Severe degree of both obstructive and restrictive changes has been found more often among patients with hyperleptinemia and leptin level has been associated with the bronchial obstruction severity.

  18. Omalizumab reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and improves lung function in non-atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prathap; Chan, Yih-Chih; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Thomas, Clare; Durham, Stephen R; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Ying, Sun; Gould, Hannah J; Corrigan, Chris J

    2016-12-01

    Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and inflammation and preserves/improves lung function when disease is destabilised by staged withdrawal of therapy.18 symptomatic, non-atopic asthmatics were randomised (1:1) to receive omalizumab or identical placebo treatment in addition to existing therapy for 20 weeks. Bronchial biopsies were collected before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment, then the patients destabilised by substantial, supervised reduction of their regular therapy. Primary outcome measures were changes in bronchial mucosal IgE + cells at 12-14 weeks, prior to regular therapy reduction, and changes in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) after destabilisation at 20 weeks. Quality of life was also monitored.Omalizumab but not placebo therapy significantly reduced median total bronchial mucosal IgE + cells (pomalizumab treated patients, with significant differences in absolute (p=0.04) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p=0.015).Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE + mast cells and improves lung function despite withdrawal of conventional therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  19. Higher Mobility Scores in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Are Associated with Better Lung Function

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    Aneesha Thobani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF. Design. This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Main Outcome Measures. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Results. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r=0.42 and P=0.03, and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r=0.51 and P=0.007. LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Conclusions. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  20. Higher mobility scores in patients with cystic fibrosis are associated with better lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobani, Aneesha; Alvarez, Jessica A; Blair, Shaina; Jackson, Kaila; Gottlieb, Eric R; Walker, Seth; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r = 0.42 and P = 0.03), and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r = 0.51 and P = 0.007). LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  1. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study

  2. Air pollution and fuel vapour induced changes in lung functions: are fuel handlers safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Anuj; Lavania, A K

    2008-01-01

    Automobile exhaust derived air pollutants have become a major health hazard. Coupled with the inhalation of fuel vapour, as occurs in petrol station workers, this may lead to significant impairment of lung function. Spirometric lung functions were studied in 58 petrol station workers to examine this possibility. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (FEF25-75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were recorded and analysed separately for smokers and non-smokers. The workers were divided into 5 groups for analysis of data based on the number of years of work in the petrol pumps. Outdoor air analysis was also carried out. The FVC, FEV1 and PEF declined significantly with increasing years of work in petrol stations in both smokers and non-smokers. Smoking as an independent variable was found to affect the FEV1 significantly but not FVC or PEF. The FEF25-75 was found to be the most affected spirometric value with a significant reduction with increasing years of work. Smoking as such did not affect it. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) in outdoor air were higher than the national ambient air quality standards. Exposure to automobile exhaust and fuel vapour impairs lung function in a time-dependent manner. Cigarette smoking appears to accelerate the decline.

  3. The association between systemic inflammatory cellular levels and lung function: a population-based study.

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    Tricia McKeever

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower lung function is associated with an elevated systemic white cell count in men. However, these observations have not been demonstrated in a representative population that includes females and may be susceptible to confounding by recent airway infections or recent cigarette smoking. We tested the hypothesis that lung function is inversely associated with systemic white cell count in a population-based study. METHODS: The study population consisted adults aged 17-90+ years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not report a recent cough, cold or acute illness in a non-smoking and smoking population. RESULTS: In non-smoking adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FEV(1 125.3 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -163.1 to -87.5. Adults with the highest quintile of the total white cell count had a FVC 151.1 ml lower than those in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval CI: -195.0 to -107.2. Similar associations were observed for granulocytes, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In current smokers, similar smaller associations observed for total white cell count, granulocytes and mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic cellular inflammation levels are inversely associated with lung function in a population of both non-smokers and smokers without acute illnesses. This may contribute to the increased mortality observed in individuals with a higher baseline white cell count.

  4. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  5. Lung function decline rates according to GOLD group in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Kim J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joohae Kim,1 Ho Il Yoon,2 Yeon-Mok Oh,3 Seong Yong Lim,4 Ji-Hyun Lee,5 Tae-Hyung Kim,6 Sang Yeub Lee,7 Jin Hwa Lee,8 Sang-Do Lee,3 Chang-Hoon Lee11Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, 3Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 5Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, 6Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, 7Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Since the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD groups A-D were introduced, the lung function changes according to group have been evaluated rarely.Objective: We investigated the rate of decline in annual lung function in patients categorized according to the 2014 GOLD guidelines.Methods: Patients with COPD included in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD prospective study, who underwent yearly postbronchodilator spirometry at least three times, were included. The main outcome was the annual decline in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, which was analyzed by

  6. High-resolution pulmonary ventilation and perfusion PET/CT allows for functionally adapted intensity modulated radiotherapy in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva, Shankar; Thomas, Roshini; Callahan, Jason; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Hicks, Rodney J.; MacManus, Michael P.; Ball, David L.; Hofman, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the utility of functional lung avoidance using IMRT informed by four-dimensional (4D) ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) PET/CT. Materials and methods: In a prospective clinical trial, patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent 4D-V/Q PET/CT scanning before 60 Gy of definitive chemoradiation. Both “highly perfused” (HPLung) and “highly ventilated” (HVLung) lung volumes were delineated using a 70th centile SUV threshold, and a “ventilated lung volume” (VLung) was created using a 50th centile SUV threshold. For each patient four IMRT plans were created, optimised to the anatomical lung, HPLung, HVLung and VLung volumes, respectively. Improvements in functional dose volumetrics when optimising to functional volumes were assessed using mean lung dose (MLD), V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, V50 and V60 parameters. Results: The study cohort consisted of 20 patients with 80 IMRT plans. Plans optimised to HPLung resulted in a significant reduction of functional MLD by a mean of 13.0% (1.7 Gy), p = 0.02. Functional V5, V10 and V20 were improved by 13.2%, 7.3% and 3.8% respectively (p-values < 0.04). There was no significant sparing of dose to functional lung when adapting to VLung or HVLung. Plan quality was highly consistent with a mean PTV D95 and D5 ranging from 60.8 Gy to 61.0 Gy and 63.4 Gy to 64.5 Gy, respectively, and mean conformity and heterogeneity index ranging from 1.11 to 1.17 and 0.94 to 0.95, respectively. Conclusion: IMRT plans adapted to perfused but not ventilated lung on 4D-V/Q PET/CT allowed for reduced dose to functional lung whilst maintaining consistent plan quality

  7. Contribution of alpha- and beta-defensins to lung function decline and infection in smokers: an association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonisen Nicholas R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-defensins, which are major constituents of neutrophil azurophilic granules, and beta-defensins, which are expressed in airway epithelial cells, could contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by amplifying cigarette smoke-induced and infection-induced inflammatory reactions leading to lung injury. In Japanese and Chinese populations, two different beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes. We conducted population-based association studies to test whether alpha-defensin and beta-defensin polymorphisms influenced smokers' susceptibility to lung function decline and susceptibility to lower respiratory infection in two groups of white participants in the Lung Health Study (275 = fast decline in lung function and 304 = no decline in lung function. Methods Subjects were genotyped for the alpha-defensin-1/alpha-defensin-3 copy number polymorphism and four beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms (G-20A, C-44G, G-52A and Val38Ile. Results There were no associations between individual polymorphisms or imputed haplotypes and rate of decline in lung function or susceptibility to infection. Conclusion These findings suggest that, in a white population, the defensin polymorphisms tested may not be of importance in determining who develops abnormally rapid lung function decline or is susceptible to developing lower respiratory infections.

  8. TRANSFER-FUNCTIONS OF A LINEARIZED MULTI-REGION REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Thomas J.

    1963-09-15

    The development of the transfer functions for a linearized multi-region reactor is studied, and an illustration is made of application of the corresponding theory by a numerical illustrative example. (auth)

  9. Direct assessment of lung function in COPD using CT densitometric measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Leader, Joseph; Gur, David; Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Qihang; Sciurba, Frank; Kminski, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be directly predicted using CT densitometric measures and assess the underlying prediction errors as compared with the traditional spirometry-based measures. A total of 600 CT examinations were collected from a COPD study. In addition to the entire lung volume, the extent of emphysema depicted in each CT examination was quantified using density mask