WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional institutional thickness

  1. Altered Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Macey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RationaleObstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects 2–5% of all children and is associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, resulting in poor school performance. These psychological deficits may arise from brain injury, as seen in preliminary findings of lower gray matter volume among pediatric OSA patients. However, the psychological deficits in OSA are closely related to functions in the cortex, and such brain areas have not been specifically assessed. The objective was to determine whether cortical thickness, a marker of possible brain injury, is altered in children with OSA.MethodsWe examined regional brain cortical thicknesses using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in 16 pediatric OSA patients (8 males; mean age ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.2 years; mean apnea/hypopnea index ± SD = 11 ± 6 events/h and 138 controls (8.3 ± 1.1 years; 62 male; 138 subjects from the NIH Pediatric MRI database to identify cortical thickness differences in pediatric OSA subjects.ResultsCortical thinning occurred in multiple regions including the superior frontal, ventral medial prefrontal, and superior parietal cortices. The left side showed greater thinning in the superior frontal cortex. Cortical thickening was observed in bilateral precentral gyrus, mid-to-posterior insular cortices, and left central gyrus, as well as right anterior insula cortex.ConclusionChanges in cortical thickness are present in children with OSA and likely indicate disruption to neural developmental processes, including maturational patterns of cortical volume increases and synaptic pruning. Regions with thicker cortices may reflect inflammation or astrocyte activation. Both the thinning and thickening associated with OSA in children may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral dysfunction frequently found in the condition.

  2. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  3. Strategic agency and institutional change: investigating the role of universities in regional innovation systems (RISs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Karlsen, James

    2017-01-01

    Strategic agency and institutional change: investigating the role of universities in regional innovation systems (RISs). Regional Studies. Past analyses rooted in the thick description of regions successful in constructing regional innovation systems have given way to analyses more focused on the

  4. Regional Crustal Deformation and Lithosphere Thickness Observed with Geodetic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kollo, K.; Koivula, H.; Ahola, J.

    2009-04-01

    The solid Earth, including the lithosphere, interacts in many ways with other components of the Earth system, oceans, atmosphere and climate. Geodesy is a key provider of data needed for global and environmental research. Geodesy provides methods and accurate measurements of contemporary deformation, sea level and gravity change. The importance of the decades-long stability and availability of reference frames must be stressed for such studies. In the future, the need to accurately monitor 3-D crustal motions will grow, both together with increasingly precise GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning, demands for better follow-up of global change, and local needs for crustal motions, especially in coastal areas. These demands cannot yet be satisfied. The project described here is a part of a larger entity: Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas, DynaQlim, an International Lithosphere Project (ILP) -sponsored initiative. The aims of DynaQlim are to understand the relations between upper mantle dynamics, mantle composition, physical properties, temperature and rheology, to study the postglacial uplift and ice thickness models, sea level change and isostatic response, Quaternary climate variations and Weichselian (Laurentian and other) glaciations during the late Quaternary. We aim at studying various aspects of lithospheric motion within the Finnish and Fennoscandian area, but within a global perspective, by the newest geodetic techniques in a multidisciplinary setting. The studies involve observations of three-dimensional motions and gravity change in a multidisciplinary context on a range of spatial scales: the whole of Fennoscandia, Finland, a regional test area of Satakunta, and the local test site Olkiluoto. Objectives of the research include improving our insight into the 3-D motion of a thick lithosphere, and into the gravity effect of the uplift, using novel approaches; improving the kinematic 3-D models in the

  5. Higher education institutions, regional labour markets and population development

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2011-01-01

    An important motivation to establish and develop higher education institutions across regions is to improve and restructure the regional labour markets toward higher education jobs, contribute to maintain the regional settlement patterns of the population generally and to increase the numbers of higher educated labour especially. This paper introduces a short description of the Norwegian regional higher education institution system, followed by analyses of the impact of higher education insti...

  6. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  7. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr

    2017-09-01

    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of 'diffusion theory' - meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations - we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways - active and passive - of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization's structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union's own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.

  8. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  9. Regional Institutional Structure in the Context of Innovative Industry Development

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    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves that successful innovation-oriented development of the industrial complex of the region can be ensured through the creation of adequate institutional structure. As a theoretical and conceptual platform for this task the use of regional institutionalism is suggested. It is reasoned that integration component plays an important role in providing of the innovative development of the industry in modern economic realities and the potential effects of integration on meso- and micro-levels of economy are provided. Integration of industrial structures potential at the same time assumes expansion of a partner segment of the entities relations in the market environment on the basis of network, cluster, and integration approaches convergence to management in the industrial development. On the basis of the international experience analysis it is illustrated that forming of multichannel partnership of actors in the industrial sphere with a vector on an innovatization requires creation of the corresponding institutional conditions. It is established that the main objectives of the relevant institutes consist in legitimization of various forms and technologies of partnership and stimulation of economic entities interactions. The first problem is solved by means of legal support of integration and partners’ interactions, the second one - with the use of a program and project approach. The basic structural elements and functional areas of regional institutional structure in the context of innovative industry development are determined. It is shown that the institutions of the partnership and monitoring of the obligations implementation by integration formations participants can have formal and informal nature, at the same time the trust institution is especially important. In work significant influence of regional specifics on institutional structure and integration of economic entities is proved.

  10. Ocular dimensions, corneal thickness, and corneal curvature in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Alligator Rivers Regions Research Institute research report 1983-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Institute undertakes and coordinates research required to ensure the protection of the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region from any consequences resulting from the mining and processing of uranium ore. Research projects outlined are in aquatic biology, terrestrial ecology, analytical chemistry, environmental radioactivity and geomorphology

  12. The Regulation of electronic money institutions in the SADC region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks in particular at how the institutions that issue new electronic money products are regulated ... This development has become global and involves both developed and developing countries, including regions such as the SADC. ... regulatory challenges that came about with the development of electronic money and to ...

  13. Institutional Capacity of Innovation Activity Development in theRegion

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    Aleksei Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study under the theme of development of institutions of innovation sphere, transfer of scientific results to the real sector of the economy. The purpose of the study is to reveal institutional capacities of strengthening the implementation of research findings, drawing on the functional properties of institutions with regard to innovation activities. The methodology is to apply well-known methodological principles to the solution of emerging challenges (software-based method for fundamental scientific result implementation, sectoral research organizations in the new management environment and statistical records of process innovations by analogy with product innovations. The article puts forward and justifies the proposal for strategic innovation as the institution of communicating the results of fundamental research to social practice by integrating into a single process the results of oriented fundamental research, applied research, engineering development, development and other works, which are realized in the form of a material object or service of a high technology level. The distinguishing feature of strategic innovation is a future-oriented outlook and the solution of long-term objectives. Russian scientific achievements can become the basis for strategic innovation development. The article gives examples of possible research field where strategic innovation can be developed and demonstrates an innovative implementation mechanism in the format of specialized research-and-production program which combines government and business participation. The paper gives arguments and development ways of the institution of sectoral research organizations as providers of state technological policy in sectors and regions; coordination of import substitution; centers of communication establishment with engineering companies; analytical and predictive research. The study justifies the expediency of developing an

  14. Natural gas in Asia: Trade, markets and regional institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas trade in Asia has been dominated by long-established market structures, under which liquefied natural gas (LNG) has remained indexed based on the price of crude oil. High transaction costs in the region in recent years imply that the regional market is sub-optimally organized. Since 2010, the continued prevalence of oil-indexation has had the most adverse effect on Japan, the world’s largest LNG importer. In response, Japan implemented several strategies to challenge traditional LNG pricing mechanisms in the region and ultimately reduce transaction costs. Japan’s efforts include an increase in the share of spot and short-term purchases, sourcing new supplies from the United States under alternative pricing arrangements and driving regional buyer cooperation. This paper evaluates the potential effect of Japan’s LNG strategy on regional pricing in the broader institutional context, arguing that LNG pricing in the region will only partially shift away from oil-indexation by the end of the decade. While recent cooperation among regional LNG importers indicates that there may be scope for change in the regional institutional setting, the degree of cooperation is insufficient to have a profound effect on regional pricing. - Highlights: • Sub-optimal natural gas market outcomes in Asia since 2010. • Asian buyers have challenged oil-indexation in the region. • Concrete evidence of Japan-led buyer cooperation since 2013. • Pricing will only partially shift from oil-indexation by 2020. • Security of supply remains a top policy priority

  15. Leadership and institutional factors in endogenous regional economic development

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    Robert J. Stimson

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that a virtuous circle for the sustainable developmentof a city or region is achieved through a process whereby proactive and strongleadership and effective institutions enhance the capacity and capability of a place tobetter use its resource endowments and gain an improved market fit in becomingcompetitive and being entrepreneurial. It is proposed that the performance of a city orregion at a point in time and the path of its economic development over time may berepresented by its position in a Regional Competitiveness Performance Cube. Thepaper proposes a new model framework whereby a city or region’s economic developmentand performance is an outcome dependent on how its resource endowmentsand market fit as quasi-independent variables are mediated by the interaction betweenleadership, institutions, and entrepreneurship as intervening variables. The experiencesof a number of case study cities from a variety of settings in the US, Europe,Asia and Australia are explored within that framework.

  16. Locating regional health policy: Institutions, politics, and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggirozzi, Pia; Yeates, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Poverty reduction and health became central in the agendas of Southern regional organisations in the last two decades. Yet, little is known about how these organisations address poverty, inclusion and social inequality, and how Southern regional formations are engaging in power constellations, institutions, processes, interests and ideological positions within different spheres of governance. This article reviews academic literatures spanning global social policy, regional studies and diplomacy studies, and the state of knowledge and understanding of the ‘place’ of regional actors in health governance as a global political practice therein. It identifies theoretical and thematic points of connection between disparate literatures and how these can be bridged through research focusing on the social policies of regional organisations and regional integration processes. This framework hence locates the contributions of each of the research articles of this Special Issue of Global Social Policy on the regional dimension of health policy and diplomacy in relation to Southern Africa and South America. It also highlights the ways in which the articles bring new evidence about how social relations of welfare are being (re)made over larger scales and how regional actors may initiate new norms to improve health rights in international arenas engaging in new forms of ‘regional’ diplomacy. PMID:26635495

  17. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent…

  18. X-ray CCD image sensor with a thick depletion region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Watabe, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a solid-state image sensor for high energy X-ray above 1 -- 2 keV, basic studies have been made on the CCD (charge coupled device) with a thick depletion region. A method of super-imposing a high DC bias voltage on low voltage signal pulses was newly proposed. The characteristics of both SCCD and BCCD were investigated, and their ability as X-ray sensors was compared. It was found that a depletion region of 60 μm thick was able to be obtained with ordinary doping density of 10 20 /m 3 , and that even thicker over 1 mm depletion region was able to be obtained with doping density of about 10 18 /m 3 , and a high bias voltage above 1 kV was able to be applied. It is suggested that the CCD image sensors for 8 keV or 24 keV X-ray can be realized since the absorption length of these X-ray in Si is about 60 μm and 1 mm, respectively. As for the characteristics other than the depletion thickness, the BCCD is preferable to SCCD for the present purpose because of lower noise and dark current. As for the transfer method, the frame-transfer method is recommended. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Academy panel proposes new form of regional institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloman, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A panel of the National Academy of Public Administration has proposed development of a new form of interstate regional institution as an instrument for the siting, licensing, and regulating of nuclear facilities. Noting the danger that the nation's energy supplies may prove inadequate to meet basic needs of the economy despite increasing emphasis on greater use of coal and energy conservation, the panel pointed to the virtual stalemate in the national decision-making process for siting and licensing nuclear plants. A basic cause of the logjam is the growing conflict and overlap between federal and state agencies for authorizing nuclear development. The panel recommended setting up a new form of regional organization to fill an institutional void between federal and state levels of government. The proposed regional organizations would be established through federal legislation preempting to the Federal Government the regulation of siting, licensing, and construction of nuclear facilities. They would have jurisdiction over all matters in the operation of nuclear plants relating to public health and safety including those environmental factors and socio-economic factors covered in the preparation of environmental impact statements

  20. Threats to the Human Capacity of Regional Higher Education Institutions

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    Evgeny Valentinovich Romanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the sphere of science and education in Russia undergoes significant reforms. However, the existing framework guiding the development of the higher education contradict the Strategy of Scientific and Technological Development of Russia. These contradictions concern the conditions for building an integral system of personnel reserve and recruitment, which is necessary for the scientific and technological development of the country. The change of the funding model and the transition to two-tier higher education contribute to the outflow of talented youth to the cities where branded universities are concentrated. It creates threats to the human capacity of regional higher education institutions (both regarding staffing number, and regarding personnel reserve. Decreasing trend in number of students because of the federal budget appropriation and the existing system of per capita funding for regional higher education institutions are the threats for regional higher education. These threats can result in permanent reduction of the number of academic teaching staff and in potential decline in quality of education due to increasing teachers’ workloads. The transition to the two-tier model of university education has changed the approach to evaluating the efficiency of scientific research. The number of publications in the journals, which are indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus, has increased, but the patent activity of the leading higher education institutions has decreased many times. The ratio of number of articles to the number of the granted patents in the leading Russian universities significantly exceeds a similar indicator of the leading foreign universities. It can be regarded as «brain drain». Furthermore, this fact explains why the specific weight of income from the results of intellectual activity in total income in the majority of the Russian universities is close to zero. Regional higher education institutions need

  1. Effect of mechanical ventilation on regional variation of pleural liquid thickness in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P M; Lai-Fook, S J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of ventilation on the regional distribution of pleural liquid thickness in anesthetized rabbits. Three transparent pleural windows were made between the second and eight intercostal space along the midaxillary line of the right chest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (1 ml) was injected into the pleural space through a rib capsule and allowed to mix with the pleural liquid. The light emitted from the pleural space beneath the windows was measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy at a constant tidal volume (20 ml) and two ventilation frequencies (20 and 40 breaths/min). Pleural liquid thickness was determined from the light measurements after in vitro calibration of pleural liquid collected postmortem. At 20 breaths/min, pleural liquid thickness increased with a cranial-caudal distance from 5 microns at the second to third intercostal space to 30 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. At 40 breaths/min, pleural space thickness was unchanged at the second to third intercostal space but increased to 46 microns at the sixth through eighth intercostal space. To determine this effect on pleural liquid shear stress, we measured relative lung velocity from videomicroscopic images of the lung surface through the windows. Lung velocity amplitude increased with cranial-caudal distance and with ventilation frequency. Calculated shear stress amplitude was constant with cranial-caudal distance but increased with ventilation frequency. Thus, pleural liquid thickness is matched to the relative lung motion so as to maintain a spatially uniform shear stress amplitude in pleural liquid during mechanical ventilation.

  2. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...... through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign...

  3. Institutes of innovative development: Their role in regional clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bykova Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of technological innovation in enhancing competitive advantage at the level of individual companies and industries, regions, and even countries, has increased interest in the innovation component of the cluster, and has led to revision of the concept of the treatment of cluster effects and of approaches to their study. As a result of theoretical research and analysis of practical situations, in the late 1990s W. Feldman and J. Audretsch developed a theory of economic development through the establishment of innovation clusters. In this paper we aim to identify the quantitative link between the participation in innovation clusters and universities, research centres, and other institutes of innovative development; we will also try to find the key factors affecting them. We used econometric procedures for 413 companies (based on the data of accounting and statistical reports of the Perm region (Russia. The regression outcomes allow defining the ‘stimulating’ factors affecting participation in cluster relationships. The quantitative analysis was supplemented by in-depth interviews on different types of relationship forms among companies and institutes promoting innovation within the framework of a cluster concept.

  4. Investigation of radiative effects of the optically thick dust layer over the Indian tropical region

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    S. K. Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical and physical properties of aerosols derived from multi-satellite observations (MODIS-Aqua, OMI-Aura, MISR-Terra, CALIOP-CALIPSO have been used to estimate radiative effects of the dust layer over southern India. The vertical distribution of aerosol radiative forcing and heating rates are calculated with 100 m resolution in the lower atmosphere, using temperature and relative humidity data from balloon-borne radiosonde observations. The present study investigates the optically thick dust layer of optical thickness 0.18 ± 0.06 at an altitude of 2.5 ± 0.7 km over Gadanki, transported from the Thar Desert, producing radiative forcing and heating rate of 11.5 ± 3.3 W m−2 and 0.6 ± 0.26 K day−1, respectively, with a forcing efficiency of 43 W m−2 and an effective heating rate of 4 K day−1 per unit dust optical depth. Presence of the dust layer increases radiative forcing by 60% and heating rate by 60 times at that altitude compared to non-dusty cloud-free days. Calculation shows that the radiative effects of the dust layer strongly depend on the boundary layer aerosol type and mass loading. An increase of 25% of heating by the dust layer is found over relatively cleaner regions than urban regions in southern India and further 15% of heating increases over the marine region. Such heating differences in free troposphere may have significant consequences in the atmospheric circulation and hydrological cycle over the tropical Indian region.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of Curie-point depths and lithospheric effective elastic thickness at Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Li, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Ocean remains at the forefront of geological exploration. Here we investigate its deep geological structures and geodynamics on the basis of gravity, magnetic and bathymetric data. We estimate Curie-point depth and lithospheric effective elastic thickness to understand deep geothermal structures and Arctic lithospheric evolution. A fractal exponent of 3.0 for the 3D magnetization model is used in the Curie-point depth inversion. The result shows that Curie-point depths are between 5 and 50 km. Curie depths are mostly small near the active mid-ocean ridges, corresponding well to high heat flow and active shallow volcanism. Large curie depths are distributed mainly at continental marginal seas around the Arctic Ocean. We present a map of effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere using a multitaper coherence technique, and Te are between 5 and 110 km. Te primarily depends on geothermal gradient and composition, as well as structures in the lithosphere. We find that Te and Curie-point depths are often correlated. Large Te are distributed mainly at continental region and small Te are distributed at oceanic region. The Alpha-Mendeleyev Ridge (AMR) and The Svalbard Archipelago (SA) are symmetrical with the mid-ocean ridge. AMR and SA were formed before an early stage of Eurasian basin spreading, and they are considered as conjugate large igneous provinces, which show small Te and Curie-point depths. Novaya Zemlya region has large Curie-point depths and small Te. We consider that fault and fracture near the Novaya Zemlya orogenic belt cause small Te. A series of transform faults connect Arctic mid-ocean ridge with North Atlantic mid-ocean ridge. We can see large Te near transform faults, but small Curie-point depths. We consider that although temperature near transform faults is high, but mechanically the lithosphere near transform faults are strengthened.

  6. Institutes of regional development and competitiveness in the conditions of modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yakovlevna Kalyuzhnova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of identifying the institutions that influence the development of regions. A systematization of regional development institutions is implemented. Institutions of macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-levels of the economy affecting regional development are highlighted; at each level of the economy the institutions functioning properly and development institutions are also highlighted. The institutions are also systematically divided by type of adjustable rules. The role of institutions in the concept of regional competitiveness is examined. The indexes of regional competitiveness indicators, excluding the institutional environment of regions, are criticized. It is noted that the concept of regional competitiveness considers the region as an economic entity, which can and must prove its right to income with its economic performance, rather than capital status or informal practices of receiving transfers. Formation of the region and the competitiveness of a business entity depends on the maturity of the regional elites and their consolidation, as well as the institutional environment that encourages regional development and prevents monopoly of certain regions. The results of the quantitative analysis of the impact of institutions on the performance of regional development are presented. In particular, the influence of institutions such as corruption, small business and institutional trust is reviewed. The level of corruption is measured by the CPI index, its impact on economic growth in the sample of 12 countries that are close to Russia in terms of development, as well as at the level of Russian regions is considered. According to 2009-2010, the impact on regional development of the newly created development institutions such as foundations to promote small and medium enterprises, regional mortgage funds, special economic zones and regional venture capital funds is analyzed.

  7. Lithospheric flexural strength and effective elastic thicknesses of the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Gomez-Ortiz, David; Petit, Carole

    2017-12-01

    The Lithospheric structure of Eastern Anatolia and the surrounding region, including the northern part of the Arabian platform is investigated via the analysis and modeling of Bouguer anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (EET) that corresponds to the mechanical cores of the crust and lithospheric mantle is determined from the spectral coherence between Bouguer anomalies and surface elevation data. Its average value is 18.7 km. From the logarithmic amplitude spectra of Bouguer anomalies, average depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, Conrad and basement in the study area are constrained at 84 km, 39 km, 16 km and 7 km, respectively. The geometries of the LAB and Moho are then estimated using the Parker-Oldenburg inversion algorithm. We also present a lithospheric strength map obtained from the spatial variations of EET determined by Yield Stress Envelopes (YSE). The EET varies in the range of 12-23 km, which is in good agreement with the average value obtained from spectral analysis. Low EET values are interpreted as resulting from thermal and flexural lithospheric weakening. According to the lithospheric strength of the Eastern Anatolian region, the rheology model consists of a strong but brittle upper crust, a weak and ductile lower crust, and a weak lower part of the lithosphere. On the other hand, lithosphere strength corresponds to weak and ductile lower crust, a strong upper crust and a strong uppermost lithospheric mantle for the northern part of the Arabian platform.

  8. Strategic agency and institutional change: investigating the role of universities in regional innovation systems (RISs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Pinheiro, Romulo; Karlsen, James

    2014-01-01

    Past analyses rooted in thick description of regions successful in constructing regional innovation systems have given way to analyses more focused on the intentionality in these processes, and how actors in regions with their own wider networks can shape these high-level changes in regional

  9. Automated measurement of epidermal thickness from optical coherence tomography images using line region growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Jomer; Weissman, Jesse; Gossage, Kirk

    2010-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality that acquires cross sectional images of tissue in-vivo. It accelerates skin diagnosis by eliminating invasive biopsy and laborious histology in the process. Dermatologists have widely used it for looking at morphology of skin diseases such as psoriasis, dermatitis, basal cell carcinoma etc. Skin scientists have also successfully used it for looking at differences in epidermal thickness and its underlying structure with respect to age, body sites, ethnicity, gender, and other related factors. Similar to other in-vivo imaging systems, OCT images suffer from a high degree of speckle and noise content, which hinders examination of tissue structures. Most of the previous work in OCT segmentation of skin was done manually. This compromised the quality of the results by limiting the analyses to a few frames per area. In this paper, we discuss a region growing method for automatic identification of the upper and lower boundaries of the epidermis in living human skin tissue. This image analysis method utilizes images obtained from a frequency-domain OCT. This system is high-resolution and high-speed, and thus capable of capturing volumetric images of the skin in short time. The three-dimensional (3D) data provides additional information that is used in the segmentation process to help compensate for the inherent noise in the images. This method not only provides a better estimation of the epidermal thickness, but also generates a 3D surface map of the epidermal-dermal junction, from which underlying topography can be visualized and further quantified.

  10. Educational Institutions, US and Territories, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent educational institutions associated with two NAICS codes (colleges and universities, public and private...

  11. Imaging derived cortical thickness reduction in high-functioning autism: key regions and temporal slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Christian; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schilbach, Leonhard; Lehnhardt, Fritz G; Krug, Barbara; Vogeley, Kai; Tepest, Ralf

    2011-09-15

    Cortical thickness (CT) changes possibly contribute to the complex symptomatology of autism. The aberrant developmental trajectories underlying such differences in certain brain regions and their continuation in adulthood are a matter of intense debate. We studied 28 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 28 control subjects matched for age, gender, IQ and handedness. A surface-based whole brain analysis utilizing FreeSurfer was employed to detect CT differences between the two diagnostic groups and to investigate the time course of age-related changes. Direct comparison with control subjects revealed thinner cortex in HFA in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of the left hemisphere. Considering the time course of CT development we found clusters around the pSTS and cuneus in the left and the paracentral lobule in the right hemisphere to be thinner in HFA with comparable age-related slopes in patients and controls. Conversely, we found clusters around the supramarginal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in the left and the precentral and postcentral gyrus in the right hemisphere to be thinner in HFA, but with different age-related slopes in patients and controls. In the latter regions CT showed a steady decrease in controls but no analogous thinning in HFA. CT analyses contribute in characterizing neuroanatomical correlates of HFA. Reduced CT is present in brain regions involved in social cognition. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that aberrant brain development leading to such differences is proceeding throughout adulthood. Discrepancies in prior morphometric studies may be induced by the complex time course of cortical changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shared Governance and Regional Accreditation: Institutional Processes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative single-case research study was conducted to gain deeper understanding of the institutional processes to address shared governance accreditation criteria and to determine whether institutional processes altered stakeholder perceptions of shared governance. The data collection strategies were archival records and personal…

  13. Dynamic Development of Regional Cortical Thickness and Surface Area in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Amanda E; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Hamer, Robert M; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders and are correlated with cognitive functioning. Little is known about how these components of cortical gray matter develop in the first years of life. We studied the longitudinal development of regional CT and SA expansion in healthy infants from birth to 2 years. CT and SA have distinct and heterogeneous patterns of development that are exceptionally dynamic; overall CT increases by an average of 36.1%, while cortical SA increases 114.6%. By age 2, CT is on average 97% of adult values, compared with SA, which is 69%. This suggests that early identification, prevention, and intervention strategies for neuropsychiatric illness need to be targeted to this period of rapid postnatal brain development, and that SA expansion is the principal driving factor in cortical volume after 2 years of age. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Determination of thicknesses and temperatures of crystalline silicon wafers from optical measurements in the far infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Daniel; Franta, Pavel; Vohánka, Jiří; Čermák, Martin; Ohlídal, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Optical measurements of transmittance in the far infrared region performed on crystalline silicon wafers exhibit partially coherent interference effects appropriate for the determination of thicknesses of the wafers. The knowledge of accurate spectral and temperature dependencies of the optical constants of crystalline silicon in this spectral region is crucial for the determination of its thickness and vice versa. The recently published temperature dependent dispersion model of crystalline silicon is suitable for this purpose. Because the linear thermal expansion of crystalline silicon is known, the temperatures of the wafers can be determined with high precision from the evolution of the interference patterns at elevated temperatures.

  15. [Myocardial regional thickness in patients with and without cardiomyopathy assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zan, Macarena; Carrascosa, Patricia; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Capuñay, Carlos; Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

    To explore regional differences in myocardial wall thickness (WT) among the most prevalent cardiomyopathies and in individuals without structural heart disease using cardiac magnetic resonance. Patients older than 18 years referred to cardiac magnetic resonance during the period between January 2014 and September 2014, with a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis were retrospectively selected from our database. One hundred twenty patients patients were included. The control group had an average WT of 5.9±1.1mm, with a WT index of 2.9±0.8. Significantly lower mean WT in the apical segments were identified in both the control group (basal 6.7±1.3 vs. mid 6.0±1.3 vs. apical 4.6±1.0mm, P<.0001) and in all evaluated cardiomyopathies (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: basal 10.5±2.4 vs. mid 10.8±2.7 vs. apical 7.3±3.3mm, P<.0001; idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: basal 7.7±1.7 vs. mid 7.6±1.3 vs. apical 5.4±1.3mm, P<.0001; ischemic cardiomyopathy: basal 7.4±1.7 vs. mid 7.5±1.9 vs. apical 5.5±1.8mm, P<.0001; myocarditis: basal 7.1±1.5 vs. mid 6.4±1.1 vs. apical 5.1±0.8, P<.0001). Significant gender differences were also evident regarding the mean WT both in the control group (male 6.5±2.1 vs. female 5.2±1.7mm, P<.0001), as in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (10.5±5.3 vs. 8.5±5.7mm, P<.0001) and myocarditis (6.6±2.0 vs. 5.2±1.6mm, P<.0001). We found a relatively high prevalence of segments commonly deemed thinned among patients without structural heart disease. We also observed a marked asymmetry and longitudinal gradient in wall thickness both in controls and in the various cardiomyopathies evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. A proposed assessment method for image of regional educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataeva Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Market of educational services in the current Russian economic conditions is a complex of a huge variety of educational institutions. Market of educational services is already experiencing a significant influence of the demographic situation in Russia. This means that higher education institutions are forced to fight in a tough competition for high school students. Increased competition in the educational market forces universities to find new methods of non-price competition in attraction of potential students and throughout own educational and economic activities. Commercialization of education places universities in a single plane with commercial companies who study a positive perception of the image and reputation as a competitive advantage, which is quite acceptable for use in strategic and current activities of higher education institutions to ensure the competitiveness of educational services and educational institution in whole. Nevertheless, due to lack of evidence-based proposals in this area there is a need for scientific research in terms of justification of organizational and methodological aspects of image use as a factor in the competitiveness of the higher education institution. Theoretically and practically there are different methods and ways of evaluating the company’s image. The article provides a comparative assessment of the existing valuation methods of corporate image and the author’s method of estimating the image of higher education institutions based on the key influencing factors. The method has been tested on the Vyatka State Agricultural Academy (Russia. The results also indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the institution, highlights ways of improving, and adjusts the efforts for image improvement.

  17. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug

    2003-10-30

    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  18. Linking Regional Winter Sea Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness to Spring Melt Pond Fraction on Landfast Arctic Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Nasonova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased strongly in extent, thickness, volume and age in recent decades. The melt season presents a significant challenge for sea ice forecasting due to uncertainty associated with the role of surface melt ponds in ice decay at regional scales. This study quantifies the relationships of spring melt pond fraction (fp with both winter sea ice roughness and thickness, for landfast first-year sea ice (FYI and multiyear sea ice (MYI. In 2015, airborne measurements of winter sea ice thickness and roughness, as well as high-resolution optical data of melt pond covered sea ice, were collected along two ~5.2 km long profiles over FYI- and MYI-dominated regions in the Canadian Arctic. Statistics of winter sea ice thickness and roughness were compared to spring fp using three data aggregation approaches, termed object and hybrid-object (based on image segments, and regularly spaced grid-cells. The hybrid-based aggregation approach showed strongest associations because it considers the morphology of the ice as well as footprints of the sensors used to measure winter sea ice thickness and roughness. Using the hybrid-based data aggregation approach it was found that winter sea ice thickness and roughness are related to spring fp. A stronger negative correlation was observed between FYI thickness and fp (Spearman rs = −0.85 compared to FYI roughness and fp (rs = −0.52. The association between MYI thickness and fp was also negative (rs = −0.56, whereas there was no association between MYI roughness and fp. 47% of spring fp variation for FYI and MYI can be explained by mean thickness. Thin sea ice is characterized by low surface roughness allowing for widespread ponding in the spring (high fp whereas thick sea ice has undergone dynamic thickening and roughening with topographic features constraining melt water into deeper channels (low fp. This work provides an important contribution towards the parameterizations of fp in

  19. On selecting a sensitive region thickness of a silicon semiconductor detector for operation under counting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronkin, N.S.; Khakhalin, V.V.

    1972-01-01

    The paper discusses the selection of a thickness of a sensitive area of a silicon semiconductor detector, used in the count regime based on the signal to noise ratio and β-radiation registration efficiency. (author)

  20. African Instituted Churches in Southern Africa: Paragons of Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-05-23

    May 23, 2006 ... reducing discussions on regional cooperation to purely economic and materialistic ..... references to religion and culture in a document dealing with economic .... nomic Cooperation and Integration, Harare: SAPES Books.

  1. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamurzov, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  2. Faculty Study: New Mexico Higher Education Institutions Compared with Regional Peers. Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Beverlee J.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses concerns regarding compensation disparities between New Mexico institutions and their peers. A recommended adjustment schedule with fiscal requirements is included, but not specific recommendations for faculty at individual institutions. The average salaries for New Mexico institutions were compared with regional peers to…

  3. Connecting agriculture and health care at the regional level: contributions from transition theory and institutional entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Grin, J.; Hulsink, W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed two types of regional cooperation. Regional foundations of care farms and care institutions collaborating with a group of farmers. The initiatives were analyzed with a conceptual framework based on transition sciences and institutional entrepreneurship. The presence of a

  4. The Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Border: Institutional Legitimacy and Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    and Lenzi Sherfedinov, “Land, Water, and Ecology ,” in Ferghana Valley, edited by Starr, 255. 18 challenges face this region, including terrorism...see Robert Nisbet, The Quest for Community: A Study in the Ethics of Order and Freedom (Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2010), originally published by... ecological problems.”377 These security challenges are not only interrelated but also dependent on the condition of state borders. As Karimov

  5. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Nuri; Kahya, Emin; Aras, Nil; Aras, Haydar

    2007-01-01

    The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this is not the case. Fuel consumption and operational costs are reduced by increasing the thickness of the external walls and roof (ceiling), despite an increase in the investment costs. According to Turkish Standard Number 825 (TS 825), there are four different degree-day (DD) regions, and the required heat loads for the buildings in these regions exhibit large differences. Therefore, a method based on costs is needed for the determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of different DD regions. In this study, optimum insulation thicknesses for different DD regions of Turkey, namely, Izmir (DD: 1450), Bursa (DD: 2203), Eskisehir (DD: 3215) and Erzurum (DD: 4856), have been determined for a lifetime of N years, maximizing the present worth value of annual energy savings for insulated external walls

  6. Regional Analysis of Soft Tissue Thickness on Korean Buttocks and Application to Fasciocutaneous Flap Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Yup Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Various shapes and designs of the gluteal artery perforator flap have been used for treating sacral pressure sores and reconstructing breasts. To establish the ideal fasciocutaneous flap design for use in the gluteal area, the soft tissue thickness distribution was measured. Methods Twenty-one buttocks of adult Korean cadavers were analyzed through rectangular subfascial dissection. Each buttock was divided horizontally into 10 sections and vertically into 10 sections, and then, the thickness at the corners of the sections was measured. For the sake of comparison and statistical verification with living bodies, computed tomography (CT images of 120 buttocks of patients were randomly selected. Five horizontal sections and 4 vertical sections were made, and the thickness at each corner was recorded. Results According to the dissection and the CT images, the area with the thinnest soft tissues in the buttock was around the posterior superior iliac spine, close to the sacral area. The thickest area was the superolateral area of the buttock, which was 3.24 times and 2.15 times thicker than the thinnest area in the studies on cadaver anatomy and the CT images, respectively. Conclusions The thickness of the soft tissues in the buttocks differed by area. The superolateral area had the thickest soft tissues, and the superomedial area had the thinnest. This study includes information on the distribution of the thickness of the gluteal soft tissues of Koreans. The outcome of this study may contribute to the design of effective local flaps for pressure sore reconstruction and free flaps for breast reconstruction.

  7. Type-2 diabetes mellitus reduces cortical thickness and decreases oxidative metabolism in sensorimotor regions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Jennifer K; Peters, Sue; Brown, Katlyn E; Tourigny, Katherine; Boyd, Lara A

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus experience poor motor outcomes after ischemic stroke. Recent research suggests that type-2 diabetes adversely impacts neuronal integrity and function, yet little work has considered how these neuronal changes affect sensorimotor outcomes after stroke. Here, we considered how type-2 diabetes impacted the structural and metabolic function of the sensorimotor cortex after stroke using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We hypothesized that the combination of chronic stroke and type-2 diabetes would negatively impact the integrity of sensorimotor cortex as compared to individuals with chronic stroke alone. Compared to stroke alone, individuals with stroke and diabetes had lower cortical thickness bilaterally in the primary somatosensory cortex, and primary and secondary motor cortices. Individuals with stroke and diabetes also showed reduced creatine levels bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortex. Contralesional primary and secondary motor cortex thicknesses were negatively related to sensorimotor outcomes in the paretic upper-limb in the stroke and diabetes group such that those with thinner primary and secondary motor cortices had better motor function. These data suggest that type-2 diabetes alters cerebral energy metabolism, and is associated with thinning of sensorimotor cortex after stroke. These factors may influence motor outcomes after stroke.

  8. On the efficiency calibration of Si(Li) detector in the low-energy region using thick-target bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Z. E-mail: anzhu@scu.edu.cn; Liu, M.T

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, the efficiency calibration of a Si(Li) detector in the low-energy region down to 0.58 keV has been performed using thick-carbon-target bremsstrahlung by 19 keV electron impact. The shape of the efficiency calibration curve was determined from the thick-carbon-target bremsstrahlung spectrum, and the absolute value for the efficiency calibration was obtained from the use of {sup 241}Am radioactive standard source. The modified Wentzel's formula for thick-target bremsstrahlung was employed and it was also compared with the most recently developed theoretical model based upon the doubly differential cross-sections for bremsstrahlung of Kissel, Quarles and Pratt. In the present calculation of theoretical bremsstrahlung, the self-absorption correction and the convolution of detector's response function with the bremsstrahlung spectrum have simultaneously been taken into account. The accuracy for the efficiency calibration in the low-energy region with the method described here was estimated to be about 6%. Moreover, the self-absorption correction calculation based upon the prescription of Wolters et al. has also been presented as an analytical factor with the accuracy of {approx}1%.

  9. The use of Am-241 as Equivalence Thickness Measurement for Irradiation Room at National institute for Cancer and Malacca Hospital: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Azuhar Ripin; Husaini Salleh

    2013-01-01

    Lead equivalent thickness measurement of a shielding material in diagnostic radiology is very important to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have sufficient shielding thickness, for example for general radiography it must be at least equal to 2.0 mm of Pb, for panoramic dental radiography at least equal to 1.5 mm of Pb and for mammography should be a minimum of 1.0 mm of Pb. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for irradiation room at National Institute for Cancer (IKN) and General Malacca Hospital. Results of measurement of 10 irradiation rooms conducted in 2012 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that almost all the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  10. The structure and institutions: a regional aspect of interaction in the economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Stepanovich Tarasevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article with the help of two-sector model of the economic system, the interaction of national and regional economy is investigated. This interaction is observed from the position of development of material structure and institutions. As the key structural parameter of an economy, the proportion between sector of excess resources and sector of scarce resources is taken. The situation when sector of excess resources prevails over sector of scarce resources forms structural conditions for the creation of the market institutions. If a sector of excess resources is smaller than a sector of scarce resources, the conditions for the emergence of institutions of government regulation are formed. Two cases are analyzed: the first one concerns the situation of a simple national economy consisting of 2 provisory regions. The second is the case of the national economy consisting of many regions. The authors show that material structure of a total combination of regions defines institutions of the market or state regulation for the national economy as a whole. The institutions formed at the level of the national economy, can support or resist the development of structure of the region. The conditions are observed under which united institutions of the national economy contradict a development of structure of the individual region.

  11. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  12. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  13. DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTIONS AS AN EFFECTIVE MODEL AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL (ON THE EXAMPLE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leysan Kashapova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article questions of a choice of flexible instruments of government support to territories ensure their economic stability and economic growth. The formation of institutions is one of such approaches of profiling and of the results of operations which depends on the degree of development of territories. You have made the necessary relationship of selection and formation of development institutions from the strategic development priorities of the region We proved that effective implementation and activities of development institutions depends on the achievement of strategic targets set at the regional level and the municipal level.

  14. Regionalism in Educational R/D&I: A Policy Analysis for the National Institute of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Durward; And Others

    This analysis examines regionalism in the educational research, development, and innovation (R/D&I) context with particular concern for its meaning and significance for the National Institute of Education. The purpose of the analysis is to provide an understanding of regionalism that would be of help to R/D&I policy makers. It is intended…

  15. The Engagement of Higher Educational Institutions in Regional Development: An Overview of the Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, John; Puukka, Jaana

    2008-01-01

    Across the OECD, countries, regions and higher education institutions (HEIs) are discovering each other. More and more partnerships are being established based on a growing appreciation of shared interests. This paper explores the drivers behind such engagement, from both HEI and regional development perspectives, the barriers to effective working…

  16. From Clusters to Smart Specialization: Tourism in Institution-Sensitive Regional Development Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Benner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union and its neighborhood, regional development has increasingly come to focus on agglomerations during the last three decades. Notably, during the 1990s and early 2000s, clustering was the major policy focus in regional development. Currently, the concept of smart specialization is applied all over the European Union and is attracting interest in the EU’s neighborhood. The tourism sector particularly tends to agglomerate regionally and even locally. While there is a large body of literature describing tourism clusters and while tourism features as a priority sector in many regional development strategies such as smart specialization strategies, there is a research gap on policy approaches applying agglomeration-oriented policy concepts to tourism destinations in an institution-sensitive way. This article argues that both cluster policy and smart specialization can be of considerable value for institution-sensitive tourism development, either when adapted to the specificities of the tourism sector or when integrating tourism development into wider, cross-sectoral strategies of regional development. Such a policy can be a valuable tool for local and regional development, provided that policies are designed in an institution-sensitive manner and respond to the particular institutional context prevailing in a tourist destination. The article illustrates some preliminary thoughts for institution-sensitive tourism development through cluster policy and smart specialization in Cyprus, Israel, and Tunisia.

  17. Regions, institutions and development in a global economy. Divergent regional business systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helvoirt, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite claims that processes of globalisation have created a ‘borderless world’ there are vast and persistent geographical disparities in economic development. A growing body of literature in the field of development studies has identified the role of institutions as an important factor to explain

  18. The economic impact of higher education institutions on regional development: the case of the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Joana

    2010-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are considered, usually, important mechanisms for regional development. However, it is essential that they can quantify the impact that their activities have in surrounding communities and in regional economic development.

  19. The Role of Institutional Environment in International Trade. The Case of Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Márquez-Ramos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We move beyond the nation-state as the unit of analysis and use subnational spatial variation to study the effect of the institutional environment on international trade. Additionally, we address the heterogeneous effect of trade agreements on different regions within a country. Employing a gravity model approach, we use a region-to-country dataset to estimate the determinants of Spanish regional exports and we apply quantile regressions for panel data. We find that better institutional quality of trade agreements leads to an increase in both the intensive and the extensive margins of trade. The institutional quality of trade agreements exerts a differential effect on regional exports at different locations within a country, although differences across Spanish regions seem to be larger for the intensive margin than for the extensive margin. We do, however, find a common trend: for the relatively more important exporting regions, the institutional quality of TAs is less relevant for trade margins. Therefore, our results posit that subnational spatial variation should be added to the analysis of the determinants of international trade flows.

  20. Study on the Influence of Informal institution on Rural Legal Construction in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junlin; DU

    2015-01-01

    The Informal institution in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region has dual effects on rural legal construction. In the process of rural legal construction,it can make up for the defects of formal institution to reduce the cost of legal construction,and increase benefit. It also has negative influence on social function,and can’t be conducive to the social stability,development and harmony. Civil law is to be more valued,thus avoiding and hampering the implementation of national laws and even covering the operation of national laws,so it is impossible to achieve rule of law. The coordinated development of Informal institution and socio-economic development in Northwest Ethnic Minority Region will contribute to stable and harmonious social development in Northwest Region.

  1. Automated Volumetry and Regional Thickness Analysis of Hippocampal Subfields and Medial Temporal Cortical Structures in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Pluta, John B.; Wang, Hongzhi; Xie, Long; Ding, Song-Lin; Gertje, E. C.; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Daria; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Wolk, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a fully automatic technique for labeling hippocampal subfields and cortical subregions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in in vivo 3 Tesla MRI. The method performs segmentation on a T2-weighted MRI scan with 0.4 × 0.4 × 2.0 mm3 resolution, partial brain coverage, and oblique orientation. Hippocampal subfields, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are labeled using a pipeline that combines multi-atlas label fusion and learning-based error correction. In contrast to earlier work on automatic subfield segmentation in T2-weighted MRI (Yushkevich et al., 2010), our approach requires no manual initialization, labels hippocampal subfields over a greater anterior-posterior extent, and labels the perirhinal cortex, which is further subdivided into Brodmann areas 35 and 36. The accuracy of the automatic segmentation relative to manual segmentation is measured using cross-validation in 29 subjects from a study of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and is highest for the dentate gyrus (Dice coefficient is 0.823), CA1 (0.803), perirhinal cortex (0.797) and entorhinal cortex (0.786) labels. A larger cohort of 83 subjects is used to examine the effects of aMCI in the hippocampal region using both subfield volume and regional subfield thickness maps. Most significant differences between aMCI and healthy aging are observed bilaterally in the CA1 subfield and in the left Brodmann area 35. Thickness analysis results are consistent with volumetry, but provide additional regional specificity and suggest non-uniformity in the effects of aMCI on hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregions. PMID:25181316

  2. Line formation in the solar chromosphere. II - An optically thick region of the chromosphere-corona transition region observed with OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lites, B. W.; Hansen, E. R.; Shine, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The University of Colorado ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Orbiting Solar Observatory 8(OSO 8) has measured self-reversed profiles of the resonance line of C IV lamda 1548.2 at the limb passage of an active region. The degree of the self-reversal together with the absolute intensity of the line profile determine the electron density in the active region at 10 to the 10th/cu cm at temperatures where the C IV line is formed. The nonthermal component of the broadening velocity is no more than 14km/s, and the physical thickness of an equivalent plane-parallel slab in hydrostatic equilibrium that would give rise to the observed line profiles is about 430 km.

  3. Growing Significance of EU Institutions in Promotion of Inter-regional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Ermakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the variety of tools and vehicles applied within the EU to expand the prerogative of the regions of the EU member states. The author uses as an example the inter-regional policies in Belgium in respect of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. The author analyzes the mechanisms of promotion of external regional relations in Belgium as a means of addressing different problems both on national and all-European level, supporting the arguments and conclusions by examples of relevant EU initiatives. The article details the activities of the EU Regional Committee (RC, the EU advisory body with the powers of political initiative, upholding the principle ofsubsidarity in the implementation of the EU member states' regional policies. The involvement of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region in the activities of EU RC is described and summarized. As a case study, the article deals with Belgium's rotating six months presidency in the EUin 2010 when the country, which was going through a severe political crisis with no federal government in place, was represented by the two regions. The special focus of the article is on the strategic EU program "Europe2020" and its implementation by the regions of Belgium. There is an account of the initiatives undertaken by the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region within the framework of this program outlining the interaction of the two regions. The author provides a comprehensive analysis of the involvement of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region with various EU institutions describing how each party achieves the promotion of its regional interests. Within this context, it is a noteworthy development that the Flemish Region is participating in the international program "Pact 2020" on energy all by its own. The article features quotations by Flemish and Walloon political figures which serve as an illustration of the prevailing attitudes in the Belgian society to the process of

  4. Regional 500 mb heights and U.S. 1 000-500 mb thickness prior to the radiosonde era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, P. J.; Sappington, D. E.; Stooksbury, D. E.; Hayden, B. P.

    1990-09-01

    We developed a statistical model relating cyclone track eigenvectors over the U.S., southern Canada, and nearby oceans to a record of mean annual 500 mb heights. The length of the cyclone track record allowed us to calculate mean heights back to 1885. Use of mean annual surface pressure data allowed us to estimate the mean 1 000-500 mb thickness, which was related to mean annual temperature. This temperature calculation is unique in that it cannot suffer from urban or site bias. We find a warming of 1.5°C from the late 19th century to 1955, followed by a drop of 0.7° to 1980. By 1987, the calculated temperatures were 0.3° above the mean for 103 years of record. As an example of regional application, we examine results over the southwestern U.S.

  5. Age- and gender-related regional variations of human brain cortical thickness, complexity, and gradient in the third decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creze, Maud; Versheure, Leslie; Besson, Pierre; Sauvage, Chloe; Leclerc, Xavier; Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    Brain functional and cytoarchitectural maturation continue until adulthood, but little is known about the evolution of the regional pattern of cortical thickness (CT), complexity (CC), and intensity or gradient (CG) in young adults. We attempted to detect global and regional age- and gender-related variations of brain CT, CC, and CG, in 28 healthy young adults (19-33 years) using a three-dimensional T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence and surface-based methods. Whole brain interindividual variations of CT and CG were similar to that in the literature. As a new finding, age- and gender-related variations significantly affected brain complexity (P gender), all in the right hemisphere. Regions of interest analyses showed age and gender significant interaction (P left inferior parietal. In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between CT and CC and between CT and CG over the whole brain and markedly in precentral and occipital areas. Our findings differ in details from previous reports and may correlate with late brain maturation and learning plasticity in young adults' brain in the third decade. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  7. Smart Specialisation in European Regions: Issues of Strategy, Institutions and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega Argiles, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    After reviewing some of the key features of the smart specialisation approach this paper examines issues of strategy and implementation which arise in the light of institutional and macroeconomic context in regional examples from four EU countries. The specific insights provided by this comparative

  8. [Study on the status of institutional delivery and its determinants in rural Guangxi autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Li-Li; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Cen, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Qian, Xu

    2008-03-01

    To understand the situation of institutional delivery of rural pregnant women in Guangxi Autonomous Region in the period of 1998 - 2003 and to identify the determinants on institutional delivery utilization. Using Andersen's behavioral model as analytical framework and Guangxi databank of the 3rd National Health Service Survey as data source, we described the status of institutional delivery with the rural women having had live birth history in the period of 1998 - 2003 as subjects, while and the univariate analysis and multivariate logistic analysis were done to identify determinants of institutional delivery utilization. Among a total number of 407 women with live birth history, 39.80 percent of them delivered at the health-care facilities. The rate of institutional delivery increased annually in 1998 - 2003 (Pdelivery in township health centers increased and the proportion of home delivery decreased by year (Pdelivery etc. were determinants of delivery utilization. The OR value were 1.749 for multipara, 1.995 for those going to the nearest healthcare facilities by the most convenient traffic in less than 10 minutes, 3.011 for those drinking tap water, 5.435 for those with the education of high school, 29.149 for those with over 5 times in terms of frequency of prenatal checkup and 37.822 for those being advocated on institutional delivery. Socio-economic situation, status of maternal health care and parity made main contribution to institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance for women in rural Guangxi.

  9. Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute: annual research summary 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute (ARRRI) research activities are associated with an assessment of environmental effect of mining in the region. While emphasis on baseline research is now much reduced, some projects are still necessary because of significant changes in the Magela Creek system, because new areas of proposed mining have been identified (e.g. Coronation Hill) and because the emphasis now being placed on rehabilitation research requires a sound knowledge of the Region's flora. The ARRRI rehabilitation research program has concentrated on the Ranger mine site, principally because it is at a critical planning stage where detailed research information is required. With regard to the development of techniques, research at the Institute has led to the development of specific analytical methods or protocols that can be used in assessing environmental impact. 39 tabs., 42 figs

  10. Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio MATEOS ROYO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe. Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product and labour markets as the region’s economy contracted. Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Seismological and Gravimetric Crustal Thicknesses below the Andean Region with Flat Subduction of the Nazca Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Gimenez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A gravimetric study was carried out in a region of the Central Andean Range between 28∘ and 32∘ south latitudes and from 72∘ and 66∘ west longitudes. The seismological and gravimetrical Moho models were compared in a sector which coincides with the seismological stations of the CHARGE project. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the gravity Moho depths and those obtained from seismological investigations (CHARGE project, the latter giving deeper values than those resulting from the gravimetric inversion. These discrepancies are attenuated when the positive gravimetric effect of the Nazca plate is considered. Nonetheless, a small residuum of about 5 km remains beneath the Cuyania terrane region, to the east of the main Andean chain. This residuum could be gravimetrically justified if the existence of a high density or eclogitized portion of the lower crust is considered. This result differed from the interpretations from Project “CHARGE” which revealed that the entire inferior crust extending from the Precordillera to the occidental “Sierras Pampeanas” could be “eclogitized”. In this same sector, we calculated the effective elastic thickness (Te of the crust. These results indicated an anomalous value of Te = 30 km below the Cuyania terrane. This is further conclusive evidence of the fact that the Cuyania terrane is allochthonous, for which also geological evidences exist.

  12. Regional climate response collaboratives: Multi-institutional support for climate resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Derner, Justin D.; Dilling, Lisa; Guerrero, Rafael; Joyce, Linda A.; McNeeley, Shannon; McNie, Elizabeth; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ojima, Dennis; O'Malley, Robin; Peck, Dannele; Ray, Andrea J.; Reeves, Matt; Travis, William

    2018-01-01

    Federal investments by U.S. agencies to enhance climate resilience at regional scales grew over the past decade (2010s). To maximize efficiency and effectiveness in serving multiple sectors and scales, it has become critical to leverage existing agency-specific research, infrastructure, and capacity while avoiding redundancy. We discuss lessons learned from a multi-institutionalregional climate response collaborative” that comprises three different federally-supported climate service entities in the Rocky Mountain west and northern plains region. These lessons include leveraging different strengths of each partner, creating deliberate mechanisms to increase cross-entity communication and joint ownership of projects, and placing a common priority on stakeholder-relevant research and outcomes. We share the conditions that fostered successful collaboration, which can be transferred elsewhere, and suggest mechanisms for overcoming potential barriers. Synergies are essential for producing actionable research that informs climate-related decisions for stakeholders and ultimately enhances climate resilience at regional scales.

  13. Institutional traps in the hospitality industry financing (by the example of Krasnodar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yu. Baranova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine and classify the institutional traps in financing the hospitality industry in Russia. Methods abstractlogical generalization and observation. Results basing on the analysis of statistics and regional program of tourism development in Krasnodar region the challenges and obstacles were identified to the development and improvement of tourist services quality. The research result is the identification and systematization of institutional traps in the financing of tourism expressed in the increased public support of the sector. In particular a significant proportion of touristrecreational sector funding is still taken from the budget though the specific weight of profitable health resort organizations amounted to 60 over the past three years. In the process of research the author formulated a general concept of the institutional structure of the hospitality industry in Russia and the model of the sector financing through a system of incentives and benefits for vacationers forming the tourist clusters and forming a mechanism of dialogue between the authorities and representatives of tourist business. Scientific novelty the institutional traps are defined and systematized which are formed in the system of tourism financing measures to overcome them are proposed. Practical significance the proposed recommendations can be used by the entities of the hospitality industry to enhance business activities and by authorities to implement tasks outlined in the state programs.

  14. Asian Regional Institutions and the Possibilities for Socializing the Behavior of States

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Amitav

    2011-01-01

    Departing from the traditional yardsticks for measuring the performance and effectiveness of regional institutions, this paper proposes a new framework to investigate their effect in the socialization (i.e. internalization of group norms by newcomers) of new members. Called Type III internalization, it represents a middle ground between Type I (i.e. member states simply acting according to group expectations, even if they may not agree with them), and Type II (i.e. states transforming themsel...

  15. Institutional constraints on alternative water for energy: a guidebook for regional assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Basic information is presented about the legal, political, and social constraints faced by energy developers in the acquisition of water from underground, irrigation return flow, municipal waste, and saline sources. It is a guide to those institutional constraints which are general and pronounced enough to be important for regional assessments. First, attention was focused on the acquisition phase of the water use cycle. Second, constraints were analyzed primarily from a regional, rather than state-by-state, perspective. Emphasis was placed generally on the West - particularly the synfuel-rich Rocky Mountain states, the East, and Mid-West, in that order. Alaska and Hawaii were not surveyed. Third, the study focuses on the constraints associated with groundwater, municipal waste, irrigation return flow, and sea water, in that order. The phrase, institutional constraints, as used in the study, means legal, social, economic, and political restrictions, requirements, circumstances, or conditions that must be anticipated or responded to in order to acquire water for energy development. The study focuses primarily on legal constraints and secondarily on political constraints, because they tend to encompass or reflect other forms of institutional constraints.

  16. The Institutional Models of Participants Interaction as Instrument for Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nataliia M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the processes of interaction of participants at the regional level. The necessity of search and development of directions of cooperation of participants in process of realization of tasks of both sectoral and regional development has been proved. A peculiar philosophy of cooperation has been formulated, it has been proved that it should not appear as some legal formality. The objectives of cooperation within in terms its broad understanding have been defined, taking into consideration the conception of classical marketing complex (4P. The basic theories of cooperation have been reviewed, on the basis of analyzing these it has been found that an intensifying precisely the non-economic conditions of cooperation at regional level is necessary, and also that cooperation and interaction in region should be considered with understanding of function of different parties to the discussed forms of cooperation. A characterization of forms of both intra- and inter-sectoral cooperation of the participants, operating at the regional level, has been developed. The importance of the institutional forms of cooperation in relation to the processes of solving common problems of both the sectoral and the regional development has been substantiated.

  17. Enhanced washout of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: quantitative comparisons with regional {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake and wall thickness determined by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thet-Thet-Lwin, Tohoru; Takeda, Jin; Wu, Yuko; Fumikura, Keiji; Iida, Satoru; Kawano, Iwao; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Itai [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, 305-8575, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The diagnostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin (TF) washout in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was examined by investigating its relation to the metabolic abnormality depicted by iodine-123 {beta}-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) uptake and the left ventricular (LV) myocardial wall thickness as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TF washout was evaluated in 31 patients with HCM and 23 normal control subjects using 30-min (early) and 3-h (delayed) TF single-photon emission tomography images. The LV myocardial wall was divided into 19 segments and the percentage TF washout, regional BMIPP uptake and LV wall thickness were measured in each segment. Mean TF washout in the patients with HCM was significantly faster than that in normal control subjects (23.7{+-}5.7 vs 13.4{+-}4.1, P<0.0001). In the patients with HCM, TF washout showed an excellent correlation with MRI wall thickness (r=0.82, P<0.0001) and a good inverse correlation with regional BMIPP uptake (r=-0.72, P<0.0001). In addition, a good linear correlation was observed between TF uptake and MRI wall thickness in the 19 regional segments. In conclusion, the degree of TF washout corresponds well with the severity of myocardial wall thickness and the degree of metabolic abnormality in patients with HCM. These results suggest that enhanced TF washout might provide additional clinical information regarding metabolic alterations in HCM. (orig.)

  18. Enhanced washout of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: quantitative comparisons with regional 123I-BMIPP uptake and wall thickness determined by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thet-Thet-Lwin, Tohoru; Takeda, Jin; Wu, Yuko; Fumikura, Keiji; Iida, Satoru; Kawano, Iwao; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Itai

    2003-01-01

    The diagnostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin (TF) washout in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was examined by investigating its relation to the metabolic abnormality depicted by iodine-123 β-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) uptake and the left ventricular (LV) myocardial wall thickness as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TF washout was evaluated in 31 patients with HCM and 23 normal control subjects using 30-min (early) and 3-h (delayed) TF single-photon emission tomography images. The LV myocardial wall was divided into 19 segments and the percentage TF washout, regional BMIPP uptake and LV wall thickness were measured in each segment. Mean TF washout in the patients with HCM was significantly faster than that in normal control subjects (23.7±5.7 vs 13.4±4.1, P<0.0001). In the patients with HCM, TF washout showed an excellent correlation with MRI wall thickness (r=0.82, P<0.0001) and a good inverse correlation with regional BMIPP uptake (r=-0.72, P<0.0001). In addition, a good linear correlation was observed between TF uptake and MRI wall thickness in the 19 regional segments. In conclusion, the degree of TF washout corresponds well with the severity of myocardial wall thickness and the degree of metabolic abnormality in patients with HCM. These results suggest that enhanced TF washout might provide additional clinical information regarding metabolic alterations in HCM. (orig.)

  19. Enhanced washout of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: quantitative comparisons with regional 123I-BMIPP uptake and wall thickness determined by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thet-Thet-Lwin; Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Fumikura, Yuko; Iida, Keiji; Kawano, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Iwao; Itai, Yuji

    2003-07-01

    The diagnostic value of technetium-99m tetrofosmin (TF) washout in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was examined by investigating its relation to the metabolic abnormality depicted by iodine-123 beta-methyl- p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) uptake and the left ventricular (LV) myocardial wall thickness as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TF washout was evaluated in 31 patients with HCM and 23 normal control subjects using 30-min (early) and 3-h (delayed) TF single-photon emission tomography images. The LV myocardial wall was divided into 19 segments and the percentage TF washout, regional BMIPP uptake and LV wall thickness were measured in each segment. Mean TF washout in the patients with HCM was significantly faster than that in normal control subjects (23.7+/-5.7 vs 13.4+/-4.1, P<0.0001). In the patients with HCM, TF washout showed an excellent correlation with MRI wall thickness ( r=0.82, P<0.0001) and a good inverse correlation with regional BMIPP uptake ( r=-0.72, P<0.0001). In addition, a good linear correlation was observed between TF uptake and MRI wall thickness in the 19 regional segments. In conclusion, the degree of TF washout corresponds well with the severity of myocardial wall thickness and the degree of metabolic abnormality in patients with HCM. These results suggest that enhanced TF washout might provide additional clinical information regarding metabolic alterations in HCM.

  20. Technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    A particular challenge facing countries with small nuclear programmes is the preparation for extended interim storage and then disposal of their spent nuclear fuel. The costs and complications of providing for away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or geological repositories for relatively small amounts of spent fuel may be prohibitively high, motivating interest in regional solutions. This publication addresses the technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities (RSFSF) and is based on the results of a series of meetings on this topic with participants from IAEA Member States. Topics discussed include safety criteria and standards, safeguards and physical protection, fuel acceptance criteria, long term stability of systems and stored fuel, selection of site, infrastructure aspects, storage technology, licensing, operations, transport, decommissioning, as well as research and development. Furthermore the publication comprises economic, financial and institutional considerations including organizations and legal aspects followed by political and public acceptance and ethical considerations. Approaches and processes for implementation are discussed, as well as the overall benefits and risks of implementing a regional facility. It is illustrated that implementing a RSFSF facility would involve simultaneously addressing a wide range of diverse challenges. The appendix to this report tabulates the numerous issues that have been touched upon in the study. It appears, however, from the discussions that the challenges can in principle be met; the RSFSF concept is technically feasible and potentially economically viable. The technical committees producing this report did not identify any obvious institutional deficiencies that would prevent completion of such a project. Storing spent fuel in a few safe, reliable, secure facilities could enhance safeguards, physical protection and non-proliferation benefits. The committee also

  1. Differences in East Asian Economic Institutions: Taiwan in a Regional Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Csaba Moldicz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “developmental state” describes a very conscious, however, more or less market-friendly approach to economic development. The developmental states of the East Asian region can be characterized by a strong emphasis on diverse forms of state intervention generally; however, these sets of institutions differ in the Japanese, Taiwanese, and South Korean economies. The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative analysis of economic institutions and their alterations after the Asian financial crisis. The paper includes Taiwan, Japan and South Korea in the analysis. The paper seeks to define the peculiar features of Taiwanese economic institutions in contrast to Japan and South Korea. By doing so, the paper investigates different aspects of economic institutions in Japan, Taiwan and South Korea: firm structure, the ability of firms to shape and organize regional supply chains, the role of state and trade unions, the composition of GDP/GNP, economic openness (trade, exchange regimes and financial sectors’ capability to channel funds and encourage saving and investments. One of the findings of the paper is that Taiwan’s defining feature is its very close cooperation with Mainland China. However, the deep interconnectedness of the two economies, often called “Chiwan”, is going to be changed. The reason for this is not only a new economic policy, Taiwan’s “New Southbound Policy” of enhanced cooperation with countries of the Southeast Asia, South Asia and Oceania, but the upgrading of the Chinese economy, which is losing its place in the global supply chains as a cheap-labour country.

  2. Institutions and organisations in Russian higher education: the example of Rostov region education services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the process of transformation in institutional and organizational structures of Russian Higher Education (Rostov Region is taken as an example. Adaptive economic behavior of key actors on the Russian education services market has been studied in the context of constantly changing institutional and organizational environments. Original institutional approach in the tradition of J. Commons and J. Hodgson has been applied to analyze interconnections between institutions and organizations. The evolution of institutional and organizational structures in Russian Higher education has been divided into three stages. We distinguish between those stages taking into account the dynamics of quantitative indicators and the change in norms and standards that regulate actors’ behavior in the field. The period of 1990-2002 can be characterized by weakening of government regulation and, simultaneously, lack of financial support of Higher Education. Meanwhile, private Higher Education and paid university programmes developed rapidly during that period. These changes resulted in quantitative growth in the field on the one hand, and devaluation of Higher Education, on the other hand. It is assumed that the “bubble” in Russian Higher Education, which arose in 2002-2008, occurred to a great extent because of the expansion in extramural and lowquality full-time education aimed only at getting graduate diplomas. During the period of bubble formation and latter decline in demand on the Russian education services market, the Government strengthened norms and standards referring to regulation of Higher Education. Recent “optimization processes” of 2009-2015 resulted in reducing the number of students and lecturers, universities and their branches.

  3. The Regulation Of Electronic Money Institutions In The SADC Region: Some Lessons From The EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaphuti David Tuba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the different approaches adopted for the regulation of payment systems in a variety of legislative instruments by the European Union (EU. It looks in particular at how the institutions that issue new electronic money products are regulated and supervised by the relevant authorities in the EU, in comparison with existing institutions such as banks. It analyses some of the lessons that may be learned by the South African Development Corporation (SADC from the regulatory approaches for electronic money institutions adopted by the EU. The article asks if the approach adopted by the EU may be useful for the future regulation of electronic money institutions in the SADC. The proliferation of electronic devices that arrived with the invention of the Internet has sparked some regulatory challenges. This development has become global and involves both developed and developing countries, including regions such as the SADC. It is asked if these technological developments should be addressed by means of a concrete regulatory framework while they continue to develop, instead of the regulators waiting to observe and acquaint themselves with the relevant regulatory challenges that underpin the innovations. The EU has attempted to address the anticipated regulatory challenges that came about with the development of electronic money and to align its regulatory approach with other payment systems. This article discusses the regulatory approaches adopted in the EU and provides an overview that the SADC may use in order to adopt an effective regulatory framework for electronic money and the institutions that issue these methods of payment. It analyses both the achievements and the challenges that the EU faced (and continues to face in developing the regulation of e-money, and recommends some possible approaches derived from the lessons learned.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR FINANCING THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial support of the regional and municipal economy development. Formation of the institutional basis for the budgeting process and budgets interactions between the territories of different levels are shown on the base of retrospective analysis of foundation and development of budget federalism in Russia. Attraction of entrepreneurial sector resources on the conditions of public-private partnership is discussed as additional finance source and definite particularities of this process are described in line with the possibilities of their appliance.

  5. Collaboration Among Institutions to Bring Geospatial Technology to an Underserved Rural Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Maine at Machias and Washington County Community College, the two smallest and most remote public institutions in Maine, provide important education and workforce development services in a rural and economically-challenged region. Through an innovative collaboration supported by the National Science Foundation, the two institutions have developed geospatial technology (GST) programs designed to meet the specific workforce needs of the region, affording students with the opportunity to pursue degrees, certificates and minors. Prior to this effort, neither school had the resources to maintain a GST laboratory or to offer courses consistently. The region had almost no GST capacity with which to manage critical environmental resources and grapple with economic, public safety, and public health challenges. Several statewide studies had shown a growing need for more GST technicians and training for incumbent workers. The new programs are designed to produce a small number of specialist technicians with associate's degrees and a large number of ancillary users with significant GST expertise from courses, certificates or minors. Course content is shaped by workforce research in Maine and elsewhere, and all courses are offered in either blended, online or short-term intensive formats to provide access to incumbent workers and extend the geographic reach of the programs. Through the university's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Service Center, students from both institutions engage in real-world projects, and are linked with employers via internships. This has the added plus of providing low-cost and no-cost GIS services to area clients, generating demand. Many of these projects and internships lead to work for graduates, even through the economic downturn. By creating courses that serve multiple audiences, each contributing a small number to the total enrollment, the programs constitute a sustainable model that serves the growing needs of the region

  6. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  7. Cysts of the periapical region in children: A 19-year institutional review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Telang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are very few studies that have been done specifically on cysts of the periapical region in children. Aim: To do a retrospective analysis of specimens received as cysts of periapical region in children. Design: A Total of 3142 oral biopsies received over a period of 19 years (1987- 2005 at the department of oral pathology A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Derelakatte, Mangalore, India were retrieved and all paediatric oral biopsies were further histopathologically analyzed. Results: Our study found that 39% of the total paediatric oral biopsies received were cysts and the commonest cyst was radicular cyst (43.3% followed by dentigerous cyst (20.6′0, odontogenic keratocyst (8.6′0 and lateral periodontal cyst (1.7% which was different from most reported studies. Conclusion: Radicular cyst is the commonest cyst reported in this study which is different from most reported studies probably because of the type of biopsies received at our institute.

  8. The Development of Green Skills through the Local TAFE Institute as a Potential Pathway to Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses how one Victorian regional TAFE Institute is working towards understanding and contributing to skill formation for the green economy. While we already know that the provision of vocational education and training in regional areas contributes to regional innovation and development (Kilpatrick, Johns and Rosenblatt, 2000; Gelade…

  9. Dependence of the photovoltaic performance of pseudomorphic InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well solar cells on the active region thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhtarova, Anna; Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Redaelli, Luca; Durand, Christophe; Monroy, Eva; Eymery, Joël, E-mail: joel.eymery@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-CNRS group “Nanophysique et semiconducteurs”, CEA-INAC-PHELIQS, 17 av. des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Bougerol, Catherine [Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-CNRS group “Nanophysique et semiconducteurs”, Institut Néel-CNRS, 25 av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-18

    We investigate the photovoltaic performance of pseudomorphic In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N/GaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) solar cells as a function of the total active region thickness. An increase in the number of wells from 5 to 40 improves the short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage, resulting in a 10-fold enhancement of the overall conversion efficiency. Further increasing the number of wells leads to carrier collection losses due to an incomplete depletion of the active region. Capacitance-voltage measurements point to a hole diffusion length of 48 nm in the MQW region.

  10. Institutional Analysis of Knowledge Generation Resource Potential at the Enterprises of Regional Military-Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vasilyevich Popov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the processes of knowledge generation at the enterprises of military-industrial complex, which are the leaders of the regional innovative activity. The target of the research is to develop the methodology based on the use of resource application potential for increasing the efficiency of knowledge generation at the instrument-making enterprises of military-industrial complex. The system analysis of the knowledge generation processes is conducted at one of them. It allows to draw a conclusion that such enterprises have a lack of the institutes of knowledge generation processes. The authors are offered a technique of the development of the knowledge generation system at the military-industrial enterprises based on the accounting of assets and opportunities of the enterprise in the realization of intellectual activity. The developed technique is based on the determination of the horizontal resource potential of knowledge generation and allows to determine the potential of resource application at each stage of product life cycle. The comparison of the actual and theoretical values of horizontal resource potential allows to correct the distribution of a share of each of resources within a stage, and therefore, to optimize the realization of tasks at a specific stage. The offered tools were implemented in 2015 at one of the regional military-Industrial enterprises. The methodological tools of the research include the methods of expert assessment, mathematical statistics and the institutional analysis. On the basis of the offered technique and received empirical results, the institutional spiral of knowledge generation during the filling of state order at the military-industrial enterprise is developed. Its implementation will promote the decrease in the level of uncertainty during the whole life cycle of innovative activity product. The developed institutional spiral of knowledge generation at instrument-making military

  11. Economy of distrust (the institute of trust and its role in the regional competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yakovlevna Kalyuzhnova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the role of social capital in ensuring the competitiveness of the social and economic systems. The indicator of interpersonal trust is used as the important indicator of social capital. Trust and distrust are considered in the article as separate categories, the distrust and its role in the economic component of life in the regions and countries are considered. The theoretical provisions revealing the mechanisms of distrust influence on the economy and the competitiveness of economies are given. The article statistically examines the link of indicators of trust and distrust on the level of countries and Russian regions and the competitiveness of countries and Russian regions. The assessment of parameters of interpersonal trust / distrust at the level of regions of the Russian Federation and the country in general on the basis of the Public Opinion Foundation are provided. The calculations of the correlation between the scores of countries’ competitiveness and credibility of the countries on the basis of survey data from the European Social Survey (ESS, as well as the data of the World Economic Forum on the competitiveness of countries in 2008 and 2010 are also provided. Our empirical study confirmed the link between the low level of interpersonal trust and competitiveness of the Russian economy in general, and the state of the country’s institutions. At the same time, we fail to confirm the link between the indicators of interpersonal trust across regions and economic indicators. This may serve as a confirmation of the fact that regional communities have virtually no effect on the behavior and economic decisions of persons taking decisions in the regions. This can be explained by the lack of relationship between trust to the elites making decisions and their position due to the lack of selectivity of the first persons of regions and mechanisms of the real impact of the population on economic decision-making, as

  12. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepro NB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  13. A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region and its analytical model for the electric field and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaorong; Zhang Wei; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji; Yang Shouguo; Zhan Zhan; Fu Daping

    2008-01-01

    A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region (ST SOI) and its analytical model for the two-dimension electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage are proposed. The electric field in the drift region is modulated and that of the buried layer is enhanced by the variable thickness SOI layer, thereby resulting in the enhancement of the breakdown voltage. Based on the Poisson equation, the expression for the two-dimension electric field distribution is presented taking the modulation effect into account, from which the RESURF (REduced SURface Field) condition and the approximate but explicit expression for the maximal breakdown voltage are derived. The analytical model can explain the effects of the device parameters, such as the step height and the step length of the SOI layer, the doping concentration and the buried oxide thickness, on the electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage. The validity of this model is demonstrated by a comparison with numerical simulations. Improvement on both the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance (R on ) for the ST SOI is obtained due to the variable thickness SOI layer

  14. MIDWESTERN REGIONAL CENTER OF THE DOE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University

    2014-02-28

    The goal of NICCR (National Institute for Climatic Change Research) was to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR Midwestern Regional Center (MRC) supported work in the following states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The MRC of NICCR was able to support nearly $8 million in climatic change research, including $6,671,303 for twenty projects solicited and selected by the MRC over five requests for proposals (RFPs) and $1,051,666 for the final year of ten projects from the discontinued DOE NIGEC (National Institute for Global Environmental Change) program. The projects selected and funded by the MRC resulted in 135 peer-reviewed publications and supported the training of 25 PhD students and 23 Masters students. Another 36 publications were generated by the final year of continuing NIGEC projects supported by the MRC. The projects funded by the MRC used a variety of approaches to answer questions relevant to the DOE’s climate change research program. These included experiments that manipulated temperature, moisture and other global change factors; studies that sought to understand how the distribution of species and ecosystems might change under future climates; studies that used measurements and modeling to examine current ecosystem fluxes of energy and mass and those that would exist under future conditions; and studies that synthesized existing data sets to improve our understanding of the effects of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. In all of these efforts, the MRC specifically sought to identify and quantify responses of terrestrial ecosystems that were not well understood or not well modeled by current efforts. The MRC also sought to better understand and model important feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry, and regional

  15. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  16. The System-Supplementing Effect of the Interaction between Innovative Capacity and Institutional Environment Factors of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Nikolayevich Ovchinnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the effect of interaction between the development level of regional innovative capacity and its innovative and institutional infrastructure is traced. The research objective is to prove the hypothesis of the essential impact of the regional institutional and information environment on its innovative capacity, the identification of the effect of their systemsupplementing interaction. From the standpoint of the methodology of system-structural research its components are allocated within the innovative capacity of the regional innovative system (RIS, they are presented by a corporate sector, the structures of small and medium business, and also by the subjects of ethnic economy. The use of essential-analytical and functional approaches has revealed the leading role of intangible assets of the corporate sector of the economy in region’s innovative development. The correlation and regression analysis has confirmed the essential dependence of the innovative activity of the region on the systemic completeness of the development of its institutional and infrastructure environment. The results of the research have shown that to ensure the system-supplementing effect of the interaction between innovative capacity and the factors of its activation in the sphere of institutional infrastructure, it is necessary to consistently develop its operational base — the institutions of RIS. The recommendations reasoned in the article may be used for the development of regional innovation strategies, the formation of innovation clusters. The three-component structure of the innovation cluster of the region is offered; its integrating function in relation to the innovative components of the regional sectoral clusters is determined. The factors constraining the growth of innovation activity of the regional economic subjects are revealed and the recommendations on the development of the institutional and infrastructural environment of the Rostov

  17. Digitisation Project Planning in the Maribor City Library as a Form of Regional Cross Institutional Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hriberšek Vuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:More and more Slovenian public libraries have been facing the question of selection criteria for digitisation of library materials as well as the issue of financial resources, copyright permission and the promotion of digitised materials. Libraries having long tradition of collecting valuable local history resources are more convinced about the selection criteria. Digitisation is, in spite of being expensive, time consuming and labour intensive, an easy method to enable quick access to library materials, to promote and preserve library collections. The mission of the central regional public library (cofinanced by the Ministry of Culture is not only to coordinate the collection, cataloguing and storage of local history resources but also to coordinate local history digital projects. Due to historical circumstances, the local history resources were first collected by the Maribor University Library. It is only in the recent past that the Maribor City Library has started to systematically collect these materials. Due to this fact, the Maribor City Library does not hold an extensive collection of rare and valuable local history items. It was initially faced with the problem of selection criteria for digitisation. However, it soon succeeded to establish the strategy to promote the local history collections in the region, regardless of their location. Thus the library started to cooperate with different regional institutions and the first partner projects were designed. In the year 2007 the library collaborated with the elementary school at Lovrenc na Pohorju and decided to digitise research papers of ex-pupils of the school. The first part of the project was accomplished in 2007 when 72 research papers were digitised, in the next two years their number was increased as the second part of the project was concluded. The papers were published on the KAMRA portal and the project was promoted at the summer annual meeting at Lovrenc na

  18. Normal values of regional left ventricular myocardial thickness, mass and distribution-assessed by 320-detector computed tomography angiography in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Fuchs, Andreas; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias

    2017-01-01

    regional normal reference values of the left ventricle. The aim of this study was to derive reference values of regional LV myocardial thickness (LVMT) and mass (LVMM) from a healthy study group of the general population using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We wanted to introduce LV...... myocardial distribution (LVMD) as a measure of regional variation of the LVMT. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these parameters varied between men and women. We studied 568 (181 men; 32%) adults, free of cardiovascular disease and risk factors, who underwent 320-detector CCTA. Mean age was 55 (range...... 40-84) years. Regional LVMT and LVMM were measured, according to the American Heart Association's 17 segment model, using semi-automatic software. Mean LVMT were 6.6 mm for men and 5.4 mm for women (p normal LV was thickest in the basal septum (segment 3; men = 8.3 mm; women = 7.2 mm...

  19. Unequal-thickness billet optimization in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke WEI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding the folding defect and improving the die filling capability in the transitional region are desired in isothermal local loading forming of a large-scale Ti-alloy rib-web component (LTRC. To achieve a high-precision LTRC, the folding evolution and die filling process in the transitional region were investigated by 3D finite element simulation and experiment using an equal-thickness billet (ETB. It is found that the initial volume distribution in the second-loading region can greatly affect the amount of material transferred into the first-loading region during the second-loading step, and thus lead to the folding defect. Besides, an improper initial volume distribution results in non-concurrent die filling in the cavities of ribs after the second-loading step, and then causes die underfilling. To this end, an unequal-thickness billet (UTB was employed with the initial volume distribution optimized by the response surface method (RSM. For a certain eigenstructure, the critical value of the percentage of transferred material determined by the ETB was taken as a constraint condition for avoiding the folding defect in the UTB optimization process, and the die underfilling rate was considered as the optimization objective. Then, based on the RSM models of the percentage of transferred material and the die underfilling rate, non-folding parameter combinations and optimum die filling were achieved. Lastly, an optimized UTB was obtained and verified by the simulation and experiment. Keywords: Die filling, Folding defect, Isothermal local loading forming, Transitional region, Unequal-thickness billet optimization

  20. DEVELOPMENT AREAS IN THE ARCTIC REGION FORMATION OF A NEW INSTITUTIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudin

    2015-01-01

     discussion, therefore, should be used in aggressive technology of extraction of primary energy resources of the Arctic fi elds. It was found that theimprovement of conditions for the dissemination and implementation of technological innovation in reducing or optimizing the geopolitical, military, economic, environmental, cultural risks in the Arctic region involve: support for research centers, producing technological innovations in the fi eld of exploration and development of the Arctic shelf, and broadcasting their respective corporations; the development of infrastructure to reduce the institutional, economic and technological backwardness of the State leaders and to achieve the highest standards of safety and performance standards.

  1. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ON THE POLICY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu (Stîngaciu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the administrative capacity of institutions in the regional development starts from the analysis of the existing framework for the implementation of regional politics in Romania and studies the extent to what the structures and competencies were regionally enlarged as to contribute in the regional development. The basic hypothesis considered for such analysis had in view the fact that the differences recorded with respect to the implementation capacity of the regional development policy are caused by the various levels of the administrative capacity of the national, regional and local institutions existent in Romania. Although the regional development activity is, both centrally and regionally, dominated by the Regional Operational Programmme 2007-2013 (ROP implementation, significant activity also exists outside the ROP, but only regionally. The regional strategies incorporate to a great extent the strategic objectives established nationally, being coordinated with the national financing instruments for economic, social and territorial development. The undertaking degree of responsibilities regarding the objectives fulfillment of the regional development policy is relatively low both regionally and locally, and the main indicator which contributes in sustaining this conclusion is the absence of an adequate level regarding the property holding on certain strategies and also the methodological lack of strategies. Nationally, the current activity of Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism in the field of regional development totally overlaps the management activity of ROP. The management of structural funds 2007-2013 granted through ROP deals with various situations in which, due to the fact that the Law of regional development remained behind the legislation for the structural instruments implementation in Romania, additional resources are necessary to be granted in order to be found solutions through other types of

  2. Higher educational institution as an organization of social entrepreneurship: the opportunities of integration into the economy of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geshko Olesja Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the relationship "government" higher educational institution "business" improving is underlined in the article. The model of a “socio – entrepreneurial educational institution” and its main characteristics are described here. Strong connections between higher educational institutions and small and medium – sized businesses as a part of innovation infrastructure development and regional economy development are analyzed in the paper. The results of the research can be used as conceptual ideas for the development structure of higher educational institutions.

  3. DRUG PROVISION OF HIV INFECTED CRIMINALS IN INSTITUTIONS OF CRIMINAL-EXECUTIVE SYSTEM OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kalinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV leads not only to loss of health in persons held in penitentiary institutions, but also to an increase in material costs for drug coverage of the infected, causing the deficit in the budget of the Russian Federation.The aim of the study is the investigation of the problems in drug supply of HIV-infected people and to search for their solutions.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on the basis of statistic data, medical statements and accounting to reports of the penitentiary medical organization using methods of analysis, documentary observation, grouping and comparison of data.Results and discussion. It has been established that in institutions of the penal system the number of HIV-infected criminals continues to grow rapidly. It has been determined that currently in the criminal-executive system (CES of Kuban’ only 5 classes of antiretroviral drugs out of the 10 classes represented on the Russian pharmacy market are used. Hereby the greatest number of drugs used in prison medical organization for conducting antiretroviral therapy (ARVT, are classified as “Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors” and “Protease Inhibitors”, and other classes of art drugs are represented by only one international nonproprietary name (raltegravir, enfuvirtide, etravirine. Drug treatment of socially significant infectious diseases is supplied centrally and completely satisfies regional needs. The structure of suppliers has been identified and determined. In 2016 the main suppliers were Joint-stock companies (JSC “National Immunobiological Company” and “R-PHARM”. An acute shortage of drugs for opportunistic infections due to insufficient funding has also been determined. The necessity for urgent replacement of material-technical base in prison pharmacies for compliance with the rules of storage of medicines which can ensure their safety was identified. The imperfection of

  4. Towards institutionalised regionalism: the role of institutions and prospects for institutionalisation in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasevee, Pattharapong

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides concrete understanding of the role of institutions and prospects for institutionalisation in ASEAN. It highlights the significant roles of institutions in the integrating Southeast Asia and demonstrates three main areas of institutional deficiency in the association. However, although ASEAN institutions meet the expectations, by and large, in terms of serving the national governments and upholding the association's norms, along with theoretical explanation, this paper argues that ASEAN should focus on strengthening its existing institutional structure by providing them with a mandate and sufficient financial and human resources in order to support its administration and growing activities. Finally, the paper suggests a revision of the current financial contribution system, a seeking of alternative sources of income and some institutional inventions such as a research wing and a mechanism that can get non-state actors involved in the process.

  5. Measuring the Impact of Wildfire on Active Layer Thickness in a Discontinuous Permafrost region using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, R. J.; Schaefer, K. M.; Zebker, H. A.; Liu, L.; Chen, J.; Parsekian, A.

    2017-12-01

    In permafrost regions, the active layer is defined as the uppermost portion of the permafrost table that is subject to annual freeze/thaw cycles. The active layer plays a crucial role in surface processes, surface hydrology, and vegetation succession; furthermore, trapped methane, carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases in permafrost are released into the atmosphere as permafrost thaws. A detailed understanding of active layer dynamics is therefore critical towards understanding the interactions between permafrost surface processes, freeze/thaw cycles, and climate-especially in regions across the Arctic subject to long-term permafrost degradation. The Yukon-Kuskokwim (YK) delta in southwestern Alaska is a region of discontinuous permafrost characterized by surface lakes, wetlands, and thermokarst depressions. Furthermore, extensive wildfires have burned across the YK delta in 2006, 2007, and 2015, impacting vegetation cover, surface soil moisture, and the active layer. Using data from the ALOS PALSAR, ALOS-2 PALSAR-2, and Sentinel-1A/B space borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems, we generate a series of interferograms over a study site in the YK delta spanning 2007-2011, and 2014-present. Using the ReSALT (Remotely-Sensed Active Layer Thickness) technique, we demonstrate that active layer can be characterized over most of the site from the relative interferometric phase difference due to ground subsidence and rebound associated with the seasonal active layer freeze/thaw cycle. Additionally, we show that this technique successfully discriminates between burned and unburned regions, and can resolve increases in active layer thickness in burned regions on the order of 10's of cms. We use the time series of interferograms to discuss permafrost recovery following wildfire burn, and compare our InSAR observations with GPR and active layer probing data from a 2016 summer field campaign to the study site. Finally, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of

  6. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  7. Tasks of institutional support to increase innovation activity of small business in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aleksandrovich Bayev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the low innovation activity of Russian small enterprises are presented in the article from the standpoint of institutional theory. According to the authors, today the degree of influence of the institutional environment on meso- and mini-levels, as well as informal rules for the development of small forms of entrepreneurship, including their innovative activity are underestimated. The influence of informal component of mini-level institutional environment on the implementation of formal institutions in the examples of the phenomenon of «Old Believers» Entrepreneurship and institutions of the shadow economy is shown. The authors suggest that the shadow nature existing in Russia on mini-level informal institutions to be explained not only by the low level of trust in society (including trust in authority and leadership and the differences between the national mentality, but also inadequate distribution of transaction costs of doing business (including innovation between economic agents. Features of the institutional system of Russia  as well as transaction costs of the domestic system of patenting inventions  are investigated as the key causes of the problem. Methodological principles of institutional support of small innovative businesses are presented.

  8. Institutional innovation and public extension services' provision: the case of Marche Regional Administration Reform in central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Magistris, de T.

    2011-01-01

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of

  9. An Examination of Hurricane Emergency Preparedness Planning at Institutions of Higher Learning of the Gulf South Region Post Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Caterina Gulli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine hurricane emergency preparedness planning at institutions of higher learning of the Gulf South region following Hurricane Katrina. The problem addressed the impact of Hurricane Katrina on decision-making and policy planning processes. The focus was on individuals that administer the hurricane emergency…

  10. Determination of the crust thickness in the active margin of the Antarctic region; Determinacao da estrutura crustal na margem ativa da regiao antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos; Gamboa, Luiz Antonio Pierantoni [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lagemar; Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Seismic multichannel, gravity and magnetometry measurements were carried out in the region of West coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, Bransfield Strait, South Shetland Islands and South Shetland Trench, by Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continue seismic and gravity and gravity data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the crust thickness in this region. By this model, the Moho discontinuity would lie at a depth of 14.5 km below the axis of the Bransfield trough. This anomalous behaviour in addition to compressional processes identified in the accretionary prism and trench, was interpreted as an evidence of the continued opening of the Bransfield basin. (author)

  11. Comparison of publically available Moho depth and crustal thickness grids with newly derived grids by 3D gravity inversion for the High Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    We derived Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region by 3D forward and inverse gravity modelling method in the spectral domain (Minakov et al. 2012) using lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Alvey et al., 2008); a vertical density variation for the sedimentary layer and lateral crustal variation density. Recently updated grids of bathymetry (Jakobsson et al., 2012), gravity anomaly (Gaina et al, 2011) and dynamic topography (Spasojevic & Gurnis, 2012) were used as input data for the algorithm. TeMAr sedimentary thickness grid (Petrov et al., 2013) was modified according to the most recently published seismic data, and was re-gridded and utilized as input data. Other input parameters for the algorithm were calibrated using seismic crustal scale profiles. The results are numerically compared with publically available grids of the Moho depth and crustal thickness for the High Arctic region (CRUST 1 and GEMMA global grids; the deep Arctic Ocean grids by Glebovsky et al., 2013) and seismic crustal scale profiles. The global grids provide coarser resolution of 0.5-1.0 geographic degrees and not focused on the High Arctic region. Our grids better capture all main features of the region and show smaller error in relation to the seismic crustal profiles compare to CRUST 1 and GEMMA grids. Results of 3D gravity modelling by Glebovsky et al. (2013) with separated geostructures approach show also good fit with seismic profiles; however these grids cover the deep part of the Arctic Ocean only. Alvey A, Gaina C, Kusznir NJ, Torsvik TH (2008). Integrated crustal thickness mapping and plate recon-structions for the high Arctic. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274:310-321. Gaina C, Werner SC, Saltus R, Maus S (2011). Circum-Arctic mapping project: new magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic. Geol Soc Lond Mem 35, 39-48. Glebovsky V.Yu., Astafurova E.G., Chernykh A.A., Korneva M.A., Kaminsky V.D., Poselov V.A. (2013). Thickness of the Earth's crust in the

  12. Self-reported harassment and bullying in Australian universities: explaining differences between regional, metropolitan and elite institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Peetz, David; Strachan, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Association for Tertiary Education Management and the LH Martin Institute for Tertiary Education Leadership and Management. We analyse data from the largest survey of university staff in Australia to determine whether bullying and harassment are more common in regional than metropolitan...... of harassment. This probably reflected the labour market and resource context of regional universities. Binary logistic regression indicated that a perceived lack of support for professional development partially explained the effect of regional status on differences in the rates of harassment/bullying across...... university types. Markers of organisational culture only partially account for differences in the rates of harassment/bullying between university types....

  13. Constraining the thickness of polar ice deposits on Mercury using the Mercury Laser Altimeter and small craters in permanently shadowed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Radar-bright deposits at the poles of Mercury are located in permanently shadowed regions, which provide thermally stable environments for hosting and retaining water ice on the surface or in the near subsurface for geologic timescales. While the areal distribution of these radar-bright deposits is well characterized, their thickness, and thus their total mass and volume, remain poorly constrained. Here we derive thickness estimates for selected water-ice deposits using small, simple craters visible within the permanently shadowed, radar-bright deposits. We examine two endmember scenarios: in Case I, these craters predate the emplacement of the ice, and in Case II, these craters postdate the emplacement of the ice. In Case I, we find the difference between estimated depths of the original unfilled craters and the measured depths of the craters to find the estimated infill of material. The average estimated infilled material for 9 craters assumed to be overlain with water ice is ∼ 41-14+30 m, where 1-σ standard error of the mean is reported as uncertainty. Reported uncertainties are for statistical errors only. Additional systematic uncertainty may stem from georeferencing the images and topographic datasets, from the radial accuracy of the altimeter measurements, or from assumptions in our models including (1) ice is flat in the bowl-shaped crater and (2) there is negligible ice at the crater rims. In Case II, we derive crater excavation depths to investigate the thickness of the ice layer that may have been penetrated by the impact. While the absence of excavated regolith associated with the small craters observed suggests that impacts generally do not penetrate through the ice deposit, the spatial resolution and complex illumination geometry of images may limit the observations. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether the small craters in this study penetrate through the ice deposit, and thus Case II does not provide a constraint on the ice thickness

  14. Exploring the Multiple Roles of Lund University in Strengthening Scania's Regional Innovation System: Towards Institutional Learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Coenen, Lars; Moodysson, Jerker; Asheim, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Universities are increasingly seen as potential contributors to regional innovative capacity by serving as local knowledge conduits, bringing global state-of-the-art science and technology into the region. In practice, however, more active university engagement with their regional innovation systems

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP ORGANIZATIONS AT REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Russavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between credit and entrepreneurship organizations aimed at implementation of regional development programs should be improved according to the following main directions: better accessibility to financial resources; broader spectrum of consultancy, particularly business planning related services rendered to the business; more active cooperation with venture funds. Current regional crediting mechanisms are described for Kaluga Region as example.

  16. Approximate value of the know-how of an institution of the regional innovation system in Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Castaño Ríos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In regional innovation systems, the need has been sharpened to value intangible assets, especially the know how to negotiation and commercial transfer. Therefore, the aim of the article is to identify the main methods of valuing intangibles and deploy an implementation in an institution dedicated to the incubation of new businesses. In terms of methodology, the documentary analysis is combined with the cost method, which consists of collecting the underlying costs for the development of know how. Regarding the results, it was found that for these institutions it is easier and more appropriate to apply the cost method, which allowed estimating the unit cost per transfer.

  17. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  18. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  19. The Regional Research And Development Centre of the Asean Institute of Technology, Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous anonymous

    2017-01-01

    The Asian Institure of Technology (AJT) is an autonomouse, International postgraduate Institute. It provides advanced education in engenering, science and allied fields through academic programme loading to Master's and Doctoral degree and Diplomat, and through research programmes are related  closely to the needs of Asia.

  20. Building an Institute for Triple Helix Research Innovation in the Pacific Region. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    multidisciplinary collaboration towards developing cost- effective and sustainable eHealth technologies and applications. The results of the...transparency, efficiency in sharing resources through eHealth , and leveraging skills needed to facilitate and expedite interdisciplinary collaboration and...innovation, especially in the eHealth and healthcare fields. To achieve the stated objectives, the Institute’s five initiatives were specifically

  1. Summer Institute in Agricultural Mechanics Education, Southern Region, Proceedings (Blacksburg, Virginia, August 3-7, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

    This summer institute emphasizes the establishment of minimum measurable standards of attainment in agricultural engineering phases of teacher education in agriculture. Speeches presented are: (1) "Where We Are in Agricultural Mechanics Education," by Alfred H. Krebs, (2) "Research Offerings for More Effective Teaching in Agricultural Mechanics,"…

  2. Sustaining innovations : schools, institutions and linkages in the Cuzco region, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ChavezTafur, J.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is about linkages between the different institutions operating in the rural areas and the contributions these linkages provide. Numerous activities are found taking place in the rural areas of Peru. Many are the result of a specific intervention, designed and implemented towards

  3. Financial Autonomy and Challenges to Being a Regionally Responsive Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtamaki, Vuokko; Lyytinen, Anu

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses some current problems and challenges of the Finnish AMKs (polytechnic institutions), and whether financial autonomy could contribute to finding solutions for some of these problems. It provides an overview of the current status of financial autonomy of polytechnics in 6 European countries, and finally attempts to find links…

  4. Exploring Regional and Institutional Factors of International Students' Dropout: The South Korea Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Kim, Yangson

    2018-01-01

    With an increasing number of international students in South Korea, the issue of retaining these students and reducing their dropout rates has become important. This study explores the multilevel factors that affect the institutional dropout rate among international students in Korea. The research questions are as follows: (a) to what extent do…

  5. Etiology of Pancytopenia: An observation from a referral medical institution of Eastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senjuti Dasgupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Aplastic anemia was found to be the most common cause of pancytopenia in this study, which is in contrast to studies conducted from other regions of India. Delineation of etiologies of pancytopenia in various regions can help in defining diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, which is expected to contribute toward the better management of such patients.

  6. Governance and institutions of transportation investments in U.S. mega-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Vega

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a planning perspective, a mega-region can be defined as an extended network of metropolitan centers and their surrounding areas, crossing county and state lines, linked by integrated labor markets, land use systems and transportation and communication infrastructure. From a governance perspective, delimiting the jurisdictional borders of a mega-region is rather challenging due to the overlap of hierarchy of governance systems. It has been suggested that the effective management of existing transportation infrastructure and the planning and financing of new investments in these areas will need to operate under a regional framework of governance. What such regional framework might look like is still subject to debate. Despite years in the planning, currently no mega-regional transportation initiative has been implemented in the U.S. This article uses descriptive and interpretative analysis to further the debate in two areas. It first reviews definitional issues in the existing literature as they apply to mega-regions and transportation. Second, it undertakes a comprehensive survey of regional initiatives, such as the Corridors of the Future Program, to highlight the complexity of multi-state transportation projects. Lessons from this survey can be useful when developing future transport policy, as policymakers increase their efforts to adopt regional governance initiatives to finance transportation investments worldwide.

  7. Leadership for Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Areas: Bridging Personal and Institutional Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Padt, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid transformations offer new challenges for rural regions to invent new pathways for development. For many, an obvious choice is to set out on the path towards economic growth and to compete with other regions for global, mobile capital and labor. There is however an increasing awareness that in

  8. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

  9. Documents of judicial institutions in the 80-90's 18th century in the State Archives of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posunko, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the documents of the juridical instances of Yekaterinoslav vicegerency in the 80-90ies of the 18th century. The study is based on the materials of the State Archives of the Dnipropetrovsk region. It was considerer their information possibilities for region history. The data is interesting for historians from South and Left-bank Ukraine. In the fullness of time the part of the former land of Hetmanate was the part of the Yekaterinoslav province. Therefore many cases are showing real use of standards of Little Russian Law especially in the areas of the inheritance and matrimonial law. By the South Ukraine history analyzed documents give information about the development of trade; the formation of landed proprietorship in the region; the work of various government institutions. Also a lot of stories to the social history of the region which is very important in limited capacity of source base.

  10. Do we have proportionate gender in policy making? A Study based on key Government Institutions of SAARC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment has remained a long standing issue for practitioners and policy makers at all levels even in the present modern known era of modernization. The basic objective of this study is to assess gender equality in the top sphere of the SAARC key governmental institutions from the recruitment and selection perspective. This study has used secondary data collected from the official websites of the governments and its affiliated key institutions. The unique feature of this study is that it analyzes gender inequality phenomena form the recruitment and selection perspective. An extensive gap has been identified between male and female top executives serving in key government institutions, which is not only a serious challenge for the global gender equality policy but also a serious question on government gender selection polices in the region. The notion of male dominance clearly prevails in the current scenario of the gender representation in government institutions, which remains a serious challenge for the gender equality. It has been concluded that a special focus is needed to prioritize the selection mechanism for females in top power structure of these governments especially in SAARC region.

  11. Discovering cooperation : a contractual approach to institutional change in regional international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    MARKS, Gary; LENZ, Tobias; CEKA, Besir; BURGOON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a fresh perspective on institutional change drawing on recent advances in the economic theory of contracting. Contractual incompleteness enhances organizational flexibility, but only at the cost of perceptual ambiguity. We hypothesize that the willingness to engage in a highly incomplete contract depends on shared understandings which reduce the cost of perceptual ambiguity. These claims are evaluated using a new dataset on delegation of state authority to non-state actors i...

  12. The Ways of Preventing Students’ Extremism and Intolerance in the Regional Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Selivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper reveals the inefficiency problem of preventive measures controlling students’ intolerant and extremist behavior in higher educational institutions. According to the author, such trends in students’ society, as well as the rising phenomenon of nationalistic religious identity inevitably leading to interpersonal tensions, are caused in the last decades by the degrading prestige of higher education, growing pragmatism and formality of its achievement and key value depreciation in higher educational institutions. To improve the existing situation, it is necessary to revive the main functions of higher educational establishments –the intellectual and professional elite formation, cherishing the humanity values, social responsibility and active civil position; on the other hand, it is vitally important to create the system of prevention and correction of such trends as intolerance and extremism. However, the above goals are aggravated by the number of other problems listed in the paper.The method of developing the system of complex prevention of the mentioned negative phenomena is proposed with the reference to higher educational institutions; the specific stages of the given method, the technologies and organizational forms being outlined; the practical application and outcome in Tyumen State University being discussed. The research findings can be interesting for people responsible for preventive measures in higher educational instinutionms. 

  13. Directions of improvement for public administration institutional structure in field of ecology at regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Matyushenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the organizational structure of public authorities at national and regional level involved in the process of governance in the environmental field as well as their legal security it was found that at the regional level, in regions there are different units (departments, management authorities, divisions, sectors that coordinate the process of public administration in the environmental field. In order to offer its own structure unit of state administration, to deal with environmental issues it is analyzed the organizational structures of central executive authority in the field of ecology - the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine at the national level and the organizational structures of departments / offices of Ecology and Natural Resources regional administrations respectively, at the regional level. As it is determined there is no typical structure of the regional state administration unit in Ukraine. Recognized that departments and sectors uniting at the high level is chaotic, unsystematic and apparently dictated by different reasons (financial, personal and psychological, corruption etc., not the content of (the logic of and structural accountability to senior management level. It is offered the author organizational structure for the Ecology and Natural Resources Department of Regional State Administration. It is suggested that this Department consists of three units: Department of Ecology (Department of environmental monitoring and audit department of environmental security department of planning and coordination of international projects in the environmental field; Department of Natural Resources (Department of Conservation of Natural Resources, Department of Protected Areas and Ecological Network Development, Department of Environmental Economics; Management support of the Department (Legal, Financial and Economic Division, Department of Administration Department, a department of scientific and

  14. The region-of-origin effect on the preferences of financial institution's customers: Analysis of the influence of ethnocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel García-Gallego

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis that started in the USA in 2007 has obliged many small financial entities in southern Europe to undertake mergers in order to comply with the stability and solvency policies established by the European Central Bank. In Spain, this situation has led to a profound restructuring of the financial system, obliging many of these institutions to decide whether or not to maintain their regional brand identity after such a merger. The purpose of this study was twofold: on the one hand, to analyze the importance customers attach to the origin of their usual financial institution and the relative utility they give to the three levels of brand origin presented: regional, national and foreign, and, on the other, to assess whether consumers’ level of ethnocentrism modifies their preference structure and, if so, to identify the profile of the individuals composing each segment. The technique of Conjoint Analysis was applied to a survey of 427 customers. The results showed the bank's to be the attribute with the greater importance in forming customers’ preferences than other characteristics of the institution such as the treatment by employees, the location of offices, the electronic banking services, and the number of social activities the entity carries out in the region. In addition, the respondents prefer regional brand origin over national and foreign. Both the importance and the utility attached to the regional brand origin increase with higher levels of consumer ethnocentrism. The findings of this study will serve to these entities as a guide for their decision-making regarding brand management.

  15. Local and Regional Partnerships in Natural Resource Management: The Challenge of Bridging Institutional Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Although collaboration and multi-stakeholder partnerships have become a common feature in natural resource management throughout the world, various problems are associated with attempts to up-scale community-based natural resource management from the local to the regional level. To analyze the reasons behind these problems, this article reports on two examples of collaboratives in Australia: local Landcare groups, and regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies. Recent government-induced changes have shifted the focus from local Landcare group action to strategic planning and implementation by regional NRM bodies. Two typologies of collaboratives are applied to analyze the characteristics of both these groups. The study uses data from 52 qualitative interviews with key informants at the local and regional level in Victoria and Tasmania, participant observation, as well as literature and document analysis. The article illustrates how the groups’ distinct characteristics can cause conflicts when the different types of collaboratives operate in parallel. In addition, the article reports how stakeholders perceive the level of community participation in decision-making processes. The key message is that the benefits of community participation and collaboration that arise at the local level can be lost when these approaches are up-scaled to the regional level unless there is an intermediary or ‘mediating structure’ to facilitate communication and create the link between different types of collaboratives.

  16. Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungate, Bruce A. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    2013-05-02

    The major goal of this project was fostering, integrating, synthesizing, and disseminating experimental, observational, and modeling research on predicted climate change in the western region of the U.S. and the impacts of that change on the structure, productivity, and climatic interactions of the region's natural and managed ecological systems. This was accomplished through administering a competitive grants program developed in collaboration with the other four regional centers of the NICCR. The activities supported included efforts to synthesize research on climate change in the western U.S. through meta-analysis studies, model comparisons, and data synthesis workshops. Results from this work were disseminated to the scientific and public media. This project also supported the development of the NICCR web site, hosted at NAU, which was used as the means to accept pre-proposal and proposal submissions for each funding cycle, and served as a clearing house for public outreach for results from NICCR-funded research

  17. NEO-INSTITUTIONALISM AND ENDOGENOUS DEVELOPMENT AS REGIONAL ALTERNATIVE. MODERNITY AND SUBJECTIVITY, LINKING AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mateo Bastidas-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of subjectivity involves overcoming criticism of individualism, utilitarianism and immediacy as the basis of society and consumer markets. Elemental is, with the addition of the individual as a subject of social action, the principal actor-oriented definition of welfare, community and local development. Obviously, the formation of human capital development. While it is imperative the state-society relationship in the context of the current modernization must also recover the principles of the community before the stressed relationship between the market-state. We intend here to link opposite the dichotomous thinking of Western rationalism, constitute an important element of social sustantivación. Along with this, the neo-institutionalism and institutional economics that questions the current neoliberal approves the participation of the state and, with new rules, can better confront the neoconservative positions. It is revalued, in the present work, interest in the new dynamics of social change in post-national or cosmopolitan side.

  18. INSTITUTIONS AND VALUES OF ROMANIANS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacobuta Andreea-Oana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results of a national survey, a questionnaire on the values of Romanians was applied in April 2008 which was used for a comparative analysis of historical regions of Romania: Moldova, Bucharest, Dobrogea, Transilvania and Muntenia. Ou

  19. An educational international partnership responding to local needs: process evaluation of the Brazil FAIMER Regional Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, E; Campos, H H; Friedman, S; Morahan, P S; Araujo, M N T; Carvalho, P M; Bollela, V; Ribeiro, M G F; Mennin, S; Haddad, A E; Campos, F

    2012-11-01

    The Brazilian public health system requires competent professionals sensitive to the needs of the population. The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) provides a two-year faculty development programme for health professions educators, aiming to build leadership in education to improve health. A partnership with governmental initiatives and FAIMER was established for meeting these needs. This paper describes the initial process evaluation results of the Brazilian FAIMER Institute Fellowship (FAIMER BR). Data were analysed for the classes 2007-2010 regarding: application processes; innovation project themes; retrospective post-pre self-ratings of knowledge acquisition; and professional development portfolios. Seventeen of 26 Brazilian states were represented among 98 Fellows, predominantly from public medical schools (75.5%) and schools awarded Ministry of Health grants to align education with public health services (89.8%). One-third (n = 32) of Fellows' innovation projects were related to these grants. Significant increases occurred in all topic subscales on self-report of knowledge acquisition (effect sizes, 1.21-2.77). In the follow up questionnaire, 63% of Fellows reported that their projects were incorporated into the curriculum or institutional policies. The majority reported that the programme deepened their knowledge (98%), provided new ideas about medical education (90%) and provided skills for conflict management (63%). One-half of the Fellows reported sustained benefits from the programme listserv and other communications, including breadth of expertise, establishment of research collaboration and receiving emotional support. Contributors to initial programme success included alignment of curriculum with governmental initiatives, curriculum design merging educational technology, leadership and management skills and central role of an innovation educational project responding to local needs.

  20. Institutional Factors Affecting the North Caucasus Region in Connection to its Russian Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullakh Abdulgamidovich Mallakurbanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the general problems of development of the North Caucasus region and various aspects of its investigation. This theme was not easy for scientists and analysts at all times, and it cannot be understood in a one-dimensional measurement. In general the Caucasus has provided and continues to exert considerable influence on the formation and development of the Russian identity and this is both theoretical and practical importance for us. Therefore much attention is paid to the present situation in Russian society, its ability to meet the challenges of the times in a rapidly changing world and changes in domestic and foreign policy on its southern borders. The paper presents different approaches to analysis and different comments on them. But all Russian researchers are united in one thing - in the understanding and preservation of this unique region as an integral part of the Russian state and Russian identity.

  1. Planning Green Infrastructure as a Source of Urban and Regional Resilience – Towards Institutional Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina SCHIAPPACASSE; Bernhard MÜLLER

    2015-01-01

    Green infrastructure programmes and strategies are regarded as planning opportunities to promote sustainable and resilient urban development. However, the discourse about green infrastructure policy and its effectiveness has pointed to the limited success in practical implementation. Since the green infrastructure has no planning status in its own right, it depends on being embedded in comprehensive urban and regional planning approaches if it is to have an impact on sustainable and resilient...

  2. Airports as Cityports in the City-region : Spatial-economic and institutional positions and institutional learning in Randstad-Schiphol (AMS), Frankfurt Rhein-Main (FRA), Tokyo Haneda (HND) and Narita (NRT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, M. van

    2007-01-01

    The thesis discusses the spatial-economic and institutional positions as well as institutional learning in the development process of airports as cityports in city-regions. Cityports are therein defined as urban centres where economic activities and infrastructure are at crossroads and are the

  3. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA). Volume III. Institutional barriers to developing power generation facilities in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F. A.; Sawyer, C. H.; Maxwell, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    The Regional Assessments Division in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a program to assess the probable consequences of various national energy policies in regions of the United States and to evaluate the constraints on national energy policy imposed by conditions in these regions. The program is referred to as the Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program. Currently the RIIA Program is evaluating the Trendlong Mid-Mid scenario, a pattern of energy development for 1985 and 1990 derived from the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) model. This scenario assumes a medium annual growth rate in both the national demand for and national supply of energy. It has been disaggregated to specify the generating capacity to be supplied by each energy source in each state. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has the responsibility for evaluating the scenario for the Federal Region 10, consisting of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. PNL is identifying impacts and constraints associated with realizing the scenario in a variety of categories, including air and water quality impacts, health and safety effects, and socioeconomic impacts. This report summarizes the analysis of one such category: institutional constraints - defined to include legal, organizational, and political barriers to the achievement of the scenario in the Northwest.

  4. Texas Manufacturing Technology Center feasibility study for the Inland Regional Industrial Technology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the Texas Manufacturing Technology Center (TMTC) Business Plan to convert the Central Facility of the Superconducting Super Collider project to alternate uses. The plan is divided into six sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Market and Benefit Analysis, (3) Marketing Strategy, (4) Services, (5) Organization and Operations Overview, and (6) Financial Plan. Each area is supported by separate documents that address individual opportunities and challenges associated with transitioning the facility, and its asset base to new uses for benefit of the locality, state, region and nation

  5. Democratic Transformation and Regional Institutions: The Case of Myanmar and ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Shanahan Renshaw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is Myanmar’s transition to democracy, which is taking place after almost half a century of military rule. The former military rulers are themselves the architects of transition. This article notes that one of the key challenges faced by military regimes during this kind of transition is the problem of “credible commitments”. In short, the issue is this: a transition will only be successful if it has the support of the political opposition and the public at large. But why should these groups believe in the promises of former tyrants? Problems of credibility and low expectations about the intention and capacity of the military to effect reform can cause destabilisation and undermine prospects for a successful transition. In worst case scenarios, instability leads to a resurgence of authoritarianism, or to a(nother military coup. This article highlights the role of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN in assisting the transition and stabilisation of Myanmar’s fledgling democracy. The argument is that ASEAN provides a means whereby Myanmar’s leaders can make credible commitments about their intentions in relation to liberalisation and democratisation, lending support to Myanmar’s reformist government at a crucial time in the transition to democracy. The article concludes that under certain circumstances, even regional organisations such as ASEAN, which are not comprised of a majority of democratic states, can (to a degree influence perceptions about a democratising regime’s commitment to reform.

  6. Requirements of Employers for Young Specialists and Issues of Their Training at the Educational Institutions: Regional Specificity of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the article is the study of the peculiarities of the youth labour market in such a specific region of Russia as the city of Moscow. The topic of the work is connected to the adaptation of young specialists training system to the regional requirements of the employers of Moscow. The main hypothesis of the research assumes that Moscow is the atypical region of Russia and it is inexpedient to apply criteria and methodological approaches, which are standard for our country, to its labour market. As a method of the research, a selective survey of key employers of Moscow and respondents aged from 14 till 30 years has been used. The data of the sociological survey conducted by the authors have allowed to establish the following features of the researched region: a respectively low level of youth unemployment compared with the whole Russia; focusing of employers on such features of personnel as a good communicative skills learning ability, professional knowledge and competences. Moscow employers don’t pay significant attention to such characteristics of young specialists as language and computer skills, computer knowledge and the diploma of a prestigious educational institution. The main difficulties in finding employment for young specialists in the city of Moscow are: overestimated salary expectations; the weak professional training level and unwillingness, in fact, to work. As a result of the survey, the practical offers have been formulated. There are two directions of their application: the offers focused on the behaviour of the youth at a stage of their training and those offers focused on the increase of a practical component of the activity of professional educational institutions. The authors came to conclusions about the need of a deep orientation of educational institutions to the applied training for specialists, of practical workers for teaching special disciplines, the development by future specialists their

  7. The Role of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) and Regional Networks in Promoting Human Rights and Health related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    The UN is increasingly a place where a critical discussion about human rights and sexual orientation and gender identity is taking place. An important institutional component of the UN system of protection of human rights is the creation of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs). The regional

  8. METHODS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL REHABILITATION IN PSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTIONS OF THE ORYOL REGION AT THE MODERN STAGE OF ORGANIZATION OF PSYCHIATRIC CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers actual issues of psychosocial rehabilitation at the present stage of psychiatric care to the population of the Oryol region.The purpose. Study and generalize the experience of the use of methods of psychosocial rehabilitation in several psychiatric institutions of the Oryol region.Materials and methods. 1. The analysis of activity of out-patient departments, where we developed a new "development Program of sociorehabilitation service in regional psychoneurologic dispensary". 2. Analysis of the activity of hospital services, where the main role is played by psycho-social rehabilitation. 3. The analysis of new forms of psychosocial rehabilitation: in terms of the specifics of Oryol oblast psychiatric hospital of specialized type with intensive supervision (OPHSTIO.Results. As a result of the analysis we identified the most effective methods of sociorehabilitation: outpatient: "Social card of the outpatient" is intended for persons in need of social, psychological, legal and other professional assistance, that allows to plan and control the types of assistance provided. The organization of a hostel for patients at the outpatient stage, which allowed to introduce a "full" recovery cycle. In OPHSTIO — implementation of multiprofessional teams and "sick tips" and the opening of an Orthodox chapel of the Mother of God icon "All grieving pleasures".Conclusions. Methods of psychosocial rehabilitation allowed to optimize the work of the main stages of treatment and rehabilitation processes, to provide in a timely manner the necessary comprehensive care to patients based on individual needs of the mentally ill in the outpatient and inpatient therapy in the Oryol region.

  9. Optimum target thickness for polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Polarimeters with thick targets are a tool to measure the proton polarization. But the question about the optimum target thickness is still the subject of discussion. An attempt to calculate the most common parameters concerning this problem, in a few GeV region, is made

  10. The Reproduction Trajectories of Institutions of Social Isolation of Individual Population Groups in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yuryevich Berzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the spatial socio-demographic isolation as a factor of the current system of settlement in Russia’s regions. In theory, the phenomena of loneliness and social isolation have their demographic, socio-economic and psychological roots. Conceptually, they are expressed in the theories of nuclearization of family structure of society and the family’s loss of its core functions, deprivation of a person (of friends and relatives, in the paradigm of the second demographic transition. In fact, the trend towards the abandonment of birth, growth of cohabitations and divorces, premature mortality as the cause of widowhood are complemented by the institutional factors strengthening the foundations of a singular way of life, including various forms of isolation of an individual from the social environment in a post-industrial society. The main reasons of the socio-demographic isolation are following: the tendency of increasing a number of private households represented by lonely people, both elderly and young; as well as the prevalence of the institute of widowhood (mortality risks influencing the marriage and the family; the impact of flows of labour, academic, self-preservation, consumer migration (both returned and irretrievable types on the reproduction of the population. Psychologically, the demographic isolation of certain local communities contributes to the feelings of loneliness as a regulator of the communication intensity and interaction between individuals. In the socioeconomic aspects, the isolation of local communities is associated with the factor of remote location of families from the centers of communication and real markets, with the development of new Russian and global logistics systems, with are deprivation of traditional sources of household income as a specific form of survival in the vast expanses of life of the Russian society.

  11. Study of institutional Collaboration in the management Structure of the City Regions Case Study: Process of determining the city of Qazvin Growth boundaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sheikhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the institutional collaboration in the management structure of a city-region. To achieve this purpose, corporate limits of Qazvin are studied as the city is becoming a region. The possible institutional cooperative in the centralist governmental structure is planned based on the new regionalism theory and its governance pattern, new institutionalism theory and its emphasis on informal rules in institutions and rational dialogue as an indicator of institutional cooperative, in order to become closer to the governance structure. The methodology of this article is the instrumental case study. Also interviews, questionnaires and archival reports were used as applications of the data collection. An explanation building is the analysis method with the subsystem analysis such as survey and correlation test.There are three level of analysis in these studies, structural, organizational and individual level. The results show that the rational dialogue between urban institutional in both levels of analysis including organizational (formal rules and individual (informal rules analysis is not possible in the current situation and Because the governmental structure as a third level of analysis is not changeable, Therefore, the possible pattern of institutional cooperative in this city-region is about the organizational and individual level of analysis. The derived pattern to achieve the institutional cooperative is establishing the sphere for voluntary dialogue between city institutions in order to achieve agreement. Additionally, in the individual level, the experts and managers who are the main attendances in this sphere, have their own values and norms. Studies about the current values and norms show that values are appropriate to establish a rational dialogue but the norms are in the opposite direction. The value for these people should be internalized to achieve the rational dialogue in the organizational level.

  12. The impact of the institutional environment on the development of the rural economy in the Belgorod region of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorofeev, A.; Sazonov, S.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the problems in the development of agriculture in Russia caused by an imperfect institutional environment. The characteristics of institutional conditions and their influence on the development of agriculture is discussed. The main institutional changes which have taken place

  13. An analysis of the awareness and performance of radiation workers' radiation/radioactivity protection in medical institutions : Focused on Busan regional medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Koo; Hwang, Chul Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate safety management awareness and behavioral investigation of radiation/radioactivity performance defenses of radiation workers' in medical institutions. Data collection consisted of 267 radiation workers working in medical institutions using structured questionnaires. As a result, it was analyzed that radiation safety management awareness and performance were high in 40s, 50s group and higher education group. The analysis according to the radiation safety management knowledge was analyzed that the 'Know very well' group had higher scores on awareness and performance scores. The analysis according to the degree of safety management effort showed the high awareness scale and the performance scale in the group 'Receiving various education or studying the safety management contents through book'. The correlations between the sub-factors showed the highest positive correlation between perceived practician and personal perspective and perceived by patient and patient's caretaker perspective. Therefore, radiation safety management for workers, patients, and patient's caretaker should be conducted through continuous education of radiation safety management through various routes of radiation workers working at medical institutions

  14. An analysis of the awareness and performance of radiation workers' radiation/radioactivity protection in medical institutions : Focused on Busan regional medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Koo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Graduate School of Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chul Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate safety management awareness and behavioral investigation of radiation/radioactivity performance defenses of radiation workers' in medical institutions. Data collection consisted of 267 radiation workers working in medical institutions using structured questionnaires. As a result, it was analyzed that radiation safety management awareness and performance were high in 40s, 50s group and higher education group. The analysis according to the radiation safety management knowledge was analyzed that the 'Know very well' group had higher scores on awareness and performance scores. The analysis according to the degree of safety management effort showed the high awareness scale and the performance scale in the group 'Receiving various education or studying the safety management contents through book'. The correlations between the sub-factors showed the highest positive correlation between perceived practician and personal perspective and perceived by patient and patient's caretaker perspective. Therefore, radiation safety management for workers, patients, and patient's caretaker should be conducted through continuous education of radiation safety management through various routes of radiation workers working at medical institutions.

  15. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  16. A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanesi Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait. Results We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07 Conclusions Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.

  17. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  18. The UN, National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs), and Regional Networks: : New Venues for raising LGBT Issues in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The UN is increasingly a place where a critical discussion about human rights and sexual orientation and identity is taking place. An important institutional component of the UN system of protection of human rights is the creation of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs). These NHRIs are funded

  19. Development of the Instructional Model of Reading English Strategies for Enhancing Sophomore Students' Learning Achievements in the Institute of Physical Education in the Northeastern Region of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whankhom, Prawit; Phusawisot, Pilanut; Sayankena, Patcharanon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and verify the effectiveness of an instructional model of reading English strategies for students of Mahasarakham Institute of Physical Education in the Northeastern region through survey. Classroom action research techniques with the two groups of sample sizes of 34 sophomore physical students as a control…

  20. International and Regional Institutional Dialogues for Human Rights for LGBT persons: The quest for recognition, anti-discrimination, and marriage in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich interplay between civil society organizations and institutions involved in human rights norm diffusion and the ‘ricochet’ of ideas at the regional level across Southeast Asia. There is a broad discussion occurring about human rights for LGBT persons and SOGI rights (Sexual

  1. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  2. Final Report: Northeastern Regional Center of the DOE's National Institute for Climatic Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Kenneth

    2014-01-14

    Administration of the NERC of NICCR began at Penn State in December of 2005 and ended in December of 2011. During that time, five requests for proposals were released and five rounds of proposals were reviewed, awarded and administered. Throughout this award, 203 pre-proposals have been received by the NERC in five RFPS and 110 full proposals invited. Of the 110 full proposals reviewed, 53 were funded (most in full, some partially) resulting in 51 subcontracts. These awards were distributed among 17 universities and 3 non-governmental research institutes. Full proposals have been received from 29 universities and 5 non-governmental research institutes. Research activities have now been completed.

  3. Capacidade de inovação regional: o papel de instituições e empresas de base tecnológica em Juiz de Fora Regional innovation capacity: the role of institutions and firms in Juiz de Fora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the interrelation between learning, innovation, regional and local development in the 'Knowledge or Learning Economy'. Along with the traditional economic factors that have been considered in the literature on regional development, other factors such as trust, co-operation, innovative networks, institutions and other elements that are immaterial produce the regional development in the context of the 'Learning Economy'. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the attempts to build a collective and regional learning process by innovative, technology based, small sized enterprises, together with other institutions in the city of Juiz de Fora. It highlights the local institutional environment and the characteristics of some information and knowledge intensive firms, supported by the Regional Center for Innovation and Technology Transference at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. Moreover, special emphasis is given to some evidence about co-operation, innovative networks and external sources of information that are used to innovate.

  4. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  5. La region en los procesos de planificacion Latinos Americanos. Estructura institucional y bases juridicas. (The Region in the Planning Processes in Latin America: Institutional Structures and Juridical Basis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaldua, Raul Oscar; Moreno, Oscar Alberto

    1971-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger research project on the decisional structure of regionalized countries, which the authors are conducting at the Instituto Torcuato Di Tella with the Arq. Jorge Hardoy. (Editor)

  6. Female Academics' Research Capacities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Socio-Cultural Issues, Personal Factors and Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Rachel; Wisker, Gina; Dabbagh, Lanja; Akreyi, Kawther Jameel; Golmohamad, Hediyeh; Bendixen, Lone; Crawford, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, an interdisciplinary group of female academics from a university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq initiated a collaborative research project with a UK university to investigate opportunities and challenges for female academics' research leadership in universities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The project aimed to develop female…

  7. Medicine and democracy: The importance of institutional quality in the relationship between health expenditure and health outcomes in the MENA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousmah, Marwân-Al-Qays; Ventelou, Bruno; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the effect of health expenditure on health outcomes is highly context-specific and may be driven by other factors. We construct a panel dataset of 18 countries from the Middle East and North Africa region for the period 1995-2012. Panel data models are used to estimate the macro-level determinants of health outcomes. The core finding of the paper is that increasing health expenditure leads to health outcomes improvements only to the extent that the quality of institutions within a country is sufficiently high. The sensitivity of the results is assessed using various measures of health outcomes as well as institutional variables. Overall, it appears that increasing health care expenditure in the MENA region is a necessary but not sufficient condition for health outcomes improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. International and Regional Institutional Dialogues for Human Rights for LGBT persons: The quest for recognition, anti-discrimination, and marriage in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich interplay between civil society organizations and institutions involved in human rights norm diffusion and the ‘ricochet’ of ideas at the regional level across Southeast Asia. There is a broad discussion occurring about human rights for LGBT persons and SOGI rights (Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity) including recognition, non-discrimination in employment, education, and housing, and partnership recognition and same-sex marriage. We focus on four countries, Thailand, Viet...

  9. Report on the International Workshop “Networks, Regions and Institutions in Mongol Eurasia: A Meso-Historical Analysis”, Jerusalem, 17–18 May, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Hautala

    2017-01-01

    On May 17–18, 2017, an international workshop “Networks, Regions and Institutions in Mongol Eurasia: A Meso-Historical Analysis” was held at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem with the participation of researchers from Israel, Japan, Britain, United States, Russia, China, Hungary and Finland. The main goal of the workshop was to reveal the potential of the “meso-historical analysis” in the study of the Mongol Empire, including the simultaneous consideration of global changes in Eurasia caused...

  10. Constitutionally Mandated Funds for Financing Regional Development in Brazil: An Analysis of the Compensatory Mechanisms Used by Financial Institutions (1995-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girley Vieira Damasceno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between constitutionally mandated funds for financing regional development in Brazil and the regional financial institutions that manage them. These constitutionally mandated funds apply a fraction of federal tax revenues in the productive sectors of the North, Northeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. We investigate the occurrence of soft budget constraint on these institutions, induced by compensatory mechanisms for management of the resources of these funds (administration fee and by the assumption of credit risk in lending (del credere. The concept of soft budget constraint, proposed by Hungarian economist Janos Kornai in the context of socialist economies, refers to the expectations for systematic bailout of economic organizations by governments or banks, usually associated with the paternalistic role of the state towards these organizations. Our analysis uses comparative graphics and spreadsheets. The results indicate more remuneration than administrative costs and credit risk assumed by financial institutions and confirm the hypothesis of legal parameters that induce soft budget constraint.

  11. Countries, Within-Country Regions, and Multiple-Country Regions in International Management: A Functional, Institutional, and Critical Event (FICE) Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Peterson, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the focused issue by offering a functional, institutional and critical event or FICE perspective on the relationship between cultural boundaries and the boundaries of modern nation states (termed countries here). Our perspective draws from three kinds of theory that suggest how...... governmental boundaries have come to be connected in different degrees and in different ways to cultural groups. We use the FICE perspective to integrate the four articles in the focused issue that speak to whether boundaries around countries matter as compared to boundaries around religious groups, within...

  12. Public Order: Challenges of Inter-Institutional and Regional Cooperation in the Context of the Knowledge Society. A Question of Economic and Social Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Balan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The context of public policies undergoes a process of rapid change due to the emergence of the dynamic knowledge-based economy and society. Public administration institutions need to adapt their material and human resources to the dynamic developments of the knowledge and information society in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness of their scopes. One of the most fragile fields is public order and the need for improved inter-institutional cooperation at national, regional, and EU-level for achieving the objectives of ensuring citizens’ safety while safeguarding rights and liberties. The social and economic efficiency of public order policies and measures need to be reassessed and improved based on overhauled and updated inter-institutional and organisational concepts, on diversified methods of cooperation at national, regional, EU- and international level. A recent project developed in the field of public order with respect to juvenile delinquency has shown that major questions still need to be approached with respect to efficiency and effectiveness of inter-institutional cooperation with both public and private bodies, and with representatives of the non-governmental organizations. The outcomes of the project have shown that juvenile delinquency must be approached as phenomenon in the wider framework of public order, of urban and rural safety, of crime prevention and combating. One major conclusion of the project is that a new integrated model is required with respect to the intra-, and inter-institutional cooperation and dialogue, but also with respect to the skills required to work efficiently considering the challenges posed by the overall developments of a society changing towards increased knowledge and information awareness. This would allow also for improved quality assessment and effectiveness measurements based on composite process and outcome indicators for public order, and public administration, in general, as well.

  13. How institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped population health planning in Australian regional primary health care organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanparast, Sara; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Labonté, Ronald; Ziersch, Anna; Mackean, Tamara; Reed, Richard; Sanders, David

    2018-03-20

    Worldwide, there are competing norms driving health system changes and reorganisation. One such norm is that of health systems' responsibilities for population health as distinct from a focus on clinical services. In this paper we report on a case study of population health planning in Australian primary health care (PHC) organisations (Medicare Locals, 2011-2015). Drawing on institutional theory, we describe how institutional forces, ideas and actors shaped such planning. We reviewed the planning documents of the 61 Medicare Locals and rated population health activities in each Medicare Local. We also conducted an online survey and 50 interviews with Medicare Local senior staff, and an interview and focus group with Federal Department of Health staff. Despite policy emphasis on population health, Medicare Locals reported higher levels of effort and capacity in providing clinical services. Health promotion and social determinants of health activities were undertaken on an ad hoc basis. Regulatory conditions imposed by the federal government including funding priorities and time schedules, were the predominant forces constraining population health planning. In some Medicare Locals, this was in conflict with the normative values and what Medicare Locals felt ought to be done. The alignment between the governmental and the cultural-cognitive forces of a narrow biomedical approach privileged clinical practice and ascribed less legitimacy to action on social determinants of health. Our study also shed light on the range of PHC actors and how their agency influenced Medicare Locals' performance in population health. The presence of senior staff or community boards with a strong commitment to population health were important in directing action towards population health and equity. There are numerous institutional, normative and cultural factors influencing population health planning. The experience of Australian Medicare Locals highlights the difficulties of planning in

  14. Ile-de-France region's Institute of photovoltaic power: it aims at inventing the solar energy of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, L.

    2012-01-01

    The French government has confirmed the creation of the Institute of photovoltaic power (IPVF) that will be based in Saclay near Paris. Its aim is to develop cooperation and research works between industrialists and public laboratories, its annual budget is expected to be around 18 million euros. The main asset of this type of organization is to create relationships between researchers who work in structures that are not directly involved in the photovoltaic sector but work in domains like nano-structures, physico-chemical behaviour of surfaces, electro-chemistry, materials...This will allow new ideas to appear and maybe serendipity to make its job. (A.C.)

  15. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar PV energy markets : Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash

    2017-01-01

    With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar

  16. Tissue banking in a regional hospital: a promising future concept? First report on fresh frozen tissue banking in a hospital without an integrated institute of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Strauss und Torney, Marco; Güller, Ulrich; Rezaeian, Farid; Brosi, Philippe; Terracciano, Luigi; Zuber, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Vital tissue provided by fresh frozen tissue banking is often required for genetic tumor profiling and tailored therapies. However, the potential patient benefits of fresh frozen tissue banking are currently limited to university hospitals. The objective of the present pilot study--the first one in the literature--was to evaluate whether fresh frozen tissue banking is feasible in a regional hospital without an integrated institute of pathology. Patients with resectable breast and colon cancer were included in this prospective study. Both malignant and healthy tissue were sampled using isopentan-based snap-freezing 1 h after tumor resection and stored at -80 °C before transfer to the main tissue bank of a University institute of pathology. The initial costs to set up tissue banking were 35,662 US$. Furthermore, the running costs are 1,250 US$ yearly. During the first 13 months, 43 samples (nine samples of breast cancer and 34 samples of colon cancer) were collected from 41 patients. Based on the pathology reports, there was no interference with standard histopathologic analyses due to the sample collection. This is the first report in the literature providing evidence that tissue banking in a regional hospital without an integrated institute of pathology is feasible. The interesting findings of the present pilot study must be confirmed by larger investigations.

  17. Non - Vegetated Standard Bioretention Structure Hydrodynamic Soil Characterization For Ponding - Layer Optimum Thickness Determination With A Distinctive Urban - Region Rainfall Event In Bogota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Ávila, Frank; Acero Rivero, Germán Eduardo; Angulo Jaramillo, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    bioretention structures' operation condition retention time and outflow. A storage layer in the base of the structure, which is made up by rocks to settle an appropriate retention volume, was suggested after computing model results. A Hydrus-1D direct model was also made as an application example for an urban zone in Bogota in order to observe the structure's behaviour and the runoff - peak mitigation percentage under normal functioning conditions, using hydrological data from the study region given by the water and sewage - service provider in Bogota city.

  18. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary: Outcomes of a pre-defined institutional treatment policy in a region with a high prevalence of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Michael; Panizza, Benedict; Bernard, Anne; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2018-02-01

    To determine the rate of subsequent primary site failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary (UKP HNSCC) in a region with a high prevalence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, according to a pre-determined institutional policy. Secondary aims included regional and distant control, and overall survival. Patients presenting between April 2005 and June 2016 to the Princess Alexandra Hospital Head and Neck Multidisciplinary Meeting with UKP HNSCC from either presumed mucosal or cutaneous sites treated with curative intent were eligible. Patients with presumed mucosal origin were treated with radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy, while patients with presumed cutaneous SCC were treated with surgery and post-operative RT with or without chemotherapy. A total of 63 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median follow up duration was 3.9 years (IQR 2.07-5.14). There were no subsequent primary site failures. The rate of nodal failure among presumed mucosal patients was 11.5%, and 8.1% among presumed cutaneous patients. The rate of distant metastatic failure was 11.1% among all patients. The estimated 5 year overall survival was 71.2% (95% CI 59.2-85.7%). Treatment according to our pre-defined institutional policy for UKP HNSCC in a region with a high prevalence of cutaneous SCC appears to be safe and effective with low rates of mucosal primary emergence and nodal failure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Association between the level of fasting blood glucose over 35-year-old and carotid intima-media thickness in Han, Uygur and Kazak population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2007 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Li, Haixia; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Yang, Yining; Ma, Yitong

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the relationship between different levels of fasting blood glucose over 35-year old and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. From October 2007 to April 2010, the present study was performed in 13 935 inhabitants among Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population of aged 35 years old and over by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling principles from 7 regions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous and we excluded the IMT over 0.9 millimeter, long-term out and the floating population. All subjects were measured fasting blood glucose and IMT values of carotid artery. The subjects were divided into three groups according to different fasting blood glucose levels: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) and we used the analysis of variance to compare the differences among groups of IMT. Multiple linear regression model was used to explore factors of carotid IMT. The IMT of males of Han, Uygur and Kazak were (0.81 ± 0.29), (0.71 ± 0.27) and (0.79 ± 0.21) mm respectively, the differences were significant (F = 88.50, P blood pressure (β = 0.101, P blood glucose (β = 0.023, P = 0.009) were independent risk factors of IMT. The level of fasting blood glucose was an independent influence factor of carotid IMT and had a positive correlation in Han, Uygur and Kazak population of Xinjiang Autonomous Region.

  20. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. South-East Asia: Emerging Regional Identity. Interview with prof. Dmitry Mosyakov (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н С Куклин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dmitry Mosyakov, leading Russian expert on South-East Asia, graduated from the History and Philology Department of Institute of Asian and African Countries at Lomonosov Moscow State Uni-versity, majoring as an interpreter of the Khmer language in 1979. In 1979-1983 he studied in the post-graduate school of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1983 he defended his thesis on the problems of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. He works for the Institute of Oriental Studies (IOS since 1985. In 1991, he was trained at the Yale University (USA. In 1994 he defended his doctoral dissertation on the modern history of Cambodia. He is the organizer of the multi-year project “Monitoring of the Modern History of Southeast Asian Countries”, within which the IOS hosts the annual inter-institute conference and, according to the results of the conferences, its materials are published in the peer-reviewed academic journal “Southeast Asia: To-pical Problems of Development”. Dmitry Mosyakov is an editor-in-chief of this journal. He is also the head of the center of South-Eastern Asia, Australia and Oceania of IOS, a member of the Academic Council of the IOS. He is a member of the dissertation council for historical sciences at the IOS, Moscow State Uni-versity, and of the editorial board of the journal “Asia and Africa Today”. Since 2001 he is a Professor and the head of the department of regional studies at the Moscow Humanitarian University (part-time. In 2015, Dmitry Mosyakov was the provisional director of the IOS. Since 2013 he is a member of Editorial Board of Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. The interview includes following topics: the state of development of the South-East Asian studies in Russia and abroad, the perception of international processes in the region, the contemporary problems of the South-East Asia, and the cooperation of Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union countries and integration

  2. Contribution to the study of slab thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraitis, G.A.; Rorris, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the time-independent values of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere, defined as the ratio of the total electron content to the corresponding maximum electron density of the F region. Periodic variations of slab thickness are studied and are correlated to relative changes in exospheric temperature, deduced from the OGO-6 model

  3. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  4. Training at a faith-based institution matters for obstetrics and gynecology residents: results from a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Summers, Sondra; Kenton, Kimberly

    2013-06-01

    Prior data suggest that opportunities in family planning training may be limited during obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) residency training, particularly at faith-based institutions with moral and ethical constraints, although this aspect of the Ob-Gyn curriculum has not been formally studied to date. We compared Ob-Gyn residents' self-rated competency and intentions to provide family planning procedures at faith-based versus those of residents at non-faith-based programs. We surveyed residents at all 20 Ob-Gyn programs in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Wisconsin from 2008 to 2009. Residents were queried about current skills and future plans to perform family planning procedures. We examined associations based on program and residents' personal characteristics and performed multivariable logistic regression analysis. A total of 232 of 340 residents (68%) from 17 programs (85%) returned surveys. Seven programs were faith-based. Residents from non-faith-based programs were more likely to be completely satisfied with family planning training (odds ratio [OR]  =  3.4, 95% confidence limit [CI], 1.9-6.2) and to report they "understand and can perform on own" most procedures. Most residents, regardless of program type, planned to provide all surveyed family planning services. Despite similar intentions to provide family planning procedures after graduation, residents at faith-based training programs were less satisfied with their family planning training and rate their ability to perform family planning services lower than residents at non-faith-based training programs.

  5. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  6. Social Benefits During Entrance and Education in Higher Education Institutions in 1945-1953 (on the Example of the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharinina Larisa Vasilyevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the benefits granted to the applicants and students of higher education institutions of the Lower Volga region during post-war period. The benefits were classified by certain criteria. The first type of benefits is the right to free entrance to higher education institutions. The second type is free education. The third type is lunch tickets which could be used in institutes’ dining halls. The fourth type is rent-free inhabitation in institutes’ dormitories or rented accomodation. Moreover, the system of increased scholarship was established. The reasons that formed each group of welfare recipients were analyzed. The importance of these reasons for post-war Soviet socio-economic space was determined. The author pointed main historical periods which influenced the process of applying different benefits. The process of advantages and factors transformation was shown. The subjects of privilege’s policy toward students and entrants were analyzed. The author showed the degree of their influence on decision-making process in the context of socio-economic regulation of students’ life. Main social and economic difficulties which prevented the activity of institutes’ administration, were viewed in detail. The author determined the specificity of different institutes according to their localization in region. The factors that influenced the local transformations were pointed. The authors make conclusion about the degree of efficiency of students’ privileges in post-war period. All theses were confirmed by numerous factual materials which have an archival origin and have never been published in such historical research works.

  7. New Aerosol Models for the Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness and Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS Sensors Over Coastal Regions and Open Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A.; McClain, Charles R.; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P.; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFs and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (tau), angstrom coefficient (alpha), and water-leaving radiance (L(sub w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity, These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity, From those findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%. and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all. 80 distributions (8Rh x 10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We. also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data,

  8. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  9. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  10. Awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors, Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleto, Ayele; Markos, Jote

    2015-03-17

    Unsafe abortion has been recognized as an important public health problem in the world. It accounts for 14% of all maternal deaths in sub-Saharan African countries. In Ethiopia, 32% of all maternal deaths are accounted to unsafe abortion. Taking the problem of unsafe abortion into consideration, the penal code of Ethiopia was amended in 2005, to permit safe abortion under a set of circumstances. However, lack of awareness on the revised penal code is a major barrier that hinders women to seek safe abortion. The aim of this study is to assess awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors in Harari region, eastern Ethiopia. Institution-based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 762 female students who are attending five higher educational institutions in Harari Region. Systematic sampling method was used to identify study participants from randomly selected colleges. Self administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 statistical packages. Frequency, percentage and ratio were used to describe variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to control confounders and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with awareness of female students to legalization of abortion. 762 study participants completed the survey questionnaire making the response rate 90.2%. Only 272 (35.7%) of the respondents reported that they have good awareness about legalization of safe abortion. Studying other fields than health and medicine [AOR 0.48; 95%CI (0.23, 0.85)], being the only child for their family [AOR 0.28; 95%CI (0.13, 0.86)], having no boy friend [AOR 0.34; 95%CI (0.12, 0.74)], using family planning [AOR 0.50; 95%CI (0.13 and 0.86)], being 25 years or older [AOR 1.64; 95%CI (1.33, 2.80)] were significantly associated with awareness

  11. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  12. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  13. Robotic kidney transplantation with regional hypothermia: a step-by-step description of the Vattikuti Urology Institute-Medanta technique (IDEAL phase 2a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mani; Sood, Akshay; Bhandari, Mahendra; Kher, Vijay; Ghosh, Prasun; Abaza, Ronney; Jeong, Wooju; Ghani, Khurshid R; Kumar, Ramesh K; Modi, Pranjal; Ahlawat, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    We recently reported on preclinical and feasibility studies (Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study [IDEAL] phase 0-1) of the development of robotic kidney transplantation (RKT) with regional hypothermia. This paper presents the IDEAL phase 2a studies of technique development. To describe the technique of RKT with regional hypothermia developed at two tertiary care institutions (Vattikuti Urology Institute and Medanta Hospital). We report on the safety profile and early graft function in these patients. This is a prospective study of 50 consecutive patients who underwent live-donor RKT at Medanta Hospital following a 3-yr planning/simulation phase at the Vattikuti Urology Institute. Demographic details, and perioperative and postoperative outcomes are reported for the initial 25 recipients who have completed a minimum 6-mo follow-up. Positioning and port placement were similar to that used for robotic radical prostatectomy. Allograft cooling was achieved by ice slush delivered through a GelPOINT device. The accompanying video details the operative technique. The primary outcome was posttransplant graft function. Secondary outcomes included technical success or failure and complication rates. Fifty patients underwent RKT successfully, 7 in the phase 1 and 43 in the phase 2 stages of the study. For the initial 25 patients, mean console, warm ischemia, arterial, and venous anastomotic times were 135, 2.4, 12, and 13.4 min, respectively. All grafts were cooled to 18-20 °C with no change in core body temperature. All grafts functioned immediately posttransplant and the mean serum creatinine level at discharge was 1.3mg/dl (range: 0.8-3.1mg/dl). No patient developed anastomotic leaks, wound complications, or wound infections. At 6-mo of follow-up, no patient had developed a lymphocele detected on CT scanning. Two patients underwent re-exploration, and one patient died of congestive heart failure (1.5 mo posttransplant). RKT with regional

  14. Contextual and interdependent causes of climate change adaptation barriers for water management: responses from regional and local institutions in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian; Jude, Simon

    2016-04-01

    institutional and structural changes through legislation or formal inter-institutional agreements for increasing data accessibility and sharing. This presentation will demonstrate how adaptation barriers in Himachal Pradesh are contextually interconnected by a range of cultural, systemic, geographical and political underlying causes and how this understanding can be used to increase the adaptive capacity of this climatically sensitive region.

  15. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  16. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  17. Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1

  18. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  19. Monitoring production target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pion and muon production targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility consist of rotating graphite wheels. The previous target thickness monitoring Procedure scanned the target across a reduced intensity beam to determine beam center. The fractional loss in current across the centered target gave a measure of target thickness. This procedure, however, required interruption of beam delivery to experiments and frequently indicated a different fractional loss than at normal beam currents. The new monitoring Procedure compares integrated ups and downs toroid current monitor readings. The current monitors are read once per minute and the integral of readings are logged once per eight-hour shift. Changes in the upstream to downstream fractional difference provide a nonintrusive continuous measurement of target thickness under nominal operational conditions. Target scans are now done only when new targets are installed or when unexplained changes in the current monitor data are observed

  20. Analysis of the Implementation of Standardized Clinical Protocol «Diabetes Mellitus Type 2» by Quality Indicators in Institutions of Kyiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Tkachenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Ukraine, a standardized clinical protocol (SCP to provide medical care in diabetes mellitus type 2 (order of the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine dated 21.12.2012 № 1118, which identifies 4 quality indicators, is being implemented. The objective of research — to analyze the implementation of SCP based on monitoring of quality indicators in the institutions of the Kyiv region. Materials and Methods. Technique for assessing the quality of diabetes care, one element of which is the monitoring of quality indicators specified in SCP, has been developed and applied. Collection and analysis of information was carried out by forms of primary records № 025/030 and 030/o, forms of statistical reporting № 12 and 20. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007, SPSS. Results. Today, primary health care institutions in Kyiv region developed local protocols that confirms the implementation of the first quality indicator, in accordance with the desired level of the indicator value by SCP. The second indicator — the percentage of patients who were defined the level of glycated hemoglobin in the reporting period amounted to 12.2 %, which is higher than in 2012 (8.84 %, but remains low. The third quality indicator — the percentage of patients who were admitted to hospital for diabetes mellitus and its complications during the reporting period amounted to 15.01 %, while in 2012 it stood at 8.66 %. For comparison, this figure in 2007 was 9.37 %. Conclusions. The quality of care at an early stage of implementation is not enough, partly due to the lack of awareness by physicians of major provisions of the protocol, lack of equipment, the need of payment by a patient for medical services specified in the protocol, lack of doctors’ understanding of the characteristics of different types of medical and technological documents and difficulties in the development and implementation of local protocols, particularly. The obtained results are

  1. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  2. Experimental investigation of the thickness effect for large as-welded SAW S355 steel specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Ólafur Magnús; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The presented work aims to investigate and establish a pre-cise, thorough and detailed database from series of experi-mental testing of submerged arc welded (SAW) specimens of various thicknesses typically applied in ships and offshore structures and foundations. Welded structures of all sizes...... and shapes exhibit fatigue failure primarily in the welded region, rather than in the base material, due to imperfections and flaws relating to the welding procedure. The welded region has therefore received much attention from universities, re-search institutions along with industry as it is of significant...

  3. Job satisfaction and associated factors among health care providers at public health institutions in Harari region, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleto, Ayele; Baraki, Negga; Atomsa, Gudina Egata; Dessie, Yadeta

    2015-09-01

    Human factor is the primary resource of health care system. For optimal performance of health care system, the workforce needs to be satisfied with the job he/she is doing. This research was aimed to assess the level of job satisfaction and associated factors among health care providers at public health institutions in Harari region, Eastern Ethiopia. Health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 randomly selected health care providers in Harari regional state, Eastern Ethiopia. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires. Epidata Version 3.1 was used for data entry and analysis was made with SPSS version 17. Level of job satisfaction was measured with a multi item scales derived from Wellness Council of America and Best Companies Group. The average/mean value was used as the cutoff point to determine whether the respondents were satisfied with their job or not. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze data and odds ratio with 95% CI at P ≤ 0.05 was used to identify associated factors with level of job satisfaction. Less than half 179 (44.2%) of the respondents were satisfied with their job. Being midwifery in profession [AOR = 1.20; 95% CI (1.11-2.23)], age less than 35 years [AOR = 2.0; 95% CI (1.67-2.88)], having good attitude to stay in the same ward for longer period [AOR = 3.21; 95 % CI (1.33, 5.41)], and safe working environment [AOR = 4.61; 95% CI (3.33, 6.92)] were found were found to be associated with job satisfaction. Less than half (44.2%) of the respondents were satisfied with their current job. Organizational management system, salary and payment and working environment were among factors that affects level of job satisfaction. Thus, regional health bureau and health facility administrators need to pay special attention to improve management system through the application of a health sector reform strategy.

  4. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of thick laminated circular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oke

    1 ,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462003, INDIA ... In this communication, a numerical analysis regarding free vibration of thick laminated .... ANSYS finite element software.

  5. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  6. Thick melanoma in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Brandani, Paola; Gerlini, Gianni; Rubegni, Pietro; Lamberti, Arianna; Salvini, Camilla; Lo Scocco, Giovanni; Cecchi, Roberto; Sirna, Riccardo; Lorenzi, Stefano; Gattai, Riccardo; Battistini, Silvio; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2017-03-14

    The epidemiologic trends of cutaneous melanoma are similar in several countries with a Western-type life style, where there is a progressive increasing incidence and a low but not decreasing mor- tality, or somewhere an increase too, especially in the older age groups. Also in Tuscany there is a steady rise in incidence with prevalence of in situ and invasive thin melanomas, with also an increase of thick melanomas. It is necessary to reduce the frequency of thick melanomas to reduce specific mortality. The objective of the current survey has been to compare, in the Tuscany population, by a case- case study, thin and thick melanoma cases, trying to find out those personal and tumour characteristics which may help to customize preventive interventions. RESULTS The results confirmed the age and the lower edu- cation level are associated with a later detection. The habit to perform skin self-examination is resulted protec- tive forward thick melanoma and also the diagnosis by a doctor. The elements emerging from the survey allow to hypothesize a group of subjects resulting at higher risk for a late diagnosis, aged over 50 and carrier of a fewer constitutional and environmental risk factors: few total and few atypical nevi, and lower sun exposure and burning. It is assumable that a part of people did not be reached from messages of prevention because does not recognize oneself in the categories of people at risk for skin cancers described in educational cam- paigns. If we want to obtain better results on diagnosis of skin melanoma we have to think a new strategy. At least to think over the educational messages discriminating people more at risk of incidence of melanoma from people more at risk to die from melanoma, and to renewed active involvement of the Gen- eral Practitioners .

  7. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  8. Report on the International Workshop “Networks, Regions and Institutions in Mongol Eurasia: A Meso-Historical Analysis”, Jerusalem, 17–18 May, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On May 17–18, 2017, an international workshop “Networks, Regions and Institutions in Mongol Eurasia: A Meso-Historical Analysis” was held at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem with the participation of researchers from Israel, Japan, Britain, United States, Russia, China, Hungary and Finland. The main goal of the workshop was to reveal the potential of the “meso-historical analysis” in the study of the Mongol Empire, including the simultaneous consideration of global changes in Eurasia caused by the creation of the empire of Chinggis Khan, and the impact of these changes on each of its separate regions as recorded in the available primary sources. The keynote speech by Akinobu Kuroda (The University of Tokyo was entitled “A Global Monetary History of Mongol Eurasia: A Mesoscopic Perspective”. The first panel “Networks of the Empire and Beyond” included the following talks: Yoichi Isahaya (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, “Hulaguid Appanages as Mesoscale Agency in Cross-Cultural Exchange”; Elizabeth Lambourn (De Montfort University, “Mongol Eurasia at Sea: Peninsular South India in Networks of Maritime Trade and Tribute (Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries”. In the framework of the second panel “Decentralizing the Empire through Mesoscale Regions” the following talks were presented: Francesca Fiaschetti (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, “Empires within the Empire: Governance and Dynastic Space in Eastern Eurasia under Mongol Rule”; Christopher Eirkson (University of Pittsburgh, “Mongol Appanages and Ming Chinese Frontier Princedoms: A Comparison of Autonomous Territorial Units in Northern China, 1200–1500 CE”; Nikolay Kradin (Russian Academy of Sciences, “North-Eastern Margin of Mongolian Empire: Hinterland Urbanization of Chinggis Khan Brother”. The third panel “Sources Narrate Eurasia” saw presentations by: Roman Hautala (Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, “Catholic Missionary Sources on the

  9. Hyaline cartilage thickness in radiographically normal cadaveric hips: comparison of spiral CT arthrographic and macroscopic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyler, Annabelle; Bousson, Valérie; Bergot, Catherine; Polivka, Marc; Leveque, Eric; Vicaut, Eric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2007-02-01

    To assess spiral multidetector computed tomographic (CT) arthrography for the depiction of cartilage thickness in hips without cartilage loss, with evaluation of anatomic slices as the reference standard. Permission to perform imaging studies in cadaveric specimens of individuals who had willed their bodies to science was obtained from the institutional review board. Two independent observers measured the femoral and acetabular hyaline cartilage thickness of 12 radiographically normal cadaveric hips (from six women and five men; age range at death, 52-98 years; mean, 76.5 years) on spiral multidetector CT arthrographic reformations and on coronal anatomic slices. Regions of cartilage loss at gross or histologic examination were excluded. CT arthrographic and anatomic measurements in the coronal plane were compared by using Bland-Altman representation and a paired t test. Differences between mean cartilage thicknesses at the points of measurement were tested by means of analysis of variance. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities were determined. At CT arthrography, mean cartilage thickness ranged from 0.32 to 2.53 mm on the femoral head and from 0.95 to 3.13 mm on the acetabulum. Observers underestimated cartilage thickness in the coronal plane by 0.30 mm +/- 0.52 (mean +/- standard error) at CT arthrography (P cartilage thicknesses at the different measurement points was significant for coronal spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement of the femoral head and acetabulum and for sagittal and transverse CT arthrography of the femoral head (P cartilage thickness from the periphery to the center of the joint ("gradients") were found by means of spiral multidetector CT arthrography and anatomic measurement. Spiral multidetector CT arthrography depicts cartilage thickness gradients in radiographically normal cadaveric hips. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  10. Research, Teaching Training in Demography: A Directory of Institutions in the ESCAP Region. Asian Population Studies Series No. 8, Supplement No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This directory contains information on 39 institutions and 108 projects of research teaching and training in demography in Asia and the Pacific. Eight countries are represented: Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Japan, New Zealand, and Pakistan. The following information is given for each institution: name, address, person in charge,…

  11. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  12. Estimating crustal thickness using SsPmp in regions covered by low-velocity sediments: Imaging the Moho beneath the Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME) array, SE Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. Horry, Jr.; Hawman, Robert B.; Fischer, Karen M.; Wagner, Lara S.

    2016-09-01

    Deconvolved waveforms for two earthquakes (Mw: 6.0 and 5.8) show clear postcritical SsPmp arrivals for broadband stations deployed across the coastal plain of Georgia, allowing mapping of crustal thickness in spite of strong reverberations generated by low-velocity sediments. Precritical SsPmp arrivals are also identified. For a basement in which velocity increases linearly with depth, a bootstrapped grid search suggests an average basement velocity of 6.5 ± 0.1 km/s and basement thickness of 29.8 ± 2.0 km. Corresponding normal-incidence Moho two-way times (including sediments) are 10.6 ± 0.6 s, consistent with times for events interpreted as Moho reflections on coincident active-source reflection profiles. Modeling of an underplated mafic layer (Vp = 7.2-7.4 km/s) using travel time constraints from SsPmp data and vertical-incidence Moho reflection times yields a total basement thickness of 30-35 km and average basement velocity of 6.35-6.65 km/s for an underplate thickness of 0-15 km.

  13. Understanding the historical institutional context by using content analysis of local policy and planning documents : Assessing the interactions between tourism and landscape on the Island of Terschelling in the Wadden Sea Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heslinga, Jasper; Groote, Peter; Vanclay, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Content analysis is a valuable tool to identify changes in policy. By analysing historical documents, policymakers and planners can improve their understanding of the institutional context in which decisions were made. Using the Island of Terschelling in the UNESCO World Heritage Wadden region of

  14. The Implementation and Development of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Community Pharmacy Course of a Select Gulf-Region Academic Institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azzawi, Amad Mohammed Jamil; Nagavi, B.G.; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Mossa, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess translational pharmacotherapeutic skills of a Gulf-region representative academic institution. Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess the clinical skills of students enrolled within the third year Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) programme within Ras Al…

  15. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  16. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  17. Radioactive thickness gauge (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.

    1962-01-01

    The author describes a thickness gauge in which the scintillating crystal detector alternately 'sees' a radioactive source through the material which is to be measured and then a control source of the same material; the radiations are separated in time by an absorbing valve whose sections are alternately full and hollow. The currents corresponding to the two sources are separated beyond the photomultiplier tube by a detector synchronized with the rotation of the valve. The quotient of these two currents is then obtained with a standard recording potentiometer. It is found that the average value of the response which is in the form G = f(I 1 /I 2 ) is not affected by decay of the radioactive sources, and that it is little influenced by variations of high tension, temperature, or properties of the air in the source detector interval. The performance of the gauge is given. (author) [fr

  18. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  19. Cortical thickness patterns as state biomarker of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Cao, Bo; Shott, Megan E; Soares, Jair C; Frank, Guido K W

    2018-03-01

    Only few studies have investigated cortical thickness in anorexia nervosa (AN), and it is unclear whether patterns of altered cortical thickness can be identified as biomarkers for AN. Cortical thickness was measured in 19 adult women with restricting-type AN, 24 individuals recovered from restricting-type AN (REC-AN) and 24 healthy controls. Those individuals with current or recovered from AN had previously shown altered regional cortical volumes across orbitofrontal cortex and insula. A linear relevance vector machine-learning algorithm estimated patterns of regional thickness across 24 subdivisions of those regions. Region-based analysis showed higher cortical thickness in AN and REC-AN, compared to controls, in the right medial orbital (olfactory) sulcus, and greater cortical thickness for short insular gyri in REC-AN versus controls bilaterally. The machine-learning algorithm identified a pattern of relatively higher right orbital, right insular and left middle frontal cortical thickness, but lower left orbital, right middle and inferior frontal, and bilateral superior frontal cortical thickness specific to AN versus controls (74% specificity and 74% sensitivity, χ 2 p < .004); predicted probabilities differed significantly between AN and controls (p < .023). No pattern significantly distinguished the REC-AN group from controls. Higher cortical thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex and insula probably contributes to higher gray matter volume in AN in those regions. The machine-learning algorithm identified a mixed pattern of mostly higher orbital and insular, but relatively lower superior frontal cortical thickness in individuals with current AN. These novel results suggest that regional cortical thickness patterns could be state markers for AN. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  1. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  2. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  3. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  4. Análisis político-institucional del sistema de gestión regional: el caso de la región de Tarapacá en Chile Political institutional analysis of the regional management system: the case of the Tarapacá region in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Monje Reyes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo central analizar, describir y elaborar propuestas en el ámbito del mejoramiento de los procesos y mecanismos político-institucionales del sistema de gestión regional, incluyendo los niveles regional, provincial y comunal. El objetivo se orienta a reconstruir y analizar el proceso de implementación del modelo de gestión regional, considerando las relaciones que establece con los distintos actores involucrados a lo largo de dicho proceso y sus resultados, desde la priorización comunal hasta la regional. Se trata, fundamentalmente, de un análisis del proceso social de toma de decisiones de inversión territorial, del rol que asumen los distintos actores en los distintos niveles, de las relaciones que establecen entre ellos, y de los factores que facilitan y obstaculizan el proceso y sus resultados. El análisis supone relaciones humanas en un marco institucional, que el interés radica en contrastar el diseño teórico del proceso con la realidad de su implementación, y que la participación de los actores en dicho proceso está mediatizada por su conciencia interna y realidad simbólica.The main objective of this article is to analyze, describe and develop proposals for to the improvement of the political-institutional processes and mechanisms of the regional management system, including the regional, provincial and local levels. The objective is to reconstruct and analyze the process of implementing the regional management model, considering the relations that it establishes with the different actors involved throughout the process and its results, from local to regional prioritization. Basically, it analyzes the social process of decision making on territorial investments, the role of the different actors at the different levels, the relationship that they establish among themselves, and the factors that facilitate or obstruct the process and its results. This study focuses on human relationships in a

  5. Choroidal thickness in traumatic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Eo, Doo-Ri; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2017-12-01

    To examine the choroidal thickness in patients with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) Methods: Patients with unilateral traumatic optic neuropathy over a period of 4 years were included in this study. Horizontal and vertical enhanced-depth imaging (EDI) from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans of the fovea were obtained in patients with unilateral TON within 2 weeks of injury. The main outcome measure was the choroidal thickness at nine locations. The choroidal thickness was compared between affected and unaffected eyes in the TON group, and the mean difference in the choroidal thickness in both eyes was compared between TON and control groups. A total of 16 patients and 20 control subjects were included. The choroidal thickness at horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, and outer inferior locations was significantly thicker (13-23%) in affected eyes than in unaffected fellow eyes (p = 0.042, 0.046, 0.024, 0.013, 0.018, and 0.027, respectively). The mean difference value between choroidal thickness measurements in both eyes was significantly larger in the TON group than in the control group at the horizontal, vertical and average subfoveal, inner temporal, inner nasal, inner superior, inner inferior, and outer superior locations (p = 0.001, 0.011,  0.05). Eyes affected by TON showed a regionally thicker choroid than unaffected fellow eye. This thick choroid might be due to impaired blood circulation and vascular remodeling of the optic nerve head and choroid. These results help to better understand the pathophysiology of TON.

  6. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    (tel: 020 7470 4800, fax: 020 7470 4848, e-mail: leila.solomon@iop.org). The cost for the complete series of lectures is £20 - one teacher accompanying a minimum of ten students will be admitted free. `Paperclip physics' is the contest for students who have the admirable desire to explain physics to nonscientists and who can also build a physics demonstration from items found around the home! Closing date for entries to the 2000 competition is 30 November 1999 with regional heats and finals planned for January/February and the Grand Final on 22 March 2000 at the Institute's Headquarters in London. Entries will be welcomed from Year 12, S5, Transition Year/First-year Leaving Certificate students or equivalents from schools and colleges: each team must consist of no fewer than three and no more than six students. Presentations should take no longer than five minutes and a hazard assessment must be submitted for each entry beforehand. As for the course mentioned above, more details and entry forms can be obtained from Leila Solomon at the Institute of Physics. Finally, the programme is now available for education events to be staged at the annual Physics Congress being held in Brighton on 27 - 30 March 2000. There will be hands-on activities for pupils aged 10 - 12 (school years 6 - 7), which must be booked in advance, as well as lectures and activities for students in years 8 - 10 on Music and sound (28 - 29 March) and Static electricity (30 March). In addition there will be INSET for teachers and technicians based on `Teaching physics at key stage 3' - hands-on workshops open to nonspecialist teachers of physics at an affordable cost. Further details can be found at the Congress website (www.iop.org/IOP/Congress), and bookings should be made through Leila Solomon. The public lectures during the Congress and commencing each evening at the Brighton Centre at 6 pm will be: 27 Mar: Mike & Wendy Gluyas `Musical Squares' 28 Mar: Professor Malcolm Longair 29 Mar: Adam Hart

  7. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  8. Relationship between Measures of Academic Quality and Undergraduate Student Attrition: The Case of Higher Education Institutions in the Colombian Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Anabella; Borjas, Mónica; Herrera, Mariela; Valencia, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate student attrition is a major concern in higher education. It is usually explained by the impact of student attributes; however, recent developments in student success literature point to the need of exploring institutional practices that may impact a student's decision to abandon their studies. The current weight of academic quality…

  9. Why do savings institutions differ within the same region? The role of environment and social capital in the creation of savings arrangements in eastern Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes two different savings arrangements around cattle that have been developed in two villages in the eastern region of Burkina Faso and raises the question of why two forms have evolved in the same region, populated by the same ethnic groups, and where crop and livestock production

  10. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  11. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  12. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  13. Loess Thickness Variations Across the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Mingan

    2018-01-01

    The soil thickness is very important for investigating and modeling soil-water processes, especially on the Loess Plateau of China with its deep loess deposit and limited water resources. A digital elevation map (DEM) of the Loess Plateau and neighborhood analysis in ArcGIS software were used to generate a map of loess thickness, which was then validated by 162 observations across the plateau. The generated loess thickness map has a high resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The map indicates that loess is thick in the central part of the plateau and becomes gradually shallower in the southeast and northwest directions. The areas near mountains and river basins have the shallowest loess deposit. The mean loess thickness is the deepest in the zones with 400-600-mm precipitation and decreases gradually as precipitation varies beyond this range. Our validation indicates that the map just slightly overestimates loess thickness and is reliable. The loess thickness is mostly between 0 and 350 m in the Loess Plateau region. The calculated mean loess thickness is 105.7 m, with the calibrated value being 92.2 m over the plateau exclusive of the mountain areas. Our findings provide very basic data of loess thickness and demonstrate great progress in mapping the loess thickness distribution for the plateau, which are valuable for a better study of soil-water processes and for more accurate estimations of soil water, carbon, and solute reservoirs in the Loess Plateau of China.

  14. Magnitude of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Luelseged; Alemayehu, Mussie; Debie, Ayal

    2018-03-02

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia. Overall, 35.2% of women delivered at health facilities. Women who had good knowledge AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.32, 4.87), Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.55, 6.63), resided in a place where distance to reach at the nearby health facilities takes delivery place (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.49, 5.07) were more likely to deliver at health facility. Therefore, strengthening ANC services, improving maternal knowledge, involving husbands in decision of delivery place and expanding health facilities in the community would enhance institutional delivery.

  15. Dosimetric assessment of an Atlas based automated segmentation for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer in the Skagen Trial 1: A multi-institutional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ramadan Mohammed E; Francolini, Giulio; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Atlas-based automated segmentation (ABAS) on dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters compared to manual segmentation (MS) in loco-regional radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer was investigated in patients included in the Skagen Trial 1. This analysis supports implementation of ABAS...

  16. Analysis of Sociodemographic parameters of patients admitted in a newly established palliative care center in a regional cancer institute of north-west India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Palliative care services are an indispensable part of a tertiary regional cancer care center. The oncologists should be made aware of the requirement of better relief of pain and other distressing symptoms to provide better quality of life to the patients suffering from advanced cancer.

  17. Trickling Down: Are Rural and Rural Poor Family Incomes Responsive to Regional Economic Growth? Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Papers No. 210-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce A.

    The past decade has seen a number of studies of how the poverty incidence (the percentage of families below the poverty line) of certain demographic groups changes in response to economic growth. The question of whether regional economic growth trickles down to rural and rural poor families was examined by statistically estimating the relationship…

  18. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  19. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  20. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  1. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  2. Structural and institutional changes in agricultural cooperatives of the province of Entre Ríos during the postconvertibilidad stage (2002-2013. The case of La Agrícola Regional Cooperativa of Crespo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Soleno Wilches

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to establish the main organizational and institutional changes made by the agricultural cooperatives in the province of Entre Rios (Argentina for facing the agrifood system transformations during the postconvertibilidad stage. The methodology is essentially qualitative and based on the case analysis of La Agrícola Regional Cooperativa of Crespo (LAR. The most important findings show that organizational and institutional strategies adopted by LAR have permitted establish itself as a "Large Cooperative Enterprise," whose complex structure (expressed in the multiplicity of areas, branches, strategic alliances grants the entity capacity of response to external disturbances. The position of LAR as a leader organization of the local productive system, its strong socio-territorial roots and the nature of the network of relationships built, make it difficult to conceive the territory without the presence of the cooperative and the existence of the cooperative separated from its belonging area.

  3. Medical Entomology Studies - III. A Revision of the Subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 12, Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Subgroup with quinquefasciatus which is widespread throughout tropical parts of the world, (2) TrifiZatus Subgroup with vegans and hutchinsoni, both...region; torrentium Martini 1925 from the western Palearctic; vegans Wiedemann 1828 from the eastern Pale- arctic; pervigiluns Bergroth 1889, pacificus...discovered when the fauna is thoroughly examined. 2. C ULEX (C ULEX) VAGANS WIEDEMANN (Figs. 4, 5, 14) Culex vegans Wiedemann 1828: 545 (d, 0

  4. A Study to Develop the Optimal Military Inter-Institutional Patient Referral Systems Model for DoD (Department of Defense) Military Medical Region III

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    I rerr syttemn an do wlon t P ontimal military inter-instittiuonal patient referral systems model for DOD Military Medical Region III. A convenience...Dactin- on the Armed Services Medical Regulating Office and Patient Airlift "lc rcsusl.s of :his study indicated that the single largest breakdown...and the requirement to regulate to the closest medical facility with capability to care for the patient . L! / I Ii I i A STUDY TO DEVELOP THE OPTIMAL

  5. Overfishing Drivers and Opportunities for Recovery in Small-Scale Fisheries of the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico: the Roles of Land and Sea Institutions in Fisheries Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cinti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutions play an important role in shaping individual incentives in complex social-ecological systems, by encouraging or discouraging resource overuse. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, there is widespread evidence of declines in small-scale fishery stocks, largely attributed to policy failures. We investigated formal and informal rules-in-use regulating access and resource use by small-scale fishers in the two most important fishing communities of the Midriff Islands region in the Gulf of California, which share several target species and fishing grounds. The Midriff Islands region is a highly productive area where sustainable use of fisheries resources has been elusive. Our study aimed to inform policy by providing information on how management and conservation policies perform in this unique environment. In addition, we contrast attributes of the enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons in an effort to better understand why these communities, albeit showing several contrasting attributes of the above conditions, have not developed sustainable fishing practices. We take a novel, comprehensive institutional approach that includes formal and informal institutions, incorporating links between land (i.e., communal land rights and sea institutions (i.e., fisheries and conservation policies and their effects on stewardship of fishery resources, a theme that is practically unaddressed in the literature. Insufficient government support in provision of secure rights, enforcement and sanctioning, and recognition and incorporation of local arrangements and capacities for management arose as important needs to address in both cases. We highlight the critical role of higher levels of governance, that when disconnected from local practices, realities, and needs, can be a major impediment to achieving sustainability in small-scale fisheries, even in cases where several facilitating conditions are met.

  6. Results and Lessons Learned from a Coupled Social and Physical Hydrology Model: Testing Alternative Water Management Policies and Institutional Structures Using Agent-Based Modeling and Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Prousevitch, A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A. D.; Alessa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water Management in the U.S. Southwest is under increasing scrutiny as many areas endure persistent drought. The impact of these prolonged dry conditions is a product of regional climate and hydrological conditions, but also of a highly engineered water management infrastructure and a complex web of social arrangements whereby water is allocated, shared, exchanged, used, re-used, and finally consumed. We coupled an agent-based model with a regional hydrological model to understand the dynamics in one richly studied and highly populous area: southern Arizona, U.S.A., including metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson. There, multiple management entities representing an array of municipalities and other water providers and customers, including private companies and Native American tribes are enmeshed in a complex legal and economic context in which water is bought, leased, banked, and exchanged in a variety of ways and on multiple temporal and physical scales. A recurrent question in the literature of adaptive management is the impact of management structure on overall system performance. To explore this, we constructed an agent-based model to capture this social complexity, and coupled this with a physical hydrological model that we used to drive the system under a variety of water stress scenarios and to assess the regional impact of the social system's performance. We report the outcomes of ensembles of runs in which varieties of alternative policy constraints and management strategies are considered. We hope to contribute to policy discussions in this area and connected and legislatively similar areas (such as California) as current conditions change and existing legal and policy structures are revised. Additionally, we comment on the challenges of integrating models that ostensibly are in different domains (physical and social) but that independently represent a system in which physical processes and human actions are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle.

  7. [Safety and health in workers employed in industry. Data from Industrial Accidents Compensation Board (INAIL) and National Social Security Institute (INPS), Veneto Region, 1994-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Carassai, Patrizia; Carletti, Claudia; Cattani, F; De Zorzi, Lia; Di Loreto, G; Dini, M; Mattioni, G; Mundo, Antonietta; Noceta, R; Ortolani, G; Piccioni, M; Sartori, Angela; Sereno, Antonella; Priolo, G; Scoizzato, L; Marangi, G; Marchiori, L

    2008-01-01

    A decreasing time trend for occupational injuries and sickness absence would be the effect of the new legislation (D.Lgs. 626/94 and successive laws) on prevention in occupational settings. Conversely, the reduction of INPS disability would reflect a health improvement due to non-occupational causes. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the new legislation among employees in industry (where the law was mainly applied), via the time trend of three standardized rates in the Veneto Region. The numerator for the rate of occupational accidents (cases occurring in industry workers in the Veneto Region, broken down for sex, age and calendar years) was supplied by INAIL. The denominator for the above rate, as well as numerators and denominators for disability and sickness absence were supplied by INPS. Data were available from 1994 to 2002 for accidents and disability, and from 1997 to 2002 for sickness absence. In every year from 1994 to 2002, the rates were standardized for age and sex with the direct method, using an internal "standard" population. The time trend of year-specific standardized rates was analyzed by Joinpoint regression software. Among industrial workers in the Veneto Region, occupational accidents increased by 0.4% yearly, while disability decreased by 2.56% from 1994 to 2002. Sick absence increased up to 1999, then decreased. This epidemiological pattern is difficult to explain. The increase in accidents could be due to the increase of non-European Union workers and/or to the fact that accidents on the way to or from work were recognized as occupational accidents by INAIL starting from 2000. Both these phenomena could have contributed to increase the rate that was otherwise diminishing. On the other hand, this same situation could be due to insufficient efficacy of the legislation (D.Lgs. 626/94 and successive laws) for preventing occupational accidents and diseases.

  8. New Models explaining regional Evolution in Europe. Contributions to an international conference in honour of Professor J.H.P. Paelinck Tinbergen Institute, Rotterdam, June 16-17, 1995. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Henri Derycke

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the academic year 1994-95, Professor J.Paelinck left the chair of spatial theory he occupied at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam for several decades. On this occasion, his disciples – in particular, Hans KUIPER and Riccardo GIRARDI - and numerous colleagues and friends organised on June 16-17 an International Conference held at the Tinbergen Institute. About forty spatial analysts and regional science specialists, belonging to 10 different countries, were present to this even...

  9. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  10. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  11. Regional hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. A multi-institutional prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Zeng Zhifan; Oliynychenko, P.; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Ihl-Bohng; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-sponsored, multi-institutional prospective randomized trial was conducted to clarify whether the combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy improves the local response rate of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with that obtained by radiotherapy alone. Between October 1998 and April 2002, 80 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive either standard radiation therapy alone (RT) or radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia (RT+HT). The primary endpoint was the local response rate. The secondary endpoints were local progression-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up period was 204 days for all patients and 450 days for surviving patients. There were no significant differences between the two arms with regard to local response rate (P=0.49) or overall survival rate (P=0.868). However, local progression-free survival was significantly better in the RT+HT arm (P=0.036). Toxicity was generally mild and no grade 3 late toxicity was observed in either arm. Although improvement of local progression-free survival was observed in the RT+HT arm, this prospective randomized study failed to show any substantial benefit from the addition of hyperthermia to radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC. (author)

  12. Institutional Aspects of Sustainability for Irrigated Agriculture in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Aspectos Institucionales para la Sustentabilidad de la Agricultura de Riego en Regiones Áridas y Semi-Áridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván del Callejo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerns, arguments, and approaches to sustainability are exposed in both scientific and technical irrigation literature which is based on the priority of food production and water preservation as a basic resource. Different approaches related to sustainable irrigated agriculture are identified beyond the technical considerations of irrigation as dealt with by very specialized scientific literature. These focus on socio-economic and institutional aspects of irrigation management. In this chapter, four main approaches are discussed: “New institutionalism” is an approach which emphasizes economic and financial issues such as cost recovery and the role of the market in water rights reallocation. A second approach, “Common pool resources management” highlights the role of local organizations and institutions with respect to collective water management, and the possibilities to design “robust institutions” considering the involvement of different stakeholders, not only (state authorities. A third is identified as the “Empowerment approach”. In this approach, topics such as power relations, autonomy, gender relations, as well as water rights and access are considered as key elements configuring water management practices in irrigation systems. Finally, there is the “Post-institutional approach”. It outlines concepts such as “institutional bricolage”, uncertainty, and legal pluralism used as analytical elements to understand the dynamics and complexities of irrigation development. In conclusion, different levels to analyze sustainability are discussed from an institutional perspective by identifying key knowledge gaps and the need to integrate some of the elements found in the different approaches.En la literatura científica y técnica sobre riego se han planteado diferentes preocupaciones, argumentos y enfoques que contribuyan a su sostenibilidad, basados en la prioridad dada a la producción de alimentos y a la preservaci

  13. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  14. Corneal thickness: measurement and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2004-03-01

    The thickness of the cornea was reported in more than 100-year-old textbooks on physiological optics (Helmholtz, Gullstrand). Physiological interest was revived in the 1950s by David Maurice, and over the next 50 years, this 'simple' biological parameter has been studied extensively. Several techniques for its measurement have been described and physiological and clinical significance have been studied. In this review, the different methods and techniques of measurement are briefly presented (optical, ultrasound). While the corneal thickness of many animals are the same over a considerable part of the surface, in the human cornea anterior and posterior curvature are not concentric giving rise to a problem of definition. Based on this the precision and accuracy of determining the central corneal thickness are discussed. Changes in corneal thickness reflects changes in function of the boundary layers, in particular the endothelial barrier. The absolute value of thickness is of importance for the estimation of IOP but also in diagnosis of corneal and systemic disorders. Finally it is discussed to what extent the thickness is a biometric parameter of significance, e.g. in the progression of myopia or in the development of retinal detachment.

  15. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  16. Behavior of the equivalent slab thickness over three European stations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mosert, M.; Magdaleno, S.; Burešová, Dalia; Altadill, D.; Gende, M.; Gularte, E.; Scida, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2013), s. 677-682 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Ionospheric slab thickness * F2-layer peak * TEC * European stations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117712003754

  17. Storm-time slab thickness at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, N.S.; Gurm, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    The ATS-6 data for a period of 1975-76 is used for the study of slab thickness during two moderate storms (Ksub(p) - ) around the crest of the anomaly, Ahmedabad and a very great (Ksub(p) + ) outside the equatorial anomaly region, Delhi. While at Ahmedabad, on the average, the slab thickness is found to be above the frequency. Comparison of slab thickness with foF2 and the equatorial magnetic record (for Ahmedabad only) shows that the foF2 changes alone cannot be held responsible for the slab thickness variation and thus entry of the plasma flux from the plasmasphere cannot be ruled out. The pressure variation effect of storm-time heating on the slab thickness at Ahmedabad is that even for Ksub(p)=8, the thermal expansion and the contraction effects are unable to explain complete quantitative and qualitative features of the observations

  18. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  19. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  20. Clinical study of burn patients requiring admission: A single center experience at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkupar Khongwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although burns are a major problem in health care, a lot of the variation in risk factors exists from region to region which if uncovered correctly could help take effective prevention measures. Aims and Objectives: To assess the 3-year (January 2012 to January 2015 epidemiology of burn injuries admitted to our hospital (primary objective and to find areas of improvement in burn care (secondary objective. Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical approval data were obtained from the medical record section regarding age, sex, residence, occupation, marital status, socioeconomic status, dates of admission and discharge, circumstances regarding the place, intent, cause, and source of heat. Clinical assessment was done using Wallace's “Rule of Nine” in adult and “Lund and Browder” chart in the pediatric age groups. The interrelationships between clinical and epidemiological variables with burn injury were studied. Results: An increasing trend in the admission rates of burn victims noted in last 3 years males (55.47% outnumbered females (44.52%. The most common age group affected is older children, adolescents, and young adults (between 11 and 30 years. Flame (38.3% and scald (25.3% burns contributed to most of the injuries. Females (52.30% are the major victim of flame burns. Electrical and chemical burns affected only the males suggesting work-related injuries. Trunk (30.8% is the most severely affected site in all cases. Depression (6.8% and power line workers (4.7% seem to be important risk factors in our study. Inability to complete treatment (26.7% was a major concern in our study. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for proper burn care that could be provided at the primary health-care level. The majority of burns were accidental in nature in school going children, young adults, and females. Flame and scald burns were the most common cause. Preventive measures directed toward burn safety and first aid measures

  1. Overweight is not associated with cortical thickness alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jane Sharkey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSeveral studies report an association between body mass index (BMI and cortical thickness in adults. Some studies demonstrate diffuse cortical thinning in obesity, while others report effects in areas that are associated with self-regulation, such as lateral prefrontal cortex. MethodsThis study used multilevel modelling of data from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository, a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional database, to examine the relationship between cortical thickness and body weight in children. Cortical thickness was computed at 81,942 vertices of 716 MRI scans from 378 children aged between 4 and 18 years. Body mass index Z score for age was computed for each participant. We preformed vertex-wise statistical analysis of the relationship between cortical thickness and BMI, accounting for age and gender. In addition, cortical thickness was extracted from regions of interest in prefrontal cortex and insula.ResultsNo significant association between cortical thickness and BMI was found, either by statistical parametric mapping or by region of interest analysis. Results remained negative when the analysis was restricted to children aged 12-18.ConclusionsThe correlation between BMI and cortical thickness was not found in this large pediatric sample. The association between BMI and cortical thinning develops after adolescence. This has implications for the nature of the relationship between brain anatomy and weight gain.

  2. Mandibular thickness measurements in young dentate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Narlin B; Le, Thomas T

    2009-09-01

    To measure thicknesses in clinical landmark areas of the dentate mandibles of young men and women. Using standard radiologic software, we obtained mean (SD) thickness measurements at the inferior or posterior borders of the mandible at the following 7 surgically useful sites: (1) the symphysis, (2) a point halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, (3) the mental nerve, (4) a point halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, (5) the facial artery notch, (6) the angle vertex, and (7) the ramus-condylar neck border. University hospital. A total of 150 dentate men and 75 dentate women aged 18 to 30 years who had undergone computed tomography of the head and neck region during the period of December 20, 2006 to February 20, 2007. Thicknesses of 7 mandibular sites. Mean (SD) thicknesses at the 7 mandibular sites were as follows: symphysis, 14.03 (1.53) mm for men and 13.21 (1.46) mm for women; halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, 11.17 (1.37) mm for men and 10.00 (1.08) mm for women; mental nerve, 9.48 (1.28) mm for men and 8.72 (1.00) mm for women; halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, 10.33 (1.24) mm for men and 9.45 (0.92) mm for women; facial artery notch, 7.27 (0.82) mm for men and 7.10 (0.88) mm for women; angle vertex, 5.42 (0.90) mm for men and 5.39 (0.66) mm for women; and ramus-condylar neck border, 5.90 (0.86) mm for men and 5.85 (0.71) mm for women. Clinical landmark areas in young dentate mandibles have mean thicknesses with limited SDs. The thickness measurements obtained at the sites in this study provide practical reference information for mandibular reconstruction and bicortical screw length estimation.

  3. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  4. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases......The cranial thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by taking a biopsy with a trephine at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. While none...

  5. Are galaxy discs optically thick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, Michael; Davies, Jonathan; Phillipps, Steven

    1989-01-01

    We re-examine the classical optical evidence for the low optical depths traditionally assigned to spiral discs and argue that it is highly model-dependent and unconvincing. In particular, layered models with a physically thin but optically thick dust layer behave like optically thin discs. The opposite hypotheses, that such discs are optically thick is then examined in the light of modern evidence. We find it to be consistent with the near-infrared and IRAS observations, with the surface brightnesses, with the HI and CO column densities and with the Hα measurements. (author)

  6. Applied Research at Canadian Colleges and Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Canada has a national network of over 150 colleges and institutes in over 900 communities in all regions of the country. These institutions are mandated to support the socio-economic development of the communities and regions. Colleges and institutes develop education and training programs to meet employer needs with direct input from business,…

  7. Quantitative estimation of myocardial thickness by the wall thickness map with Tl-201 myocardial SPECT and its clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiai, Yasuhiro; Sawai, Michihiko; Murayama, Susumu

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the wall thickness of left ventricular myocardium objectively and quantitatively, we adopted the device of wall thickness map (WTM) with Tl-201 myocardial SPECT. For validation on measuring left ventricular wall thickness with SPECT, fundamental studies were carried out with phantom models, and clinical studies were performed in 10 cases comparing the results from SPECT with those in echocardiography. To draw the WTM, left ventricular wall thickness was measured using the cut off method from SPECT images obtained at 5.6 mm intervals from the base and middle of left ventricle: short-axis image for the base and middle of left ventricle and vertical and horizontal long-axis images for the apical region. Wall thickness was defined from the number of pixel above the cut off level. Results of fundamental studies disclosed that it is impossible to evaluate the thickness of less than 10 mm by Tl-201 myocardial SPECT but possible to discriminate wall thickness of 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm by Tl-201 myocardial SPECT. Echocardiographic results supported the validity of WTM, showing a good linear correlation (r = 0.96) between two methods on measuring wall thickness of left ventricle. We conclude that the WTM applied in this report may be useful for objective and quantitative estimation of myocardial hypertrophy. (author)

  8. Cortical Thickness Changes Associated with Photoparoxysmal Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Groppa, Stanislav A; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal co...... in the occipital lobe, frontoparietal regions and temporal lobe, which also show functional changes associated with PPR. Patients with epilepsy present changes in the temporal lobe and supplementary motor area.......-positive-subjects presented a significant decrease of cortical thickness in the temporal cortex in the same group contrast. IGE patients exhibited lower cortical thickness in the temporal lobe bilaterally and in the right paracentral region in comparison to PPR-positive-subjects. Our study demonstrates structural changes......Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal...

  9. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  10. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  11. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint

  12. Integrating SEA in institutional structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper decribes and disusses how institutional structures influenced the decision making proces during the development of the regional planning in the Danish county of North Jutland for the period 1993-1997.......The paper decribes and disusses how institutional structures influenced the decision making proces during the development of the regional planning in the Danish county of North Jutland for the period 1993-1997....

  13. International Environmental Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSibio, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The International Environmental Institute is being established at the Hanford Site to provide training and education in environmental restoration and waste management technologies and to serve as an interface for exchange of information among government laboratories, regional and federal governments, universities, and US industries. Recognized as the flagship of the nation's environmental management effort, the Hanford Site provides a unique living environmental laboratory that represents the most extensive, complex, and diverse cleanup challenges anywhere. An Environmental Institute director has been selected, the organizational structure has been established, and initial phases of operation have begun. The combined resources of the Hanford Site and the Environmental Institute offer unprecedented technological capabilities for dealing with the nation's environmental issues

  14. Gammatography of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Sundaram, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiography, scintillation and GM counting and dose measurements using ionisation chamber equipment are commonly used for detecting flaws/voids in materials. The first method is mostly used for steel vessels and to a lesser extent thin lead vessels also and is essentially qualitative. Dose measuring techniques are used for very thick and large lead vessels for which high strength radioactive sources are required, with its inherent handling problems. For vessels of intermediate thicknesses, it is ideal to use a small strength source and a GM or scintillation counter assembly. At the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, such a system was used for checking three lead vessels of thicknesses varying from 38mm to 65mm. The tolerances specified were +- 4% variation in lead thickness. The measurements also revealed the non concentricity of one vessel which had a thickness varying from 38mm to 44mm. The second vessel was patently non-concentric and the dimensional variation was truly reproduced in the measurements. A third vessel was fabricated with careful control of dimensions and the measurements exhibited good concentricity. Small deviations were observed, attributable to imperfect bondings between steel and lead. This technique has the following advantages: (a) weaker sources used result in less handling problems reducing the personnel exposures considerably; (b) the sensitivity of the instrument is quite good because of better statistics; (c) the time required for scanning a small vessel is more, but a judicious use of a scintillometer for initial fast scan will help in reducing the total scanning time; (d) this method can take advantage of the dimensional variations themselves to get the calibration and to estimate the deviations from specified tolerances. (auth.)

  15. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  16. Automated Estimation of Melanocytic Skin Tumor Thickness by Ultrasonic Radiofrequency Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrekute, Kristina; Valiukeviciene, Skaidra; Raisutis, Renaldas; Linkeviciute, Gintare; Makstiene, Jurgita; Kliunkiene, Renata

    2016-05-01

    High-frequency (>20-MHz) ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive preoperative tool for assessment of melanocytic skin tumor thickness. Ultrasonic melanocytic skin tumor thickness estimation is not always easy and is related to the experience of the clinician. In this article, we present an automated thickness measurement method based on time-frequency analysis of US radiofrequency signals. The study was performed on 52 thin (≤1-mm) melanocytic skin tumors (46 melanocytic nevi and 6 melanomas). Radiofrequency signals were obtained with a single-element focused transducer (fundamental frequency, 22 MHz; bandwidth, 12-28 MHz). The radiofrequency data were analyzed in the time-frequency domain to make the tumor boundaries more noticeable. The thicknesses of the tumors were evaluated by 3 different metrics: histologically measured Breslow thickness, manually measured US thickness, and automatically measured US thickness. The results showed a higher correlation coefficient between the automatically measured US thickness and Breslow thickness (r= 0.83; Pmeasured US thickness (r = 0.68; P measurement algorithm was 96.55%, and the specificity was 78.26% compared with histologic measurement. The sensitivity of the manually measured US thickness was 75.86%, and the specificity was 73.91%. The efficient automated tumor thickness measurement method developed could be used as a tool for preoperative assessment of melanocytic skin tumor thickness. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Soils of The Irkutsk Region, Agriculture Land Funds and Quality Of Soils. Chapter 3. Development of Genesis, Geography and Agrochemical Properties of Soils Studies at Experimental Stations, Higher Education Institutions and Scientific Research Institutions of Irkutsk (in the 20s-80s of XX Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Kolesnichenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, based on many years of research by the author, systematization and generalization of soil and cartographic materials of the Siberian Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as the use of a large number of literary and fund sources, the characteristics of soil formation and soil cover in the Irkutsk region are given. It is shown that, due to the great extent of the territory of the region from north to south and from west to east, the heterogeneity of the relief, geological structure, climatic conditions and vegetation, the soil cover is characterized by a complex structure and a wide variety of soil types. Based on the latest research and modern ideas on the genesis of soils, a systematic description of the soils and their diagnostics is given, specific features of the temperature and water regimes of seasonally frozen soils, the structure of the soil profile, physical and chemical properties are reported, which inform the regional features of the soils forming here, determining the fertility of soils and Ways of their rational use in agricultural production. A new scheme for soil-geographical zoning of the territory of the Irkutsk region was developed, which was used as the basis for the soil map of the Irkutsk region at a scale of 1:1 500 000, published by the USSR in 1988. Areas of soil zones, sub-zones and districts were determined and the degree of their agricultural use was indicated. The calculations of the areas of the main types of soils along the soil zones, subareas and districts used in agriculture are given. The data contained in the monograph make it possible to assess the potential for further agricultural development of soils both in the southern regions of the region and in the north – in areas of new industrial construction and in the zone of the western section of the BAM. The work can serve as an explanatory note to the soil map of the Irkutsk region at a scale of 1: 1

  18. Correlation between choroidal thickness and macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the correlation between choroidal thickness and macular hole, and to provide a theoretical basis for diagnosis and treatment of macular hole. METHODS: This study included 40 cases of monocular idiopathic macular hole patients who were treated in ophthalmology of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2016 and 40 cases of healthy people. Sicked eyes of idiopathic macular hole patients(40 eyeswere set as the Group A, uninjured side eyes(40 eyeswere set as the Group B, eyes of 40 cases of healthy people(40 normal eyeswere set as the Group C. Choroidal thickness of macular fovea, macular fovea 1mm, 3mm at 9 points, 4 directions in the upper, lower, nasal and temporal regions were measured through coherent optical tomography of enhanced deep imaging(enhanced depth image optical coherence tomography, EDI-OCT. They were recorded as SFCT, SCT1mm, SCT3mm, ICT1mm, ICT3mm, NCT1mm, NCT3mm, TCT1mm, TCT3mm, and correlation analysis between SFCT and age was analyzed. RESULTS: Average SFCT of Group A, B had no significant difference, data of the Group C was significantly higher than those of the Group A, B, there was statistical significance(P1mm, SCT3mm, ICT1mm, ICT3mm, NCT1mm, NCT3mm, TCT1mm, TCT3mm of the Group A, B had no significant difference(P>0.05, and choroidal thickness at each point of the Group C was significantly higher than that of Group A and B, there was statistical significance(Pr=-0.065, P=0.148; r=-0.057, P=0.658, SFCT of the Group C was negatively correlated with age(r=-0.343, P=0.041. CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of idiopathic macular hole may be related to the sharp decrease of choroidal thickness, choroidal thickness of uninjured side eyes reduces more sharply than normal population and choroidal vascular metabolism reduces may be pathogenic.

  19. Facial soft tissue thickness in North Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushri Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Forensic facial reconstruction is an attempt to reproduce a likeness of facial features of an individual, based on characteristics of the skull, for the purpose of individual identification - The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue thickness values of individuals of Bareilly population, Uttar Pradesh, India and to evaluate whether these values can help in forensic identification. Study design: A total of 40 individuals (19 males, 21 females were evaluated using spiral computed tomographic (CT scan with 2 mm slice thickness in axial sections and soft tissue thicknesses were measured at seven midfacial anthropological facial landmarks. Results: It was found that facial soft tissue thickness values decreased with age. Soft tissue thickness values were less in females than in males, except at ramus region. Comparing the left and right values in individuals it was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Soft tissue thickness values are an important factor in facial reconstruction and also help in forensic identification of an individual. CT scan gives a good representation of these values and hence is considered an important tool in facial reconstruction- This study has been conducted in North Indian population and further studies with larger sample size can surely add to the data regarding soft tissue thicknesses.

  20. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  1. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  2. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  3. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  4. Informal institutions and radical ideologies under institutional transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Starodubrovskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article questions one of the central postulates of institutional economic theory, i.e., that of the sustainability and purely evolutionary changes of informal institutions. To study the phenomenon of the destruction of informal institutions and its consequences, we use the tools of sociological theory, which acknowledge that a period of intensive urbanization is characterized by anomie, i.e., a lack of norms, in which traditional institutions are destroyed, while new urban institutions have not yet taken shape. We reviewed the possible reactions of communities and individuals to the conditions of anomie, including the compensatory mechanisms of ideologies. In the case of the Dagestan Republic, we show how the proliferation of fundamentalist Islamic ideology is associated with the state of anomie and the consequences to which it could lead from an institutional point of view. The analysis of the situation in Dagestan is based on long-term field research conducted in the region.

  5. Enface Thickness Mapping and Reflectance Imaging of Retinal Layers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew W; Wanek, Justin; Lim, Jennifer I; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    To present a method for image segmentation and generation of enface thickness maps and reflectance images of retinal layers in healthy and diabetic retinopathy (DR) subjects. High density spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) images were acquired in 10 healthy and 4 DR subjects. Customized image analysis software identified 5 retinal cell layer interfaces and generated thickness maps and reflectance images of the total retina (TR), inner retina (IR), outer retina (OR), and the inner segment ellipsoid (ISe) band. Thickness maps in DR subjects were compared to those of healthy subjects by generating deviation maps which displayed retinal locations with thickness below, within, and above the normal 95% confidence interval. In healthy subjects, TR and IR thickness maps displayed the foveal depression and increased thickness in the parafoveal region. OR and ISe thickness maps showed increased thickness at the fovea, consistent with normal retinal anatomy. In DR subjects, thickening and thinning in localized regions were demonstrated on TR, IR, OR, and ISe thickness maps, corresponding to retinal edema and atrophy, respectively. TR and OR reflectance images showed reduced reflectivity in regions of increased thickness. Hard exudates appeared as hyper-reflective spots in IR reflectance images and casted shadows on the deeper OR and ISe reflectance images. The ISe reflectance image clearly showed the presence of focal laser scars. Enface thickness mapping and reflectance imaging of retinal layers is a potentially useful method for quantifying the spatial and axial extent of pathologies due to DR.

  6. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  7. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  8. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency and ... sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study with ... Location map of the study area, the bold light grey line shows the boundary of the Islamabad region. .... frequency disturbances (wind blowing, in case of near tall ...

  9. Genetic control of wood density and bark thickness, and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree diameter under and over bark at breast height (dbh), wood density and bark thickness were assessed on samples from control-pollinated families of Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla, E. grandis × E. urophylla and E. urophylla × E. grandis. The material was planted in field trials in the coastal Zululand region of South ...

  10. The crustal thickness of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Reduced cortical thickness in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    with significant reductions (average 15.8-19.9 %) in cortical thickness, versus controls, predominantly in right frontal cortical regions. Pronounced right frontal morphometric brain abnormalities occur in gambling disorder, supporting neurobiological overlap with substance disorders and its recent......Gambling disorder has recently been recognized as a prototype 'behavioral addiction' by virtue of its inclusion in the DSM-5 category of 'Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.' Despite its newly acquired status and prevalence rate of 1-3 % globally, relatively little is known regarding...... the neurobiology of this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore cortical morphometry in untreated gambling disorder, for the first time. Subjects with gambling disorder (N = 16) free from current psychotropic medication or psychiatric comorbidities, and healthy controls (N = 17), were entered...

  12. A Spatial Decision Support System to incorporate hydro-economic modeling results in the management of water resources under decentralized institutional arrangements in a semiarid reservoir region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado de Moraes, Márcia; Silva, Gerald; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna

    2017-04-01

    The integration of economic and hydrological components in models, aimed to support evaluating alternatives of water allocation policies, is promising, though, challenging. Worldwide, these models have been used primarily in academia, and so far seldom by water managers for practical purposes. Ideally, the models should be available through a Decision Support System. The São Francisco River Basin in Northeast of Brazil has around 48% of its area in a semi-arid region. Irrigation and public water supply are the primary water use sectors, along with hydropower utilization. The water for electricity generation is stored in two large reservoirs, built 30 to 50 years ago under the premise of regulating flows for hydropower and controlling floods. Since 20 years, however, the law stipulates the multiple uses paradigm in a participatory and decentralized way. So far, only few rules laid down. Studies revealed that most of the respective institutions still needed to update their routines to the new paradigm. A hydro-economic model was developed and applied in order to determine the economically optimal water allocation of main users in that semiarid reservoir region. In order to make this model available to the decision makers, a minimum required is some form of manipulating data entry and output as well as some graphical interfaces. We propose and present the first features of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) with dedicated hydro-economic modules in a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for integrated water resource management. The open model platform should include geoprocessing tasks and water user related data management. The hydro-economic geoprocessing will link to generic optimization modeling systems, such as EXCEL Solver, GAMS and MATLAB. The institutions are deliberating or deciding over water allocation at different scales could use the generated information on potential economic benefits as a transparent basis for discussion. In

  13. New Crustal Thickness for Djibouti, Afar, Using Seismic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugda, Mulugeta; Bililign, Solomon

    2008-10-01

    Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for the seismic station ATD in Djibouti, Afar, has been investigated using two seismic techniques (H-κ stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities). Both techniques give consistent results of crustal thickness 23±1.5 km and Poisson's ratio 0.31±0.02. We also determined a mean P-wave velocity (Vp) of ˜6.2 km/s but ˜6.9-7.0 km/s below a 2 - 5 km thick low velocity layer at the surface. Previous studies of crustal structure for Djibouti reported that the crust is 6 to 11 km thick while our study shows that the crust beneath Djibouti is between 20 and 25 km. This study argues that the crustal thickness values reported for Djibouti for the last 3 decades were not consistent with the reports for the other neighboring region in central and eastern Afar. Our results for ATD in Djibouti, however, are consistent with the reports of crustal thickness in many other parts of central and eastern Afar. We attribute this difference to how the Moho (the crust-mantle discontinuity) is defined (an increase of Vp to 7.4 km/s in this study vs. 6.9 km/s in previous studies).

  14. Cortical thickness differences between bipolar depression and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Martin J; Chhetry, Binod Thapa; Oquendo, Maria A; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Sullivan, Gregory; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V

    2014-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality that cannot be distinguished from major depressive disorder (MDD) until the first manic episode. A biomarker able to differentiate BD and MDD could help clinicians avoid risks of treating BD with antidepressants without mood stabilizers. Cortical thickness differences were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in BD depressed patients (n = 18), MDD depressed patients (n = 56), and healthy volunteers (HVs) (n = 54). A general linear model identified clusters of cortical thickness difference between diagnostic groups. Compared to the HV group, the BD group had decreased cortical thickness in six regions, after controlling for age and sex, located within the frontal and parietal lobes, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Mean cortical thickness changes in clusters ranged from 7.6 to 9.6% (cluster-wise p-values from 1.0 e-4 to 0.037). When compared to MDD, three clusters of lower cortical thickness in BD were identified that overlapped with clusters that differentiated the BD and HV groups. Mean cortical thickness changes in the clusters ranged from 7.5 to 8.2% (cluster-wise p-values from 1.0 e-4 to 0.023). The difference in cortical thickness was more pronounced when the subgroup of subjects with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) was compared to the MDD group. Cortical thickness patterns were distinct between BD and MDD. These results are a step toward developing an imaging test to differentiate the two disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  16. The impact of occipital lobe cortical thickness on cognitive task performance: An investigation in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eileanoir B; Rees, Elin M; Labuschagne, Izelle; Durr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A C; Reilmann, Ralf; Johnson, Hans; Hobbs, Nicola Z; Langbehn, Douglas R; Stout, Julie C; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Scahill, Rachael I

    2015-12-01

    The occipital lobe is an important visual processing region of the brain. Following consistent findings of early neural changes in the occipital lobe in Huntington's Disease (HD), we examined cortical thickness across four occipital regions in premanifest (preHD) and early HD groups compared with controls. Associations between cortical thickness in gene positive individuals and performance on six cognitive tasks, each with a visual component, were examined. In addition, the association between cortical thickness in gene positive participants and one non-visual motor task was also examined for comparison. Cortical thickness was determined using FreeSurfer on T1-weighted 3T MR datasets from controls (N=97), preHD (N=109) and HD (N=69) from the TRACK-HD study. Regression models were fitted to assess between-group differences in cortical thickness, and relationships between performance on the cognitive tasks, the motor task and occipital thickness were examined in a subset of gene-positive participants (N=141). Thickness of the occipital cortex in preHD and early HD participants was reduced compared with controls. Regionally-specific associations between reduced cortical thickness and poorer performance were found for five of the six cognitive tasks, with the strongest associations in lateral occipital and lingual regions. No associations were found with the cuneus. The non-visual motor task was not associated with thickness of any region. The heterogeneous pattern of associations found in the present study suggests that occipital thickness negatively impacts cognition, but only in regions that are linked to relatively advanced visual processing (e.g., lateral occipital, lingual regions), rather than in basic visual processing regions such as the cuneus. Our results show, for the first time, the functional implications of occipital atrophy highlighted in recent studies in HD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thickly Syndetical Sensitivity of Topological Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider the surjective continuous map f:X→X, where X is a compact metric space. In this paper we give several stronger versions of sensitivity, such as thick sensitivity, syndetic sensitivity, thickly syndetic sensitivity, and strong sensitivity. We establish the following. (1 If (X,f is minimal and sensitive, then (X,f is syndetically sensitive. (2 Weak mixing implies thick sensitivity. (3 If (X,f is minimal and weakly mixing, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. (4 If (X,f is a nonminimal M-system, then it is thickly syndetically sensitive. Devaney chaos implies thickly periodic sensitivity. (5 We give a syndetically sensitive system which is not thickly sensitive. (6 We give thickly syndetically sensitive examples but not cofinitely sensitive ones.

  18. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  19. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  20. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and choroidal thickness in pseudoexfoliative glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Gokhan; Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Gundogan, Fatih Cakir; Ozgonul, Cem; Ayyildiz, Onder; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat

    2016-05-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements in eyes with pseudoexfoliative (PEX) glaucoma, PEX syndrome and healthy control eyes. Eighteen patients with PEX glaucoma in one eye and PEX syndrome in the fellow eye were included. The right eyes of thirty-nine age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included as control group. All participants underwent a detailed biomicroscopic and funduscopic examination. RNFLT and ChT measurements were performed with a commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). ChT measurements were performed by using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode. Patients with PEX underwent diurnal IOP measurements with 4-hour intervals before inclusion in the study. RNFLT results included the average measurement and 6 quadrants (temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal and supero-temporal). ChT measurements were performed in the subfoveal region and around the fovea (500µm and 1500 µm nasal and temporal to the fovea), as well as around the optic disc (average peripapillary and eight quadrants in the peripapillary region (temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal, superior, supero-temporal)). RNFLT in all quadrants and average thickness were significantly lower in PEX glaucoma eyes compared to PEX syndrome eyes and healthy control eyes (p0.05) except the inferotemporal quadrant. ChT measurements were similar between groups (p>0.05). Thinning of the RNFL in association with unchanged ChT may mean that the presence of PEX material is a much more significant risk factor than choroidal changes in the progression of PEX syndrome to PEX glaucoma.

  1. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  2. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusses...

  3. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  4. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  5. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. Development of CIGS2 solar cells with lower absorber thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasekar, Parag S.; Dhere, Neelkanth G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States); Moutinho, Helio [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The availability and cost of materials, especially of indium can be a limiting factor as chalcopyrite based thin-film solar cells advance in their commercialization. The required amounts of metals can be lowered by using thinner films. When the thickness of the film decreases, there is possibility of remaining only in the small grain region because the coalescence of grains does not have an opportunity to enhance the grain size to the maximum. Solar cell performance in smaller grain chalcopyrite absorber deteriorates due to larger fraction of grain boundaries. Efforts are being made to reduce the thickness while maintaining the comparable performance. This work presents a study of preparation, morphology and other material properties of CIGS2 absorber layers with decreasing thicknesses up to 1.2 {mu}m and its correlation with the device performance. Encouraging results were obtained demonstrating that reasonable solar cell efficiencies (>10%) can be achieved even for thinner CIGS2 thin-film solar cells. (author)

  7. Masseter muscle thickness in unilateral partial edentulism: An ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sathasivasubramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teeth and facial muscles play a very important role in occlusal equilibrium and function. Occlusal derangement, seen in unilateral partially edentulous individuals, has an effect on masseter muscle anatomy and function. The present study aims to evaluate masseter muscle thickness in unilateral partial edentulism. Patients and Methods: Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained before the commencement of the study. The study involved patients who routinely visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Ramachandra University. The study sample included 27 unilateral edentulous patients (Group E and 30 controls (Group C. The masseter muscle thickness was evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound real-time scanner (linear transducer − 7.5–10 MHz at both relaxed and contracted states. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Duration of edentulism and muscle thickness was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The study patients' age ranged between 25 and 48 years (mean – 36 years. The comparative evaluation of masseter muscle thickness between the dentulous and edentulous sides of experimental group was statistically significant (P < 0.05. However, no statistically significant difference in masseter muscle thickness was found between the dentulous side of control and experimental groups. The correlation between the duration of partial edentulism and muscle thickness was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study proves masseter atrophy in the edentulous side. However, since the difference is found to be marginal with the present sample, a greater sample is necessary to establish and prove the present findings as well as to correlate with the duration of edentulism. Further studies are aimed to assess the muscle morphology after prosthetic rehabilitation.

  8. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  9. Mapping occipital bone thickness using computed tomography for safe screw placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomonori; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Takashima, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Ida, Kazunori; Tanimoto, Katsumasa; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Nagae, Masateru; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Safe and effective insertion of occipital bone screws requires morphological analysis of the occipital bone, which is poorly documented in the literature. The authors of this study present morphological data for determining the area of screw placement for optimal internal fixation. METHODS The subjects of this institutional review board-approved retrospective study were 105 individuals without head and neck disease who underwent CT imaging at the authors' hospital. There were 55 males and 50 females, with a mean age of 57.1 years (range 20-91 years). Measurements using CT were taken according to a matrix of 55 points following a grid with 1-cm spacing based on the external occipital protuberance (EOP). RESULTS The maximum thickness of the occipital bone was at the level of the EOP at 16.4 mm. Areas with thicknesses > 8 mm were more frequent at the EOP and up to 2 cm in all directions, as well as up to 1 cm in all directions at a height of 1 cm inferiorly, and up to 3 cm from the EOP inferiorly. The male group tended to have a thicker occipital bone than the female group, and the differences were significant around the EOP. The ratio of the trabecular bone to the occipital bone thickness was > 30% in the central region. At positions more than 2 cm laterally, the ratio was < 15%, and the ratio gradually decreased further laterally. CONCLUSIONS Screws that are 8 mm long can be placed in the area extending 2 cm laterally from the EOP at the level of the superior nuchal line and approximately 3 cm inferior to the center. These results suggest that it may be possible to effectively insert a screw over a wider area than the conventional reference range.

  10. Determinants of anti-retroviral regimen changes among HIV/AIDS patients of east and west Wollega zone health institutions, Oromia region, west Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokore, Amsalu; Korme, Belay; Bayisa, Getu

    2018-06-05

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million lives so far. Sub Saharan Africa constitutes about 70% of people living with HIV among the 37 million on the globe. This region, accounted for more than two third of the global new HIV infections and about 15 million (40%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2014 throught the world. ART has fundamentally changed the treatment of HIV and transformed this infection from a disease of high mortality to chronic and medically managed disease. The issues of drug induced toxicities & complexity of current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens has remained of great concern. The aim of this study was to determine factors leading to antiretroviral regimen changes among HIV/AIDS Patients in the study area. A facility based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from April 28, 2017 to May 30, 2017 in the ART clinics of east and west Wollega zone health institutions using a pre-tested data collecting form and chart review. The sample included the 243 patients whose medication had been switched. Majority 145 (59.67%) of the patients had been on ART for > 10 years duration. More than half 126(51.9%) of the patients had received tuberculosis (TB) treatment and almost three out of five patients (57.2%) had received isoniazid & cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The most common reason for regimen change was peripheral neuropathy 146(60.1%) and the most common medication for this reason was stavudine, lamivudine and neverapine based 108(44.44%). The number of patients who changed ARV drug in our resource constrained setting present a challenge to the restricted treatment choices that we currently own. Less toxic and better-tolerated HIV treatment options should be available and used more frequently.

  11. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  12. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  13. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  14. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  15. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  16. Do labour market institutions matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geischecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible intuitive reasons for why there may be differences in the impact of outsourcing across the three countries, based on labour market institutions. This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three...... European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual-level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. We discuss some possible...

  17. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

  18. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-01-01

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z 2 symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS 5 spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes

  19. Does cement mantle thickness really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, J.

    2008-01-01

    The thickness of the cement mantle around the femoral component of total hip replacements is a contributing factor to aseptic loosening and revision. Nevertheless, various designs of stems and surgical tooling lead to cement mantles of differing thicknesses. This thesis is concerned with variability in cement thickness around the Stanmore Hip, due to surgical approach, broach size and stem orientation, and its effects on stress and cracking in the cement. The extent to which cement mantle thi...

  20. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  1. Gas hydrates stability zone thickness map of Indian deep offshore areas - A GIS based approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rastogi, A.; Deka, B.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Srinivas, K.; Murty, G.P.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Desa, M.; Paropkari, A.L.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Murty, V.S.N.; Antony, M.K.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; Desa, E.; Veerayya, M.

    hydrate occurrence in offshore regions and around the Indian sub-continent. This was accomplished by estimating the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) thickness from the saptial analysis of the physical parameters that control the formation and stability...

  2. Total Sediment Thickness of the World's Oceans & Marginal Seas, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's global ocean sediment thickness grid (Divins, 2003) has been updated for the Australian-Antarctic region (60?? -155?? E, 30?? -70?? S). New seismic reflection...

  3. STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS IN THE STAGES OF FILLING OUT THE APPLICATION FORM AND TECHNICAL-FINANCIAL REPORTING ENCOUNTERED BY THE PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article has as main field the project management, specifically, identifying the negative factors on European projects. The article assumes that there is a connection between the absorption of European funds and the maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management. The main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by public institutions from Centre Region in accessing European funds. The purpose of the research is to identify the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds, with devastating effects on the current economic situation. The present research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the author on the rate of accessing European funds published in an article entitled “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The small degree of absorption of European funds resulting from the analysis shows a poor practice of the theory on project management. To identify the causes of this problem, a research was carried out to recognise the issues that led to this situation. The investigation included two successive surveys, the first one qualitative, exploratory type, interview-based, meant to demonstrate the qualitative aspects of the investigated phenomena and the other one, quantitative, based on a questionnaire in the form of occasional surveys. The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination; this approach has become necessary especially due to the very complex reality whose trueness cannot be captured through one method. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus

  4. Dual beam x-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allport, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The apparatus and method for continuous measurement of thickness of a sheet at a rolling mill or the like without contacting the sheet are described. A system directing radiation through the sheet in two energy bands and providing a measure of change in composition of the material as it passes the thickness gauging station is included. A system providing for changing the absorption coefficient of the material in the thickness measurement as a function of the change in composition so that the measured thickness is substantially independent of variations in composition is described

  5. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  6. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Cookson, J.A.; Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  7. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    as double-layer thickness. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which divides the body into fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass, both for the total body and regional body compartments. An abdominal region was inserted manually. Statistics were Pearson correlations and analysis...... of variance. RESULTS: Endometrial thickness and total body bone mass were correlated, respectively, to body mass index (r = 0.14, P ... correlate with increased endometrial thickness and bone mass....

  8. CT Artefact Reduction by Signal to Thickness Calibration Function Shaping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), s. 177-180 ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flat field correction * digital radiography * signal to thickness function * beam hardnening correction Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.160

  9. Effect of iron catalyst thickness on vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest straightness for CNT-MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulton, Kellen; Jensen, Brian D; Morrill, Nicholas B; Konneker, Adam M; Vanfleet, Richard R; Allred, David D; Davis, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of iron catalyst thickness on the straightness of growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for microelectromechanical systems fabricated using the CNT-templated-microfabrication (CNT-M) process. SEM images of samples grown using various iron catalyst thicknesses show that both straight sidewalls and good edge definition are achieved using an iron thickness between 7 and 8 nm. Below this thickness, individual CNTs are well aligned, but the sidewalls of CNT forests formed into posts and long walls are not always straight. Above this thickness, the CNT forest sidewalls are relatively straight, but edge definition is poor, with significantly increased sidewall roughness. The proximity of a device or feature to other regions of iron catalyst also affects CNT growth. By using an iron catalyst thickness appropriate for straight growth, and by adding borders of iron around features or devices, a designer can greatly improve straightness of growth for CNT-MEMS. (paper)

  10. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  11. Applications of precision ultrasonic thickness gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.A.; Elfbaum, G.M.; Husarek, V.; Castel, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness gauging is now recognized as an accurate method of measuring thickness of a product from one side when the velocity of ultrasound in the material is known. The advantages and present limitation of this gauging technique are presented, together with several applications of industrial interest [fr

  12. Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, T; Kjaer, I; Sonnesen, L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP).......The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP)....

  13. Cortical Thickness and Episodic Memory Impairment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Bernardo Canedo; Sanchez, Tiago Arruda; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Netto, Tania Maria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in brain cortical thickness of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without episodic memory impairment and healthy controls. We studied 51 patients divided in 2 groups (SLE with episodic memory deficit, n = 17; SLE without episodic memory deficit, n = 34) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and 34 healthy controls. Groups were paired based on sex, age, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and accumulation of disease burden. Cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging scans was determined using the FreeSurfer software package. SLE patients with episodic memory deficits presented reduced cortical thickness in the left supramarginal cortex and superior temporal gyrus when compared to the control group and in the right superior frontal, caudal, and rostral middle frontal and precentral gyri when compared to the SLE group without episodic memory impairment considering time since diagnosis of SLE as covaried. There were no significant differences in the cortical thickness between the SLE without episodic memory and control groups. Different memory-related cortical regions thinning were found in the episodic memory deficit group when individually compared to the groups of patients without memory impairment and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  14. Computer vision based nacre thickness measurement of Tahitian pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesdau, Martin; Chabrier, Sébastien; Gabillon, Alban

    2017-03-01

    The Tahitian Pearl is the most valuable export product of French Polynesia contributing with over 61 million Euros to more than 50% of the total export income. To maintain its excellent reputation on the international market, an obligatory quality control for every pearl deemed for exportation has been established by the local government. One of the controlled quality parameters is the pearls nacre thickness. The evaluation is currently done manually by experts that are visually analyzing X-ray images of the pearls. In this article, a computer vision based approach to automate this procedure is presented. Even though computer vision based approaches for pearl nacre thickness measurement exist in the literature, the very specific features of the Tahitian pearl, namely the large shape variety and the occurrence of cavities, have so far not been considered. The presented work closes the. Our method consists of segmenting the pearl from X-ray images with a model-based approach, segmenting the pearls nucleus with an own developed heuristic circle detection and segmenting possible cavities with region growing. Out of the obtained boundaries, the 2-dimensional nacre thickness profile can be calculated. A certainty measurement to consider imaging and segmentation imprecisions is included in the procedure. The proposed algorithms are tested on 298 manually evaluated Tahitian pearls, showing that it is generally possible to automatically evaluate the nacre thickness of Tahitian pearls with computer vision. Furthermore the results show that the automatic measurement is more precise and faster than the manual one.

  15. MEASUREMENT OF RNFL THICKNESS USING OCT IMAGES FOR GLAUCOMA DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivyabharathi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL is one of the pompous parameters for assessing the disease, Glaucoma. A substantial amount of vision can be lost before the patient becomes aware of any defect. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT provides enhanced depth and clarity of viewing tissues with high resolution compared with other medical imaging devices. It examines the living tissue non-invasively. This paper presents an automatic method to find the thickness of RNFL using OCT images. The proposed algorithm first extracts all the layers present in the OCT image by texture segmentation using Gabor filter method and an algorithm is then developed to segment the RNFL. The thickness measurement of RNFL is automatically displayed based on pixel calculation. The calculated thickness values are compared with the original values obtained from hospital. The result shows that the proposed algorithm is efficient in segmenting the region of interest without manual intervention. The effectiveness of the proposed method is proved statistically by the performance analysis.

  16. Bowett's law of international institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sands, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Bowett's Law of International Institutions is the leading introduction to this complex, important and growing area of international law, with increasing significance for developments at the national level. Covering all the major global, regional and judicial institutions and all international organisations that regulate aspects of development and providing an introductory overview of the law of international organisations, including international courts and tribunals as a whole. The book offers a basic framework, insights into some of the more essential issues, and indications of where to find more detail. Bowett's is essential reading for students of international law and international relations and will also be of considerable interest to lawyers practising in the area.

  17. Local cases of institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Population ageing and population decline are two contemporary phenomena that imply a tremendous transformation of local markets across many European regions and challenge their economic growth and development in the longer run. In such contexts of market change and, perhaps, crisis, institutional...... agendas and frameworks (including the institutionalised practices used in the local economy) can be stabilising anchors for the strategic planning of firms and public organisations. However, demographic challenges will also put a strain on these institutions that become subject to change themselves...... to support the local economy in coping with demographic challenges....

  18. Do Labour Market Institutions Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishecker, Ingo; Görg, Holger; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages in three European countries with markedly different labour market institutions: Germany, the UK and Denmark. To do so we use individual level data sets for the three countries and construct comparable measures of outsourcing...... at the industry level, distinguishing outsourcing by broad region. Estimating the same specification on different data show that there are some interesting differences in the effect of outsourcing across countries. We discuss some possible reasons for these differences based on labour market institutions...

  19. Institutions as Knowledge Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1......) Lachmann held a sophisticated institutional position to economics that anticipated developments in contemporary new institutional economics. (2) Lachmann's sociological and economic reading of institutions offers insights for the problem of coordination. (3) Lachmann extends contemporary new institutional...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....

  20. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...

  1. Regional Education Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  2. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  3. What are Institutional Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...

  4. Sex differences in thickness, and folding developments throughout the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, A Kadir; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Schaer, Marie

    2013-11-15

    While significant differences in male and female brain structures have commonly been reported, only a few studies have focused on the sex differences in the way the cortex matures over time. Here, we investigated cortical thickness maturation between the age of 6 to 30 years, using 209 longitudinally-acquired brain MRI scans. Significant sex differences in the trajectories of cortical thickness change with age were evidenced using non-linear mixed effects models. Similar statistical analyses were computed to quantify the differences between cortical gyrification changes with age in males and females. During adolescence, we observed a statistically significant higher rate of cortical thinning in females compared to males in the right temporal regions, the left temporoparietal junction and the left orbitofrontal cortex. This finding is interpreted as a faster maturation of the social brain areas in females. Concomitantly, statistically significant sex differences in cortical folding changes with age were observed only in one cluster of the right prefrontal regions, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying cortical thickness and gyrification changes with age are quite distinct. Sexual dimorphism in the developmental course of the cortical maturation may be associated with the different age of onset and clinical presentation of many psychiatric disorders between males and females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced cortical thickness in veterans exposed to early life trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Vincent; Salat, David H; Amick, Melissa M; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E

    2014-08-30

    Studies have shown that early life trauma may influence neural development and increase the risk of developing psychological disorders in adulthood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the impact of early life trauma on the relationship between current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cortical thickness/subcortical volumes in a sample of deployed personnel from Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. A group of 108 service members enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) were divided into those with interpersonal early life trauma (EL-Trauma+) and Control (without interpersonal early life trauma) groups based on the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were analyzed using the FreeSurfer image analysis package. Thickness of the paracentral and posterior cingulate regions was positively associated with PTSD severity in the EL-Trauma+ group and negatively in the Control group. In the EL-Trauma+ group, both the right amygdala and the left hippocampus were positively associated with PTSD severity. This study illustrates a possible influence of early life trauma on the vulnerability of specific brain regions to stress. Changes in neural morphometry may provide information about the emergence and maintenance of symptoms in individuals with PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS AND SEISMICITY OF NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kim Jeong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  7. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...... of Afghan-Pakistani relations and to the region in general. Military institutions, officers and officials facing deployment in the region as well as universities and scholars with ongoing research and programmes in the region will also benefit from output of the stabilization project that this report...

  8. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-07-01

    The increased use of esthetic restorations requires an improved understanding of the translucent characteristics of ceramic materials. Ceramic translucency has been considered to be dependent on composition and thickness, but less information is available about the translucent characteristics of these materials, especially at different thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translucency and the thickness of different dental ceramics. Six disk-shaped specimens of 8 glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press HO, MO, LT, HT, IPS e.max CAD LT, MO, AvanteZ Dentin, and Trans) and 5 specimens of 5 zirconia ceramics (Cercon Base, Zenotec Zr Bridge, Lava Standard, Lava Standard FS3, and Lava Plus High Translucency) were prepared following the manufacturers' instructions and ground to a predetermined thickness with a grinding machine. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameters (TP) of the glass ceramics, which ranged from 2.0 to 0.6 mm, and of the zirconia ceramics, which ranged from 1.0 to 0.4 mm. The relationship between the thickness and TP of each material was evaluated using a regression analysis (α=.05). The TP values of the glass ceramics ranged from 2.2 to 25.3 and the zirconia ceramics from 5.5 to 15.1. There was an increase in the TP with a decrease in thickness, but the amount of change was material dependent. An exponential relationship with statistical significance (Pceramics and zirconia ceramics. The translucency of dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and thickness. The translucency of all materials increased exponentially as the thickness decreased. All of the zirconia ceramics evaluated in the present study showed some degree of translucency, which was less sensitive to thickness compared to that of the glass ceramics. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  10. Measurement of Mucosal Thickness in Denture-bearing Area of Edentulous Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The thickness of the alveolar mucosa influences the probability of the occurrence of denture-induced irritations. Thick denture-supporting tissues offer relief from mucosal tenderness and ulcers; however, the uniformity of the thickness across the entire mandibular alveolar mucosa cannot be accurately determined in edentulous patients. This study aimed to assess the mucosal thickness of the denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible. Methods: Twenty-seven edentulous patients underwent cone-beam computed tomography scanning, wherein the patients wore a record base to retract soft tissues away from the alveolar mucosa. The measured regions were the central incisor (IC, lateral incisor (IL, canine (Ca, first premolar (P1, second premolar (P2, first molar (M1, and second molar (M2 regions. The thickness was measured in the alveolar ridge crest (T, buccal (B1-B4, and lingual (L1-L4 alveolar ridge mucosa. The average thickness of the mucosa at buccal sides (B and lingual sides (L were also assessed. Results: The differences in the mucosal thickness between the left and right sides were not significant. In the Ca-M2 regions, T was the thickest, and L3 was the thinnest of all the measured points in the same regions. L was significantly less than B in posterior regions (P < 0.01. On the other hand, M2 at L4 was thinnest of all the measured regions from Ca to M2 (P < 0.01, and was thicker than IC, IL, P1, and P2 at B2. Conclusions: Since the mucosal thickness of denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible is not uniform; the tissue surface of the denture base or custom tray should be selectively relieved, which may reduce the risk of denture-induced irritations.

  11. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  12. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  13. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  14. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokharel A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amrit Pokharel,1 Gauri Shankar Shrestha,2 Jyoti Baba Shrestha2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, 2B P Koirala Lions Centre for Ophthalmic Studies, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods: In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results: Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 µm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=-0.243, P=0.055 and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09 did not correlate with age. Conclusion: Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. Keywords: macular thickness, macular volume, optical coherence tomography, Nepal

  15. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  16. Brain cortical thickness in male adolescents with serious substance use and conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumachenko, Serhiy Y; Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Dunn, Robin; Tanabe, Jody; Young, Susan; McWilliams, Shannon K; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) and conduct problems exhibit high levels of impulsivity and poor self-control. Limited work to date tests for brain cortical thickness differences in these youths. To investigate differences in cortical thickness between adolescents with substance use and conduct problems and controls. We recruited 25 male adolescents with SUD, and 19 male adolescent controls, and completed structural 3T magnetic resonance brain imaging. Using the surface-based morphometry software FreeSurfer, we completed region-of-interest (ROI) analyses for group cortical thickness differences in left, and separately right, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and insula. Using FreeSurfer, we completed whole-cerebrum analyses of group differences in cortical thickness. Versus controls, the SUD group showed no cortical thickness differences in ROI analyses. Controlling for age and IQ, no regions with cortical thickness differences were found using whole-cerebrum analyses (though secondary analyses co-varying IQ and whole-cerebrum cortical thickness yielded a between-group cortical thickness difference in the left posterior cingulate/precuneus). Secondary findings showed that the SUD group, relative to controls, demonstrated significantly less right > left asymmetry in IFG, had weaker insular-to-whole-cerebrum cortical thickness correlations, and showed a positive association between conduct disorder symptom count and cortical thickness in a superior temporal gyrus cluster. Functional group differences may reflect a more nuanced cortical morphometric difference than ROI cortical thickness. Further investigation of morphometric differences is needed. If replicable findings can be established, they may aid in developing improved diagnostic or more targeted treatment approaches.

  17. Housing and Schools: Working Together to Reduce the Negative Effects of Student Mobility. "A Summary from the Washington, D.C.,and Baltimore Region Roundtables." Perspectives on Low Income Working Families. Urban Institute Brief 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comey, Jennifer; Litschwartz, Sophie; Pettit, Kathryn L. S.

    2012-01-01

    How has the recession and its resulting family instability impacted children’s residential and school mobility? Officials from housing, homeless, and school programs discussed the full spectrum of residential mobility in two recent Urban Institute roundtables: from chronic mobility, eviction, and foreclosure to doubled-up households and…

  18. Thickness and fit of mouthguards according to heating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in the thickness and fit of mouthguards made by four different heating methods of the mouthguard sheet material. A Sports Mouthguard(®) of 3.8-mm thickness was used in this study. Four heating methods were performed. In one method, the sheet was heated only one side. In the other methods, one side of the sheet was heated first until the center of the sheet was displaced by 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, and 1.5 cm from the baseline, and then turned upside down and heated. The sheets were adapted using a vacuum former when the heated sheets hung 1.5 cm from the baseline. We measured the thickness and fit of the mouthguard at the areas of the central incisor and first molar. The difference in thickness at the central incisor and first molar regions was analyzed by two-way anova. The difference in fit with different heating methods was analyzed by one-way anova. The results showed that the thickness of the mouthguard differed in the central incisor and first molar areas (P heating methods. The fit of the mouthguard at the central incisor and first molar areas was significantly different among the heating methods (P heated surface of the sheet contacted the surface of the working model. This finding may help to fabricate accurate mouthguards. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. ′Switch flap′ for full thickness upper eyelid reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Krishnamurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sebaceous gland carcinoma is an aggressive, uncommon, cutaneous malignancy. This tumour can arise anywhere in the body; approximately 75% of these tumours arise in the periocular region. The diagnosis and management of these malignancies often tend to get delayed because they are frequently mistaken for more common benign entities. Surgery has been and remains the primary treatment modality for sebaceous gland carcinomas. The resultant surgical defects following tumour excision generally tend to be full thickness and reconstructions of such defects pose significant challenges. These defects are conventionally reconstructed by the traditional bridging (eyelid sharing procedures, that is, the Cutler-Beard flap and its modifications. The ′Switch flap′ is an alternative eyelid sharing procedure; however, it is not very widely practiced. We recently used this procedure to reconstruct a large full-thickness upper eyelid defect with a satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcome.

  20. Ice thickness measurements and volume estimates for glaciers in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Huss, Matthias; Melvold, Kjetil; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Winsvold, Solveig H.

    2014-05-01

    Whereas glacier areas in many mountain regions around the world now are well surveyed using optical satellite sensors and available in digital inventories, measurements of ice thickness are sparse in comparison and a global dataset does not exist. Since the 1980s ice thickness measurements have been carried out by ground penetrating radar on many glaciers in Norway, often as part of contract work for hydropower companies with the aim to calculate hydrological divides of ice caps. Measurements have been conducted on numerous glaciers, covering the largest ice caps as well as a few smaller mountain glaciers. However, so far no ice volume estimate for Norway has been derived from these measurements. Here, we give an overview of ice thickness measurements in Norway, and use a distributed model to interpolate and extrapolate the data to provide an ice volume estimate of all glaciers in Norway. We also compare the results to various volume-area/thickness-scaling approaches using values from the literature as well as scaling constants we obtained from ice thickness measurements in Norway. Glacier outlines from a Landsat-derived inventory from 1999-2006 together with a national digital elevation model were used as input data for the ice volume calculations. The inventory covers all glaciers in mainland Norway and consists of 2534 glaciers (3143 glacier units) covering an area of 2692 km2 ± 81 km2. To calculate the ice thickness distribution of glaciers in Norway we used a distributed model which estimates surface mass balance distribution, calculates the volumetric balance flux and converts it into thickness using the flow law for ice. We calibrated this model with ice thickness data for Norway, mainly by adjusting the mass balance gradient. Model results generally agree well with the measured values, however, larger deviations were found for some glaciers. The total ice volume of Norway was estimated to be 275 km3 ± 30 km3. From the ice thickness data set we selected

  1. Model SH intelligent instrument for thickness measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juntao; Jia Weizhuang; Zhao Yunlong

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce Model SH Intelligent Instrument for thickness measuring by using principle of beta back-scattering and its application range, features, principle of operation, system design, calibration and specifications

  2. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  3. Fabrication of thick superconducting films by decantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Betancourt M.

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available We have found superconducting behavior in thick films fabricated by decantation. In this paper we present the experimental method and results obtained using commercial copper substrates.

  4. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  6. Central corneal thickness among glaucoma patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AAU_CHS

    ocular pressure measurement and is different among different ethnic population and subtypes of glaucoma. The central corneal thickness of different subtypes of glaucoma at Menelik II Hospital ... Intraocular pressure is a key element in the.

  7. Eddy current technologies for thick metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Endo, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    One of approach of an eddy current testing (ECT) for thick metal structures is introduced. The detection limit of ECT is capable of enlarging thick more than 10 mm, which is ordinarily about 5 mm, by the design of probe. On the basis of results of numerical analysis, the defect detection in thick and shape is evaluated by the distribution of experimental ECT signals. The problems of ECT for thick metal structures and measures, approach to probe design, the specifications of probe, evaluation of experimental results and defect detection are described. By ECT fast simulator, good slit sharp is simulated in the case of 10 and 20 mm of EDM slit length and 5, 10 and 15 mm of slit height. (S.Y.)

  8. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In addition, G30E (30% reinforced glass fibre in the epoxy composite) was more resilient to moisture ... determine its suitability as per its water absorption and thickness ... lower thermal conductivity and low density as outlined in the Tables.

  9. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture. The discrepancy between estimates of lithospheric thickness derived from subsidence data for the western Canning Basin and those derived from shear wave tomography suggests that the latter technique currently is limited in its ability to resolve lithospheric thickness variations at horizontal half-wavelength scales of <300 km.

  10. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  11. Geologic thickness data: Candidate repository horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    This data package contains information on the thickness of the Umtanum, McCoy Canyon, Cohassett, and Rocky Coulee flows and their intraflow structures in 20 boreholes and 2 surface sections in the Pasco Basin. Thickness data are for total flow, flow top, entablature, and colonnade (or just flow top and dense interior in some cases). Summary figures which contain descriptions and footages are included

  12. Preparation of tantalum targets of known thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.R.; Wirth, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of carbon-backed tantalum targets were produced in a heavy ion sputtering system with a Penning ion source. The target thicknesses were then measured using the alpha-ray energy loss method. The resulting tabulated measurements were reproducible and make possible the production of carbon-backed tantalum targets with pre-determined thicknesses ranging from 20 μg/cm 2 to 1 mg/cm 2 . (orig.)

  13. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  14. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Belore, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Rossouw, Chris J.; Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle—a ‘thickness profile’ image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by ‘shot noise’. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: ► A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to ‘thickness profile’ images. ► It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. ► A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. ► The response in analysed across a range of conditions. ► Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  16. SU-E-I-53: Variation in Measurements of Breast Skin Thickness Obtained Using Different Imaging Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, U; Kumaraswamy, N; Markey, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate variation in measurements of breast skin thickness obtained using different imaging modalities, including mammography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Breast skin thicknesses as measured by mammography, CT, ultrasound, and MRI were compared. Mammographic measurements of skin thickness were obtained from published studies that utilized standard positioning (upright) and compression. CT measurements of skin thickness were obtained from a published study of a prototype breast CT scanner in which the women were in the prone position and the breast was uncompressed. Dermatological ultrasound exams of the breast skin were conducted at our institution, with the subjects in the upright position and the breast uncompressed. Breast skin thickness was calculated from breast MRI exams at our institution, with the patient in the prone position and the breast uncompressed. Results: T tests for independent samples demonstrated significant differences in the mean breast skin thickness as measured by different imaging modalities. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in breast skin thickness across different quadrants of the breast for some modalities. Conclusion: The measurement of breast skin thickness is significantly different across different imaging modalities. Differences in the amount of compression and differences in patient positioning are possible reasons why measurements of breast skin thickness vary by modality

  17. Extent of cortical involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--an analysis based on cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorns, Johannes; Jansma, Henk; Peschel, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Mohammadi, Bahram; Dengler, Reinhard; Münte, Thomas F

    2013-10-18

    Besides the defining involvement of upper and lower motor neurons, the involvement of extramotor structures has been increasingly acknowledged in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we investigated a group of 14 mildly to moderately affected ALS patients and 14 age-matched healthy control participants using cortical thickness analysis. Cortical thickness was determined from high resolution 3D T1 magnetic resonance images and involved semiautomatic segmentation in grey and white matter, cortical alignment and determination of thickness using the Laplace method. In addition to a whole-cortex analysis a region of interest approach was applied. ALS patients showed regions of significant cortical thinning in the pre- and postcentral gyri bilaterally. Further regions of cortical thinning included superior and inferior parietal lobule, angular and supramarginal gyrus, insula, superior frontal, temporal and occipital regions, thus further substantiating extramotor involvement in ALS. A relationship between cortical thickness of the right superior frontal cortex and clinical severity (assessed by the ALS functional rating scale) was also demonstrated. Cortical thickness is reduced in ALS not only in motor areas but in widespread non-motor cortical areas. Cortical thickness is related to clinical severity.

  18. Microstructural Studies of Ni-P Thick Film Resistor Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Holodnik

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Thick Ni-P films have been widely investigated at our Institute. This article tends to visualize by use of various microscopic methods how the growth and sintering of individual conducting grains, results in the formation of nickel dendrites responsible for the metallic character of electrical conduction.

  19. Automated CBED processing: sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klinger, Miloslav; Němec, Martin; Polívka, Leoš; Gärtnerová, Viera; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 150, Mar (2015), s. 88-95 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : TEM * CBED * thickness estimation * zone axis * computer vision * automatization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2015

  20. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  1. The Influence of HEdPERF and Student Satisfaction Against Perceived Service Value and Implication In Institutional Image (Empiric Study on Students Regional Office of Universitas Terbuka at Pangkalpinang, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to prove empirically the influence of HedPERF or service quality and student satisfaction on the value of service perceived by students and their implications on the image of UPBJJ-UT Pangkalpinang institution. Hypothesis testing, conducted on 238 students scattered in 7 districts or municipalities Kep. Bangka Belitung. The data used is the primary data from the distribution of questionnaires with 5 likert scales. Data analysis using quantitative method by using SEM analysis. ...

  2. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-01-01

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 μm measurements can be recorded with less than ±5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  3. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  4. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  5. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  6. Thickness filters for gradient based multi-material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new gradient based method for performing discrete material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures. The novelty in the new method lies in the application of so-called casting constraints, or thickness filters in this context, to control the thickness...... variation throughout the laminate. The filters replace the layerwise density variables with a single continuous through-the-thickness design variable. Consequently, the filters eliminate the need for having explicit constraints for preventing intermediate void through the thickness of the laminate....... Therefore, the filters reduce both the number of constraints and design variables in the optimization problem. Based upon a continuous approximation of a unit step function, the thickness filters are capable of projecting discrete 0/1 values to the underlying layerwise or ”physical” density variables which...

  7. COMMUNITARIAN INSTITUTIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION: CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Radke Bittencourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Brazilian communitarian institutions for higher education are not included officially under this designation in the INEP’s microdata, with the extinction of the category “communitarian, religious and philanthropic”. Since then, the Brazilian private’s higher education institutions are classified according to their legal nature: for-profit or non-profit. Nevertheless, the new law 12.881 of 2013, enacted in November 2013, has changed this reality after the approval by the National Congress, establishing the definition and purpose of the Community institutions, and confirming, in particular, their characteristics of non-profit institutions belonging to civil society, and their organization into associations or foundations (BRAZIL, 2013. The recent expansion of the federal and for-profit higher education institutions has directly affected the so far called communitarian institutions, which present differentiated characteristics compared to forprofit private higher education institutions as well as public education. In this article, data and contemporary aspects related to the new scenario of Brazilian higher education are analyzed, with special focus on higher education institutions members of the Association of Community Universities (ABRUC, and were found better performance of these ones in comparison to the private for-profit higher education institutions. The obtained results, combined with the regional impact of the communitarian higher education institutions, justify the importance of these institutions to improve the consolidation of higher education in Brazil.

  8. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  9. Femtosecond frequency mixing in optically thick bulk GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jho, Young Dahl; Kim, Dai Sik

    1999-01-01

    Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing experiment (FWM) has been performed at 11 K in transmission geometry. Strong signal where the energy extends well above the bandedge is still observed in FWM transmittance although the thickness is larger than the penetration depth by an order. In addition, these above-the-bandgap signals are mostly confined to the negative time delay region and shift further into the negative time as the detection energy increases. All these unusual phenomena can be understood by the third order frequency mixing (2ω 2 -ω 1 ; ω 2 > ω 1 )

  10. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  11. Is the Alzheimer's disease cortical thickness signature a biological marker for memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busovaca, Edgar; Zimmerman, Molly E; Meier, Irene B; Griffith, Erica Y; Grieve, Stuart M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Williams, Leanne M; Brickman, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Recent work suggests that analysis of the cortical thickness in key brain regions can be used to identify individuals at greatest risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear to what extent this "signature" is a biological marker of normal memory function - the primary cognitive domain affected by AD. We examined the relationship between the AD signature biomarker and memory functioning in a group of neurologically healthy young and older adults. Cortical thickness measurements and neuropsychological evaluations were obtained in 110 adults (age range 21-78, mean = 46) drawn from the Brain Resource International Database. The cohort was divided into young adult (n = 64, age 21-50) and older adult (n = 46, age 51-78) groups. Cortical thickness analysis was performed with FreeSurfer, and the average cortical thickness extracted from the eight regions that comprise the AD signature. Mean AD-signature cortical thickness was positively associated with performance on the delayed free recall trial of a list learning task and this relationship did not differ between younger and older adults. Mean AD-signature cortical thickness was not associated with performance on a test of psychomotor speed, as a control task, in either group. The results suggest that the AD signature cortical thickness is a marker for memory functioning across the adult lifespan.

  12. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  13. Longitudinal course of cortical thickness decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Kasper, Elisabeth; Machts, Judith; Bittner, Daniel; Kaufmann, Jörn; Benecke, Reiner; Teipel, Stefan; Vielhaber, Stefan; Prudlo, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    To determine longitudinal rates of cortical atrophy in classical Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS variants. Rates of cortical thinning were determined between 2 scans, 3-15 months apart, in 77 ALS patients: 51 classical, 12 upper motor neuron (UMN), and 14 lower motor neuron (LMN) ALS variants. Cortical thickness at the first assessment was compared with 60 healthy controls matched by age and gender. Atrophy rates were compared between patient sub-groups and correlated with disease duration, progression, and severity. Using a cross-sectional analysis, we found a significant difference in cortical thickness between ALS patients and controls in the motor and extra-motor areas (left medial orbito frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal gyrus, bilateral insular cortex, right fusiform gyrus, bilateral precuneus). Using a longitudinal analysis, we found a significant decline of cortical thickness in frontal, temporal, and parietal regions over the course of the study in ALS patients. Effects were independent of the clinical subtype, with exception of the precentral gyrus (p gyrus, the UMN-dominant subjects exhibited intermediate rates of atrophy, and the classical ALS patients exhibited no such change. Atrophy of the precentral gyrus in classical ALS indicates a floor effect at the first assessment, resulting in a lack of further atrophy over time. Structural loss of the precentral gyrus appears to be an early sign of classical ALS. Over time, patterns of cortical thinning in extra-motor areas can be identified in ALS, regardless of the phenotype.

  14. Institutional Frameworks for Management of Epizoonotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Eastern Africa region is a hot-spot for epidemics of emerging zoonotic diseases ('epizoonotics'). However, the region's capacity for response to epidemics of zoonotic origin has not been documented. This paper presents a multi-country situational analysis on the institutional frameworks for management of ...

  15. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  16. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... between and exploit the multiple, potentially contradictory institutional logics of the different spheres in which they operate. While much research has elucidated how institutional entrepreneurs effect change, this study illustrates how effective entrepreneurs managing and exploiting institutional...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  17. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... and institutions. In this paper, we emphasize that in the current context of globalization, firms and actors within firms are continuously developing the way in which they organize work and employment to produce goods and services that are competitive in global markets. The paper argues that new market conditions...... lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create...

  18. The KALIMER-600 Reactor Core Design Concept with Varying Fuel Cladding Thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Jang, Jin Wook; Kim, Yeong Il

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed a 600MWe sodium cooled fast reactor, the KALIMER-600 reactor core concept using single enrichment fuel. This reactor core concept is characterized by the following design targets : 1) Breakeven breeding (or fissile-self-sufficient) without any blanket, 2) Small burnup reactivity swing ( 23 n/cm 2 ). In the previous design, the single enrichment fuel concept was achieved by using the special fuel assembly designs where non-fuel rods (i.e., ZrH 1.8 , B 4 C, and dummy rods) were used. In particular, the moderator rods (ZrH 1.8 ) were used to reduce the sodium void worth and the fuel Doppler coefficient. But it has been known that this hydride moderator possesses relatively poor irradiation behavior at high temperature. In this paper, a new core design concept for use of single enrichment fuel is described. In this concept, the power flattening is achieved by using the core region wise cladding thicknesses but all non-fuel rods are removed to simplify the fuel assembly design

  19. Alterations of whole-brain cortical area and thickness in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanming; Wang, Jian; Gui, Li; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Chen; Du, Hanjian

    2011-01-01

    Gray matter volume and density of several brain regions, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies have indicated that changes in cortical area size is relevant to thinking and behavior, but alterations of cortical area and thickness in the brains of individuals with AD or its likely precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), have not been reported. In this study, 25 MCI subjects, 30 AD subjects, and 30 age-matched normal controls were recruited for brain MRI scans and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessments. Based on the model using FreeSurfer software, two brain lobes were divided into various regions according to the Desikan-Killiany atlas and the cortical area and thickness of every region was compared and analyzed. We found a significant increase in cortical area of several regions in the frontal and temporal cortices, which correlated negatively with MMSE scores, and a significant decrease in cortical area of several regions in the parietal cortex and the cingulate gyrus in AD subjects. Increased cortical area was also seen in some regions of the frontal and temporal cortices in MCI subjects, whereas the cortical thickness of the same regions was decreased. Our observations suggest characteristic differences of the cortical area and thickness in MCI, AD, and normal control subjects, and these changes may help diagnose both MCI and AD.

  20. Thick film heater for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J; Borecki, M; Kalenik, J; Król, K

    2014-01-01

    A thick film microheater was elaborated. The microheater is intended for fast heating of small volume samples under measurement in optical based system. Thermal analysis of microheater was carried out using finite element method (FEM) for heat transfer calculation as a function of time and space. A nodal heat transfer function was calculated in classical form including all basics mechanisms of heat exchange – heat conduction, convection and radiation were considered. Work focuses on the influence of some construction parameters (ex. length, thermal conductivity of substrate, substrate thickness) on microheater performance. The results show that application of thin substrate of low thermal conductivity and low thickness for miroheater construction and resistor of optimum dimensions leads to significant power consumption decrease and increase of overall optical measurement system performance.

  1. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  2. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  3. Tungsten thick coatings for plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Pizzuto, A.; Orsini, A.; Libera, S.; Visca, E.; Bertamini, L.; Casadei, F.; Severini, E.; Montanari, R.; Litunovsky, N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the R and D activity was to realize thick W coatings on CuCrZr hollow bars and to test the mock ups with respect to thermal fatigue. Eight mock ups provided of 4 mm thick W coating were finally manufactured. The bonding integrity between coating and substrate was checked by means of an Ultrasonic apparatus. Characterisation of coatings was performed in order to assess microstructure, impurity content, density, tensile strength, adhesion strength, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient. Macroscopic residual strain measurements were performed by means of 'hole drilling' technique. The activities performed demonstrated the feasibility of thick Tungsten coatings on geometries with more complex residual strain distribution. These coatings are reliable armour of medium heat flux plasma facing component. (author)

  4. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  5. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Matthewson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.

  6. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  7. Increased endometrial thickness in women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, J; Auslender, R; Goldstein, S; Kohan, R; Stolar, Z; Abramovici, H

    2000-09-01

    We noticed an increase in endometrial thickness in women with hypertension who were treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the endometrium of hypertensive women is thicker than that of healthy women and to determine whether endometrial thickening in hypertensive women is directly related to the antihypertensive beta-blocker treatment. We compared 3 groups of postmenopausal patients as follows: (1) women with a history of essential hypertension treated with a combination of medications, including beta-blockers; (2) women with a history of hypertension treated with a combination of medications that did not include beta-blockers; and (3) healthy women without hypertension. All patients were interviewed and examined, blood tests were performed, and endometrial thickness in the anterior-posterior diameter was measured by vaginal ultrasonography. Among the exclusion criteria were diabetes or an abnormal fasting blood glucose level, obesity, hormonal medication or replacement hormonal therapy during the previous 6 months, and a history of hormonal disturbances, infertility, or polycystic ovary syndrome. Of 45 hypertensive women enrolled in the study, 22 were treated with a beta-blocker combination medication and 23 were treated with other antihypertensive medications. They were compared with 25 healthy women. There was no statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness between women treated with medications, including beta-blockers, and those who were treated with other hypotensive agents. Twenty percent of women with hypertension and none of the healthy women had endometrium >5 mm thick (P infinity). Twenty percent of hypertensive postmenopausal women were found to have increased endometrial thickness. However, we were unable to substantiate an association between the type of treatment administered, whether beta-blockers were included, and the increase in endometrial thickness.

  8. Assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Occupational Exposure to HIV Infection among Healthcare Workers in Selected Health Institutions in Debre Berhan Town, North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filmawit Aynalem Tesfay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Health care workers are exposed to different kinds of occupational hazards due to their day to day activities. The most common occupational exposure like body fluids is a potential risk of transmission of blood-borne infection like human immunodeficiency virus. Objective. To assess the prevalence and determinants of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus infection. Methods and Materials. A descriptive cross-sectional institution based study was conducted in selected four health institutions in Debre Berhan town. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviewer administered questionnaire. The frequency distribution of dependent and independent variables was worked out and presented using frequency table, graph, and chart. Result. The overall prevalence of occupational exposure of the health care workers was found to be 88.6% (n=187 in the past 12 months. Contact to potentially infectious body fluids accounts for the largest proportion (56.7% followed by needle stick injury (31.5% and glove breakage (28.8%. Conclusion. In this study majority (88.6% of the health care workers had a risky occupational hazard that exposed them to human immunodeficiency virus infection during the past 12 months. The statistically significant determinant factors were professional status, working room, and time of personal protective equipment usage.

  9. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 (micro)m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  10. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  11. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  12. Geologic thickness data: Candidate repository horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Fairchild, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    This data package contains information on the thickness of the Umtanum, McCoy Canyon, Cohassett, and Rocky Coulee flows and their intraflow structures in 20 boreholes and 2 surface sections in the Pasco Basin. Thickness data are for total flow, flow top, entablature, and colonnade (or just flow top and dense interior in some cases). Summary figures which contain descriptions and footages are included. SD-BWI-DP-011, Rev. 2 replaces SD-BWI-DP-011, Rev. A-0 in its entirety. (Rev. A-0 replaced Rev. 0-0.) 5 refs

  13. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  14. Compressive strength of thick composite panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used in the structu......The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used...

  15. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure

  16. Institutional Support : Ethiopian Development Research Institute ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) was established in 1999 and became operational in 2003 as a semi-autonomous organization accountable to ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  17. Wave motion in a thick cylindrical rod undergoing longitudinal impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červ, Jan; Adámek, V.; Valeš, František; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, November (2016), s. 88-105 ISSN 0165-2125 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA TA ČR(CZ) TH01010772 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : elastic waves * impact * thick cylindrical rod * analytical solution * semi-analytical solution Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.575, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0165212516300427/1-s2.0-S0165212516300427-main.pdf?_tid=d91eee02-7a55-11e6-8c02-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1473842161_c56543aaec31b7e091ab47d3fb38f361

  18. Determination of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thicknesses for External Walls Considering the Heating, Cooling and Annual Energy Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KAYNAKLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimization of thermal insulation thickness applied to the external walls of buildings has been carried out comparatively based on the seasonal (space-heating and cooling and the annual energy requirements considering solar radiation effect. This study has been performed for four degree-day regions of Turkey, namely, Iskenderun (in the first region, Istanbul (in the second region, Ankara (in the third region and Ardahan (in the fourth region. By determining the sol-air temperatures for each region and maximizing the present worth value of seasonal and annual energy savings, the optimum thermal insulation thicknesses have been calculated. The effects of solar radiation on heating-cooling energy requirements, the variation of optimum insulation thicknesses and payback periods with respect to degree-day regions, the differences between the analyses based on seasonal and annual have been presented in tabular and graphical form.

  19. SCLERAL AND CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN SECONDARY HIGH AXIAL MYOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; You, Qi Sheng; Xu, Xiaolin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Zhibao; Li, Bin; Jonas, Jost B

    2016-08-01

    To assess differences in scleral and choroidal thickness between eyes with secondary high axial myopia caused by congenital glaucoma, eyes with primary high axial myopia, and nonhighly myopic eyes. The study consisted of 301 Chinese individuals with a mean age of 23.9 ± 22.6 years and mean axial length of 24.8 ± 4.2 mm. It included the "secondary highly myopic group" (SHMG) because of congenital glaucoma (n = 20 eyes; axial length >26.0 mm), the "primary highly myopic group" (PHMG) (n = 73; axial length >26.0 mm), and the remaining nonhighly myopic group (NHMG). The secondary highly myopic group versus the primary highly myopic group had significantly thinner sclera in the pars plana region (343 ± 71 μm versus 398 ± 83 μm; P = 0.006), whereas scleral thickness in other regions did not differ significantly between both highly myopic groups and was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG. Mean total scleral volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.20) between any group (SHMG: 659 ± 106 μm; PHMG: 667 ± 128 μm; NHMG: 626 ± 135 μm). Choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in both highly myopic groups than in the NHMG, with no significant differences between both highly myopic groups. Choroidal volume did not differ significantly (P > 0.40) between any of the groups (SHMG: 43 ± 12 μm; PHMG: 43 ± 13 μm; NHMG: 46 ± 17 μm). In secondary high axial myopia, the sclera gets thinner anterior and posterior to the equator; whereas in primary high axial myopia, scleral thinning is predominantly found posterior to the equator. Because volume of sclera and choroid did not differ between any group, scleral and choroidal thinning in myopia may be due to a rearrangement of tissue and not due to the new formation of tissue.

  20. Adolescent cortical thickness pre- and post marijuana and alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Castro, Norma; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meloy, M J; Brumback, Ty; Huestis, Marilyn A; Tapert, Susan F

    Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, marijuana use episodes). All adolescents underwent neurocognitive testing, neuroimaging, and substance use and mental health interviews. Significant group by time interactions and main effects on cortical thickness estimates were identified for 18 cortical regions spanning the left and right hemisphere (pseffect, in cortical thickness by follow-up for individuals who have not initiated regular substance use or alcohol use only by age 19; modest between-group differences were identified at baseline in several cortical regions (ALC and CON>ALC+MJ). Minimal neurocognitive differences were observed in this sample. Findings suggest pre-existing neural differences prior to marijuana use may contribute to initiation of use and observed neural outcomes. Marijuana use may also interfere with thinning trajectories that contribute to morphological differences in young adulthood that are often observed in cross-sectional studies of heavy marijuana users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Ice-Shell Thickness Variations on the Tidal Deformation of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Kozubek, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of Enceladus's gravity and topography has suggested that the thickness of the ice shell significantly varies laterally - from 30-40 km in the south polar region to 60 km elsewhere. These variations may influence the activity of the geysers and increase the tidal heat production in regions where the ice shell is thinned. Using a model including a regional or global subsurface ocean and Maxwell viscoelasticity, we investigate the impact of these variations on the tidal deformation of the moon and its heat production. For that purpose, we use different numerical approaches - finite elements, local application of 1d spectral method, and a generalized spectral method. Results obtained with these three approaches for various models of ice-shell thickness variations are presented and compared. Implications of a reduced ice shell thickness for the south polar terrain activity are discussed.

  2. Teacher Enhancement Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Bradley, Tina

    1994-01-01

    During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science

  3. Fatigue behavior of thick composite single lap joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Srikanth, N. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    In consideration of bondline thickness variability, in bonded joints where thick adherend is adopted, relative thick adhesive layer (2-5 mm) is preferable. This paper aims to give some insight in fatigue strength of adhesively bonded structures involving thick adherend coupled with thick adhesive layer. Single lap joints with nominal adherend thickness of 8 mm and two different nominal thicknesses (2.5 mm and 5.5 mm) were made and tested under fatigue loading. The failure mode exhibits always a tendency for interfacial initiation, followed by interlaminar separation. Fatigue strength for higher adhesive thickness is found to be lower. (Author)

  4. Regional Innovation Policies in MERCOSUR : Obstacles and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... review existing regional cooperation initiatives, identify sectors with strong potential for regional cooperation, review other experiences in regional cooperation for innovation (European Union - EU, North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA), and propose institutional arrangements for promoting innovation among ...

  5. Superior temporal gyrus thickness correlates with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Asaf; Chapman, Joab; Tal, Sigal; Bercovich, Eran; Gil, Hararai; Achiron, Anat

    2013-07-01

    Decreased cortical thickness that signifies gray matter pathology and its impact on cognitive performance is a research field with growing interest in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and needs to be further elucidated. Using high-field 3.0 T MRI, three-dimensional T1-FSPGR (voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) cortical thickness was measured in 82 regions in the left hemisphere (LH) and right hemisphere (RH) in 20 RRMS patients with low disease activity and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects that in parallel underwent comprehensive cognitive evaluation. The correlation between local cortical atrophy and cognitive performance was examined. We identified seven regions with cortical tissue loss that differed between RRMS and age-matched healthy controls. These regions were mainly located in the frontal and temporal lobes, specifically within the gyrus rectus, inferior frontal sulcus, orbital gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, with preferential left asymmetry. Increased cortical thickness was identified in two visual sensory regions, the LH inferior occipital gyrus, and the RH cuneus, implicating adaptive plasticity. Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the LH superior temporal gyrus thickness was associated with cognitive performance and its thickness correlated with motor skills (r = 0.65, p = 0.003), attention (r = 0.45, p = 0.042), and information processing speed (r = 0.50, p = 0.025). Our findings show that restricted cortical thinning occurs in RRMS patients with mild disease and that LH superior temporal gyrus atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  7. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G. [Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-12-31

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T{sub c} and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm{sup 2}. The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed.

  8. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  9. Determination of the Optimum Thickness of Approximately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to conserve the world's scarce energy and material resources, a balance between the cost of heating a material and the optimum thickness of the material becomes vey essential. One of such materials is the local cast aluminium pot commonly used as cooking ware in Nigeria. This paper therefore sets up a ...

  10. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T c and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm 2 . The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed

  11. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  12. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  13. Quality assurance in thick-walled weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, H.

    1978-01-01

    Some guidelines are given here for judging the magnitude of flaws in welded thick-walled components (such as nuclear reactor vessels). The actually critical defect sizes are analysed, taking into account the residual stresses after welding and after annealing also. Various procedures for repairing such work are then indicated. (Auth.)

  14. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured thick honeycombs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding

  15. Sea-ice thickness from field measurements in the northwestern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian; Haas, Christian; Hendricks, Stefan; Kaleschke, Lars; Wang, Caixin

    2017-02-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the fastest changing regions of the Arctic, and has experienced the strongest decline in winter-time sea-ice area in the Arctic, at -23±4% decade-1. Sea-ice thickness in the Barents Sea is not well studied. We present two previously unpublished helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) ice thickness measurements from the northwestern Barents Sea acquired in March 2003 and 2014. The HEM data are compared to ice thickness calculated from ice draft measured by ULS deployed between 1994 and 1996. These data show that ice thickness varies greatly from year to year; influenced by the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that govern local formation vs long-range advection. In a year with a large inflow of sea-ice from the Arctic Basin, the Barents Sea ice cover is dominated by thick multiyear ice; as was the case in 2003 and 1995. In a year with an ice cover that was mainly grown in situ, the ice will be thin and mechanically unstable; as was the case in 2014. The HEM data allow us to explore the spatial and temporal variability in ice thickness. In 2003 the dominant ice class was more than 2 years old; and modal sea-ice thickness varied regionally from 0.6 to 1.4 m, with the thinner ice being either first-year ice, or multiyear ice which had come into contact with warm Atlantic water. In 2014 the ice cover was predominantly locally grown ice less than 1 month old (regional modes of 0.5-0.8 m). These two situations represent two extremes of a range of possible ice thickness distributions that can present very different conditions for shipping traffic; or have a different impact on heat transport from ocean to atmosphere.

  16. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seminars and conferences. Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology THI Spotlight Check out the ...

  17. Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces.

  18. METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-12-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

  19. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  20. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  1. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  2. Choroidal thickness in Malaysian eyes with full-thickness macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Y Tan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare choroidal thickness at the macula in eyes with unilateral idiopathic full-thickness macular holes(FTMHwith that of unaffected fellow eyes, and eyes of normal control patients.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with unilateral idiopathic FTMH and thirty age, sex, and race-matched controls were recruited. Axial lengths were measured using laser interferometry. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images were obtained using Heidelberg spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea, and at 1 mm and 2 mm nasally, temporally, superiorly and inferiorly from the center of the fovea. Statistical analysis was performed using independent and paired t-tests, chi-square tests, and Pearson correlation tests(PRESULTS: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 201.0±44.0 μm in the FTMH group, 225.3±51.4 μm in the fellow eye group and 262.3±70.3 μm in the control group. The choroid was thinner in FTMH eyes at all locations when compared to control eyes(PPP>0.05. Choroidal thickness was generally highest subfoveally and lowest nasally. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with age(r=-0.278, P=0.032, and axial length(r=-0.328, P=0.011.CONCLUSION: Choroidal thickness is lower in both eyes of patients with unilateral FTMH compared to healthy control eyes.

  3. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  4. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the

  5. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  6. Discipline as Institutional Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Hommel, Ulrich; Cornuel, Eric

    Drawing on the case of business school rankings, we study how institutions are maintained and remain persistent despite their contested nature. We argue that rankings as institutions can be maintained through subtle disciplinary practices that freeze power relations in recipient organizations. Ou...

  7. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  8. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  9. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  10. On the estimation of ice thickness from scattering observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. D.; Squire, V. A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is inspired by the proposition that it may be possible to extract descriptive physical parameters - in particular the ice thickness, of a sea-ice field from ocean wave information. The motivation is that mathematical theory describing wave propagation in such media has reached a point where the inherent heterogeneity, expressed as pressure ridge keels and sails, leads, thickness variations and changes of material property and draught, can be fully assimilated exactly or through approximations whose limitations are understood. On the basis that leads have the major wave scattering effect for most sea-ice [Williams, T.D., Squire, V.A., 2004. Oblique scattering of plane flexural-gravity waves by heterogeneities in sea ice. Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A 460 (2052), 3469-3497], a model two dimensional sea-ice sheet composed of a large number of such features, randomly dispersed, is constructed. The wide spacing approximation is used to predict how wave trains of different period will be affected, after first establishing that this produces results that are very close to the exact solution. Like Kohout and Meylan [Kohout, A.L., Meylan, M.H., 2008. An elastic plate model for wave attenuation and ice floe breaking in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C09016, doi:10.1029/2007JC004434], we find that on average the magnitude of a wave transmitted by a field of leads decays exponentially with the number of leads. Then, by fitting a curve based on this assumption to the data, the thickness of the ice sheet is obtained. The attenuation coefficient can always be calculated numerically by ensemble averaging but in some cases more rapidly computed approximations work extremely well. Moreover, it is found that the underlying thickness can be determined to good accuracy by the method as long as Archimedean draught is correctly provided for, suggesting that waves can indeed be effective as a remote sensing agent to measure ice thickness in areas where pressure ridges

  11. Institutional framework in relation to climate change in West and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... This paper maps the institutions working in West and Central Africa on issues related to climate change, vulnerability, and adaptation, and assesses a range of institutional strengths and weaknesses. Representatives of 16 institutions in the sub region were surveyed and interviewed.

  12. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    paper is to analyze enablers and barriers for this institutional change. The vocational education system in Denmark is strongly institutionalised with unions, employerÕs associations and the schools in central roles. Drawing on institutional theory contributions on labour market -, educational......In order to reach the EU 2020 goals for the climate, Danish vocational training units are currently in a process of institutional change triggered by the need of providing energy, and new process competences for the skilled and semiskilled workforce active in construction. The aim of the present...... - and professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers...

  13. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  14. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  15. Association of ABO blood groups and Rh factor with retinal and choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teberik, Kuddusi; Eski, Mehmet Tahir

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate if ABO blood group and Rh factor have an effect on retinal and choroidal thickness. This study was designed prospectively. Retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal, and choroidal thicknesses were measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal and choroidal thickness measurements (one subfoveal, three temporal, and three nasal) were obtained at 500-μm intervals up to 1500 μm with the caliper system. In this study, 109 male and 151 female, 260 individuals in total were included. There were 125 subjects in group A, 29 in group B, 34 in group AB, and 72 in group O. Rh factor was positive in 194 subjects and negative in 66. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age (p = 0.667). The groups did not show any statistical difference in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. There was significant difference found for mean retinal thickness at temporal 1000 μm when four groups were compared (p = 0.037). No statistically significant difference was detected for the remaining retinal and choroidal sectoral regions. The groups did not statistically significantly differ concerning Rh factor (p > 0.05). Although we found a significant difference in retinal thickness in the temporal retina between group B with group A and group O, we suggest that both blood group and Rh factor have no effect on retinal and choroidal thickness.

  16. Clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with thick (>4 mm) melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian; Fortino, Jeanine; Curti, Brendan; Vetto, John

    2014-05-01

    The role of sentinel lymph node status (SLNS) in thick melanoma is evolving. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of SLNS in thick melanoma. A retrospective analysis of 120 prospectively collected clinically node-negative thick melanomas over 5 years was performed. Patient (age/sex) and tumor (thickness, ulceration, SLNS, mitoses, metastases, and recurrence) features were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard model. Factors predictive of positive SLN included male sex, ulceration, and high mitoses. Factors associated with positive SLN had higher local-regional recurrence and metastases than negative SLN. SLNS and tumor thickness impacted 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Positive SLN, ulceration, age, and mitoses were independent predictors of DFS/OS. Nonulcerated/lower mitoses thick melanomas had lower positive SLN rates. Positive SLN develop recurrence and metastases and have worse OS/DFS. SLNS is an important prognosticator for OS/DFS. Sentinel lymph node biopsy delineates prognostic groups in thick melanomas and can impact management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of the thickness of Al2O3 barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.D.R.; Hase, T.P.A.; Tanner, B.K.; Hughes, N.D.; Hicken, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The barrier thickness in magnetic spin-dependent tunnel junctions with Al 2 O 3 barriers has been measured using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and by fitting the tunneling current to the Simmons model. We have studied the effect of glow discharge oxidation time on the barrier structure, revealing a substantial increase in Al 2 O 3 thickness with oxidation. The greater thickness of barrier measured using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity compared with that obtained by fitting current density-voltage to the Simmons electron tunneling model suggests that electron tunneling is localized to specific regions across the barrier, where the thickness is reduced by fluctuations due to nonconformal roughness

  18. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun; Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  19. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  20. Heritability analysis of surface-based cortical thickness estimation on a large twin cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaikai; Doré, Vincent; Rose, Stephen; Fripp, Jurgen; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Salvado, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the heritability of cerebral cortex, based on measurements of grey matter (GM) thickness derived from structural MR images (sMRI). With data acquired from a large twin cohort (328 subjects), an automated method was used to estimate the cortical thickness, and EM-ICP surface registration algorithm was used to establish the correspondence of cortex across the population. An ACE model was then employed to compute the heritability of cortical thickness. Heritable cortical thickness measures various cortical regions, especially in frontal and parietal lobes, such as bilateral postcentral gyri, superior occipital gyri, superior parietal gyri, precuneus, the orbital part of the right frontal gyrus, right medial superior frontal gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right paracentral lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus.

  1. Properties of conductive thick-film inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Ten different conductive inks used in the fabrication of thick-film circuits were evaluated for their physical and handling properties. Viscosity, solid contents, and spectrographic analysis of the unfired inks were determined. Inks were screened on ceramic substrates and fired for varying times at specified temperatures. Selected substrates were given additional firings to simulate the heat exposure received if thick-film resistors were to be added to the same substrate. Data are presented covering the (1) printing characteristics, (2) solderability using Sn-63 and also a 4 percent silver solder, (3) leach resistance, (4) solder adhesion, and (5) wire bonding properties. Results obtained using different firing schedules were compared. A comparison was made between the various inks showing general results obtained for each ink. The changes in firing time or the application of a simulated resistor firing had little effect on the properties of most inks.

  2. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  3. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, Se Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  4. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  5. Beta ray backscattering studies for thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M; Sharma, K K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1979-01-01

    Back-scattering of beta rays from /sup 204/Tl (Esub(..beta..)max = 740 keV) and /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y (Esub(..beta..)max =550 and 2250 keV) has been studied in an improved reflection geometry, using annular sources, from a number of elemental targets with Z values ranging from 13 to 82. Source to target and target to detector geometry factors are 0.0225 and 0.0282 respectively. Values of saturation back scattering thickness obtained in the two cases are 72 +- 10 and 190 +- 40 mg/cm/sup 2/ respectively. It is observed that the intensity of back scattered radiation varies linearly with thickness upto a value of 12 +- 2 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 204/Tl and 17 +- 3 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y.

  6. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  7. 30 CFR 816.105 - Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.105 Backfilling and grading: Thick overburden. (a) Definition. Thick... surrounding terrain. (b) Performance standards. Where thick overburden occurs within the permit area, the...

  8. Correlates of eggshell thickness | Okereke | Global Journal of Pure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study discussed the effects of age and genotype of birds and location of farm on eggshell thickness. The ultimate objective of the study is to determine the correlates of eggshell thickness which may be relevant to improve eggshell thickness. Secondary data on eggshell thickness collected from the Agricultural ...

  9. Plantar fascia segmentation and thickness estimation in ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussouar, Abdelhafid; Meziane, Farid; Crofts, Gillian

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging offers significant potential in diagnosis of plantar fascia (PF) injury and monitoring treatment. In particular US imaging has been shown to be reliable in foot and ankle assessment and offers a real-time effective imaging technique that is able to reliably confirm structural changes, such as thickening, and identify changes in the internal echo structure associated with diseased or damaged tissue. Despite the advantages of US imaging, images are difficult to interpret during medical assessment. This is partly due to the size and position of the PF in relation to the adjacent tissues. It is therefore a requirement to devise a system that allows better and easier interpretation of PF ultrasound images during diagnosis. This study proposes an automatic segmentation approach which for the first time extracts ultrasound data to estimate size across three sections of the PF (rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot). This segmentation method uses artificial neural network module (ANN) in order to classify small overlapping patches as belonging or not-belonging to the region of interest (ROI) of the PF tissue. Features ranking and selection techniques were performed as a post-processing step for features extraction to reduce the dimension and number of the extracted features. The trained ANN classifies the image overlapping patches into PF and non-PF tissue, and then it is used to segment the desired PF region. The PF thickness was calculated using two different methods: distance transformation and area-length calculation algorithms. This new approach is capable of accurately segmenting the PF region, differentiating it from surrounding tissues and estimating its thickness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane

  11. A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: malagon@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.

  12. 3D position readout from thick scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Antich, P; Parkey, R; Slavin, N V; Tsyganov, E N

    2002-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed and tested for the three-dimensional measurement of position in SPECT-PET detectors. Results are presented for 2 and 20 mm thick NaI(Tl) planar crystals. In a plane of crystal, a coordinate resolution of about 1 mm (rms error) is demonstrated. The depth of interaction (DOI) is measured with an rms error of about 2 mm using light cone parameters.

  13. Biocompatible wear-resistant thick ceramic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to immunologically active elements like chromium, cobalt or nickel and debris particle due to wear are serious problems for patients with metallic implants. We tested the approach of using a hard and thick ceramic coating as a wear-resistant protection of titanium implants, avoiding those sensitisation and foreign body problems. We showed that the process parameters strongly influence the coating porosity and, as a consequence, also its hardness.

  14. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1995-01-01

    A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.

  15. Styringskapaciteten i regional arbejdsmarkedspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte

    This book discovers the potential in regional labour market policy. It raises the question whether the regional labour market councils seek for and follows deliberative proces norms when they formulate the regional policy, and the more theoretical question about whether corporatism is compatible...... with deliberative proces norms at all. The conclusion is that if certain circumstances are fullfilled such as 1) competence to decide the policy, 2) trust from the central level and 3) an orientation towards a regional identity then there actually exists an institutional basis for deliberation....

  16. Determination of the coating base thickness with beta backscattering gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejndlin, I.I.; Novikov, V.S.; Pravikov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    In using beta thickness meters for coating examination, it is necessary that the substrate thickness be greater or equal to the saturation thickness for which one can neglect a systematic error caused by substrate thickness variation. A formula is derived and nomograms are presented for the determination of the substrate saturation thickness with the account of factors affecting the results of coating thickness measurement. The results of saturation thickness calculation are tabulated for a number of substrate materials with using different β-sources ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr+ 90 Y)

  17. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Factors Affecting the Thickness of Thermal Aureoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Annen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions of magma induce thermal aureoles in the country rock. Analytical solutions predict that the thickness of an aureole is proportional to the thickness of the intrusion. However, in the field, thermal aureoles are often significantly thinner or wider than predicted by simple thermal models. Numerical models show that thermal aureoles are wider if the heat transfer in the magma is faster than in the country rock due to contrasts in thermal diffusivities or the effect of magma convection. Large thermal aureoles can also be caused by repeated injection close to the contact. Aureoles are thin when heat transfer in the country rock is faster than heat transfer within the magma or in case of incrementally, slowly emplaced magma. Absorption of latent heat due to metamorphic reactions or water volatilization also affects thermal aureoles but to a lesser extent. The way these parameters affect the thickness of a thermal aureole depends on the isotherm under consideration, hence on which metamorphic phase is used to draw the limit of the aureole. Thermal aureoles provide insight on the dynamics of intrusions emplacement. Although available examples are limited, asymmetric aureoles point to magma emplacement by over-accretion for mafic cases and by under-accretion for felsic cases, consistent with geochronological data.

  19. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  20. Macular thickness after glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesar, Antonio; Cavar, Ivan; Sesar, Anita Pusić; Geber, Mia Zorić; Sesar, Irena; Laus, Katia Novak; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mandić, Zdravko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was to analyze early postoperative changes in the macular area using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after uncomplicated glaucoma filtration surgery. This prospective study included 32 patients (34 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, which underwent trabeculectomy with or without use of mitomycin C. Exclusion criteria were macular edema, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, blurred optical media, secondary glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. All standard clinical examinations were made before surgery, at the 2nd day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Tomography of the macula was performed during every examination using Cirrus HD OCT for the analysis of central subfield thickness. Results show that thickening of the macula was slightly higher 1 week and 1 month after operation in comparison with baseline end 2nd day postoperativelly. There was no significant difference in the change of macular thickness in patients who have used topical prostaglandins compared with those who have used other topical medications. Also, there was no difference in macular changes between patients treated with or without mitomycin C. In conclusion, we found a slight subclinical increase in macular thickness after uncomplicated trabeculectomy, for which we considered that was the result in reduction of intraocular pressure after glaucoma surgery. Macular thickening after glaucoma filtering surgery could be a physiological reaction to the stress of the retina caused by a sudden reduction of intraocular pressure and it is the consequence of altered relationship between capillary pressure and interstitial fluid pressure.

  1. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  2. Universal Rim Thickness in Unsteady Sheet Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Dandekar, R.; Bustos, N.; Poulain, S.; Bourouiba, L.

    2018-05-01

    Unsteady fragmentation of a fluid bulk into droplets is important for epidemiology as it governs the transport of pathogens from sneezes and coughs, or from contaminated crops in agriculture. It is also ubiquitous in industrial processes such as paint, coating, and combustion. Unsteady fragmentation is distinct from steady fragmentation on which most theoretical efforts have been focused thus far. We address this gap by studying a canonical unsteady fragmentation process: the breakup from a drop impact on a finite surface where the drop fluid is transferred to a free expanding sheet of time-varying properties and bounded by a rim of time-varying thickness. The continuous rim destabilization selects the final spray droplets, yet this process remains poorly understood. We combine theory with advanced image analysis to study the unsteady rim destabilization. We show that, at all times, the rim thickness is governed by a local instantaneous Bond number equal to unity, defined with the instantaneous, local, unsteady rim acceleration. This criterion is found to be robust and universal for a family of unsteady inviscid fluid sheet fragmentation phenomena, from impacts of drops on various surface geometries to impacts on films. We discuss under which viscous and viscoelastic conditions the criterion continues to govern the unsteady rim thickness.

  3. Precision of hyaline cartilage thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Buckwalter, K.; Helvie, M.; Niklason, L.; Martel, W. (Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Measurement of cartilage thickness in vivo is an important indicator of the status of a joint as the various degenerative and inflammatory arthritides directly affect the condition of the cartilage. In order to assess the precision of thickness measurements of hyaline articular cartilage, we undertook a pilot study using MR imaging, plain radiography, and ultrasonography (US). We measured the cartilage of the hip and knee joints in 10 persons (4 healthy volunteers and 6 patients). The joints in each patient were examined on two separate occasions using each modality. In the hips a swell as the knee joints, the most precise measuring method was plain film radiography. For radiographs of the knees obtained in the standing position, the coefficient of variation was 6.5%; in the hips this figure was 6.34%. US of the knees and MR imaging of the hips were the second best modalities in the measurement of cartilage thickness. In addition, MR imaging enabled the most complete visualization of the joint cartilage. (orig.).

  4. A thick placenta: a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Ichiro; Sase, Masakatsu; Torii, Mayumi; Sanai, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ueda, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an ultrasonographic measurement of placental thickness and the correlation of a thick placenta with adverse perinatal outcome. Placental thickness was measured in single gravidas, 16 to 40 weeks of gestation, between 2005 and 2009. Placentas were considered to be thick if their measured thickness were above the 95th percentile for gestational age. The incidence of thick placentas was 4.3% (138/3,183). Perinatal morbidity and neonatal conditions were worse in cases with thick placenta rather than without thick placenta. Ultrasonographic measurement of placental thickness is a simple method to estimate placental size. Thick placenta may be a useful predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Altered cortical thickness and attentional deficits in adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Stefan, Mihaela; Lee, Seonjoo; Wang, Zhishun; Terranova, Kate; Attia, Evelyn; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-01-12

    Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential contributors to the maintenance of bulimia nervosa and useful

  6. Altered cortical thickness and attentional deficits in adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Stefan, Mihaela; Lee, Seonjoo; Wang, Zhishun; Terranova, Kate; Attia, Evelyn; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12-38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential contributors to the maintenance of bulimia nervosa and useful

  7. Altered cortical thickness and attentional deficits in adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Mihaela; Lee, Seonjoo; Wang, Zhishun; Terranova, Kate; Attia, Evelyn; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Background Frontostriatal and frontoparietal abnormalities likely contribute to deficits in control and attentional processes in individuals with bulimia nervosa and to the persistence of dysregulated eating across development. This study assessed these processes and cortical thickness in a large sample of adolescent girls and women with bulimia nervosa compared with healthy controls. Methods We collected anatomical MRI data from adolescent girls and women (ages 12–38 yr) with full or subthreshold bulimia nervosa and age-matched healthy controls who also completed the Conners Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II). Groups were compared on task performance and cortical thickness. Mediation analyses explored associations among cortical thickness, CPT-II variables, bulimia nervosa symptoms and age. Results We included 60 girls and women with bulimia nervosa and 54 controls in the analyses. Compared with healthy participants, those with bulimia nervosa showed increased impulsivity and inattention on the CPT-II, along with reduced thickness of the right pars triangularis, right superior parietal and left dorsal posterior cingulate cortices. In the bulimia nervosa group, exploratory analyses revealed that binge eating frequency correlated inversely with cortical thickness of frontoparietal and insular regions and that reduced frontoparietal thickness mediated the association between age and increased symptom severity and inattention. Binge eating frequency also mediated the association between age and lower prefrontal cortical thickness. Limitations These findings are applicable to only girls and women with bulimia nervosa, and our cross-sectional design precludes understanding of whether cortical thickness alterations precede or result from bulimia nervosa symptoms. Conclusion Structural abnormalities in the frontoparietal and posterior cingulate regions comprising circuits that support control and attentional processes should be investigated as potential

  8. Entorhinal Cortex: Antemortem Cortical Thickness and Postmortem Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, A A; Weinberg, B D; Dillon, W P; Hess, C P; Cabral, H J; Fleischman, D A; Leurgans, S E; Bennett, D A; Hyman, B T; Albert, M S; Killiany, R J; Fischl, B; Dale, A M; Desikan, R S

    2017-05-01

    The entorhinal cortex, a critical gateway between the neocortex and hippocampus, is one of the earliest regions affected by Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Although our prior work has automatically delineated an MR imaging-based measure of the entorhinal cortex, whether antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness is associated with postmortem tangle burden within the entorhinal cortex is still unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between antemortem MRI measures of entorhinal cortex thickness and postmortem neuropathological measures. We evaluated 50 participants from the Rush Memory and Aging Project with antemortem structural T1-weighted MR imaging and postmortem neuropathologic assessments. Here, we focused on thickness within the entorhinal cortex as anatomically defined by our previously developed MR imaging parcellation system (Desikan-Killiany Atlas in FreeSurfer). Using linear regression, we evaluated the association between entorhinal cortex thickness and tangles and amyloid-β load within the entorhinal cortex and medial temporal and neocortical regions. We found a significant relationship between antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .006) and medial temporal lobe tangles ( P = .002); we found no relationship between entorhinal cortex thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .09) and medial temporal lobe amyloid-β ( P = .09). We also found a significant association between entorhinal cortex thickness and cortical tangles ( P = .003) and amyloid-β ( P = .01). We found no relationship between parahippocampal gyrus thickness and entorhinal cortex ( P = .31) and medial temporal lobe tangles ( P = .051). Our findings indicate that entorhinal cortex-associated in vivo cortical thinning may represent a marker of postmortem medial temporal and neocortical Alzheimer disease pathology. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    for combining the resource-based theory with an institutions-based approach towards constructing a more practical and empirical oriented analytical framework. After the preliminary discussion and introduction to the different theories used, the authors then take a focus on the analytical framework used to study......This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue...

  11. Regolith thickness over Sinus Iridum: Results from morphology and size-frequency distribution of small impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Wenzhe; Liu, Tiantian; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Haruyama, Junichi

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution optical images returned from recent lunar missions provide a new chance for estimation of lunar regolith thickness using morphology and the size-frequency distribution of small impact craters. In this study, regolith thickness over the Sinus Iridum region is estimated using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) images. A revised relationship between crater geometry and regolith thickness is proposed based on old experimental data that takes into considering the effect of the illumination angle of the images. In total, 227 high-resolution LROC NAC images are used, and 378,556 impact craters with diameters from 4.2 to 249.8 m are counted, and their morphologies are identified. Our results show that 50% of the Sinus Iridum region has a regolith thickness between 5.1 and 10.7 m, and the mean and median regolith thicknesses are 8.5 and 8.0 m, respectively. There are substantial regional variations in the regolith thickness, with its median value varying from 2.6 to 12.0 m for most regions. Local variations of regolith thickness are found to be correlated with the lunar surface age: the older the surface, the greater the thickness. In addition, sporadically distributed impact ejecta and crater rays are associated with relatively larger regolith thickness, which might result from excavation and transport of materials during the formation of the secondaries of Copernican-aged craters. Our estimated regolith thickness can help with future analysis of Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar echoes and studies of the subsurface stratigraphic structure of the Moon.

  12. Systematic analysis of neutron yields from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions and protons with moving source model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Nakamura, Takashi E-mail: nakamura@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp

    2002-03-21

    A simple phenomenological analysis using the moving source model has been performed on the neutron energy spectra produced by bombarding thick targets with high energy heavy ions which have been systematically measured at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) facility (located in Chiba, Japan) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). For the bombardment of both heavy ions and protons in the energy region of 100-500 MeV per nucleon, the moving source model incorporating the knock-on process could be generally successful in reproducing the measured neutron spectra within a factor of two margin of accuracy. This phenomenological analytical equation is expressed having several parameters as functions of atomic number Z{sub p}, mass number A{sub p}, energy per nucleon E{sub p} for projectile, and atomic number Z{sub T}, mass number A{sub T} for target. By inputting these basic data for projectile and target into this equation we can easily estimate the secondary neutron energy spectra at an emission angle of 0-90 deg. for bombardment with heavy ions and protons in the aforementioned energy region. This method will be quite useful to estimate the neutron source term in the neutron shielding design of high energy proton and heavy ion accelerators.

  13. Small States, Nationalism and Institutional Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses theories of small states (e.g. Katzenstein) and nationalism (e.g. Gellner) to explain why Denmark and Ireland responded to the 2008 financial crisis in different ways. In Denmark, a coordinated market economy with considerable corporatism and state intervention, the private sector...... shouldered much of the financial burden for rescuing the banking sector. In Ireland, a liberal market economy without much corporatism or state intervention, the state shouldered the burden. The difference stems in large part from the fact that Denmark had comparatively thick institutions and a strong sense...

  14. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  15. Thick vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cheluvaraja, Srinath

    2004-01-01

    Three dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory is studied after eliminating thin monopoles and the smallest thick monopoles. Kinematically this constraint allows the formation of thick vortex loops which produce Z(2) fluctuations at longer length scales. The thick vortex loops are identified in a three dimensional simulation. A condensate of thick vortices persists even after the thin vortices have all disappeared. The thick vortices decouple at a slightly lower temperature (higher beta) than t...

  16. Assessment of corneal epithelial thickness in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinhan; Hong, Jiaxu; Wang, Fei; Deng, Sophie X; Yang, Yujing; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Yujin; Xu, Jianjiang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the features of corneal epithelial thickness topography with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eye patients. In this cross-sectional study, 100 symptomatic dry eye patients and 35 normal subjects were enrolled. All participants answered the ocular surface disease index questionnaire and were subjected to OCT, corneal fluorescein staining, tear breakup time, Schirmer 1 test without anesthetic (S1t), and meibomian morphology. Several epithelium statistics for each eye, including central, superior, inferior, minimum, maximum, minimum - maximum, and map standard deviation, were averaged. Correlations of epithelial thickness with the symptoms of dry eye were calculated. The mean (±SD) central, superior, and inferior corneal epithelial thickness was 53.57 (±3.31) μm, 52.00 (±3.39) μm, and 53.03 (±3.67) μm in normal eyes and 52.71 (±2.83) μm, 50.58 (±3.44) μm, and 52.53 (±3.36) μm in dry eyes, respectively. The superior corneal epithelium was thinner in dry eye patients compared with normal subjects (p = 0.037), whereas central and inferior epithelium were not statistically different. In the dry eye group, patients with higher severity grades had thinner superior (p = 0.017) and minimum (p dry eye corneal epithelium was thinner than normal eyes in the superior region. In more severe dry eye disease patients, the superior and minimum epithelium was much thinner, with a greater range of map standard deviation.

  17. Impact of plasma tube wall thickness on power coupling in ICP sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The inductively heated plasma source at the Institute of Space Systems was investigated with respect to the wall thickness of the plasma tube using an air plasma. For this, the wall thickness of the quartz tube was reduced in steps from 2.5 to 1.25 mm. The significance of reducing the wall thickness was analyzed with respect to both the maximum allowable tube cooling power and the coupling efficiency. While the former results from thermal stresses in the tube's wall, the latter results from a minimization of magnetic field losses near the coil turns of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Analysis of the thermal stress could be validated by experimental data, i.e. the measurement of the tube cooling power when the respective tube structure failed. The coupling efficiency could be assessed qualitatively by simplified models, and the experimental data recorded show that coupling was improved far more than predicted.

  18. Institutional economic analysis of vegetable production and marketing in northern Philippines: social capital, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milagrosa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines vegetable production and marketing among indigenous communities in northernregion w:st="on">Philippinesregion>using an institutional economics approach. It develops a framework that analyses the four levels of

  19. A Study on the Effect of Electrolyte Thickness on Atmospheric Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Kwang Bum

    1998-01-01

    Effect of electrolyte layer thickness and increase in concentration of electrolyte during electrolyte thining on the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel were investigated using EIS and cathodic polarization technique. The electrolyte layer thickness was controlled via two methods : one is mechanical method with microsyringe applying a different amount of electrolyte onto the metal surface to give different electrolyte thickness with the same electrolyte concentration. The other is drying method in which water layer thickness decreases through drying, causing increase in concentration of electrolyte during electrolyte thinning. In the region whose corrosion rate is controlled by cathodic reaction, corrosion rate for mechanical method is larger than that for drying method. However, for the electrolyte layers thinner than 20 ∼ 30 m, increase in concentration of electrolyte cause a higher corrosion rate for the case of the mechanical method compared with that of drying method. For a carbon steel covered with 0.1M Na 2 SO 4 , maximum corrosion rate is found at an electrolyte thickness of 45 ∼ 55 μm for mechanical method. However, maximum corrosion rate is found at an electrolyte thickness of 20 ∼ 35 μm for drying method. The limiting current is inversely proportional to electrolyte thickness for electrolyte thicker than 20 ∼ 30 μm. However, further decrease of the electrolyte thickness leads to an electrolyte thickness-independent limiting current reagion, where the oxygen rate is controlled by the solvation of oxygen at the electrolyte/gas interface. Diffusion limiting current for drying method is smaller compared with that for mechanica control. This can be attributed to decreasing in O 2 solubility caused by increase in concentration of electrolyte during electrolyte thining

  20. CT measurement of normal pericardial thickness in adults on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Woo; Park, Chan Sup; Jeon, Yong Sun; Bae, In Young; Choi, Sung Gyu; Koo, Jin Hoe; Chung, Won Kyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, using computed tomography, the normal thickness of the pericardium in adults. Materials and Methods: CT scans of 50 patients, including sections through the level of the heart, were reviewed. Patients were excluded if there were any suspicions of pericardial abnormality such as infectious or neoplastic diseases. Twenty-four of the 50 were men and 26 were women; their mean age was 47.0(range,18-76) years. We measured pericardial thickness at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum and left ventricle, and also compared pericardial thickness in terms of age and sex. Results: In all patients, the pericardium was observed in the right ventricular region; in 41 (82%) at the interventricular septum; and in 41 (82%) along the left ventricle. The mean thickness of normal pericardium at the level of the right ventricle, interventricular septum, and left ventricle was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm, 1.8 mm ± 0.4 mm, and 1.7 mm ± 0.5 mm, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and age group (p > 0.63, ANOVA test). Mean pericardial thickness was 1.9 mm ± 0.6 mm in males and 1.7 mm ± 0.4 mm in females; thus, no statistically significant correlation was apparent between pericardial thickness and sex (p >0.29, Student's t-test). Conclusion: The pericardium was best visualized in sections through the right ventricle.The mean thickness of normal pericardium was 1.8 mm ± 0.5 mm and pericardial thickness did not differ according to age or sex