Sample records for regional hydrologic processes

  1. Modeling of hydrological processes in arid agricultural regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LI,Xiaomin MAO,Shaozhong KANG,David A. BARRY


    Full Text Available Understanding of hydrological processes, including consideration of interactions between vegetation growth and water transfer in the root zone, underpins efficient use of water resources in arid-zone agriculture. Water transfers take place in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and include groundwater dynamics, unsaturated zone flow, evaporation/transpiration from vegetated/bare soil and surface water, agricultural canal/surface water flow and seepage, and well pumping. Models can be categorized into three classes: (1 regional distributed hydrological models with various land uses, (2 groundwater-soil-plant-atmosphere continuum models that neglect lateral water fluxes, and (3 coupled models with groundwater flow and unsaturated zone water dynamics. This review highlights, in addition, future research challenges in modeling arid-zone agricultural systems, e.g., to effectively assimilate data from remote sensing, and to fully reflect climate change effects at various model scales.

  2. Development of capability for microtopography-resolving simulations of hydrologic processes in permafrost affected regions (United States)

    Painter, S.; Moulton, J. D.; Berndt, M.; Coon, E.; Garimella, R.; Lewis, K. C.; Manzini, G.; Mishra, P.; Travis, B. J.; Wilson, C. J.


    The frozen soils of the Arctic and subarctic regions contain vast amounts of stored organic carbon. This carbon is vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as temperatures warm and permafrost degrades. Understanding the response of the subsurface and surface hydrologic system to degrading permafrost is key to understanding the rate, timing, and chemical form of potential carbon releases to the atmosphere. Simulating the hydrologic system in degrading permafrost regions is challenging because of the potential for topographic evolution and associated drainage network reorganization as permafrost thaws and massive ground ice melts. The critical process models required for simulating hydrology include subsurface thermal hydrology of freezing/thawing soils, thermal processes within ice wedges, mechanical deformation processes, overland flow, and surface energy balances including snow dynamics. A new simulation tool, the Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is being developed to simulate these coupled processes. The computational infrastructure must accommodate fully unstructured grids that track evolving topography, allow accurate solutions on distorted grids, provide robust and efficient solutions on highly parallel computer architectures, and enable flexibility in the strategies for coupling among the various processes. The ATS is based on Amanzi (Moulton et al. 2012), an object-oriented multi-process simulator written in C++ that provides much of the necessary computational infrastructure. Status and plans for the ATS including major hydrologic process models and validation strategies will be presented. Highly parallel simulations of overland flow using high-resolution digital elevation maps of polygonal patterned ground landscapes demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Simulations coupling three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology with a simple thaw-induced subsidence model illustrate the strong feedbacks among the processes. D. Moulton, M. Berndt, M. Day, J

  3. Simulating Complex, Cold-region Process Interactions Using a Multi-scale, Variable-complexity Hydrological Model (United States)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.


    Accurate management of water resources is necessary for social, economic, and environmental sustainability worldwide. In locations with seasonal snowcovers, the accurate prediction of these water resources is further complicated due to frozen soils, solid-phase precipitation, blowing snow transport, and snowcover-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. Complex process interactions and feedbacks are a key feature of hydrological systems and may result in emergent phenomena, i.e., the arising of novel and unexpected properties within a complex system. One example is the feedback associated with blowing snow redistribution, which can lead to drifts that cause locally-increased soil moisture, thus increasing plant growth that in turn subsequently impacts snow redistribution, creating larger drifts. Attempting to simulate these emergent behaviours is a significant challenge, however, and there is concern that process conceptualizations within current models are too incomplete to represent the needed interactions. An improved understanding of the role of emergence in hydrological systems often requires high resolution distributed numerical hydrological models that incorporate the relevant process dynamics. The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) provides a novel tool for examining cold region hydrological systems. Key features include efficient terrain representation, allowing simulations at various spatial scales, reduced computational overhead, and a modular process representation allowing for an alternative-hypothesis framework. Using both physics-based and conceptual process representations sourced from long term process studies and the current cold regions literature allows for comparison of process representations and importantly, their ability to produce emergent behaviours. Examining the system in a holistic, process-based manner can hopefully derive important insights and aid in development of improved process representations.

  4. Regional review: the hydrology of the Okavango Delta, Botswana-processes, data and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, C.; Kgotlhang, L.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter


    The wetlands of the Okavango Delta accommodate a multitude of ecosystems with a large diversity in fauna and flora. They not only provide the traditional livelihood of the local communities but are also the basis of a tourism industry that generates substantial revenue for the whole of Botswana....... For the global community, the wetlands retain a tremendous pool of biodiversity. As the upstream states Angola and Namibia are developing, however, changes in the use of the water of the Okavango River and in the ecological status of the wetlands are to be expected. To predict these impacts, the hydrology...

  5. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil (United States)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert


    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  6. Model parameters conditioning on regional hydrologic signatures for process-based design flood estimation in ungauged basins. (United States)

    Biondi, Daniela; De Luca, Davide Luciano


    The use of rainfall-runoff models represents an alternative to statistical approaches (such as at-site or regional flood frequency analysis) for design flood estimation, and constitutes an answer to the increasing need for synthetic design hydrographs (SDHs) associated to a specific return period. However, the lack of streamflow observations and the consequent high uncertainty associated with parameter estimation, usually pose serious limitations to the use of process-based approaches in ungauged catchments, which in contrast represent the majority in practical applications. This work presents the application of a Bayesian procedure that, for a predefined rainfall-runoff model, allows for the assessment of posterior parameters distribution, using the limited and uncertain information available for the response of an ungauged catchment (Bulygina et al. 2009; 2011). The use of regional estimates of river flow statistics, interpreted as hydrological signatures that measure theoretically relevant system process behaviours (Gupta et al. 2008), within this framework represents a valuable option and has shown significant developments in recent literature to constrain the plausible model response and to reduce the uncertainty in ungauged basins. In this study we rely on the first three L-moments of annual streamflow maxima, for which regressions are available from previous studies (Biondi et al. 2012; Laio et al. 2011). The methodology was carried out for a catchment located in southern Italy, and used within a Monte Carlo scheme (MCs) considering both event-based and continuous simulation approaches for design flood estimation. The applied procedure offers promising perspectives to perform model calibration and uncertainty analysis in ungauged basins; moreover, in the context of design flood estimation, process-based methods coupled with MCs approach have the advantage of providing simulated floods uncertainty analysis that represents an asset in risk-based decision

  7. Integration of Local Hydrology into Regional Hydrologic Simulation Model (United States)

    Van Zee, R. J.; Lal, W. A.


    South Florida hydrology is dominated by the Central and South Florida (C&SF) Project that is managed to provide flood protection, water supply and environmental protection. A complex network of levees canals and structures provide these services to the individual drainage basins. The landscape varies widely across the C&SF system, with corresponding differences in the way water is managed within each basin. Agricultural areas are managed for optimal crop production. Urban areas maximize flood protection while maintaining minimum water levels to protect adjacent wetlands and local water supplies. "Natural" areas flood and dry out in response to the temporal distribution of rainfall. The evaluation of planning, regulation and operational issues require access to a simulation model that captures the effects of both regional and local hydrology. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) uses a "pseudo-cell" approach to integrate local hydrology within the context of a regional hydrologic system. A 2-dimensional triangulated mesh is used to represent the regional surface and ground water systems and a 1-dimensional canal network is superimposed onto this mesh. The movement of water is simulated using a finite volume formulation with a diffusive wave approximation. Each cell in the triangulated mesh has a "pseudo-cell" counterpart, which represents the same area as the cell, but it is conceptualized such that it simulates the localized hydrologic conditions Protocols have been established to provide an interface between a cell and its pseudo-cell counterpart. . A number of pseudo-cell types have already been developed and tested in the simulation of Water Conservation Area 1 and several have been proposed to deal with specific local issues in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study. This presentation will provide an overview of the overall RSM design, describe the relationship between cells and pseudo-cells, and illustrate how pseudo-cells are be used to simulate agriculture

  8. Development and Application of an Integrated Model for Representing Hydrologic Processes and Irrigation at Residential Scale in Semiarid and Mediterranean Regions (United States)

    Herrera, J. B.; Gironas, J. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vera, S.; Reyes, F. R.


    Urbanization alters physical and biological processes that take place in natural environments. New impervious areas change the hydrological processes, reducing infiltration and evapotranspiration and increasing direct runoff volumes and flow discharges. To reduce these effects at local scale, sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development and best management practices have been developed and implemented. These technologies, which typically consider some type of green infrastructure (GI), simulate natural processes of capture, retention and infiltration to control flow discharges from frequent events and preserve the hydrological cycle. Applying these techniques in semiarid regions requires accounting for aspects related to the maintenance of green areas, such as the irrigation needs and the selection of the vegetation. This study develops the Integrated Hydrological Model at Residential Scale, IHMORS, which is a continuous model that simulates the most relevant hydrological processes together with irrigation processes of green areas. In the model contributing areas and drainage control practices are modeled by combining and connecting differents subareas subjected to surface processes (i.e. interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff) and sub-surface processes (percolation, redistribution and subsurface runoff). The model simulates these processes and accounts for the dynamics of the water content in different soil layers. The different components of the model were first tested using laboratory and numerical experiments, and then an application to a case study was carried out. In this application we assess the long-term performance in terms of runoff control and irrigation needs of green gardens with different vegetation, under different climate and irrigation practices. The model identifies significant differences in the performance of the alternatives and provides a good insight for the maintenance needs of GI for runoff control.

  9. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability? (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong


    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  10. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin


    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  11. Futuristic isotope hydrology in the Gulf region (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, U.; Hadi, Khaled


    The Gulf region is one of the most water-stressed parts in the world. Water in the region is very scarce, shortage of supply and lacking of renewable water resources, while the demand for water is growing day by day. It is thus essential to implement modern approaches and technologies in addressing water-related issues. In this context, isotope hydrology will provide invaluable aid. Some of the most important areas of futuristic applications of isotope hydrology include evaluation of aquifer recharge, storage and their recovery system, understanding of dynamic changes due to long-term exploitation of the groundwater, development and management of shared groundwater aquifers, fresh groundwater discharge along the Arabian Gulf, identification and quantification of hydrocarbon contamination in groundwater; soil moisture and solute movement in unsaturated zone, paleoclimate reconstruction, etc. Literature survey suggests, in general, not many isotope studies on the above have been reported.

  12. Hydrological processes in regional climate model simulations of the central United States flood of June-July 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Christopher J.; Arritt, Raymond W.; Takle, Eugene S.


    Thirteen regional climate model (RCM) simulations of June-July 1993 were compared with each other and observations. Water vapor conservation and precipitation characteristics in each RCM were examined for a 10° X 10° subregion of the upper Mississippi River basin, containing the region of maximum...

  13. Global Precipitation Responses to Land Hydrological Processes (United States)

    Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.


    Several studies have established that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component in land surface models due to the additional supply of subsurface water. However, impacts of groundwater on the spatial-temporal variability of precipitation have received little attention. Through the coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model + Community Land Model) simulations, this study explores how groundwater representation in the model alters the precipitation spatiotemporal distributions. Results indicate that the effect of groundwater on the amount of precipitation is not globally homogeneous. Lower tropospheric water vapor increases due to the presence of groundwater in the model. The increased water vapor destabilizes the atmosphere and enhances the vertical upward velocity and precipitation in tropical convective regions. Precipitation, therefore, is inhibited in the descending branch of convection. As a result, an asymmetric dipole is produced over tropical land regions along the equator during the summer. This is analogous to the "rich-get-richer" mechanism proposed by previous studies. Moreover, groundwater also increased short-term (seasonal) and long-term (interannual) memory of precipitation for some regions with suitable groundwater table depth and found to be a function of water table depth. Based on the spatial distributions of the one-month-lag autocorrelation coefficients as well as Hurst coefficients, air-land interaction can occur from short (several months) to long (several years) time scales. This study indicates the importance of land hydrological processes in the climate system and the necessity of including the subsurface processes in the global climate models.

  14. Site study plan for regional hydrologic sampling and monitoring: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, A.R.


    The purpose of the Regional Hydrologic Studies Plan is to describe those field activities required for completion of the objectives of hydrologic activities. Many of these activities are regional in scope and are designed to provide a framework for understanding the hydrologic setting of the site and the hydrologic processes that influence site characteristics. Site Study Plans (SSPs) define activates at and in the immediate vicinity of the site. The activities specified in the Regional Hydrologic Studies Plan are performed beyond the confines of the site because the hydrologic systems extend beyond the site boundaries, because pertinent data that bear on site suitability are available outside of the site, and because natural analogues exist outside of the site that allow analysis of processes that are expected to operate within the site. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Bayesian estimation of parameters in a regional hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Engeland


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the applicability of the distributed, process-oriented Ecomag model for prediction of daily streamflow in ungauged basins. The Ecomag model is applied as a regional model to nine catchments in the NOPEX area, using Bayesian statistics to estimate the posterior distribution of the model parameters conditioned on the observed streamflow. The distribution is calculated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC analysis. The Bayesian method requires formulation of a likelihood function for the parameters and three alternative formulations are used. The first is a subjectively chosen objective function that describes the goodness of fit between the simulated and observed streamflow, as defined in the GLUE framework. The second and third formulations are more statistically correct likelihood models that describe the simulation errors. The full statistical likelihood model describes the simulation errors as an AR(1 process, whereas the simple model excludes the auto-regressive part. The statistical parameters depend on the catchments and the hydrological processes and the statistical and the hydrological parameters are estimated simultaneously. The results show that the simple likelihood model gives the most robust parameter estimates. The simulation error may be explained to a large extent by the catchment characteristics and climatic conditions, so it is possible to transfer knowledge about them to ungauged catchments. The statistical models for the simulation errors indicate that structural errors in the model are more important than parameter uncertainties. Keywords: regional hydrological model, model uncertainty, Bayesian analysis, Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis

  16. Hydrologic and cryospheric processes observed from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Li, X.; Wang, J.; Vereecken, H.; Li, J.; Mancini, M.; Liu, Q.; Jia, L.; Li, J.; Kuenzer, C.; Huang, S.; Yesou, H.; Wen, J.; Kerr, Y.; Cheng, X.; Gourmelen, N.; Ke, C.; Ludwig, R.; Lin, H.; Eineder, M.; Ma, Y.; Su, Z.B.


    Ten Dragon 3 projects deal with hydrologic and cryosphere processes, with a focus on the Himalayas and Qinghai – Tibet Plateau, but not limited to that. At the 1st Dragon 3 Progress Symposium in 2013 a significant potential for a better and deeper integration appeared very clearly and we worked out

  17. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard


    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  18. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.


    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers to identify the outstanding workload categorized as in-office datum transformations or offset applications versus out

  19. Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of surface evaporation on precipitation, or recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view of the inherent limitations of diagnostic recycling calculations. The current study describes a calculation of the amount of local and remote geographic sources of surface evaporation for precipitation, based on the implementation of three-dimensional constituent tracers of regional water vapor sources (termed water vapor tracers, WVT) in a general circulation model. The major limitation on the accuracy of the recycling estimates is the veracity of the numerically simulated hydrological cycle, though we note that this approach can also be implemented within the context of a data assimilation system. In the WVT approach, each tracer is associated with an evaporative source region for a prognostic three-dimensional variable that represents a partial amount of the total atmospheric water vapor. The physical processes that act on a WVT are determined in proportion to those that act on the model's prognostic water vapor. In this way, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation can be predicted within the model simulation, and can be validated against the model's prognostic water vapor. As a demonstration of the method, the regional hydrologic cycles for North America and India are evaluated for six summers (June, July and August) of model simulation. More than 50% of the precipitation in the Midwestern United States came from continental regional sources, and the local source was the largest of the regional tracers (14%). The Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic regions contributed 18% of the water for Midwestern precipitation, but further analysis suggests that the greater region of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significantly. In most North American continental regions, the local source of precipitation is

  20. Towards a delimitation of southwestern Nigeria into hydrological regions (United States)

    Ogunkoya, O. O.


    Fifteen third-order drainage basins (1:50,000) on the Basement Complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria are classified into hydrological regions using hydrologic response parameters of average daily mean specific discharge ( QA); daily mean specific discharges equalled or exceeded 90% ( Q90), 50% ( Q50) and 10% ( Q10) of the study period; variability index of flow ( VI); recession constant ( K) of flow from peak discharge at the end of the rainy season to minimum discharge in the dry season; total annual runoff ( RO); total runoff within the dry season ( DSRO); dry season runoff as a percentage of total annual runoff (% DSRO); runoff coefficient ( ROC); and, number of days during the study period when there was no flow ( NFD). An ordination technique and a classification algorithm derived from cluster analysis technique and incorporating the analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to determine the level of significance of the homogeneity of derived classes, were used to classify the fifteen basins into five hydrologically homogeneous regions. The constituent basins of each region were observed to share common basin geology. It was observed that those drainage basins having at least 50% of their basin area underlain by quartzitic rocks form two groups and have the most desirable or optimal hydrologic response patterns, desirability or optimality being in terms of ability to potentially meet water resource development requirements (i.e. high perennial discharge, low variability and large groundwater contribution to stream flow). The basins predominantly underlain by granite-gneisses and amphibolitic rocks have much poorer hydrologic response patterns. Hydrological regionalization in southwestern Nigeria appears to be influenced by drainage basin geology while percentage area of the basin underlain by massive quartzites could be used as an index of occurrence of desirable hydrologic response pattern.

  1. Regional hydrological impacts of climate change: implications for water management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mondal


    Full Text Available Climate change is most likely to introduce an additional stress to already stressed water systems in developing countries. Climate change is inherently linked with the hydrological cycle and is expected to cause significant alterations in regional water resources systems necessitating measures for adaptation and mitigation. Increasing temperatures, for example, are likely to change precipitation patterns resulting in alterations of regional water availability, evapotranspirative water demand of crops and vegetation, extremes of floods and droughts, and water quality. A comprehensive assessment of regional hydrological impacts of climate change is thus necessary. Global climate model simulations provide future projections of the climate system taking into consideration changes in external forcings, such as atmospheric carbon-dioxide and aerosols, especially those resulting from anthropogenic emissions. However, such simulations are typically run at a coarse scale, and are not equipped to reproduce regional hydrological processes. This paper summarizes recent research on the assessment of climate change impacts on regional hydrology, addressing the scale and physical processes mismatch issues. Particular attention is given to changes in water availability, irrigation demands and water quality. This paper also includes description of the methodologies developed to address uncertainties in the projections resulting from incomplete knowledge about future evolution of the human-induced emissions and from using multiple climate models. Approaches for investigating possible causes of historically observed changes in regional hydrological variables are also discussed. Illustrations of all the above-mentioned methods are provided for Indian regions with a view to specifically aiding water management in India.

  2. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems (United States)

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.


    The hydrologic community has long recognized the need for broad reform in hydrologic education. A paradigm shift is critically sought in undergraduate hydrology and water resource education by adopting context-rich, student-centered, and active learning strategies. Hydrologists currently deal with intricate issues rooted in complex natural ecosystems containing a multitude of interconnected processes. Advances in the multi-disciplinary field include observational settings such as Critical Zone and Water, Sustainability and Climate Observatories, Hydrologic Information Systems, instrumentation and modeling methods. These research advances theory and practices call for similar efforts and improvements in hydrologic education. The typical, text-book based approach in hydrologic education has focused on specific applications and/or unit processes associated with the hydrologic cycle with idealizations, rather than the contextual relations in the physical processes and the spatial and temporal dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. An appreciation of the natural variability of these processes will lead to graduates with the ability to develop independent learning skills and understanding. This appreciation cannot be gained in curricula where field components such as observational and experimental data are deficient. These types of data are also critical when using simulation models to create environments that support this type of learning. Additional sources of observations in conjunction with models and field data are key to students understanding of the challenges associated with using models to represent such complex systems. Recent advances in scientific visualization and web-based technologies provide new opportunities for the development of active learning techniques utilizing ongoing research. The overall goal of the current study is to develop visual, case-based, data and simulation driven learning experiences to instructors and students through a web

  3. Hydrology (United States)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried


    Water in its different forms has always been a source of wonder, curiosity and practical concern for humans everywhere. Hydrology - An Introduction presents a coherent introduction to the fundamental principles of hydrology, based on the course that Wilfried Brutsaert has taught at Cornell University for the last thirty years. Hydrologic phenomena are dealt with at spatial and temporal scales at which they occur in nature. The physics and mathematics necessary to describe these phenomena are introduced and developed, and readers will require a working knowledge of calculus and basic fluid mechanics. The book will be invaluable as a textbook for entry-level courses in hydrology directed at advanced seniors and graduate students in physical science and engineering. In addition, the book will be more broadly of interest to professional scientists and engineers in hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, agronomy, geology, climatology, oceanology, glaciology and other earth sciences. Emphasis on fundamentals Clarification of the underlying physical processes Applications of fluid mechanics in the natural environment

  4. Gradation of complexity and predictability of hydrological processes (United States)

    Sang, Yan-Fang; Singh, Vijay P.; Wen, Jun; Liu, Changming


    Quantification of the complexity and predictability of hydrological systems is important for evaluating the impact of climate change on hydrological processes, and for guiding water activities. In the literature, the focus seems to have been on describing the complexity of spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological variables, but little attention has been paid to the study of complexity gradation, because the degree of absolute complexity of hydrological systems cannot be objectively evaluated. Here we show that complexity and predictability of hydrological processes can be graded into three ranks (low, middle, and high). The gradation is based on the difference in the energy distribution of hydrological series and that of white noise under multitemporal scales. It reflects different energy concentration levels and contents of deterministic components of the hydrological series in the three ranks. Higher energy concentration level reflects lower complexity and higher predictability, but scattered energy distribution being similar to white noise has the highest complexity and is almost unpredictable. We conclude that the three ranks (low, middle, and high) approximately correspond to deterministic, stochastic, and random hydrological systems, respectively. The result of complexity gradation can guide hydrological observations and modeling, and identification of similarity patterns among different hydrological systems.

  5. The evolution of process-based hydrologic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; Samaniego, Luis; Woods, Ross A.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bennett, Katrina E.; Pauwels, Valentijn R.N.; Cai, Xitian; Wood, Andrew W.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.


    The diversity in hydrologic models has historically led to great controversy on the "correct" approach to process-based hydrologic modeling, with debates centered on the adequacy of process parameterizations, data limitations and uncertainty, and computational constraints on model analysis. In this

  6. Critical Hydrologic and Atmospheric Measurements in Complex Alpine Regions (United States)

    Parlange, M. B.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Barrenetxea, G.; Krichane, M.; Ingelrest, F.; Couach, O.; Luyet, V.; Vetterli, M.; Lehning, M.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, C.; Selker, J.; Kumar, M.


    The Alps are often referred to as the « Water Towers of Europe » and as such play an essential role in European water resources. The impact of climatic change is expected to be particularly pronounced in the Alps and the lack of detailed hydrologic field observations is problematic for predictions of hydrologic and hazard assessment. Advances in information technology and communications provide important possibilities to improve the situation with relatively few measurements. We will present sensorscope technology (arrays of wireless weather stations including soil moisture, pressure, and temperature) that has now been deployed at the Le Genepi and Grand St. Bernard pass. In addition, a Distributed Temperature Sensor array on the stream beds has been deployed and stream discharge monitored. The high spatial resolution data collected in these previously "ungaged" regions are used in conjunction with new generation hydrologic models. The framework as to what is possible today with sensor arrays and modeling in extreme mountain environments is discussed.

  7. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.


    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  8. Large sample hydrology in NZ: Spatial organisation in process diagnostics (United States)

    McMillan, H. K.; Woods, R. A.; Clark, M. P.


    A key question in hydrology is how to predict the dominant runoff generation processes in any given catchment. This knowledge is vital for a range of applications in forecasting hydrological response and related processes such as nutrient and sediment transport. A step towards this goal is to map dominant processes in locations where data is available. In this presentation, we use data from 900 flow gauging stations and 680 rain gauges in New Zealand, to assess hydrological processes. These catchments range in character from rolling pasture, to alluvial plains, to temperate rainforest, to volcanic areas. By taking advantage of so many flow regimes, we harness the benefits of large-sample and comparative hydrology to study patterns and spatial organisation in runoff processes, and their relationship to physical catchment characteristics. The approach we use to assess hydrological processes is based on the concept of diagnostic signatures. Diagnostic signatures in hydrology are targeted analyses of measured data which allow us to investigate specific aspects of catchment response. We apply signatures which target the water balance, the flood response and the recession behaviour. We explore the organisation, similarity and diversity in hydrological processes across the New Zealand landscape, and how these patterns change with scale. We discuss our findings in the context of the strong hydro-climatic gradients in New Zealand, and consider the implications for hydrological model building on a national scale.

  9. Simulating hydrological processes of a typical small mountainous catchment in Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Bai, Z.; Fu, Q.; Pan, S.; Zhu, C.


    Water cycle of small watersheds with seasonal/permanent frozen soil and snow pack in Tibetan Plateau is seriously affected by climate change. The objective of this study is to find out how much and in what way the frozen soil and snow pack will influence the hydrology of small mountainous catchments in cold regions and how can the performance of simulation by a distributed hydrological model be improved. The Dong catchment, a small catchment located in Tibetan Plateau, is used as a case study. Two measurement stations are set up to collect basic meteorological and hydrological data for the modeling purpose. Annual and interannual variations of runoff indices are first analyzed based on historic data series. The sources of runoff in dry periods and wet periods are analyzed respectively. Then, a distributed hydrology soil vegetation model (DHSVM) is adopted to simulate the hydrological process of Dong catchment based on limited data set. Global sensitivity analysis is applied to help determine the important processes of the catchment. Based on sensitivity analysis results, the Epsilon-Dominance Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (ɛ-NSGAII) is finally added into the hydrological model to calibrate the hydrological model in a multi-objective way and analyze the performance of DHSVM model. The performance of simulation is evaluated with several evaluation indices. The final results show that frozen soil and snow pack do play an important role in hydrological processes in cold mountainous region, in particular in dry periods without precipitation, while in wet periods precipitation is often the main source of runoff. The results also show that although the DHSVM hydrological model has the potential to model the hydrology well in small mountainous catchments with very limited data in Tibetan Plateau, the simulation of hydrology in dry periods is not very satisfactory due to the model's insufficiency in simulating seasonal frozen soil.

  10. A process-based typology of hydrological drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.F.; Lanen, van H.A.J.


    Hydrological drought events have very different causes and effects. Classifying these events into distinct types can be useful for both science and management. We propose a hydrological drought typology that is based on governing drought propagation processes derived from catchment-scale drought

  11. Assessment of variability in the hydrological cycle of the Loess Plateau, China: examining dependence structures of hydrological processes (United States)

    Guo, A.; Wang, Y.


    Investigating variability in dependence structures of hydrological processes is of critical importance for developing an understanding of mechanisms of hydrological cycles in changing environments. In focusing on this topic, present work involves the following: (1) identifying and eliminating serial correlation and conditional heteroscedasticity in monthly streamflow (Q), precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) series using the ARMA-GARCH model (ARMA: autoregressive moving average; GARCH: generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity); (2) describing dependence structures of hydrological processes using partial copula coupled with the ARMA-GARCH model and identifying their variability via copula-based likelihood-ratio test method; and (3) determining conditional probability of annual Q under different climate scenarios on account of above results. This framework enables us to depict hydrological variables in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity and to examine dependence structures of hydrological processes while excluding the influence of covariates by using partial copula-based ARMA-GARCH model. Eight major catchments across the Loess Plateau (LP) are used as study regions. Results indicate that (1) The occurrence of change points in dependence structures of Q and P (PE) varies across the LP. Change points of P-PE dependence structures in all regions almost fully correspond to the initiation of global warming, i.e., the early 1980s. (3) Conditional probabilities of annual Q under various P and PE scenarios are estimated from the 3-dimensional joint distribution of (Q, P and PE) based on the above change points. These findings shed light on mechanisms of the hydrological cycle and can guide water supply planning and management, particularly in changing environments.

  12. Hydrologic model of the Modesto Region, California, 1960-2004 (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rewis, Diane L.; Traum, Jonathan A.


    Strategies for managing water supplies and groundwater quality in the Modesto region of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, are being formulated and evaluated by the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers Groundwater Basin Association. Management issues and goals in the basin include an area in the lower part of the basin that requires drainage of the shallow water table to sustain agriculture, intra- and inter-basin migration of poor-quality groundwater, and efficient management of surface and groundwater supplies. To aid in the evaluation of water-management strategies, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers Groundwater Basin Association have developed a hydrologic model that simulates monthly groundwater and surface-water flow as governed by aquifer-system properties, annual and seasonal variations in climate, surface-water flow and availability, water use, and land use. The model was constructed by using the U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-modeling software MODFLOW-OWHM with the Farm Process.

  13. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard


    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  14. Assessing the hydrologic response to wildfires in mountainous regions (United States)

    Havel, Aaron; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak


    This study aims to understand the hydrologic responses to wildfires in mountainous regions at various spatial scales. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the hydrologic responses of the upper Cache la Poudre Watershed in Colorado to the 2012 High Park and Hewlett wildfire events. A baseline SWAT model was established to simulate the hydrology of the study area between the years 2000 and 2014. A procedure involving land use and curve number updating was implemented to assess the effects of wildfires. Application of the proposed procedure provides the ability to simulate the hydrologic response to wildfires seamlessly through mimicking the dynamic of the changes due to wildfires. The wildfire effects on curve numbers were determined comparing the probability distribution of curve numbers after calibrating the model for pre- and post-wildfire conditions. Daily calibration and testing of the model produced very good results. No-wildfire and wildfire scenarios were created and compared to quantify changes in average annual total runoff volume, water budgets, and full streamflow statistics at different spatial scales. At the watershed scale, wildfire conditions showed little impact on the hydrologic responses. However, a runoff increase up to 75 % was observed between the scenarios in sub-watersheds with high burn intensity. Generally, higher surface runoff and decreased subsurface flow were observed under post-wildfire conditions. Flow duration curves developed for burned sub-watersheds using full streamflow statistics showed that less frequent streamflows become greater in magnitude. A linear regression model was developed to assess the relationship between percent burned area and runoff increase in Cache la Poudre Watershed. A strong (R2 > 0.8) and significant (p statistics through application of flow duration curves revealed that the wildfires had a higher effect on peak flows, which may increase the risk of flash floods in post

  15. Modeling urbanized watershed flood response changes with distributed hydrological model: key hydrological processes, parameterization and case studies (United States)

    Chen, Y.


    Urbanization is the world development trend for the past century, and the developing countries have been experiencing much rapider urbanization in the past decades. Urbanization brings many benefits to human beings, but also causes negative impacts, such as increasing flood risk. Impact of urbanization on flood response has long been observed, but quantitatively studying this effect still faces great challenges. For example, setting up an appropriate hydrological model representing the changed flood responses and determining accurate model parameters are very difficult in the urbanized or urbanizing watershed. In the Pearl River Delta area, rapidest urbanization has been observed in China for the past decades, and dozens of highly urbanized watersheds have been appeared. In this study, a physically based distributed watershed hydrological model, the Liuxihe model is employed and revised to simulate the hydrological processes of the highly urbanized watershed flood in the Pearl River Delta area. A virtual soil type is then defined in the terrain properties dataset, and its runoff production and routing algorithms are added to the Liuxihe model. Based on a parameter sensitive analysis, the key hydrological processes of a highly urbanized watershed is proposed, that provides insight into the hydrological processes and for parameter optimization. Based on the above analysis, the model is set up in the Songmushan watershed where there is hydrological data observation. A model parameter optimization and updating strategy is proposed based on the remotely sensed LUC types, which optimizes model parameters with PSO algorithm and updates them based on the changed LUC types. The model parameters in Songmushan watershed are regionalized at the Pearl River Delta area watersheds based on the LUC types of the other watersheds. A dozen watersheds in the highly urbanized area of Dongguan City in the Pearl River Delta area were studied for the flood response changes due to

  16. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu? (United States)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.


    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  17. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models


    Lili Wang; Zhonggen Wang; Jingjie Yu; Yichi Zhang; Suzhen Dang


    Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrolo...

  18. Hydrologic Process-oriented Optimization of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (United States)

    Hinnell, A.; Bechtold, M.; Ferre, T. A.; van der Kruk, J.


    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is commonly used in hydrologic investigations. Advances in joint and coupled hydrogeophysical inversion have enhanced the quantitative use of ERT to construct and condition hydrologic models (i.e. identify hydrologic structure and estimate hydrologic parameters). However the selection of which electrical resistivity data to collect and use is often determined by a combination of data requirements for geophysical analysis, intuition on the part of the hydrogeophysicist and logistical constraints of the laboratory or field site. One of the advantages of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion is the direct link between the hydrologic model and the individual geophysical data used to condition the model. That is, there is no requirement to collect geophysical data suitable for independent geophysical inversion. The geophysical measurements collected can be optimized for estimation of hydrologic model parameters rather than to develop a geophysical model. Using a synthetic model of drip irrigation we evaluate the value of individual resistivity measurements to describe the soil hydraulic properties and then use this information to build a data set optimized for characterizing hydrologic processes. We then compare the information content in the optimized data set with the information content in a data set optimized using a Jacobian sensitivity analysis.

  19. Regional Eco-hydrologic Sensitivity to Projected Amazonian Land Use Scenarios (United States)

    Knox, R. G.; Longo, M.; Zhang, K.; Levine, N. M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Bras, R. L.


    Given business as usual land-use practices, it is estimated that by 2050 roughly half of the Amazon's pre-anthropogenic closed-canopy forest stands would remain. Of this, eight of the Amazon's twelve major hydrologic basins would lose more than half of their forest cover to deforestation. With the availability of these land-use projections, we may start to question the associated response of the region's hydrologic climate to significant land-cover change. Here the Ecosystem-Demography Model 2 (EDM2, a dynamic and spatially distributed terrestrial model of plant structure and composition, succession, disturbance and thermodynamic transfer) is coupled with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model (BRAMS, a three-dimensional limited area model of the atmospheric fluid momentum equations and physics parameterizations for closing the system of equations at the lower boundary, convection, radiative transfer, microphysics, etc). This experiment conducts decadal simulations, framed with high-reliability lateral boundary conditions of reanalysis atmospheric data (ERA-40 interim) and variable impact of land-use scenarios (SimAmazonia). This is done by initializing the regional ecosystem structure with both aggressive and conservationist deforestation scenarios, and also by differentially allowing and not-allowing dynamic vegetation processes. While the lateral boundaries of the simulation will not reflect the future climate in the region, reanalysis data has provided improved realism as compared to results derived from GCM boundary data. Therefore, the ecosystem response (forest composition and structure) and the time-space patterns of hydrologic information (soil moisture, rainfall, evapotranspiration) are objectively compared in the context of a sensitivity experiment, as opposed to a forecast. The following questions are addressed. How do aggressive and conservative scenarios of Amazonian deforestation effect the regional patterning of hydrologic information in the

  20. Regionalization Study of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM) in Hydrologically Homogeneous River Basins of India (United States)

    Kumari, Babita; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghvendra P.


    A new semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model, namely Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), has been developed under 'PRACRITI-2' program of Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for sustainable water resources management of India by using data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites. Entire India is divided into 5km x 5km grid cells and properties at the center of the cells are assumed to represent the property of the cells. SHM contains five modules namely surface water, forest, snow, groundwater and routing. Two empirical equations (SCS-CN and Hargreaves) and water balance method have been used in the surface water module; the forest module is based on the calculations of water balancing & dynamics of subsurface. 2-D Boussinesq equation is used for groundwater modelling which is solved using implicit finite-difference. The routing module follows a distributed routing approach which requires flow path and network with the key point of travel time estimation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of SHM using regionalization technique which also checks the usefulness of a model in data scarce condition or for ungauged basins. However, homogeneity analysis is pre-requisite to regionalization. Similarity index (Φ) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis are adopted to test the homogeneity in terms of physical attributes of three basins namely Brahmani (39,033 km km^2)), Baitarani (10,982 km km^2)) and Kangsabati (9,660 km km^2)) with respect to Subarnarekha (29,196 km km^2)) basin. The results of both homogeneity analysis show that Brahmani basin is the most homogeneous with respect to Subarnarekha river basin in terms of physical characteristics (land use land cover classes, soiltype and elevation). The calibration and validation of model parameters of Brahmani basin is in progress which are to be transferred into the SHM set up of Subarnarekha basin and results are to be compared with the results of calibrated and validated

  1. A question driven socio-hydrological modeling process (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.


    Human and hydrological systems are coupled: human activity impacts the hydrological cycle and hydrological conditions can, but do not always, trigger changes in human systems. Traditional modeling approaches with no feedback between hydrological and human systems typically cannot offer insight into how different patterns of natural variability or human-induced changes may propagate through this coupled system. Modeling of coupled human-hydrological systems, also called socio-hydrological systems, recognizes the potential for humans to transform hydrological systems and for hydrological conditions to influence human behavior. However, this coupling introduces new challenges and existing literature does not offer clear guidance regarding model conceptualization. There are no universally accepted laws of human behavior as there are for the physical systems; furthermore, a shared understanding of important processes within the field is often used to develop hydrological models, but there is no such consensus on the relevant processes in socio-hydrological systems. Here we present a question driven process to address these challenges. Such an approach allows modeling structure, scope and detail to remain contingent on and adaptive to the question context. We demonstrate the utility of this process by revisiting a classic question in water resources engineering on reservoir operation rules: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? Our example model couples hydrological and human systems by linking the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result, per capita demand decreases during

  2. Upscaling Empirically Based Conceptualisations to Model Tropical Dominant Hydrological Processes for Historical Land Use Change (United States)

    Toohey, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Jones, J.


    Surface runoff and percolation to ground water are two hydrological processes of concern to the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica because of their impacts on flooding and drinking water contamination. As per legislation, the Costa Rican Government funds land use management from the farm to the regional scale to improve or conserve hydrological ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how land use (e.g., forest, coffee, sugar cane, and pasture) affects hydrological response at the point, plot (1 m2), and the field scale (1-6ha) to empirically conceptualize the dominant hydrological processes in each land use. Using our field data, we upscaled these conceptual processes into a physically-based distributed hydrological model at the field, watershed (130 km2), and regional (1500 km2) scales. At the point and plot scales, the presence of macropores and large roots promoted greater vertical percolation and subsurface connectivity in the forest and coffee field sites. The lack of macropores and large roots, plus the addition of management artifacts (e.g., surface compaction and a plough layer), altered the dominant hydrological processes by increasing lateral flow and surface runoff in the pasture and sugar cane field sites. Macropores and topography were major influences on runoff generation at the field scale. Also at the field scale, antecedent moisture conditions suggest a threshold behavior as a temporal control on surface runoff generation. However, in this tropical climate with very intense rainstorms, annual surface runoff was less than 10% of annual precipitation at the field scale. Significant differences in soil and hydrological characteristics observed at the point and plot scales appear to have less significance when upscaled to the field scale. At the point and plot scales, percolation acted as the dominant hydrological process in this tropical environment. However, at the field scale for sugar cane and pasture sites, saturation-excess runoff increased as

  3. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: Identification of dominant processes (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven; Hay, Lauren E.; Clark, Martyn P.


    The Precipitation–Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a distributed-parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS). Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1) the sensitive input parameters and (2) particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es). Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff) and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1). Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1) the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2) the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3) different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4) some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many

  4. Towards simplification of hydrologic modeling: identification of dominant processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Markstrom


    Full Text Available parameter hydrologic model, has been applied to the conterminous US (CONUS. Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to identify: (1 the sensitive input parameters and (2 particular model output variables that could be associated with the dominant hydrologic process(es. Sensitivity values of 35 PRMS calibration parameters were computed using the Fourier amplitude sensitivity test procedure on 110 000 independent hydrologically based spatial modeling units covering the CONUS and then summarized to process (snowmelt, surface runoff, infiltration, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, interflow, baseflow, and runoff and model performance statistic (mean, coefficient of variation, and autoregressive lag 1. Identified parameters and processes provide insight into model performance at the location of each unit and allow the modeler to identify the most dominant process on the basis of which processes are associated with the most sensitive parameters. The results of this study indicate that: (1 the choice of performance statistic and output variables has a strong influence on parameter sensitivity, (2 the apparent model complexity to the modeler can be reduced by focusing on those processes that are associated with sensitive parameters and disregarding those that are not, (3 different processes require different numbers of parameters for simulation, and (4 some sensitive parameters influence only one hydrologic process, while others may influence many.

  5. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang


    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  6. A system of automated processing of deep water hydrological information (United States)

    Romantsov, V. A.; Dyubkin, I. A.; Klyukbin, L. N.


    An automated system for primary and scientific analysis of deep water hydrological information is presented. Primary processing of the data in this system is carried out on a drifting station, which also calculates the parameters of vertical stability of the sea layers, as well as their depths and altitudes. Methods of processing the raw data are described.

  7. Hydrological balance and water transport processes of partially sealed soils (United States)

    Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd


    With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how

  8. Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions. (United States)

    Järvi, L; Grimmond, C S B; McFadden, J P; Christen, A; Strachan, I B; Taka, M; Warsta, L; Heimann, M


    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.

  9. The ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA): A new framework for developing regional environmental flow standards (United States)

    Poff, N.L.; Richter, B.D.; Arthington, A.H.; Bunn, S.E.; Naiman, R.J.; Kendy, E.; Acreman, M.; Apse, C.; Bledsoe, B.P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Henriksen, J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Kennen, J.G.; Merritt, D.M.; O'Keeffe, J. H.; Olden, J.D.; Rogers, K.; Tharme, R.E.; Warner, A.


    The flow regime is a primary determinant of the structure and function of aquatic and riparian ecosystems for streams and rivers. Hydrologic alteration has impaired riverine ecosystems on a global scale, and the pace and intensity of human development greatly exceeds the ability of scientists to assess the effects on a river-by-river basis. Current scientific understanding of hydrologic controls on riverine ecosystems and experience gained from individual river studies support development of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. 2. This paper presents a consensus view from a group of international scientists on a new framework for assessing environmental flow needs for many streams and rivers simultaneously to foster development and implementation of environmental flow standards at the regional scale. This framework, the ecological limits of hydrologic alteration (ELOHA), is a synthesis of a number of existing hydrologic techniques and environmental flow methods that are currently being used to various degrees and that can support comprehensive regional flow management. The flexible approach allows scientists, water-resource managers and stakeholders to analyse and synthesise available scientific information into ecologically based and socially acceptable goals and standards for management of environmental flows. 3. The ELOHA framework includes the synthesis of existing hydrologic and ecological databases from many rivers within a user-defined region to develop scientifically defensible and empirically testable relationships between flow alteration and ecological responses. These relationships serve as the basis for the societally driven process of developing regional flow standards. This is to be achieved by first using hydrologic modelling to build a 'hydrologic foundation' of baseline and current hydrographs for stream and river segments throughout the region. Second, using a set of ecologically relevant flow variables, river segments within the

  10. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

  11. Development of a Coupled Hydrological/Sediment Yield Model for a Watershed at Regional Level (United States)

    Rajbhandaril, Narayan; Crosson, William; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Liu, Yaping; Soman, Vishwas


    Development of a hydrologic model for the study of environmental conservation requires a comprehensive understanding of individual-storm affecting hydrologic and sedimentologic processes. The hydrologic models that we are currently coupling are the Simulator for Hydrology and Energy Exchange at the Land Surface (SHEELS) and the Distributed Runoff Model (DRUM). SHEELS runs continuously to estimate surface energy fluxes and sub-surface soil water fluxes, while DRUM operates during and following precipitation events to predict surface runoff and peak flow through channel routing. The lateral re-distribution of surface water determined by DRUM is passed to SHEELS, which then adjusts soil water contents throughout the profile. The model SHEELS is well documented in Smith et al. (1993) and Laymen and Crosson (1995). The model DRUM is well documented in Vieux et al. (1990) and Vieux and Gauer (1994). The coupled hydrologic model, SHEELS/DRUM, does not simulate sedimentologic processes. The simulation of the sedimentologic process is important for environmental conservation planning and management. Therefore, we attempted to develop a conceptual frame work for coupling a sediment yield model with SHEELS/DRUM to estimate individual-storm sediment yield from a watershed at a regional level. The sediment yield model that will be used for this study is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) with some modifications to enable the model to predict individual-storm sediment yield. The predicted sediment yield does not include wind erosion and erosion caused by irrigation and snow melt. Units used for this study are those given by Foster et al. (1981) for SI units.

  12. Hydrology (United States)

    Sharp, John M.


    Lists many recent research projects in hydrology, including flow in fractured media, improvements in remote-sensing techniques, effects of urbanization on water resources, and developments in drainage basins. (MLH)

  13. Hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando G, E.


    Isotopical techniques are used in hydrology area for exploration, evaluation and exploration of water investigation. These techniques have been used successfully and are often the best or only means for providing certain hydrogeological parameters

  14. A radar-based hydrological model for flash flood prediction in the dry regions of Israel (United States)

    Ronen, Alon; Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat


    Flash floods are floods which follow shortly after rainfall events, and are among the most destructive natural disasters that strike people and infrastructures in humid and arid regions alike. Using a hydrological model for the prediction of flash floods in gauged and ungauged basins can help mitigate the risk and damage they cause. The sparsity of rain gauges in arid regions requires the use of radar measurements in order to get reliable quantitative precipitation estimations (QPE). While many hydrological models use radar data, only a handful do so in dry climate. This research presents a robust radar-based hydro-meteorological model built specifically for dry climate. Using this model we examine the governing factors of flash floods in the arid and semi-arid regions of Israel in particular and in dry regions in general. The hydrological model built is a semi-distributed, physically-based model, which represents the main hydrological processes in the area, namely infiltration, flow routing and transmission losses. Three infiltration functions were examined - Initial & Constant, SCS-CN and Green&Ampt. The parameters for each function were found by calibration based on 53 flood events in three catchments, and validation was performed using 55 flood events in six catchments. QPE were obtained from a C-band weather radar and adjusted using a weighted multiple regression method based on a rain gauge network. Antecedent moisture conditions were calculated using a daily recharge assessment model (DREAM). We found that the SCS-CN infiltration function performed better than the other two, with reasonable agreement between calculated and measured peak discharge. Effects of storm characteristics were studied using synthetic storms from a high resolution weather generator (HiReS-WG), and showed a strong correlation between storm speed, storm direction and rain depth over desert soils to flood volume and peak discharge.

  15. Simulations of ecosystem hydrological processes using a unified multi-scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin; Hinkle, Ross; Li, Hong-Yi; Bailey, Vanessa; Bond-Lamberty, Ben


    This paper presents a unified multi-scale model (UMSM) that we developed to simulate hydrological processes in an ecosystem containing both surface water and groundwater. The UMSM approach modifies the Navier–Stokes equation by adding a Darcy force term to formulate a single set of equations to describe fluid momentum and uses a generalized equation to describe fluid mass balance. The advantage of the approach is that the single set of the equations can describe hydrological processes in both surface water and groundwater where different models are traditionally required to simulate fluid flow. This feature of the UMSM significantly facilitates modelling of hydrological processes in ecosystems, especially at locations where soil/sediment may be frequently inundated and drained in response to precipitation, regional hydrological and climate changes. In this paper, the UMSM was benchmarked using WASH123D, a model commonly used for simulating coupled surface water and groundwater flow. Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP) site at the Kissimmee, Florida, where active field monitoring and measurements are ongoing to understand hydrological and biogeochemical processes, was then used as an example to illustrate the UMSM modelling approach. The simulations results demonstrated that the DWP site is subject to the frequent changes in soil saturation, the geometry and volume of surface water bodies, and groundwater and surface water exchange. All the hydrological phenomena in surface water and groundwater components including inundation and draining, river bank flow, groundwater table change, soil saturation, hydrological interactions between groundwater and surface water, and the migration of surface water and groundwater interfaces can be simultaneously simulated using the UMSM. Overall, the UMSM offers a cross-scale approach that is particularly suitable to simulate coupled surface and ground water flow in ecosystems with strong surface water and groundwater interactions.

  16. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling - Coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl Larsen, M.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Management Engineering, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)


    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate and hydrology have used each model component in an offline mode where the models are run in sequential steps and one model serves as a boundary condition or data input source to the other. Within recent years a new field of research has emerged where efforts have been made to dynamically couple existing climate and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. The modelling tool consists of a fully dynamic two-way coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model. The expected gain is twofold. Firstly, HIRHAM utilizes the land surface component of the combined MIKE SHE/SWET hydrology and land surface model (LSM), which is superior to the LSM in HIRHAM. A wider range of processes are included at the land surface, subsurface flow is distributed in three dimensions and the temporal and spatial resolution is higher. Secondly, the feedback mechanisms of e.g. soil moisture and precipitation between the two models are included. The preparation of the HIRHAM and MIKE SHE models for the coupled study revealed several findings. The performance of HIRHAM was highly affected by the domain size, domain

  17. Toward the Development of a Cold Regions Regional-Scale Hydrologic Model, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bolton, William Robert [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Young-Robertson, Jessica (Cable) [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)


    This project improves meso-scale hydrologic modeling in the boreal forest by: (1) demonstrating the importance of capturing the heterogeneity of the landscape using small scale datasets for parameterization for both small and large basins; (2) demonstrating that in drier parts of the landscape and as the boreal forest dries with climate change, modeling approaches must consider the sensitivity of simulations to soil hydraulic parameters - such as residual water content - that are usually held constant. Thus, variability / flexibility in residual water content must be considered for accurate simulation of hydrologic processes in the boreal forest; (3) demonstrating that assessing climate change impacts on boreal forest hydrology through multiple model integration must account for direct effects of climate change (temperature and precipitation), and indirect effects from climate impacts on landscape characteristics (permafrost and vegetation distribution). Simulations demonstrated that climate change will increase runoff, but will increase ET to a greater extent and result in a drying of the landscape; and (4) vegetation plays a significant role in boreal hydrologic processes in permafrost free areas that have deciduous trees. This landscape type results in a decoupling of ET and precipitation, a tight coupling of ET and temperature, low runoff, and overall soil drying.

  18. Hydrologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Hydro1ogi er den videnskab, der omhand1er jordens vand, dets forekomst, cirku1ation og forde1ing, dets kemiske og fysiske egenskaber samt indvirkning på omgivelserne, herunder dets relation ti1 alt liv på jorden. Således lyder en b1andt mange definitioner på begrebet hydrologi, og som man kan se...

  19. Responses of diatom communities to hydrological processes during rainfall events (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola


    The importance of diatoms as a tracer of hydrological processes has been recently recognized (Pfister et al. 2009, Pfister et al. 2011, Tauro et al. 2013). However, diatom variations in a short-term scale (e.g., sub-daily) during rainfall events have not been well documented yet. In this study, rainfall event-based diatom samples were taken at the outlet of the Kielstau catchment (50 km2), a lowland catchment in northern Germany. A total of nine rainfall events were caught from May 2013 to April 2014. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed that diatom communities of different events were well separated along NMDS axis I and II, indicating a remarkable temporal variation. By correlating water level (a proxy of discharge) and different diatom indices, close relationships were found. For example, species richness, biovolume (μm3), Shannon diversity and moisture index01 (%, classified according to van Dam et al. 1994) were positively related with water level at the beginning phase of the rainfall (i.e. increasing limb of discharge peak). However, in contrast, during the recession limb of the discharge peak, diatom indices showed distinct responses to water level declines in different rainfall events. These preliminary results indicate that diatom indices are highly related to hydrological processes. The next steps will include finding out the possible mechanisms of the above phenomena, and exploring the contributions of abiotic variables (e.g., hydrologic indices, nutrients) to diatom community patterns. Based on this and ongoing studies (Wu et al. unpublished data), we will incorporate diatom data into End Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) and select the tracer set that is best suited for separation of different runoff components in our study catchment. Keywords: Diatoms, Rainfall event, Non-metric multidimensional scaling, Hydrological process, Indices References: Pfister L, McDonnell JJ, Wrede S, Hlúbiková D, Matgen P, Fenicia F, Ector L, Hoffmann L

  20. Advancements in Hydrology and Erosion Process Understanding and Post-Fire Hydrologic and Erosion Model Development for Semi-Arid Landscapes (United States)

    Williams, C. Jason; Pierson, Frederick B.; Al-Hamdan, Osama Z.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Nearing, Mark A.; Hernandez, Mariano; Weltz, Mark A.; Spaeth, Kenneth E.; Goodrich, David C.


    Fire activity continues to increase in semi-arid regions around the globe. Private and governmental land management entities are challenged with predicting and mitigating post-fire hydrologic and erosion responses on these landscapes. For more than a decade, a team of scientists with the US Department of Agriculture has collaborated on extensive post-fire hydrologic field research and the application of field research to development of post-fire hydrology and erosion predictive technologies. Experiments funded through this research investigated the impacts of fire on vegetation and soils and the effects of these fire-induced changes on infiltration, runoff generation, erodibility, and soil erosion processes. The distribution of study sites spans diverse topography across grassland, shrubland, and woodland landscapes throughout the western United States. Knowledge gleaned from the extensive field experiments was applied to develop and enhance physically-based models for hillslope- to watershed-scale runoff and erosion prediction. Our field research and subsequent data syntheses have identified key knowledge gaps and challenges regarding post-fire hydrology and erosion modeling. Our presentation details some consistent trends across a diverse domain and varying landscape conditions based on our extensive field campaigns. We demonstrate how field data have advanced our understanding of post-fire hydrology and erosion for semi-arid landscapes and highlight remaining key knowledge gaps. Lastly, we briefly show how our well-replicated experimental methodologies have contributed to advancements in hydrologic and erosion model development for the post-fire environment.

  1. Calibration process of highly parameterized semi-distributed hydrological model (United States)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja


    Hydrological phenomena take place in the hydrological system, which is governed by nature, and are essentially stochastic. These phenomena are unique, non-recurring, and changeable across space and time. Since any river basin with its own natural characteristics and any hydrological event therein, are unique, this is a complex process that is not researched enough. Calibration is a procedure of determining the parameters of a model that are not known well enough. Input and output variables and mathematical model expressions are known, while only some parameters are unknown, which are determined by calibrating the model. The software used for hydrological modelling nowadays is equipped with sophisticated algorithms for calibration purposes without possibility to manage process by modeler. The results are not the best. We develop procedure for expert driven process of calibration. We use HBV-light-CLI hydrological model which has command line interface and coupling it with PEST. PEST is parameter estimation tool which is used widely in ground water modeling and can be used also on surface waters. Process of calibration managed by expert directly, and proportionally to the expert knowledge, affects the outcome of the inversion procedure and achieves better results than if the procedure had been left to the selected optimization algorithm. First step is to properly define spatial characteristic and structural design of semi-distributed model including all morphological and hydrological phenomena, like karstic area, alluvial area and forest area. This step includes and requires geological, meteorological, hydraulic and hydrological knowledge of modeler. Second step is to set initial parameter values at their preferred values based on expert knowledge. In this step we also define all parameter and observation groups. Peak data are essential in process of calibration if we are mainly interested in flood events. Each Sub Catchment in the model has own observations group

  2. Modeling post-wildfire hydrological processes with ParFlow (United States)

    Escobar, I. S.; Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.


    Wildfires alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff, evapotranspiration rates, and subsurface water storage. Post-fire hydrologic models are typically one-dimensional, empirically-based models or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful for modeling and predictions at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide detailed, distributed hydrologic processes at the point scale within the watershed. This research uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing the spatial and temporal variability of soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This work builds upon previous field and remote sensing analysis conducted for the 2003 Old Fire Burn in Devil Canyon, located in southern California (USA). This model is initially developed for a hillslope defined by a 500 m by 1000 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 12.4 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness to explicitly consider soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. We consider four slope and eight hydrophobic layer configurations. Evapotranspiration is used as a proxy for vegetation regrowth and is represented by the satellite-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBOP) product. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated at the point scale. Results will be used as a basis for developing and fine-tuning a watershed-scale model. Long-term simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management. In reference

  3. Determining hydrological changes in a small Arctic treeline basin using cold regions hydrological modelling and a pseudo-global warming approach (United States)

    Krogh, S. A.; Pomeroy, J. W.


    Increasing temperatures are producing higher rainfall ratios, shorter snow-covered periods, permafrost thaw, more shrub coverage, more northerly treelines and greater interaction between groundwater and surface flow in Arctic basins. How these changes will impact the hydrology of the Arctic treeline environment represents a great challenge. To diagnose the future hydrology along the current Arctic treeline, a physically based cold regions model was used to simulate the hydrology of a small basin near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. The hydrological model includes hydrological processes such as snow redistribution and sublimation by wind, canopy interception of snow/rain and sublimation/evaporation, snowmelt energy balance, active layer freeze/thaw, infiltration into frozen and unfrozen soils, evapotranspiration, horizontal flow through organic terrain and snowpack, subsurface flow and streamflow routing. The model was driven with weather simulated by a high-resolution (4 km) numerical weather prediction model under two scenarios: (1) control run, using ERA-Interim boundary conditions (2001-2013) and (2) future, using a Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) approach based on the RCP8.5 projections perturbing the control run. Transient changes in vegetation based on recent observations and ecological expectations were then used to re-parameterise the model. Historical hydrological simulations were validated against daily streamflow, snow water equivalent and active layer thickness records, showing the model's suitability in this environment. Strong annual warming ( 6 °C) and more precipitation ( 20%) were simulated by the PGW scenario, with winter precipitation and fall temperature showing the largest seasonal increase. The joint impact of climate and transient vegetation changes on snow accumulation and redistribution, evapotranspiration, active layer development, runoff generation and hydrograph characteristics are analyzed and discussed.

  4. A sensitivity analysis of regional and small watershed hydrologic models (United States)

    Ambaruch, R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Simmons, J. W.


    Continuous simulation models of the hydrologic behavior of watersheds are important tools in several practical applications such as hydroelectric power planning, navigation, and flood control. Several recent studies have addressed the feasibility of using remote earth observations as sources of input data for hydrologic models. The objective of the study reported here was to determine how accurately remotely sensed measurements must be to provide inputs to hydrologic models of watersheds, within the tolerances needed for acceptably accurate synthesis of streamflow by the models. The study objective was achieved by performing a series of sensitivity analyses using continuous simulation models of three watersheds. The sensitivity analysis showed quantitatively how variations in each of 46 model inputs and parameters affect simulation accuracy with respect to five different performance indices.

  5. Use of regional climate model simulations as an input for hydrological models for the Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalaya region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Booij, Martijn J.


    The most important climatological inputs required for the calibration and validation of hydrological models are temperature and precipitation that can be derived from observational records or alternatively from regional climate models (RCMs). In this paper, meteorological station observations and

  6. [Hydrologic processes of the different landscape zones in Fenhe River headwater catchment]. (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Li, Cai-Mei; Qin, Zuo-Dong; Zou, Song-Bing


    There are few studies on the hydrologic processes of the landscape zone scales at present. Since the water environment is worsening, there is sharp contradiction between supply and demand of water resources in Shanxi province. The principle of the hydrologic processes of the landscape zones in Fenhe River headwater catchment was revealed by means of isotope tracing, hydrology geological exploration and water chemical signal study. The results showed that the subalpine meadow zone and the medium high mountain forest zone were main runoff formation regions in Fenhe River headwater catchment, while the sparse forest shrub zone and the mountain grassland zone lagged the temporal and spatial collection of the precipitation. Fenhe River water was mainly recharged by precipitation, groundwater, melt water of snow and frozen soil. This study suggested that the whole catchment precipitation hardly directly generated surface runoff, but was mostly transformed into groundwater or interflow, and finally concentrated into river channel, completed the "recharge-runoff-discharge" hydrologic processes. This study can provide scientific basis and reference for the containment of water environment deterioration, and is expected to deliver the comprehensive restoration of clear-water reflowing and the ecological environment in Shanxi province.

  7. HIMALA: climate impacts on glaciers, snow, and hydrology in the Himalayan region (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; Bajracharya, Sagar R.; Racoviteanu, Adina


    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world's population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  8. HIMALA: Climate Impacts on Glaciers, Snow, and Hydrology in the Himalayan Region (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Ouyang, Hua; Habib, Shahid; Shrestha, Basanta; Shrestha, Mandira; Panday, Prajjwal; Tzortziou, Maria; Policelli, Frederick; Artan, Guleid; Giriraj, Amarnath; hide


    Glaciers are the largest reservoir of freshwater on Earth, supporting one third of the world s population. The Himalaya possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a freshwater reservoir for more than 1.3 billion people. This article describes a new project called HIMALA, which focuses on utilizing satellite-based products for better understanding of hydrological processes of the river basins of the region. With support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), together with its partners and member countries, has been working on the application of satellite-based rainfall estimates for flood prediction. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partners are working with ICIMOD to incorporate snowmelt and glacier melt into a widely used hydrological model. Thus, through improved modeling of the contribution of snow and ice meltwater to river flow in the region, the HIMALA project will improve the ability of ICIMOD and its partners to understand the impact of weather and climate on floods, droughts, and other water- and climate-induced natural hazards in the Himalayan region in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

  9. Modelling hydrologic and hydrodynamic processes in basins with large semi-arid wetlands (United States)

    Fleischmann, Ayan; Siqueira, Vinícius; Paris, Adrien; Collischonn, Walter; Paiva, Rodrigo; Pontes, Paulo; Crétaux, Jean-François; Bergé-Nguyen, Muriel; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Gosset, Marielle; Calmant, Stephane; Tanimoun, Bachir


    Hydrological and hydrodynamic models are core tools for simulation of large basins and complex river systems associated to wetlands. Recent studies have pointed towards the importance of online coupling strategies, representing feedbacks between floodplain inundation and vertical hydrology. Especially across semi-arid regions, soil-floodplain interactions can be strong. In this study, we included a two-way coupling scheme in a large scale hydrological-hydrodynamic model (MGB) and tested different model structures, in order to assess which processes are important to be simulated in large semi-arid wetlands and how these processes interact with water budget components. To demonstrate benefits from this coupling over a validation case, the model was applied to the Upper Niger River basin encompassing the Niger Inner Delta, a vast semi-arid wetland in the Sahel Desert. Simulation was carried out from 1999 to 2014 with daily TMPA 3B42 precipitation as forcing, using both in-situ and remotely sensed data for calibration and validation. Model outputs were in good agreement with discharge and water levels at stations both upstream and downstream of the Inner Delta (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) >0.6 for most gauges), as well as for flooded areas within the Delta region (NSE = 0.6; r = 0.85). Model estimates of annual water losses across the Delta varied between 20.1 and 30.6 km3/yr, while annual evapotranspiration ranged between 760 mm/yr and 1130 mm/yr. Evaluation of model structure indicated that representation of both floodplain channels hydrodynamics (storage, bifurcations, lateral connections) and vertical hydrological processes (floodplain water infiltration into soil column; evapotranspiration from soil and vegetation and evaporation of open water) are necessary to correctly simulate flood wave attenuation and evapotranspiration along the basin. Two-way coupled models are necessary to better understand processes in large semi-arid wetlands. Finally, such coupled

  10. Use of Isotopic Techniques for the Assessment of Hydrological Processes in Wetlands (Cienaga Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancur, T.; Santa, D.; Palacio, P.; Palacio, C.; Wills, B.; Hoyos, D. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia)


    The Cienaga Colombia wetland is located in the Bajo Cauca Antioqueno region where the 'Man' river flows into the Cauca River. Hydrological processes on the Cienaga Colombia wetland are complex because of the interactive effects of both local and regional elements, associated with a typical tropical wet climatic regime. In this groundwater dependent wetland hydrological studies have been conducted, including hydrochemical analyses and isotope tracers, to describe and understand the interactions between groundwater and surface water, not only for the wetland itself but also for the entire catchment area. Rain samples (five year record) were used to obtain the LML: {delta}{sup 2}H = 8.03 {delta}{sup 18}O +9.9. The evaporation line is: {delta}{sup 2}H = 5.9 {delta}{sup 18}O - 7.3. According to the analyses, both groundwater and surface waters have the same isotopic signatures. Unsustainable land use practices along with current and predicted global environmental changes may cause negative impacts on the hydrological functioning of the region, affecting primarily, but not exclusively, evapotranspiration-recharge processes and the sustainability of the entire system. (author)

  11. Impact of vegetation dynamics on hydrological processes in a semi-arid basin by using a land surface-hydrology coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yang; Lei, Huimin; Yang, Dawen; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Dengfeng; Yuan, Xing


    Land surface models (LSMs) are widely used to understand the interactions between hydrological processes and vegetation dynamics, which is important for the attribution and prediction of regional hydrological variations. However, most LSMs have large uncertainties in their representations of ecohydrological processes due to deficiencies in hydrological parameterizations. In this study, the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) LSM was modified with an advanced runoff generation and flow routing scheme, resulting in a new land surface-hydrology coupled model, CLM-GBHM. Both models were implemented in the Wudinghe River Basin (WRB), which is a semi-arid basin located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China. Compared with CLM, CLM-GBHM increased the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency for daily river discharge simulation (1965–1969) from 0.03 to 0.23 and reduced the relative bias in water table depth simulations (2010–2012) from 32.4% to 13.4%. The CLM-GBHM simulations with static, remotely sensed and model-predicted vegetation conditions showed that the vegetation in the WRB began to recover in the 2000s due to the Grain for Green Program but had not reached the same level of vegetation cover as regions in natural eco-hydrological equilibrium. Compared with a simulation using remotely sensed vegetation cover, the simulation with a dynamic vegetation model that considers only climate-induced change showed a 10.3% increase in evapotranspiration, a 47.8% decrease in runoff, and a 62.7% and 71.3% deceleration in changing trend of the outlet river discharge before and after the year 2000, respectively. This result suggests that both natural and anthropogenic factors should be incorporated in dynamic vegetation models to better simulate the eco-hydrological cycle.

  12. A Multi-Tiered Approach for Building Capacity in Hydrologic Modeling for Water Resource Management in Developing Regions (United States)

    Markert, K. N.; Limaye, A. S.; Rushi, B. R.; Adams, E. C.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Mithieu, F.; Griffin, R.


    Water resource management is the process by which governments, businesses and/or individuals reach and implement decisions that are intended to address the future quantity and/or quality of water for societal benefit. The implementation of water resource management typically requires the understanding of the quantity and/or timing of a variety of hydrologic variables (e.g. discharge, soil moisture and evapotranspiration). Often times these variables for management are simulated using hydrologic models particularly in data sparse regions. However, there are several large barriers to entry in learning how to use models, applying best practices during the modeling process, and selecting and understanding the most appropriate model for diverse applications. This presentation focuses on a multi-tiered approach to bring the state-of-the-art hydrologic modeling capabilities and methods to developing regions through the SERVIR program, a joint NASA and USAID initiative that builds capacity of regional partners and their end users on the use of Earth observations for environmental decision making. The first tier is a series of trainings on the use of multiple hydrologic models, including the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5), which focus on model concepts and steps to successfully implement the models. We present a case study for this in a pilot area, the Nyando Basin in Kenya. The second tier is focused on building a community of practice on applied hydrology modeling aimed at creating a support network for hydrologists in SERVIR regions and promoting best practices. The third tier is a hydrologic inter-comparison project under development in the SERVIR regions. The objective of this step is to understand model performance under specific decision-making scenarios, and to share knowledge among hydrologists in SERVIR regions. The results of these efforts include computer programs, training materials, and new

  13. A new perspective on the regional hydrologic cycle over North and South America (United States)

    Weng, Shu-Ping

    The GEOS-1 vertically-integrated 3-hr moisture flux reanalyses and hourly-gridded United States station precipitation plus a satellite-based, 6-hr global precipitation estimate were employed to investigate the impacts of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) on the regional hydrological cycle over the central United States (Part I) and the subtropical plains of South America (Part II). Research stressed the influences of upper-level synoptic-scale waves (i.e., synoptic-scale forcings) upon the regional hydrologic processes, which were explored by the impacts associated with the occurrence of LLJ. Besides the conventional budget analysis, the adopted `synoptic-forcing approach' was proven illustrative in describing these impacts through the down-scaling process of LLJs. In Part 1, the major findings include: (1)the seasonal-averaged hydrological cycle over the Great Plains is strongly affected by the occurrence of GPLLJ, (2)the synoptic-scale forcing provided by the upper-level propagating jet (ULJ) streams is essential in generating the large-scale precipitation after the GPLLJ forms from the diurnal boundary layer process, (3)without the dynamic coupling between the ULJ and LLJ, the impact of LLJ on the hydrological cycle is demonstrated to be less important, and (4)the importance of synoptic-scale forcings in preconditioning the setting of wet/dry seasons in the interannual variability of rainfall anomaly is further illustrated by examining the changes of intensity as well as the occurrence frequency between the different types of LLJ. In Part II of this study, it was found that the occurrence of Andean LLJ represents a transient episode that detours the climatic rainfall activity along the South Atlantic Convergent Zone (SACZ) to the subtropical plains (Brazilian Nordeste) in its southwestern (northeastern) flank. The appearance of a seesaw pattern in the rainfall and flux convergence anomalies along the southeastern portion of South America, which is spatially in

  14. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau Region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.


    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and groundwater systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net groundwater flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and, (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  15. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhart, L.S.


    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and ground-water systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net ground-water flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  16. Improving snow albedo processes in WRF/SSiB regional climate model to assess impact of dust and black carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over western U.S.


    Oaida, CM; Xue, Y; Flanner, MG; Skiles, SMK; De Sales, F; Painter, TH


    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Two important factors that control snow albedo are snow grain growth and presence of light-absorbing impurities (aerosols) in snow. However, current regional climate models do not include such processes in a physically based manner in their land surface models. We improve snow albedo calculations in the Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) land surface model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model (R...

  17. Impact of physical permafrost processes on hydrological change (United States)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Beer, Christian; Ekici, Altug


    Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. Within the European Union FP7 project PAGE21, the land surface scheme JSBACH of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology ESM (MPI-ESM) has been equipped with the representation of relevant physical processes for permafrost studies. These processes include the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. In the present study, it will be analysed how these permafrost relevant processes impact projected hydrological changes over northern hemisphere high latitude land areas. For this analysis, the atmosphere-land part of MPI-ESM, ECHAM6-JSBACH, is driven by prescribed SST and sea ice in an AMIP2-type setup with and without the newly implemented permafrost processes. Observed SST and sea ice for 1979-1999 are used to consider induced changes in the simulated hydrological cycle. In addition, simulated SST and sea ice are taken from a MPI-ESM simulation conducted for CMIP5 following the RCP8.5 scenario. The

  18. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement ... (United States)

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has been developed in this study. The developed model can continuously simulate infiltration through the permeable pavement surface, exfiltration from the storage to the surrounding in situ soils, and clogging impacts on infiltration/exfiltration capacity at the pavement surface and the bottom of the subsurface storage unit. The exfiltration modeling component simulates vertical and horizontal exfiltration independently based on Darcy’s formula with the Green-Ampt approximation. The developed model can be arranged with physically-based modeling parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, Manning’s friction flow parameters, saturated and field capacity volumetric water contents, porosity, density, etc. The developed model was calibrated using high-frequency observed data. The modeled water depths are well matched with the observed values (R2 = 0.90). The modeling results show that horizontal exfiltration through the side walls of the subsurface storage unit is a prevailing factor in determining the hydrologic performance of the system, especially where the storage unit is developed in a long, narrow shape; or with a high risk of bottom compaction and clogging. This paper presents unit

  19. The Scale Effects of Engineered Inlets in Urban Hydrologic Processes (United States)

    Shevade, L.; Montalto, F. A.


    Runoff from urban surfaces is typically captured by engineered inlets for conveyance to receiving water bodies or treatment plants. Normative hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling tools generally assume 100% efficient inlets, though observations by the authors suggest this assumption is invalid. The discrepancy is key since the more efficiently the inlet, the more linearly hydrologic processes scale with catchment area. Using several years of remote sensing, the observed efficiencies of urban green infrastructure (GI) facility inlets in New York City are presented, as a function of the morphological and climatological properties of their catchments and events. The rainfall-runoff response is modeled with EPA to assess the degree of inaccuracy that the assumption of efficient inlets introduces in block and neighborhood-scale simulations. Next, an algorithm is presented that incorporates inlet efficiency into SWMM and the improved predictive skill evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe and root-mean-square error (RMSE). The results are used to evaluate the extent to which decentralized green stormwater management facilities positioned at the low points of urban catchments ought to be designed with larger capacities than their counterparts located further upslope.

  20. Modelling of hydrologic processes and potential response to climate change through the use of a multisite SWAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gül, G.O.; Rosbjerg, Dan


    Hydrologic models that use components for integrated modelling of surface water and groundwater systems help conveniently simulate the dynamically linked hydrologic and hydraulic processes that govern flow conditions in watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one such model...... that allows continuous simulations over long time periods in the land phase of the hydrologic cycle by incorporating surface water and groundwater interactions. This study provides a verified structure for the SWAT to evaluate existing flow regimes in a small-sized catchment in Denmark and examines a simple...... simulation to help quantify the effects of climate change on regional water quantities. SWAT can be regarded among the alternative hydrologic simulation tools applicable for catchments with similar characteristics and of similar sizes in Denmark. However, the modellers would be required to determine a proper...

  1. Too Much or Too Little? Eco-hydrology in Arid and Semi-arid Regions (United States)

    Toch, S. L.


    Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic ecosystems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focusing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the diverse mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach focuses on the connections between our human and ecological qualities, with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthiest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulnerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. The interactions of watersheds within our diverse communities can link our resource practices with our human needs, serving as a basis for our ecological health and human well-being. Hydrologic ecosystems provide links to geographic and cultural information traversing physical and social boundaries. This international, community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is used that specifically explores the connections between ecological integrity and the preservation of potable supplies. A monitoring strategy is developed that assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interactions between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. This work is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with land use and watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through University curriculum, for professional

  2. [Advance in researches on the effect of forest on hydrological process]. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xinxiao; Zhao, Yutao; Qin, Yongsheng


    According to the effects of forest on hydrological process, forest hydrology can be divided into three related aspects: experimental research on the effects of forest changing on hydrological process quantity and water quality; mechanism study on the effects of forest changing on hydrological cycle, and establishing and exploitating physical-based distributed forest hydrological model for resource management and engineering construction. Orientation experiment research can not only support the first-hand data for forest hydrological model, but also make clear the precipitation-runoff mechanisms. Research on runoff mechanisms can be valuable for the exploitation and improvement of physical based hydrological models. Moreover, the model can also improve the experimental and runoff mechanism researches. A review of above three aspects are summarized in this paper.

  3. Hydrological connectivity of perched aquifers and regional aquifers in semi-arid environments: a case study from Namibia (United States)

    Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.


    Integrated isotopic and hydrological tracers along with standard hydrological data are used to understand complex dry land hydrological processes on different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between the perched aquifers and the regional aquifer using hydrochemical data and isotopic composition in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia. This relation between the aquifers will aid in understanding groundwater recharge processes and flow dynamics. Perched aquifers are discontinuous shallow aquifers with water level ranging from 0 to 30 meters below ground level. The regional aquifer occurs in semi-consolidated sandstone at depths between about 60 and 160 meters below ground level. Water samples were collected from both aquifers in 10 villages and were analysed for major ions and stable isotopes. The results show overlapping hydrochemistry and isotopic compositions of both aquifers in 8 villages which suggest the possibility of perched aquifer water infiltrating into the regional aquifer. In two villages the hydrochemistry and isotopic composition of the aquifers are totally different and this suggests that there is no interaction between this aquifers. Areas where perched aquifers are connected to regional aquifers maybe recharge zones. These finding have important implications for groundwater resource management.

  4. Dealing with regional hydrologic data-base limitations. Case example: the Columbia River basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.; Leonhart, L.S.


    Limitations are encountered in assembling hydrologic data for a broad geographic region, such as the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern US, into a conceptual model of the hydrologic system. These limitations may become resonant in subsequent numerical simulations of hydrologic system behavior. Included among such data limitations are irregular spatial distributions of data, decreases in information with increasing depth from the land surface, uncertainties about the reliability of reported hydrologic data, disparities in time-dependent parameters, and lack of field verification of data. The preparation of a regional hydrologic system description, therefore, first involves a comprehensive data evaluation, wherein the data are classified and ranked in terms of their utility to the study. The results of this evaluation are essential in planning future data acquisition activities, as well as in selecting and developing models. In turn, iterative use of modeling, data refinement, and data acquisition is considered to be highly effective. The case example of preparing a hydrologic system description for the Columbia Plateau, as required for repository siting, illustrates methods of determining the accuracy of certain data, compensating for data limitations, evaluating the need for acquiring additional data, and refining data through iterative techniques. Emphasis is placed on professional subjectivity, which has proven to be essential in data base evaluation and refinement

  5. Timeslice experiments for understanding regional climate projections: applications to the tropical hydrological cycle and European winter circulation (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Douville, Hervé; Skinner, Christopher B.


    A set of atmosphere-only timeslice experiments are described, designed to examine the processes that cause regional climate change and inter-model uncertainty in coupled climate model responses to CO_2 forcing. The timeslice experiments are able to reproduce the pattern of regional climate change in the coupled models, and are applied here to two cases where inter-model uncertainty in future projections is large: the tropical hydrological cycle, and European winter circulation. In tropical forest regions, the plant physiological effect is the largest cause of hydrological cycle change in the two models that represent this process. This suggests that the CMIP5 ensemble mean may be underestimating the magnitude of water cycle change in these regions, due to the inclusion of models without the plant effect. SST pattern change is the dominant cause of precipitation and circulation change over the tropical oceans, and also appears to contribute to inter-model uncertainty in precipitation change over tropical land regions. Over Europe and the North Atlantic, uniform SST increases drive a poleward shift of the storm-track. However this does not consistently translate into an overall polewards storm-track shift, due to large circulation responses to SST pattern change, which varies across the models. Coupled model SST biases influence regional rainfall projections in regions such as the Maritime Continent, and so projections in these regions should be treated with caution.

  6. Results and Lessons Learned from a Coupled Social and Physical Hydrology Model: Testing Alternative Water Management Policies and Institutional Structures Using Agent-Based Modeling and Regional Hydrology (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Prousevitch, A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A. D.; Alessa, L.


    Water Management in the U.S. Southwest is under increasing scrutiny as many areas endure persistent drought. The impact of these prolonged dry conditions is a product of regional climate and hydrological conditions, but also of a highly engineered water management infrastructure and a complex web of social arrangements whereby water is allocated, shared, exchanged, used, re-used, and finally consumed. We coupled an agent-based model with a regional hydrological model to understand the dynamics in one richly studied and highly populous area: southern Arizona, U.S.A., including metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson. There, multiple management entities representing an array of municipalities and other water providers and customers, including private companies and Native American tribes are enmeshed in a complex legal and economic context in which water is bought, leased, banked, and exchanged in a variety of ways and on multiple temporal and physical scales. A recurrent question in the literature of adaptive management is the impact of management structure on overall system performance. To explore this, we constructed an agent-based model to capture this social complexity, and coupled this with a physical hydrological model that we used to drive the system under a variety of water stress scenarios and to assess the regional impact of the social system's performance. We report the outcomes of ensembles of runs in which varieties of alternative policy constraints and management strategies are considered. We hope to contribute to policy discussions in this area and connected and legislatively similar areas (such as California) as current conditions change and existing legal and policy structures are revised. Additionally, we comment on the challenges of integrating models that ostensibly are in different domains (physical and social) but that independently represent a system in which physical processes and human actions are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle.

  7. Classifying low flow hydrological regimes at a regional scale (United States)

    Kirkby, M. J.; Gallart, F.; Kjeldsen, T. R.; Irvine, B. J.; Froebrich, J.; Lo Porto, A.; de Girolamo, A.; Mirage Team


    The paper uses a simple water balance model that partitions the precipitation between actual evapotranspiration, quick flow and delayed flow, and has sufficient complexity to capture the essence of climate and vegetation controls on this partitioning. Using this model, monthly flow duration curves have been constructed from climate data across Europe to address the relative frequency of ecologically critical low flow stages in semi-arid rivers, when flow commonly persists only in disconnected pools in the river bed. The hydrological model is based on a dynamic partitioning of precipitation to estimate water available for evapotranspiration and plant growth and for residual runoff. The duration curve for monthly flows has then been analysed to give an estimate of bankfull flow based on recurrence interval. Arguing from observed ratios of cross-sectional areas at flood and low flows, hydraulic geometry suggests that disconnected flow under "pool" conditions is approximately 0.1% of bankfull flow. Flow duration curves define a measure of bankfull discharge on the basis of frequency. The corresponding frequency for pools is then read from the duration curve, using this (0.1%) ratio to estimate pool discharge from bank full discharge. The flow duration curve then provides an estimate of the frequency of poorly connected pool conditions, corresponding to this discharge, that constrain survival of river-dwelling arthropods and fish. The methodology has here been applied across Europe at 15 km resolution, and the potential is demonstrated for applying the methodology under alternative climatic scenarios.

  8. Classifying low flow hydrological regimes at a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kirkby


    Full Text Available The paper uses a simple water balance model that partitions the precipitation between actual evapotranspiration, quick flow and delayed flow, and has sufficient complexity to capture the essence of climate and vegetation controls on this partitioning. Using this model, monthly flow duration curves have been constructed from climate data across Europe to address the relative frequency of ecologically critical low flow stages in semi-arid rivers, when flow commonly persists only in disconnected pools in the river bed. The hydrological model is based on a dynamic partitioning of precipitation to estimate water available for evapotranspiration and plant growth and for residual runoff. The duration curve for monthly flows has then been analysed to give an estimate of bankfull flow based on recurrence interval. Arguing from observed ratios of cross-sectional areas at flood and low flows, hydraulic geometry suggests that disconnected flow under "pool" conditions is approximately 0.1% of bankfull flow. Flow duration curves define a measure of bankfull discharge on the basis of frequency. The corresponding frequency for pools is then read from the duration curve, using this (0.1% ratio to estimate pool discharge from bank full discharge. The flow duration curve then provides an estimate of the frequency of poorly connected pool conditions, corresponding to this discharge, that constrain survival of river-dwelling arthropods and fish. The methodology has here been applied across Europe at 15 km resolution, and the potential is demonstrated for applying the methodology under alternative climatic scenarios.

  9. Design and Implementation of Hydrologic Process Knowledge-base Ontology: A case study for the Infiltration Process (United States)

    Elag, M.; Goodall, J. L.


    Hydrologic modeling often requires the re-use and integration of models from different disciplines to simulate complex environmental systems. Component-based modeling introduces a flexible approach for integrating physical-based processes across disciplinary boundaries. Several hydrologic-related modeling communities have adopted the component-based approach for simulating complex physical systems by integrating model components across disciplinary boundaries in a workflow. However, it is not always straightforward to create these interdisciplinary models due to the lack of sufficient knowledge about a hydrologic process. This shortcoming is a result of using informal methods for organizing and sharing information about a hydrologic process. A knowledge-based ontology provides such standards and is considered the ideal approach for overcoming this challenge. The aims of this research are to present the methodology used in analyzing the basic hydrologic domain in order to identify hydrologic processes, the ontology itself, and how the proposed ontology is integrated with the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology. The proposed ontology standardizes the definitions of a hydrologic process, the relationships between hydrologic processes, and their associated scientific equations. The objective of the proposed Hydrologic Process (HP) Ontology is to advance the idea of creating a unified knowledge framework for components' metadata by introducing a domain-level ontology for hydrologic processes. The HP ontology is a step toward an explicit and robust domain knowledge framework that can be evolved through the contribution of domain users. Analysis of the hydrologic domain is accomplished using the Formal Concept Approach (FCA), in which the infiltration process, an important hydrologic process, is examined. Two infiltration methods, the Green-Ampt and Philip's methods, were used to demonstrate the implementation of information in the HP ontology. Furthermore, a SPARQL

  10. Crowdsourcing Stream Stage in Data Scarce Regions: Applications of CrowdHydrology (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.


    Crowdsourced data collection using citizen scientists and mobile phones is a promising way to collect supplemental information in data scarce or remote regions. The research presented here explore the possibilities and pitfalls of crowdsourcing hydrologic data via mobile phone text messaging through the example of CrowdHydrology, a distributed network of over 40 stream gages in four states. Signage at the CrowdHydrology gages ask citizen scientists to answer to a simple question via text message: 'What is the water height?'. While these data in no way replace more traditional measurements of stream stage, they do provide low cost supplemental measurements in data scarce regions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of crowdsourced data and provide insight for successful future crowdsourced data collection efforts. A less recognized benefit is that even in data rich areas, crowdsourced data collection is a cost-effective way to perform quality assurance on more sophisticated, and costly, data collection efforts.

  11. Hydrological Utility and Uncertainty of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Products in the Mountainous Region of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Pil Kim


    Full Text Available Satellite-derived precipitation can be a potential source of forcing data for assessing water availability and managing water supply in mountainous regions of East Asia. This study investigates the hydrological utility of satellite-derived precipitation and uncertainties attributed to error propagation of satellite products in hydrological modeling. To this end, four satellite precipitation products (tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA version 6 (TMPAv6 and version 7 (TMPAv7, the global satellite mapping of precipitation (GSMaP, and the climate prediction center (CPC morphing technique (CMORPH were integrated into a physically-based hydrologic model for the mountainous region of South Korea. The satellite precipitation products displayed different levels of accuracy when compared to the intra- and inter-annual variations of ground-gauged precipitation. As compared to the GSMaP and CMORPH products, superior performances were seen when the TMPA products were used within streamflow simulations. Significant dry (negative biases in the GSMaP and CMORPH products led to large underestimates of streamflow during wet-summer seasons. Although the TMPA products displayed a good level of performance for hydrologic modeling, there were some over/underestimates of precipitation by satellites during the winter season that were induced by snow accumulation and snowmelt processes. These differences resulted in streamflow simulation uncertainties during the winter and spring seasons. This study highlights the crucial need to understand hydrological uncertainties from satellite-derived precipitation for improved water resource management and planning in mountainous basins. Furthermore, it is suggested that a reliable snowfall detection algorithm is necessary for the new global precipitation measurement (GPM mission.

  12. Using the SIMGRO regional hydrological model to evaluate salinity control measures in an irrigation area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, E.; Querner, E.P.; Morábito, J.A.; Menenti, M.


    In irrigated areas with drainage and an important interaction with the groundwater system, it is often difficult to predict effects of measures to control salinity. Therefore, in order to evaluate measures to control salinity the SIMGRO integrated regional hydrological model was extended with a

  13. Climate change impacts on freshwater wetland hydrology and vegetation cover cycling along a regional aridity gradient (United States)

    Global mean temperature may increase up to 6°C by the end of this century and together with precipitation change may steepen regional aridity gradients, impacting the hydrology, productivity, diversity, and ecosystem goods and services from freshwater wetlands, where the water balance is tightly cou...

  14. Water balances of two Piedmont headwater catchments: implications for regional hydrologic landscape classification (United States)

    C. Dreps; G. Sun; J. Boggs


    In the Piedmont of North Carolina, a traditionally water-rich region, reservoirs that serve over 1 million people are under increasing pressure due to naturally occurring droughts and increasing land development. Innovative development approaches aim to maintain hydrologic conditions of the undisturbed landscape, but are based on insufficient target information. This...

  15. Evaluating the Impacts of Urbanization on Hydrological Processes and Water Resources by Comparing Two Neighboring Basins (United States)

    Shao, M.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.


    Texas, the fastest growing state in the US, has seen significant land cover/land use change due to urbanization over the past decades. With most of the region being arid/semi-arid, water issues are unprecedentedly pressing. Among the 15 major river basins, two adjacent river basins located in south-central Texas—the San Antonio River Basin (SARB) and the Guadalupe River Basin (GRB)—form an ideal testbed for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on both hydrological processes and water resources. These two basins are similar in size and in climate pattern, but differ in terms of urbanization progress. In SARB, where the city of San Antonio is located, the impervious area has increased from 0.6% (1929) to 7.8% (2011). In contrast, there is little land cover change in the GRB. With regard to the underground components, both basins intersect with the Edward Aquifer (more than 15% of basin area in both cases). The Edward Aquifer acts as one of the major municipal water supplies for San Antonio, and as the water source for local agricultural uses (and for the surrounding habitat). This aquifer has the characteristic of being highly sensitive to changes in surface water conditions, like the descending trend of the underground water table due to over exploitation. In this study, a distributed hydrologic model—DHSVM (the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model)—is used to compare the hydrologic characteristics (and their impacts on water resources) over the two basins. With a 200m spatial resolution, the model is calibrated and validated during the historical period over both basins. The objectives of the comparisons are two-fold: First, the urbanization effects on peak flows are evaluated for selected extreme rainfall events; Second, the Edward Aquifer recharge rate from surface water under flood and/or drought conditions within the two basins is analyzed. Furthermore, future urbanization scenarios are tested to provide information relevant to decision making.

  16. Effects of future climate change, CO2 enrichment, and vegetation structure variation on hydrological processes in China (United States)

    Zhu, Qiuan; Jiang, Hong; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Fang, Xiuqin; Wei, Xiaohua; Liu, Shirong; Zhou, Guomo


    Investigating the relationship between factors (climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations enrichment, and vegetation structure) and hydrological processes is important for understanding and predicting the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) was used to evaluate the effects of climate change, rising CO2, and vegetation structure on hydrological processes in China at the end of the 21st century. Seven simulations were implemented using the assemblage of the IPCC climate and CO2 concentration scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1. Analysis results suggest that (1) climate change will have increasing effects on runoff, evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration (T), and transpiration ratio (transpiration/evapotranspiration, T/E) in most hydrological regions of China except in the southernmost regions; (2) elevated CO2 concentrations will have increasing effects on runoff at the national scale, but at the hydrological region scale, the physiology effects induced by elevated CO2 concentration will depend on the vegetation types, climate conditions, and geographical background information with noticeable decreasing effects shown in the arid Inland region of China; (3) leaf area index (LAI) compensation effect and stomatal closure effect are the dominant factors on runoff in the arid Inland region and southern moist hydrological regions, respectively; (4) the magnitudes of climate change (especially the changing precipitation pattern) effects on the water cycle are much larger than those of the elevated CO2 concentration effects; however, increasing CO2 concentration will be one of the most important modifiers to the water cycle; (5) the water resource condition will be improved in northern China but depressed in southernmost China under the IPCC climate change scenarios, SRES A2 and SRES B1.

  17. Assessment of the Suitability of High Resolution Numerical Weather Model Outputs for Hydrological Modelling in Mountainous Cold Regions (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Hayashi, M.; Fang, X.; Gutmann, E. D.; Li, Y.


    The hydrology of mountainous cold regions has a large spatial variability that is driven both by climate variability and near-surface process variability associated with complex terrain and patterns of vegetation, soils, and hydrogeology. There is a need to downscale large-scale atmospheric circulations towards the fine scales that cold regions hydrological processes operate at to assess their spatial variability in complex terrain and quantify uncertainties by comparison to field observations. In this research, three high resolution numerical weather prediction models, namely, the Intermediate Complexity Atmosphere Research (ICAR), Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) models are used to represent spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric conditions appropriate for hydrological modelling. An area covering high mountains and foothills of the Canadian Rockies was selected to assess and compare high resolution ICAR (1 km × 1 km), WRF (4 km × 4 km), and GEM (2.5 km × 2.5 km) model outputs with station-based meteorological measurements. ICAR with very low computational cost was run with different initial and boundary conditions and with finer spatial resolution, which allowed an assessment of modelling uncertainty and scaling that was difficult with WRF. Results show that ICAR, when compared with WRF and GEM, performs very well in precipitation and air temperature modelling in the Canadian Rockies, while all three models show a fair performance in simulating wind and humidity fields. Representation of local-scale atmospheric dynamics leading to realistic fields of temperature and precipitation by ICAR, WRF, and GEM makes these models suitable for high resolution cold regions hydrological predictions in complex terrain, which is a key factor in estimating water security in western Canada.

  18. Coupled analysis on landscape pattern and hydrological processes in Yanhe watershed of China. (United States)

    Li, J; Zhou, Z X


    As a typical experimental Soil and Water Conservation District, Yanhe watershed has long been plagued by soil erosion due to severe human disturbances. Exerting remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technology, this paper firstly analyzed and simulated ecological hydrological process in Yanhe watershed based on SWAT model, constructed a comprehensive landscape indices which was closely related to soil erosion, and reflected the coupling relationship between regional landscape pattern change and soil erosion. The results are as follows: (1) Areas of different land use types remained relatively stable from 1990 to 2000 and then changed drastically from 2000 to 2010, which was characterized by lawn expansion and cultivated land shrinkage. (2) In terms of the spatial heterogeneity of hydrological response unit (HRUs), the correlation coefficient of seven selected landscape indices and runoff was very small, and cannot pass all significant testing. But correlation between the indices and sediment yield except for Total Core Area (TCA) and Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI) was remarkable. (3) According to 'the source-sink' theory of soil erosion, new landscape index-slope-HRU landscape index (SHLI) was built, and reflected the relationship between landscape pattern and soil erosion processes to a certain extent. (4) Coupling relationship between SHLI in 2010 and annual sediment was very prominent. In the sub-basin scale, SHLI has obvious regional differentiation from annual sediment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface Hydrological Processes of Rock Glaciated Basins in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Mateo, E. I.


    Glaciers in the western United States have been examined in terms of their summer meltwater contributions to regional hydrological systems. In the San Juan Mountains of Colorado where glaciers do not and cannot exist due to a rising zero-degree isotherm, rock glaciers take the place of valley glaciers during the summer runoff period. Most of the rock glaciers in Colorado are located on a northerly slope aspect, however, there are multiple in the southwest region of the state that occur on different aspects. This study asked how slope aspect and rising air temperatures influenced the hydrological processes of streams below rock glaciers in the San Juan Mountains during the 2016 summer season. This project focused on three basins, Yankee Boy basin, Blue Lakes basin, and Mill Creek basin, which are adjacent to each other and share a common peak, Gilpin Peak. Findings of this one-season study showed that air temperature significantly influenced stream discharge below each rock glacier. Discharge and air temperature patterns indicate a possible air temperature threshold during late summer when rock glacier melt increased at a greater rate. The results also suggest that slope aspect of rock glacier basins influences stream discharge, but temperature and precipitation are likely larger components of the melt regimes. The continuation of data collection during the 2017 summer season has allowed for more detailed analysis of the relationship between air temperature and rock glacier melt. This continual expansion of the original dataset is crucial for understanding the hydrological processes of surface runoff below rock glaciers.

  20. The use of distributed hydrological models for the Gard 2002 flash flood event: Analysis of associated hydrological processes (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Roux, Hélène; Anquetin, Sandrine; Maubourguet, Marie-Madeleine; Manus, Claire; Viallet, Pierre; Dartus, Denis


    SummaryThis paper presents a detailed analysis of the September 8-9, 2002 flash flood event in the Gard region (southern France) using two distributed hydrological models: CVN built within the LIQUID® hydrological platform and MARINE. The models differ in terms of spatial discretization, infiltration and water redistribution representation, and river flow transfer. MARINE can also account for subsurface lateral flow. Both models are set up using the same available information, namely a DEM and a pedology map. They are forced with high resolution radar rainfall data over a set of 18 sub-catchments ranging from 2.5 to 99 km2 and are run without calibration. To begin with, models simulations are assessed against post field estimates of the time of peak and the maximum peak discharge showing a fair agreement for both models. The results are then discussed in terms of flow dynamics, runoff coefficients and soil saturation dynamics. The contribution of the subsurface lateral flow is also quantified using the MARINE model. This analysis highlights that rainfall remains the first controlling factor of flash flood dynamics. High rainfall peak intensities are very influential of the maximum peak discharge for both models, but especially for the CVN model which has a simplified overland flow transfer. The river bed roughness also influences the peak intensity and time. Soil spatial representation is shown to have a significant role on runoff coefficients and on the spatial variability of saturation dynamics. Simulated soil saturation is found to be strongly related with soil depth and initial storage deficit maps, due to a full saturation of most of the area at the end of the event. When activated, the signature of subsurface lateral flow is also visible in the spatial patterns of soil saturation with higher values concentrating along the river network. However, the data currently available do not allow the assessment of both patterns. The paper concludes with a set of

  1. Hydrological modeling in the regional scala; Hydrologische Modellierung auf der regionalen Skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik


    The present work describes the hydrological processes of the land-surface and their modelling on spatial and temporal scales of today`s regional climate and weatherprediction models. The components of the water cycle and the most important termsand model concepts of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface are introduced. The main task of this work is the development of a hydrological model, which can be coupled to regionalatmospheric models and is able to predict streamflow. The discussion of the necessary complexity of the land-surface-parameterizations leads to a consistent model structure. Daily measured meteorological time series of about 15 years in the catchment of the Weser river are used to force the VIC-2L model offline. The VIC-2L model is coupled to a linear horizontaltransport model to allow for a comparison of measured and modelled streamflow data. Measured and modelled discharge time series are compared, a sensitivity study is performed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die hydrologischen Prozesse am Erdboden und ihre Modellierung auf der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Skala heutiger regionaler Klima- und Wettervorhersagemodelle. Dazu werden die Komponenten des Wasserkreislaufs und die wichtigsten Begriffe und Modellkonzepte der Boden-Vegetation-Atmosphaerenwechselwirkung kurz vorgestellt. Ziel der Arbeit ist Entwicklung eines an regionale Atmosphaerenmodelle koppelbaren Hydrologiemodells, welches in der Lage ist, Abflussmengen in Fluessen richtig zu beschreiben. Aus der Diskussion ueber die notwendige Komplexitaet der Landoberflaechenparametrisierungen wird eine konsistente Modellstruktur hergeleitet. Taeglich gemessene meteorologische Zeitreihen im Wassereinzugsgebiet der Weser von nahezu 15 Jahren dienen als entkoppelter Antrieb fuer das VIC-2L-Modell. Um den Vergleich von gemessenen und modellierten Abflussmengen zu ermoeglichen, wird an das VIC-2L-Modell ein lineares horizontales Transportmodell gekoppelt. Gemessene und

  2. [Spatial and temporal variations of hydrological characteristic on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region]. (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Hu, Jin-Fei; Xiao, Hong-Lang; Zou, Song-Bing; Yin, Zhen-Liang


    There are few studies on the hydrological characteristics on the landscape zone scale in alpine cold region at present. This paper aimed to identify the spatial and temporal variations in the origin and composition of the runoff, and to reveal the hydrological characteristics in each zone, based on the isotopic analysis of glacier, snow, frozen soil, groundwater, etc. The results showed that during the wet season, heavy precipitation and high temperature in the Mafengou River basin caused secondary evaporation which led to isotope fractionation effects. Therefore, the isotope values remained high. Temperature effects were significant. During the dry season, the temperature was low. Precipitation was in the solid state during the cold season and the evaporation was weak. Water vapor came from the evaporation of local water bodies. Therefore, less secondary evaporation and water vapor exchange occurred, leading to negative values of delta18O and deltaD. delta18O and deltaD values of precipitation and various water bodies exhibited strong seasonal variations. Precipitation exhibited altitude effects, delta18O = -0. 005 2H - 8. 951, deltaD = -0.018 5H - 34. 873. Other water bodies did not show altitude effects in the wet season and dry season, because the runoff was not only recharged by precipitation, but also influenced by the freezing and thawing process of the glacier, snow and frozen soil. The mutual transformation of precipitation, melt water, surface water and groundwater led to variations in isotopic composition. Therefore, homogenization and evaporation effect are the main control factors of isotope variations.

  3. Improved Regional Climate Model Simulation of Precipitation by a Dynamical Coupling to a Hydrology Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    convective precipitation systems. As a result climate model simulations let alone future projections of precipitation often exhibit substantial biases. Here we show that the dynamical coupling of a regional climate model to a detailed fully distributed hydrological model - including groundwater-, overland...... of local precipitation dynamics are seen for time scales of app. Seasonal duration and longer. We show that these results can be attributed to a more complete treatment of land surface feedbacks. The local scale effect on the atmosphere suggests that coupled high-resolution climate-hydrology models...... including a detailed 3D redistribution of sub- and land surface water have a significant potential for improving climate projections even diminishing the need for bias correction in climate-hydrology studies....

  4. The influence of regional hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator (United States)

    Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.


    Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected regional nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.

  5. Forest hydrology (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty


    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  6. [Baseflow separation methods in hydrological process research: a review]. (United States)

    Xu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Jing-Lin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui


    Baseflow separation research is regarded as one of the most important and difficult issues in hydrology and ecohydrology, but lacked of unified standards in the concepts and methods. This paper introduced the theories of baseflow separation based on the definitions of baseflow components, and analyzed the development course of different baseflow separation methods. Among the methods developed, graph separation method is simple and applicable but arbitrary, balance method accords with hydrological mechanism but is difficult in application, whereas time series separation method and isotopic method can overcome the subjective and arbitrary defects caused by graph separation method, and thus can obtain the baseflow procedure quickly and efficiently. In recent years, hydrological modeling, digital filtering, and isotopic method are the main methods used for baseflow separation.

  7. Climate change impacts analysis on hydrological processes in the Weyib River basin in Ethiopia (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar


    The study aims to examine the variation of hydrological processes (in terms of mean annual, seasonal, and monthly) under changing climate within the Weyib River basin in Ethiopia at both basin and sub-basin level using ArcSWAT hydrologic model. The climate change impacts on temperature and precipitation characteristics within the basin have been studied using GFDL-ESM2M, CanESM2, and GFDL-ESM2G models for RCP8.5, RCP4.5, and RCP2.6 scenarios from coupled model inter-comparison project 5 (CMIP5) which have been downscaled by SDSM. The results revealed that the mean annual temperature and precipitation reveal a statistically significant (at 5% significant level) increasing trend in the nine ESM-RCP scenarios for all the future time slices. The mean annual actual evapotranspiration, baseflow, soil water content, percolation, and water availability in the stream exhibit a rise for all the ESMs-RCP scenarios in the entire basin and in all the sub-basins. However, surface runoff and potential evapotranspiration show a decreasing trend. The mean annual water availability increases between 9.18 and 27.97% (RCP8.5), 3.98 and 19.61% (RCP4.5), and 11.82 and 17.06% (RCP2.6) in the entire basin. The sub-basin level analysis reveals that the annual, seasonal, and monthly variations of hydrological processes in all the sub-basins are similar regarding direction but different in magnitude as compared to that of the entire basin analysis. In addition, it is observed that there is a larger monthly and seasonal variation in hydrological processes as compared to the variation in annual scale. The net water availability tends to decline in the dry season; this might cause water shortage in the lowland region and greater increases in an intermediate and rainy seasons; this might cause flooding to some flood prone region of the basin. Since the variation of water availability among the sub-basins in upcoming period is high, there is a scope of meeting agriculture water demand through

  8. Hydrologic-Process-Based Soil Texture Classifications for Improved Visualization of Landscape Function (United States)

    Groenendyk, Derek G.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Rice, Amy K.


    Soils lie at the interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface and are a key component that control ecosystem services, food production, and many other processes at the Earth’s surface. There is a long-established convention for identifying and mapping soils by texture. These readily available, georeferenced soil maps and databases are used widely in environmental sciences. Here, we show that these traditional soil classifications can be inappropriate, contributing to bias and uncertainty in applications from slope stability to water resource management. We suggest a new approach to soil classification, with a detailed example from the science of hydrology. Hydrologic simulations based on common meteorological conditions were performed using HYDRUS-1D, spanning textures identified by the United States Department of Agriculture soil texture triangle. We consider these common conditions to be: drainage from saturation, infiltration onto a drained soil, and combined infiltration and drainage events. Using a k-means clustering algorithm, we created soil classifications based on the modeled hydrologic responses of these soils. The hydrologic-process-based classifications were compared to those based on soil texture and a single hydraulic property, Ks. Differences in classifications based on hydrologic response versus soil texture demonstrate that traditional soil texture classification is a poor predictor of hydrologic response. We then developed a QGIS plugin to construct soil maps combining a classification with georeferenced soil data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The spatial patterns of hydrologic response were more immediately informative, much simpler, and less ambiguous, for use in applications ranging from trafficability to irrigation management to flood control. The ease with which hydrologic-process-based classifications can be made, along with the improved quantitative predictions of soil responses and visualization of landscape

  9. Artificial intelligence techniques coupled with seasonality measures for hydrological regionalization of Q90 under Brazilian conditions (United States)

    Beskow, Samuel; de Mello, Carlos Rogério; Vargas, Marcelle M.; Corrêa, Leonardo de L.; Caldeira, Tamara L.; Durães, Matheus F.; de Aguiar, Marilton S.


    Information on stream flows is essential for water resources management. The stream flow that is equaled or exceeded 90% of the time (Q90) is one the most used low stream flow indicators in many countries, and its determination is made from the frequency analysis of stream flows considering a historical series. However, stream flow gauging network is generally not spatially sufficient to meet the necessary demands of technicians, thus the most plausible alternative is the use of hydrological regionalization. The objective of this study was to couple the artificial intelligence techniques (AI) K-means, Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM), K-harmonic means (KHM), Fuzzy C-means (FCM) and Genetic K-means (GKA), with measures of low stream flow seasonality, for verification of its potential to delineate hydrologically homogeneous regions for the regionalization of Q90. For the performance analysis of the proposed methodology, location attributes from 108 watersheds situated in southern Brazil, and attributes associated with their seasonality of low stream flows were considered in this study. It was concluded that: (i) AI techniques have the potential to delineate hydrologically homogeneous regions in the context of Q90 in the study region, especially the FCM method based on fuzzy logic, and GKA, based on genetic algorithms; (ii) the attributes related to seasonality of low stream flows added important information that increased the accuracy of the grouping; and (iii) the adjusted mathematical models have excellent performance and can be used to estimate Q90 in locations lacking monitoring.

  10. Application of oxygen-18 tracer techniques to arctic hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, L.W.; Solis, C.; Kane, D.L.; Hinzman, L.D.


    The δ 18 O value of streamflow at Imnavait Creek, Alaska, shifted dramatically from -30.3 per-thousand on 14 May, the first day of streamflow in 1990, to -22.5 per-thousand on 22 May, at the end of the snowmelt. Nevertheless, independent hydrological measurements of snow redistribution by wind, snow ablation, snow and soil mixture content, and snowmelt runoff indicate there cannot be significant mixing of meltwater with underlying ice-rich soils. An alternative explanation is that isotopic fractionation during the phase change from solid to liquid dominates the isotopic variation in streamflow during snowmelt and prevents a straightforward application of 18 O as a conservative hydrological tracer. By contrast, under dry antecedent conditions in late summer, 18 O appeared to be a suitable tracer following rain contributions to streamflow. Streamflow increased as a result of rainfall, but stream isotopic composition did not change until at least two hours after streamflow increased, implicating a wave, or piston-like mechanism for forcing open-quotes oldclose quotes water into the stream channel. Analyses of the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of various hydrological components within the watershed indicate the importance of evaporation as a dominant factor in the hydrological cycle; soil moisture, alteration as a result of evaporation. The analyses indicate that caution would be advised for any application of stable isotopes to hydrological studies in arctic watersheds. Proportions of snowmelt mixing with underlying soil water may be subject to overestimation because isotopic fractionation as snow melts can be similar in direction and magnitude to the isotopic mixing of snowmelt an soil waters. 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Methodological challenges to bridge the gap between regional climate and hydrology models (United States)

    Bozhinova, Denica; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph; Felder, Guido


    The frequency and severity of floods worldwide, together with their impacts, are expected to increase under climate change scenarios. It is therefore very important to gain insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for such events in order to constrain the associated uncertainties. Model simulations of the climate and hydrological processes are important tools that can provide insight in the underlying physical processes and thus enable an accurate assessment of the risks. Coupled together, they can provide a physically consistent picture that allows to assess the phenomenon in a comprehensive way. However, climate and hydrological models work at different temporal and spatial scales, so there are a number of methodological challenges that need to be carefully addressed. An important issue pertains the presence of biases in the simulation of precipitation. Climate models in general, and Regional Climate models (RCMs) in particular, are affected by a number of systematic biases that limit their reliability. In many studies, prominently the assessment of changes due to climate change, such biases are minimised by applying the so-called delta approach, which focuses on changes disregarding absolute values that are more affected by biases. However, this approach is not suitable in this scenario, as the absolute value of precipitation, rather than the change, is fed into the hydrological model. Therefore, bias has to be previously removed, being this a complex matter where various methodologies have been proposed. In this study, we apply and discuss the advantages and caveats of two different methodologies that correct the simulated precipitation to minimise differences with respect an observational dataset: a linear fit (FIT) of the accumulated distributions and Quantile Mapping (QM). The target region is Switzerland, and therefore the observational dataset is provided by MeteoSwiss. The RCM is the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), driven at the

  12. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.


    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  13. Improving the spatial representation of basin hydrology and flow processes in the SWAT model


    Rathjens, Hendrik


    This dissertation aims at improving the spatial representation of basin hydrology and flow processes in the SWAT model. Die vorliegende Dissertation stellt die methodischen Grundlage zur räumlich differenzierten Modellierung mit dem Modell SWAT dar.

  14. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen


    Full Text Available Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.

  15. A regional distributed hydrological modelling approach for flash-flood understanding and experimental design (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Anquetin, Sandrine; Roux, Hélène; Vannier, Olivier; Maubourguet, Marie-Madeleine; Viallet, Pierre; Boudevillain, Brice; Dartus, Denis; Creutin, Jean-Dominique


    Flash floods represent the most destructive natural hazard in the Mediterranean region, causing around one billion Euros worth of damage in France over the last two decades. Flash floods are associated with extreme and rare rainfall events and usually occur in ungauged river basins. Amongst them, small-ungauged catchments are recognized as the most vulnerable to storm driven flash floods. In order to limit the damages to the population, there is a need to improve our understanding and the simulation tools for these events. In order to provide information over a whole region, hydrological models applicable at this scale, and able to take into account the spatial variability of rainfall and catchment characteristics, must be proposed. This paper presents such a regional distributed approach applied to the 8-9 September 2002 extreme event which affected the Gard region in the south-east of France. In order to identify the variables and catchment characteristics which require improved knowledge, two distributed hydrological models were set up on a set of catchments, with sizes ranging from 2.5 to 99 km2. The models differ in terms of spatial discretization and process representation. They were forced using radar data with a 1 km2 spatial resolution and 5 min time step. The model parameters were specified using the available information, namely a digital terrain model and a soil data base. The latter provides information about soil texture, soil porosity and soil depths. Soil hydraulic properties were defined using pedo-transfer functions. Data from a post-flood field survey of maximum peak discharge were used to assess the quality of the simulations. A reasonable agreement between modeled and observed values was obtained. Sensitivity studies were then performed to asses the respective impact of rainfall estimation and soil variability on the simulated discharge. The analysis shows that rainfall remains the first controlling factor of flash flood dynamics and that high

  16. Evaluation for Moroccan dynamically downscaled precipitation from GCM CHAM5 and its regional hydrologic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsou Jaw


    Full Text Available Study region: Morocco (excluding Western Sahara. Study focus: This study evaluated Moroccan precipitation, dynamically downscaled (0.18-degree from three runs of the studied GCM ECHAM5/MPI-OM, under the present-day (1971–2000/20C3M and future (2036–2065/A1B climate scenarios. The spatial and quantitative properties of the downscaled precipitation were evaluated by a verified, fine-resolution reference. The effectiveness of the hydrologic responses, driven by the downscaled precipitation, was further evaluated for the study region over the upstream watershed of Oum er Rbia River located in Central Morocco. New hydrological insights for the region: The raw downscaling runs reasonably featured the spatial properties but quantitatively misrepresented the mean and extreme intensities of present-day precipitation. Two proposed bias correction approaches, namely stationary Quantile-Mapping (QM and non-stationary Equidistant CDF Matching model (EDCDFm, successfully reduced the system biases existing in the raw downscaling runs. However, both raw and corrected runs projected great diversity in terms of the quantity of future precipitation. Hydrologic simulations performed by a well-calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model successfully reproduced the present-day streamflow. The driven flows were identified highly correlated with the effectiveness of the downscaled precipitation. The future flows were projected to be markedly diverse, mainly due to the varied precipitation projections. Two of the three flow simulation runs projected slight to severe drying scenarios, while another projected an opposite trend for the evaluated future period. Keywords: Dynamical downscaling, Moroccan precipitation, Regional hydrology

  17. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of boring cores obtained from regional hydrological study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ken


    We measured the magnetic susceptibility of boring cores obtained from the Regional Hydrological Study Project to interpret the aeromagnetic survey data which was carried out in Tono area with about 40km square surrounding Tono Geoscience Center. The result of measurements indicates that the magnetic susceptibility of the Toki Granite is not distributed uniformly and the maximum value becomes two orders in magnitude larger than its minimum value. (author)

  18. Hydrologic cycle and dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in two intermittent rivers of the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pedro

    Full Text Available The dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in intermittent rivers is generally related to the characteristics of the resistance and resilience of plants to hydrologic disturbances of flood and drought. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, intermittent rivers and streams are affected by disturbances with variable intensity, frequency, and duration throughout their hydrologic cycles. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence and variation of biomass of aquatic macrophyte species in two intermittent rivers of distinct hydrologic regimes. Their dynamics were determined with respect to resistance and resilience responses of macrophytes to flood and drought events by estimating the variation of biomass and productivity throughout two hydrologic cycles. Twenty-one visits were undertaken in the rewetting, drying, and drought phases in a permanent puddle in the Avelós stream and two temporary puddles in the Taperoá river, state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The sampling was carried out by using the square method. Floods of different magnitudes occurred during the present study in the river and in the stream. The results showed that floods and droughts are determining factors in the occurrence of macrophytes and in the structure of their aquatic communities. The species richness of the aquatic macrophyte communities was lower in the puddles of the river and stream subject to flood events, when compared to areas where the run-off water is retained. At the beginning of the recolonization process, the intensity of the floods was decisive in the productivity and biomass of the aquatic macrophytes in the Taperoá river and the Avelós stream. In intermediate levels of disturbance, the largest values of productivity and biomass and the shortest time for starting the recolonization process occurred.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P.F. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Oliver; De La Garza; S. Harder


    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Pineda, J.A.; Goodell, P.; Dobson, P.F.; Walton, J.; Oliver, R.; De La Garza; Harder, S.


    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the drilling of three wells in 2003 near the Nopal I uranium deposit at the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. Piezometric information is being collected to understand groundwater flow at local and regional levels as part of an ongoing natural analogue study of radionuclide migration. Water level monitoring reported at these and other wells in the region is combined with archival data to provide a better understanding of the hydrology at Nopal I. Initial results suggest that the local hydrology is dependent on the regional hydrologic setting and that this groundwater system behaves as an unconfined aquifer. The region is dominated by an alternating sequence of highlands and basins that step down from west to east. The Sierra de Pena Blanca was downdropped from the cratonic block to the west during Cenozoic extension. The Nopal I area is near the intersection of two large listric faults, and the questa of ash flow tuffs that hosts the deposit has been subjected to complex structural events. The Pena Blanca Uranium District was originally characterized by 105 airborne radiometric anomalies, indicating widespread uranium mineralization. The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Sierra del Pena Blanca between the Encinillas Basin to the west, with a mean elevation of 1560 m, and the El Cuervo Basin to the east, with a mean elevation of 1230 m. The Nopal I + 10 level is at an intermediate elevation of 1463 m, with a corresponding groundwater elevation of approximately 1240 m. The regional potentiometric surface indicates flow from west to east, with the El Cuervo Basin being the discharge zone for the regional flow system. However, it appears that the local groundwater potential beneath the Nopal I site is more in accordance with the water table of the El Cuervo Basin than with that of the Encinillas Basin. This might indicate that there is limited groundwater flow between the Encinillas Basin and the Nopal I area

  1. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate


    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  2. Hydrological Modelling of Small Scale Processes in a Wetland Habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Jensen, Jacob Birk; Pedersen, Morten Lauge


    Numerical modelling of the hydrology in a Danish rich fen area has been conducted. By collecting various data in the field the model has been successfully calibrated and the flow paths as well as the groundwater discharge distribution have been simulated in details. The results of this work have...... shown that distributed numerical models can be applied to local scale problems and that natural springs, ditches, the geological conditions as well as the local topographic variations have a significant influence on the flow paths in the examined rich fen area....

  3. Potential effects of climate change on hydrology in the oil sands region of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biftu, G.F.; Beersing, A.; Kalinga, O.A.; Pandit, K.N.


    The potential effects of climate change must be incorporated within environmental assessments of oil and gas developments. This paper evaluated the findings of a study examining the potential impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology in the oil sands region of Alberta. Components of the study included a review of trends in climate parameters and their effect on hydrology, as well as statistical analyses of precipitation, temperature and stream flow data of the Athabasca River at both the local and regional scale. The influences of tributary streams were also examined. Results of the study demonstrated that air temperatures have been steadily rising over the past few decades. Recorded annual precipitation also increased during the spring and summer months, and decreased during the winter and fall. Annual mean flows decreased. Results suggested that wet and dry cycles tended to exaggerate trends when only partial segments of the cycles were analyzed. The analysis of flows in the tributary streams indicated a that mean and peak flows were also decreasing. However, an increase in peak winter flows was observed. It was concluded that there is a large degree of uncertainty in the predictions of the hydrologic effects of climate change. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  4. An intercomparison of regional climate model data for hydrological impact studies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Roosmalen, Lieke Petronella G; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Butts, Michael


    The use of high-resolution regional climate models (RCM) to examine the hydrological impacts of climate change has grown significantly in recent years due to the improved representation of the local climate. However, the application is not straightforward because most RCMs are subject to consider......The use of high-resolution regional climate models (RCM) to examine the hydrological impacts of climate change has grown significantly in recent years due to the improved representation of the local climate. However, the application is not straightforward because most RCMs are subject...... to considerable systematic errors. In this study, projected climate change data from the RCM HIRHAM4 are used to generate climate scenario time series of precipitation, temperature, and reference evapotranspiration for the period 2071-2100 for hydrological impact assessments in Denmark. RCM output for the present......-day period (1961-1990) are compared to an observational data set, with precipitation corrected for undercatch and wetting losses, to quantify systematic model errors. A delta change method is applied to cope with these biases. A question arises as to how variable the climate change signals are...

  5. Regional scale hydrologic modeling of a karst-dominant geomorphology: The case study of the Island of Crete (United States)

    Malagò, Anna; Efstathiou, Dionissios; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Franchini, Marco; Bidoglio, Giovanni; Kritsotakis, Marinos


    Crete Island (Greece) is a karst dominated region that faces limited water supply and increased seasonal demand, especially during summer for agricultural and touristic uses. In addition, due to the mountainous terrain, interbasin water transfer is very limited. The resulting water imbalance requires a correct quantification of available water resources in view of developing appropriate management plans to face the problem of water shortage. The aim of this work is the development of a methodology using the SWAT model and a karst-flow model (KSWAT, Karst SWAT model) for the quantification of a spatially and temporally explicit hydrologic water balance of karst-dominated geomorphology in order to assess the sustainability of the actual water use. The application was conducted in the Island of Crete using both hard (long time series of streamflow and spring monitoring stations) and soft data (i.e. literature information of individual processes). The KSWAT model estimated the water balance under normal hydrological condition as follows: 6400 Mm3/y of precipitation, of which 40% (2500 Mm3/y) was lost through evapotranspiration, 5% was surface runoff and 55% percolated into the soil contributing to lateral flow (2%), and recharging the shallow (9%) and deep aquifer (44%). The water yield was estimated as 22% of precipitation, of which about half was the contribution from spring discharges (9% of precipitation). The application of the KSWAT model increased our knowledge about water resources availability and distribution in Crete under different hydrologic conditions. The model was able to capture the hydrology of the karst areas allowing a better management and planning of water resources under scarcity.

  6. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Processes of a Small Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Mehan


    Full Text Available Weather extremes and climate variability directly impact the hydrological cycle influencing agricultural productivity. The issues related to climate change are of prime concern for every nation as its implications are posing negative impacts on society. In this study, we used three climate change scenarios to simulate the impact on local hydrology of a small agricultural watershed. The three emission scenarios from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios, of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007 analyzed in this study were A2 (high emission, A1B (medium emission, and B1 (low emission. A process based hydrologic model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool was calibrated and validated for the Skunk Creek Watershed located in eastern South Dakota. The model performance coefficients revealed a strong correlation between simulated and observed stream flow at both monthly and daily time step. The Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency for monthly model performace was 0.87 for the calibration period and 0.76 for validation period. The future climate scenarios were built for the mid-21st century time period ranging from 2046 to 2065. The future climate data analysis showed an increase in temperatures between 2.2 °C to 3.3 °C and a decrease in precipitation from 1.8% to 4.5% expected under three different climate change scenarios. A sharp decline in stream flow (95.92%–96.32%, run-off (83.46%–87.00%, total water yield (90.67%–91.60%, soil water storage (89.99%–92.47%, and seasonal snow melt (37.64%–43.06% are predicted to occur by the mid-21st century. In addition, an increase in evapotranspirative losses (2%–3% is expected to occur within the watershed when compared with the baseline period. Overall, these results indicate that the watershed is highly susceptible to hydrological and agricultural drought due to limited water availability. These results are limited to the available climate projections, and future refinement in

  7. Development of a regional hydrologic soil model and application to the Beerze-Reusel drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolditz, O.; Du, Y.; Buerger, C.; Delfs, J.; Kuntz, D.; Beinhorn, M.; Hess, M.; Wang, W.; Grift, B. van der; Stroet, C. te


    The soil compartment is an important interface between the atmosphere and the subsurface hydrosphere. In this paper a conceptual approach for regional hydrologic soil modelling (RHSM) is presented, which provides two important qualities for modelling. First, the soil compartment is directly coupled to the atmosphere via the land surface and to the aquifers. Second, extremely fine (5 cm vertical) resolutions of the soil system can be realized at regional scales (several hundreds of km 2 ). This high-resolution modelling could be achieved by parallel computation techniques. The RHSM approach is applied to the Beerze-Reusel drainage basin, which belongs to the Meuse River basin. Moisture transport in the soil system was calculated with extremely high vertical resolution at a regional scale based on rainfall-evaporation data for the year 2000. As a result, highly resolved regional groundwater recharge pattern addressing the heterogeneity of soil systems could be determined. - A real case application of concept of regional hydrologic soil modelling is presented

  8. Calibration of a Distributed Hydrological Model using Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration data in the Semi-Arid Punjab Region of Pakista (United States)

    Becker, R.; Usman, M.


    A SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model is applied in the semi-arid Punjab region in Pakistan. The physically based hydrological model is set up to simulate hydrological processes and water resources demands under future land use, climate change and irrigation management scenarios. In order to successfully run the model, detailed focus is laid on the calibration procedure of the model. The study deals with the following calibration issues:i. lack of reliable calibration/validation data, ii. difficulty to accurately model a highly managed system with a physically based hydrological model and iii. use of alternative and spatially distributed data sets for model calibration. In our study area field observations are rare and the entirely human controlled irrigation system renders central calibration parameters (e.g. runoff/curve number) unsuitable, as it can't be assumed that they represent the natural behavior of the hydrological system. From evapotranspiration (ET) however principal hydrological processes can still be inferred. Usman et al. (2015) derived satellite based monthly ET data for our study area based on SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm) and created a reliable ET data set which we use in this study to calibrate our SWAT model. The initial SWAT model performance is evaluated with respect to the SEBAL results using correlation coefficients, RMSE, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies and mean differences. Particular focus is laid on the spatial patters, investigating the potential of a spatially differentiated parameterization instead of just using spatially uniform calibration data. A sensitivity analysis reveals the most sensitive parameters with respect to changes in ET, which are then selected for the calibration process.Using the SEBAL-ET product we calibrate the SWAT model for the time period 2005-2006 using a dynamically dimensioned global search algorithm to minimize RMSE. The model improvement after the calibration procedure is finally evaluated based

  9. Relative effects of statistical preprocessing and postprocessing on a regional hydrological ensemble prediction system (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Siddique, Ridwan; Reed, Seann; Ahnert, Peter; Mendoza, Pablo; Mejia, Alfonso


    The relative roles of statistical weather preprocessing and streamflow postprocessing in hydrological ensemble forecasting at short- to medium-range forecast lead times (day 1-7) are investigated. For this purpose, a regional hydrologic ensemble prediction system (RHEPS) is developed and implemented. The RHEPS is comprised of the following components: (i) hydrometeorological observations (multisensor precipitation estimates, gridded surface temperature, and gauged streamflow); (ii) weather ensemble forecasts (precipitation and near-surface temperature) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 11-member Global Ensemble Forecast System Reforecast version 2 (GEFSRv2); (iii) NOAA's Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM); (iv) heteroscedastic censored logistic regression (HCLR) as the statistical preprocessor; (v) two statistical postprocessors, an autoregressive model with a single exogenous variable (ARX(1,1)) and quantile regression (QR); and (vi) a comprehensive verification strategy. To implement the RHEPS, 1 to 7 days weather forecasts from the GEFSRv2 are used to force HL-RDHM and generate raw ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasting experiments are conducted in four nested basins in the US Middle Atlantic region, ranging in size from 381 to 12 362 km2. Results show that the HCLR preprocessed ensemble precipitation forecasts have greater skill than the raw forecasts. These improvements are more noticeable in the warm season at the longer lead times (> 3 days). Both postprocessors, ARX(1,1) and QR, show gains in skill relative to the raw ensemble streamflow forecasts, particularly in the cool season, but QR outperforms ARX(1,1). The scenarios that implement preprocessing and postprocessing separately tend to perform similarly, although the postprocessing-alone scenario is often more effective. The scenario involving both preprocessing and postprocessing consistently outperforms the other scenarios. In some cases

  10. Influence of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios (United States)

    van Walsum, P. E. V.; Supit, I.


    Hydrologic climate change modelling is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. To reduce this dependency, we extended the regional hydrologic modelling framework SIMGRO to host a two-way coupling between the soil moisture model MetaSWAP and the crop growth simulation model WOFOST, accounting for ecohydrologic feedbacks in terms of radiation fraction that reaches the soil, crop coefficient, interception fraction of rainfall, interception storage capacity, and root zone depth. Except for the last, these feedbacks are dependent on the leaf area index (LAI). The influence of regional groundwater on crop growth is included via a coupling to MODFLOW. Two versions of the MetaSWAP-WOFOST coupling were set up: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous crop growth simulation, the "dynamic" model. Parameterization of the static and dynamic models ensured that for the current climate the simulated long-term averages of actual evapotranspiration are the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios and two crops: grass and potato. In the dynamic model, higher temperatures in a warm year under the current climate resulted in accelerated crop development, and in the case of potato a shorter growing season, thus partly avoiding the late summer heat. The static model has a higher potential transpiration; depending on the available soil moisture, this translates to a higher actual transpiration. This difference between static and dynamic models is enlarged by climate change in combination with higher CO2 concentrations. Including the dynamic crop simulation gives for potato (and other annual arable land crops) systematically higher effects on the predicted recharge change due to climate change. Crop yields from soils with poor water retention capacities strongly depend on capillary rise if moisture supply from other sources is limited. Thus, including a crop simulation model in an integrated

  11. Hydrological processes in glacierized high-altitude basins of the western Himalayas (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Shah, Rouf A.; Fryar, Alan E.; Deshpande, Rajendrakumar D.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Perrin, Jerome


    Western Himalaya is a strategically important region, where the water resources are shared by China, India and Pakistan. The economy of the region is largely dependent on the water resources delivered by snow and glacier melt. The presented study used stable isotopes of water to further understand the basin-scale hydro-meteorological, hydrological and recharge processes in three high-altitude mountainous basins of the western Himalayas. The study provided new insights in understanding the dominant factors affecting the isotopic composition of the precipitation, snowpack, glacier melt, streams and springs. It was observed that elevation-dependent post-depositional processes and snowpack evolution resulted in the higher isotopic altitude gradient in snowpacks. The similar temporal trends of isotopic signals in rivers and karst springs reflect the rapid flow transfer due to karstification of the carbonate aquifers. The attenuation of the extreme isotopic input signal in karst springs appears to be due to the mixing of source waters with the underground karst reservoirs. Basin-wise, the input-output response demonstrates the vital role of winter precipitation in maintaining the perennial flow in streams and karst springs in the region. Isotopic data were also used to estimate the mean recharge altitude of the springs.

  12. Predicting Phosphorus Dynamics Across Physiographic Regions Using a Mixed Hortonian Non-Hortonian Hydrology Model (United States)

    Collick, A.; Easton, Z. M.; Auerbach, D.; Buchanan, B.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Fuka, D.


    Predicting phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural watersheds depends on accurate representation of the hydrological and chemical processes governing P mobility and transport. In complex landscapes, P predictions are complicated by a broad range of soils with and without restrictive layers, a wide variety of agricultural management, and variable hydrological drivers. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a watershed model commonly used to predict runoff and non-point source pollution transport, but is commonly only used with Hortonian (traditional SWAT) or non-Hortonian (SWAT-VSA) initializations. Many shallow soils underlain by a restricting layer commonly generate saturation excess runoff from variable source areas (VSA), which is well represented in a re-conceptualized version, SWAT-VSA. However, many watersheds exhibit traits of both infiltration excess and saturation excess hydrology internally, based on the hydrologic distance from the stream, distribution of soils across the landscape, and characteristics of restricting layers. The objective of this research is to provide an initial look at integrating distributed predictive capabilities that consider both Hortonian and Non-Hortonian solutions simultaneously within a single SWAT-VSA initialization. We compare results from all three conceptual watershed initializations against measured surface runoff and stream P loads and to highlight the model's ability to drive sub-field management of P. All three initializations predict discharge similarly well (daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies above 0.5), but the new conceptual SWAT-VSA initialization performed best in predicting P export from the watershed, while also identifying critical source areas - those areas generating large runoff and P losses at the sub field level. These results support the use of mixed Hortonian non-Hortonian SWAT-VSA initializations in predicting watershed-scale P losses and identifying critical source areas of P loss in landscapes

  13. Modelling past hydrology of an interfluve area in the Campine region (NE Belgium) (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Beerten, Koen; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn


    This study aims at hydrological model verification of a small lowland interfluve area (18.6 km²) in NE Belgium, for conditions that are different than today. We compare the current state with five reference periods in the past (AD 1500, 1770, 1854, 1909 and 1961) representing important stages of landscape evolution in the study area. Historical information and proxy data are used to derive conceptual model features and boundary conditions specific to each period: topography, surface water geometry (canal, drains and lakes), land use, soils, vegetation and climate. The influence of landscape evolution on the hydrological cycle is assessed using numerical simulations of a coupled unsaturated zone - groundwater model (HYDRUS-MODFLOW). The induced hydrological changes are assessed in terms of groundwater level, recharge, evapotranspiration, and surface water discharge. HYDRUS-MODFLOW coupling allows including important processes such as the groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Major land use change occurred between AD 1854 and 1909, with about 41% of the study area being converted from heath to coniferous forest, together with the development of a drainage network. Results show that this led to a significant decrease of groundwater recharge and lowering of the groundwater table. A limitation of the study lies in the comparison of simulated past hydrology with appropriate palaeo-records. Examples are given as how some indicators (groundwater head, swamp zones) can be used to tend to model validation. Quantifying the relative impact of land use and climate changes requires running sensitivity simulations where the models using alternative land use are run with the climate forcing of other periods. A few examples of such sensitivity runs are presented in order to compare the influence of land use and climate change on the study area hydrology.

  14. Organic priority substances and microbial processes in river sediments subject to contrasting hydrological conditions. (United States)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Casella, Patrizia; Patrolecco, Luisa; Polesello, Stefano


    Flood and drought events of higher intensity and frequency are expected to increase in arid and semi-arid regions, in which temporary rivers represent both a water resource and an aquatic ecosystem to be preserved. In this study, we explored the variation of two classes of hazardous substances (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nonylphenols) and the functioning of the microbial community in river sediments subject to hydrological fluctuations (Candelaro river basin, Italy). Overall, the concentration of pollutants (∑PAHs range 8-275ngg(-1); ∑NPs range 299-4858ngg(-1)) suggests a moderate degree of contamination. The conditions in which the sediments were tested, flow (high/low) and no flow (wet/dry/arid), were associated to significant differences in the chemical and microbial properties. The total organic carbon contribution decreased together with the stream flow reduction, while the contribution of C-PAHs and C-NPs tended to increase. NPs were relatively more concentrated in sediments under high flow, while the more hydrophobic PAHs accumulated under low and no flow conditions. Passing from high to no flow conditions, a gradual reduction of microbial processes was observed, to reach the lowest specific bacterial carbon production rates (0.06fmolCh(-1)cell(-1)), extracellular enzyme activities, and the highest doubling time (40h) in arid sediments. In conclusion, different scenarios for the mobilization of pollutants and microbial processes can be identified under contrasting hydrological conditions: (i) the mobilization of pollutants under high flow and a relatively higher probability for biodegradation; (ii) the accumulation of pollutants during low flow and lower probability for biodegradation; (iii) the drastic reduction of pollutant concentrations under dry and arid conditions, probably independently from the microbial activity (abiotic processes). Our findings let us infer that a multiple approach has to be considered for an appropriate water

  15. Effects of volcanic and hydrologic processes on forest vegetation: Chaitén Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; Julia A. Jones; Charles M. Crisafulli; Antonio. Lara


    The 2008-2009 eruption of Chaiten Volcano (Chile) involved a variety of volcanic and associated hydrologic processes that damaged nearby forests. These processes included coarse (gravel) and fine (silt to sand) tephra fall, a laterally directed blast, fluvial deposition of remobilized tephra, a variety of low-temperature mass-movement processes, and a pyroclastic flow...


    Lumb, Alan M.; Kittle, John L.


    ANNIE is a data storage and retrieval system that was developed to reduce the time and effort required to calibrate, verify, and apply watershed models that continuously simulate water quantity and quality. Watershed models have three categories of input: parameters to describe segments of a drainage area, linkage of the segments, and time-series data. Additional goals for ANNIE include the development of software that is easily implemented on minicomputers and some microcomputers and software that has no special requirements for interactive display terminals. Another goal is for the user interaction to be based on the experience of the user so that ANNIE is helpful to the inexperienced user and yet efficient and brief for the experienced user. Finally, the code should be designed so that additional hydrologic models can easily be added to ANNIE.

  17. Embedding complex hydrology in the regional climate system – Dynamic coupling across different modelling domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Drews, Martin; Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl


    the atmosphere and the groundwater via the land surface and can represent the lateral movement of water in both the surface and subsurface and their interactions, not normally accounted for in climate models. Meso-scale processes are important for climate in general and rainfall in particular. Hydrological......To improve our understanding of the impacts of feedback between the atmosphere and the terrestrial water cycle including groundwater and to improve the integration of water resource management modelling for climate adaption we have developed a dynamically coupled climate–hydrological modelling...... impacts are assessed at the catchment scale, the most important scale for water management. Feedback between groundwater, the land surface and the atmosphere occurs across a range of scales. Recognising this, the coupling was developed to allow dynamic exchange of water and energy at the catchment scale...

  18. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris


    Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence.

    In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy. The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso.

    Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall

  19. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.


    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  20. Changes in Hydrologic Conditions and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Circumpolar Regions due to Climate Change Induced Permafrost Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiticar, M. J. [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria (Canada); Bhatti, J.; Startsev, N. [Northern Forestry Centre, St Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Thawing permafrost peatlands substantially influence Canadian northern ecosystems by changing the regional hydrology and mobilizing the vast carbon (C) reserves that results in increased greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions to the atmosphere. With permafrost distribution controlled largely by topography and climate, our International polar y ear (IPY) study intensively monitored the local C cycling processes and GHG fluxes associated with different hydrologic and permafrost environments at 4 sites along a climatic gradient extending from the Isolated patches permafrost Zone (northern alberta), to the continuous permafrost Zone (Inuvik, NWT). Each site encompasses a local gradient from upland forest and peat plateau to collapse scar. Our multi-year measurements of peatland profiles and flux chambers for CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} concentrations and stable isotope ratios indicate processes, including methanogenesis, methanotrophy, transport and emission that control the distribution of these GHGs. These relationships are modulated by fluctuating local soil water and corresponding ecosystem conditions. The gas geochemistry shows that significant surface CH{sub 4} production occurs by both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis in submerged, anaerobic peats, e.g., collapse scars, whereas methane oxidation is restricted to aerobic, drier environments, e.g., upland sites and peat-atmosphere interface. The most active methanogenesis and emissions are in areas of actively thawing permafrost contrasting with sites under continuous permafrost. This degree of methanogenesis is being amplified by the increased rate of Arctic warming and the rapid retreat of permafrost in canada's arctic (approximately. 2.5 km/a). (author)

  1. Hydrologic connectivity and the contribution of stream headwaters to ecological integrity at regional scales (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.; Jackson, C.R.


    Cumulatively, headwater streams contribute to maintaining hydrologic connectivity and ecosystem integrity at regional scales. Hydrologic connectivity is the water-mediated transport of matter, energy and organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle. Headwater streams compose over two-thirds of total stream length in a typical river drainage and directly connect the upland and riparian landscape to the rest of the stream ecosystem. Altering headwater streams, e.g., by channelization, diversion through pipes, impoundment and burial, modifies fluxes between uplands and downstream river segments and eliminates distinctive habitats. The large-scale ecological effects of altering headwaters are amplified by land uses that alter runoff and nutrient loads to streams, and by widespread dam construction on larger rivers (which frequently leaves free-flowing upstream portions of river systems essential to sustaining aquatic biodiversity). We discuss three examples of large-scale consequences of cumulative headwater alteration. Downstream eutrophication and coastal hypoxia result, in part, from agricultural practices that alter headwaters and wetlands while increasing nutrient runoff. Extensive headwater alteration is also expected to lower secondary productivity of river systems by reducing stream-system length and trophic subsidies to downstream river segments, affecting aquatic communities and terrestrial wildlife that utilize aquatic resources. Reduced viability of freshwater biota may occur with cumulative headwater alteration, including for species that occupy a range of stream sizes but for which headwater streams diversify the network of interconnected populations or enhance survival for particular life stages. Developing a more predictive understanding of ecological patterns that may emerge on regional scales as a result of headwater alterations will require studies focused on components and pathways that connect headwaters to river, coastal and

  2. Agricultural watershed modeling: a review for hydrology and soil erosion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Models have been used by man for thousands of years to control his environment in a favorable way to better human living conditions. The use of hydrologic models has been a widely effective tool in order to support decision makers dealing with watersheds related to several economic and social activities, like public water supply, energy generation, and water availability for agriculture, among others. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss some models on soil and water movement on landscapes (RUSLE, WEPP, GeoWEPP, LASH, DHSVM and AnnAGNPS to provide information about them to help and serve in a proper manner in order to discuss particular problems related to hydrology and soil erosion processes. Models have been changed and evaluated significantly in recent years, highlighting the use of remote sense, GIS and automatic calibration process, allowing them capable of simulating watersheds under a given land-use and climate change effects. However, hydrology models have almost the same physical structure, which is not enough for simulating problems related to the long-term effects of different land-uses. That has been our challenge for next future: to understand entirely the hydrology cycle, having as reference the critical zone, in which the hydrological processes act together from canopy to the bottom of aquifers.

  3. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy) (United States)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.


    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  4. Progress and prospects of climate change impacts on hydrology in the arid region of northwest China. (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi; Fan, Yuting; Wang, Huaijun; Deng, Haijun


    The arid region of Northwest China, located in the central Asia, responds sensitively to global climate change. Based on the newest research results, this paper analyzes the impacts of climate change on hydrology and the water cycle in the arid region of Northwest China. The analysis results show that: (1) In the northwest arid region, temperature and precipitation experienced "sharply" increasing in the past 50 years. The precipitation trend changed in 1987, and since then has been in a state of high volatility, during the 21st century, the increasing rate of precipitation was diminished. Temperature experienced a "sharply" increase in 1997; however, this sharp increasing trend has turned to an apparent hiatus since the 21st century. The dramatic rise in winter temperatures in the northwest arid region is an important reason for the rise in the average annual temperature, and substantial increases in extreme winter minimum temperature play an important role in the rising average winter temperature; (2) There was a significant turning point in the change of pan evaporation in the northwest arid area in 1993, i.e., in which a significant decline reversed to a significant upward trend. In the 21st century, the negative effects of global warming and increasing levels of evaporation on the ecology of the northwest arid region have been highlighted; (3) Glacier change has a significant impact on hydrology in the northwest arid area, and glacier inflection points have appeared in some rivers. The melting water supply of the Tarim River Basin possesses a large portion of water supplies (about 50%). In the future, the amount of surface water will probably remain at a high state of fluctuation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Hydrological and Energy Budgets in Amazonia through Regional Downscaling, and Comparisons with Global Reanalysis Products (United States)

    Nunes, A.; Ivanov, V. Y.


    Although current global reanalyses provide reasonably accurate large-scale features of the atmosphere, systematic errors are still found in the hydrological and energy budgets of such products. In the tropics, precipitation is particularly challenging to model, which is also adversely affected by the scarcity of hydrometeorological datasets in the region. With the goal of producing downscaled analyses that are appropriate for a climate assessment at regional scales, a regional spectral model has used a combination of precipitation assimilation with scale-selective bias correction. The latter is similar to the spectral nudging technique, which prevents the departure of the regional model's internal states from the large-scale forcing. The target area in this study is the Amazon region, where large errors are detected in reanalysis precipitation. To generate the downscaled analysis, the regional climate model used NCEP/DOE R2 global reanalysis as the initial and lateral boundary conditions, and assimilated NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHed precipitation (CMORPH), available at 0.25-degree resolution, every 3 hours. The regional model's precipitation was successfully brought closer to the observations, in comparison to the NCEP global reanalysis products, as a result of the impact of a precipitation assimilation scheme on cumulus-convection parameterization, and improved boundary forcing achieved through a new version of scale-selective bias correction. Water and energy budget terms were also evaluated against global reanalyses and other datasets.

  6. Flash Floods Simulation using a Physical-Based Hydrological Model at Different Hydroclimatic Regions (United States)

    Saber, Mohamed; Kamil Yilmaz, Koray


    Currently, flash floods are seriously increasing and affecting many regions over the world. Therefore, this study will focus on two case studies; Wadi Abu Subeira, Egypt as arid environment, and Karpuz basin, Turkey as Mediterranean environment. The main objective of this work is to simulate flash floods at both catchments considering the hydrometeorological differences between them which in turn effect their flash flood behaviors. An integrated methodology incorporating Hydrological River Basin Environmental Assessment Model (Hydro-BEAM) and remote sensing observations was devised. Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP) were compared with the rain gauge network at the target basins to estimate the bias in an effort to further use it effectively in simulation of flash floods. Based on the preliminary results of flash floods simulation on both basins, we found that runoff behaviors of flash floods are different due to the impacts of climatology, hydrological and topographical conditions. Also, the simulated surface runoff hydrographs are reasonably coincide with the simulated ones. Consequently, some mitigation strategies relying on this study could be introduced to help in reducing the flash floods disasters at different climate regions. This comparison of different climatic basins would be a reasonable implication for the potential impact of climate change on the flash floods frequencies and occurrences.

  7. Prediction of soil stability and erosion in semiarid regions using numerical hydrological model (MCAT) and airborne hyperspectral imagery (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Wittenberg, Lea


    Long-term environmental monitoring is addressed to identify physical and biological changes and progresses taking place in the ecosystem. This basic action of landscape monitoring is an essential part of the systematic long-term surveillance, aiming to evaluate, assess and predict the spatial change and progresses. Indeed, it provides a context for wide range of diverse studies and research frameworks from regional or global scale. Spatial-temporal trends and changes at various scales (massive to less certain) require establishing consistent baseline data over time. One of the spatial cases of landscape monitoring is dedicated to soil formation and pedological progresses. It is previously acknowledged that changes in soil affect the functionality of the environment, so monitoring changes recently become important cause considerable resources in areas such as environmental management, sustainability services, and protecting the environment healthy. Given the above, it can be concluded that monitoring changes in the base for sustainable development. The hydrological response of bare soils and watersheds in semiarid regions to intense rainfall events is known to be complex due to multiply physical and structural impacts and feedbacks. As a result, the comprehensive evaluations of mathematical models including detailed consideration of uncertainties in the modeling of hydrological and environmental systems are of increasing importance. The presented method incorporates means of remote sensing data, hydrological and climate data and implementing dedicated and integrative Monte Carlo Analysis Toolbox (MCAT) model for semiarid region. Complexity of practical models to represent spatial systems requires an extensive understanding of the spatial phenomena, while providing realistic balance of sensitivity and corresponding uncertainty levels. Nowadays a large number of dedicated mathematical models applied to assess environmental hydrological process. Among the most

  8. 2-way coupling the hydrological land surface model PROMET with the regional climate model MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zabel


    Full Text Available Most land surface hydrological models (LSHMs consider land surface processes (e.g. soil–plant–atmosphere interactions, lateral water flows, snow and ice in a spatially detailed manner. The atmosphere is considered as exogenous driver, neglecting feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs generally simulate land surface processes through coarse descriptions and spatial scales but include land–atmosphere interactions. What is the impact of the differently applied model physics and spatial resolution of LSHMs on the performance of RCMs? What feedback effects are induced by different land surface models? This study analyses the impact of replacing the land surface module (LSM within an RCM with a high resolution LSHM. A 2-way coupling approach was applied using the LSHM PROMET (1 × 1 km2 and the atmospheric part of the RCM MM5 (45 × 45 km2. The scaling interface SCALMET is used for down- and upscaling the linear and non-linear fluxes between the model scales. The change in the atmospheric response by MM5 using the LSHM is analysed, and its quality is compared to observations of temperature and precipitation for a 4 yr period from 1996 to 1999 for the Upper Danube catchment. By substituting the Noah-LSM with PROMET, simulated non-bias-corrected near-surface air temperature improves for annual, monthly and daily courses when compared to measurements from 277 meteorological weather stations within the Upper Danube catchment. The mean annual bias was improved from −0.85 to −0.13 K. In particular, the improved afternoon heating from May to September is caused by increased sensible heat flux and decreased latent heat flux as well as more incoming solar radiation in the fully coupled PROMET/MM5 in comparison to the NOAH/MM5 simulation. Triggered by the LSM replacement, precipitation overall is reduced; however simulated precipitation amounts are still of high uncertainty, both

  9. An Application of Filtered Renewal Processes in Hydrology

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    Mario Lefebvre


    Full Text Available Filtered renewal processes are used to forecast daily river flows. For these processes, contrary to filtered Poisson processes, the time between consecutive events is not necessarily exponentially distributed, which is more realistic. The model is applied to obtain one- and two-day-ahead forecasts of the flows of the Delaware and Hudson Rivers, both located in the United States. Better results are obtained than with filtered Poisson processes, which are often used to model river flows.

  10. A vertical hydroclimatology of the Upper Indus Basin and initial insights to potential hydrological change in the region (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.


    The water resources of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) are of the utmost importance to the economic wellbeing of Pakistan. The irrigated agriculture made possible by Indus river runoff underpins the food security for Pakistan's nearly 200 million people. Contributions from hydropower account for more than one fifth of peak installed electrical generating capacity in a country where widespread, prolonged load-shedding handicaps business activity and industrial development. Pakistan's further socio-economic development thus depends largely on optimisation of its precious water resources. Confident, accurate projections of future water resource availability and variability are urgent insights needed by development planners and infrastructure managers at all levels. Correctly projecting future hydrological conditions depends first and foremost on a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms and processes of present hydroclimatology. The vertical and horizontal spatial variations in key climate parameters (temperature, precipitation) govern the contributions of the various elevation zones and subcatchments comprising the UIB. Trends in this complex mountainous region are highly varied by season and parameter. Observed changes here often do not match general global trends or even necessarily those found in neighbouring regions. This study considers data from a variety sources in order to compose the most complete picture possible of the vertical hydroclimatology of the UIB. The study presents the observed climatology and trends for precipitation and temperature from local observations at long-record meteorological stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department). These data are compared to characterisations of additional water cycle parameters (humidity, cloud, snow cover and snow-water-equivalent) derived from local short-record automatic weather stations, the ECMWF ‘ERA' reanalysis projects and satellite based observations (AVHRR, MODIS, etc). The potential

  11. Coupling biophysical processes and water rights to simulate spatially distributed water use in an intensively managed hydrologic system (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Benner, Shawn G.; Bolte, John P.; Vache, Kellie B.; Flores, Alejandro N.


    Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this region. In agricultural areas, water demand is estimated as a function of crop type and local environmental conditions. Surface water to meet crop demand is diverted from the stream reaches, constrained by the amount of water available in the stream, the water-rights-appropriated amount, and the priority dates associated with particular places of use. Results, measured by flow rates at gaged stream and canal locations within the study area, suggest that the impacts of irrigation activities on the magnitude and timing of flows through this intensively managed system are well captured. The multi-year averaged diverted water from the Boise River matches observations well, reflecting the appropriation of water according to the water rights database. Because of the spatially explicit implementation of surface water diversion, the model can help diagnose places and times where water resources are likely insufficient to meet agricultural water demands, and inform future water management decisions.

  12. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  13. Towards a regional climate model coupled to a comprehensive hydrological model (United States)

    Rasmussen, S. H.; Drews, M.; Christensen, J. H.; Butts, M. B.; Jensen, K. H.; Refsgaard, J.; Hydrological ModellingAssessing Climate Change Impacts At Different Scales (Hyacints)


    When planing new ground water abstractions wells, building areas, roads or other land use activities information about expected future groundwater table location for the lifetime of the construction may be critical. The life time of an abstraction well can be expected to be more than 50 years, while if for buildings may be up to 100 years or more. The construction of an abstraction well is expensive and it is important to know if clean groundwater is available for its expected life time. The future groundwater table is depending on the future climate. With climate change the hydrology is expected to change as well. Traditionally, this assessment has been done by driving hydrological models with output from a climate model. In this way feedback between the groundwater hydrology and the climate is neglected. Neglecting this feedback can lead to imprecise or wrong results. The goal of this work is to couple the regional climate model HIRHAM (Christensen et al. 2006) to the hydrological model MIKE SHE (Graham and Butts, 2006). The coupling exploits the new OpenMI technology that provides a standardized interface to define, describe and transfer data on a time step basis between software components that run simultaneously (Gregersen et al., 2007). HIRHAM runs on a UNIX platform whereas MIKE SHE and OpenMI are under WINDOWS. Therefore the first critical task has been to develop an effective communication link between the platforms. The first step towards assessing the coupled models performance are addressed by looking at simulated land-surface atmosphere feedback through variables such as evapotranspiration, sensible heat flux and soil moisture content. Christensen, O.B., Drews, M., Christensen, J.H., Dethloff, K., Ketelsen, K., Hebestadt, I. and Rinke, A. (2006) The HIRHAM Regional Climate Model. Version 5; DMI Scientific Report 0617. Danish Meteorological Institute. Graham, D.N. and Butts, M.B. (2005) Flexible, integrated watershed modelling with MIKE SHE, In

  14. Effects of volcanic and hydrologic processes on forest vegetation: Chaitén Volcano, Chile


    Swanson,Frederick J; Jones,Julia A; Crisafulli,Charles M; Lara,Antonio


    The 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén Volcano (Chile) involved a variety of volcanic and associated hydro-logic processes that damaged nearby forests. These processes included coarse (gravel) and fine (silt to sand) tephra fall, a laterally directed blast, fluvial deposition of remobilized tephra, a variety of low-temperature mass-movement processes, and a pyroclastic flow. Each of these geophysical processes constitutes a type of ecosystem disturbance which involves a distinctive suite of distur...

  15. Modelling hydrological conditions in the maritime forest region of south-western Nova Scotia (United States)

    Yanni, Shelagh; Keys, Kevin; Meng, Fan-Rui; Yin, Xiwei; Clair, Tom; Arp, Paul A.


    Hydrological processes and conditions were quantified for the Mersey River Basin (two basins: one exiting below Mill Falls, and one exiting below George Lake), the Roger's Brook Basin, Moosepit Brook, and for other selected locations at and near Kejimkujik National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1967 to 1990. Addressed variables included precipitation (rain, snow, fog), air temperature, stream discharge, snowpack accumulations, throughfall, soil and subsoil moisture, soil temperature and soil frost, at a monthly resolution. It was found that monthly per hectare stream discharge was essentially independent of catchment area from interception and soil percolation.

  16. Quantifying the effects of climate and post-fire landscape change on hydrologic processes (United States)

    Steimke, A.; Han, B.; Brandt, J.; Som Castellano, R.; Leonard, A.; Flores, A. N.


    Seasonally snow-dominated, forested mountain watersheds supply water to many human populations globally. However, the timing and magnitude of water delivery from these watersheds has already and will continue to change as the climate warms. Changes in vegetation also affect the runoff response of watersheds. The largest driver of vegetation change in many mountainous regions is wildfire, whose occurrence is affected by both climate and land management decisions. Here, we quantify how direct (i.e. changes in precipitation and temperature) and indirect (i.e. changing fire regimes) effects of climate change influence hydrologic parameters such as dates of peak streamflow, annual discharge, and snowpack levels. We used the Boise River Basin, ID as a model laboratory to calculate the relative magnitude of change stemming from direct and indirect effects of climate change. This basin is relevant to study as it is well-instrumented and major drainages have experienced burning at different spatial and temporal intervals, aiding in model calibration. We built a hydrology-based integrated model of the region using a multiagent simulation framework, Envision. We used a modified HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) rainfall-runoff model and calibrated it to historic streamflow and snowpack observations. We combined a diverse set of climate projections with wildfire scenarios (low vs. high) representing two distinct intervals in the regional historic fire record. In fire simulations, we altered land cover coefficients to reflect a burned state post-fire, which decreased overall evapotranspiration rates and increased water yields. However, direct climate effects had a larger signal on annual variations of hydrologic parameters. By comparing and analyzing scenario outputs, we identified links and sensitivities between land cover and regional hydrology in the context of a changing climate, with potential implications for local land and water managers. In future

  17. Estimating impact of rainfall change on hydrological processes in Jianfengling rainforest watershed, China using BASINS-HSPF-CAT modeling system (United States)

    Zhang Zhou; Ying Ouyang; Yide Li; Zhijun Qiu; Matt Moran


    Climate change over the past several decades has resulted in shifting rainfall pattern and modifying rain-fall intensity, which has exacerbated hydrological processes and added the uncertainty and instability tothese processes. This study ascertained impacts of potential future rainfall change on hydrological pro-cesses at the Jianfengling (JFL) tropical mountain...

  18. Hydrologic connectivity and implications for ecosystem processes - Lessons from naked watersheds (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Wlostowski, Adam; McKnight, Diane M.; Jaros, Chris


    Hydrologic connectivity has received great attention recently as our conceptual models of watersheds and water quality have evolved in the past several decades. However, the structural complexity of most temperate watersheds (i.e. connections among shallow soils, deep aquifers, the atmosphere and streams) and the dynamic seasonal changes that occur within them (i.e., plant senescence which impacts evapotranspiration) create significant challenges to characterizing or quantifying hydrologic connectivity. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, a polar desert in Antarctica, provide a unique opportunity to study hydrologic connectivity because there is no vegetative cover (and therefore no transpiration), and no deep aquifers connected to surface soils or streams. Glacier melt provides stream flow to well-established channels and closed-basin, ice-covered lakes on the valley floor. Streams are also connected to shallow hyporheic zones along their lengths, which are bounded at 75 cm depth by ice-cemented permafrost. These hydrologic features and connections provide water for and underpin biological communities. Hence, exchange of water among them provides a vector for exchange of energy and dissolved solutes. Connectivity is dynamic on timescales of a day to a flow season (6-12 weeks), as streamflow varies over these timescales. The timescales over which these connections occur is also dynamic. Exchanges between streams and hyporheic zones, for example, have been estimated to be as short as hours to as long as several weeks. These exchanges have significant implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems and the biotic communities in each feature. Here we evaluate the lessons we can learn about hydrologic connectivity in the MDV watersheds that are simplified in the context of processes occurring and water reservoirs included in the landscape, yet are sensitive to climate controls and contain substantial physical heterogeneity. We specifically explore several metrics that are

  19. Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: hydrologic vegetation gradient as an indicator for lateral hydrologic connectivity of headwater catchments (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; James M. Vose; Christina. Tague


    Lateral water flow in catchments can produce important patterns in water and nutrient fluxes and stores and also influences the long-term spatial development of forest ecosystems. Specifically, patterns of vegetation type and density along hydrologic flow paths can represent a signal of the redistribution of water and nitrogen mediated by lateral hydrologic flow. This...

  20. Climate change impacts utilizing regional models for agriculture, hydrology and natural ecosystems (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Smith, E.; Stack, D. H.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.


    Climate change impacts the entire Earth but with crucial and often catastrophic impacts at local and regional levels. Extreme phenomena such as fires, dust storms, droughts and other natural hazards present immediate risks and challenges. Such phenomena will become more extreme as climate change and anthropogenic activities accelerate in the future. We describe a major project funded by NIFA (Grant # 2011-67004-30224), under the joint NSF-DOE-USDA Earth System Models (EaSM) program, to investigate the impacts of climate variability and change on the agricultural and natural (i.e. rangeland) ecosystems in the Southwest USA using a combination of historical and present observations together with climate, and ecosystem models, both in hind-cast and forecast modes. The applicability of the methodology to other regions is relevant (for similar geographic regions as well as other parts of the world with different agriculture and ecosystems) and should advance the state of knowledge for regional impacts of climate change. A combination of multi-model global climate projections from the decadal predictability simulations, to downscale dynamically these projections using three regional climate models, combined with remote sensing MODIS and other data, in order to obtain high-resolution climate data that can be used with hydrological and ecosystem models for impacts analysis, is described in this presentation. Such analysis is needed to assess the future risks and potential impacts of projected changes on these natural and managed ecosystems. The results from our analysis can be used by scientists to assist extended communities to determine agricultural coping strategies, and is, therefore, of interest to wide communities of stakeholders. In future work we will be including surface hydrologic modeling and water resources, extend modeling to higher resolutions and include significantly more crops and geographical regions with different weather and climate conditions

  1. Modelling hydrological processes and dissolved organic carbon dynamics in a rehabilitated Sphagnum-dominated peatland (United States)

    Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Binet, Stéphane; Gogo, Sébastien; Leroy, Fabien; Perdereau, Laurent; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima


    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands represent a global major stock of carbon (C). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports through runoff and leaching could reduce their potential C sink function and impact downstream water quality. DOC production in peatlands is strongly controlled by the hydrology, especially water table depth (WTD). Therefore, disturbances such as drainage can lead to increase DOC exports by lowering the WTD. Hydrological restoration (e.g. rewetting) can be undertaken to restore peatland functioning with an impact on DOC exports. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of drainage and rewetting on hydrological processes and their interactions with DOC dynamics in a Sphagnum dominated peatland. A hydrological model has been applied to a drained peatland (La Guette, France) which experienced a rewetting action on February 2014 and where WTD has been recorded in four piezometers at a 15 min time step since 2009. In addition, DOC concentrations in the peatland have been measured 6 times a year since 2014. The hydrological model is a WTD dependent reservoir model composed by two reservoirs representing the micro and macro porosity of the peatland (Binet et al., 2013). A DOC production module in both reservoirs was implemented based on temperature and WTD. The model was calibrated against WTD and DOC concentrations for each piezometer. The results show that the WTD in the study area is strongly affected by local meteorological conditions that could hide the effect of the rewetting action. The preliminary results evidenced that an additional source of water, identified as groundwater supply originating from the surrounding sandy layer aquifer, is necessary to maintain the water balance, especially during wet years (NS>0.8). Finally, the DOC module was able to describe DOC concentrations measured in the peatland and could be used to assess the impact of rewetting on DOC dynamics at different locations and to identify the factors of control of DOC

  2. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng


    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  3. Hydrology and water quality of the copper-nickel study region, northeastern Minnesota (United States)

    Siegel, Donald I.; Ericson, Donald W.


    Data were collected on the hydrology of the Copper-Nickel study region to identify the location and nature of groundwater resources, determine the flow characteristics and general quality of the major streams, and determine the potential effects of mining copper and nickel on the hydrologic stream. Groundwater generally occurs in local flow systems within surficial deposits and in fractures in the upper few hundred feet of bedrock. Yields commonly range from 1 to 5 gallons per minute from wells in surficial materials and bedrock, but can be as much as 1,000 gallons per minute from wells in the sand and gravel aquifer underlying the Embarrass River valley. Groundwater generally is calcium-magnesium bicarbonate types. Over a mineralized zone, groundwater has concentrations of copper and nickel greater than 5 micrograms per liter. The average annual runoff from streams in the study area is about 10 inches. About 60% of the annual runoff occurs during snowmelt in spring. Flood peaks are reduced in streams that have surface storage available in on-channel lakes and wetlands. Specific conductance in streams can exceed 250 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius where mine dewatering supplements natural discharge. Estimated groundwater discharge to projected copper-nickel mines ranges from less than 25 to about 2,000 gallons per minute. The introduction of trace metals from future mining activities to the groundwater system can be reduced if tailings basins and stockpiles are located on material which has low permeability, such as till, peat, or bedrock. (USGS)

  4. Development of hydrological models and surface process modelization Study case in High Mountain slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, Juan Carlos; Pauwels, Valentijn R


    Hydrological models are useful because allow to predict fluxes into the hydrological systems, which is useful to predict foods and violent phenomenon associated to water fluxes, especially in materials under a high meteorization level. The combination of these models with meteorological predictions, especially with rainfall models, allow to model water behavior into the soil. On most of cases, this type of models is really sensible to evapotranspiration. On climatic studies, the superficial processes have to be represented adequately. Calibration and validation of these models is necessary to obtain reliable results. This paper is a practical exercise of application of complete hydrological information at detailed scale in a high mountain catchment, considering the soil use and types more representatives. The information of soil moisture, infiltration, runoff and rainfall is used to calibrate and validate TOPLATS hydrological model to simulate the behavior of soil moisture. The finds show that is possible to implement an hydrological model by means of soil moisture information use and an equation of calibration by Extended Kalman Filter (EKF).

  5. Surface runoff in flat terrain: How field topography and runoff generating processes control hydrological connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.; Bogaart, P.W.; Bogaart, P.W.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.


    In flat lowland agricultural catchments in temperate climate zones with highly permeable sandy soils, surface runoff is a rare process with a large impact on the redistribution of sediments and solutes and stream water quality. We examine hydrological data obtained on two field sites in the

  6. A system dynamic model to estimate hydrological processes and water use in a eucalypt plantation (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Daping Xu; Ted Leininger; Ningnan Zhang


    Eucalypts have been identified as one of the best feedstocks for bioenergy production due to theirfast-growth rate and coppicing ability. However, their water use efficiency along with the adverse envi-ronmental impacts is still a controversial issue. In this study, a system dynamic model was developed toestimate the hydrological processes and water use in a eucalyptus...

  7. Hydrologic processes of forested headwater watersheds across a physiographaic gradient in the southeastern United States (United States)

    Ge Sun; Johnny Boggs; Steven G. McNulty; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin; Zhaohua Dai; James M. Vose; Ileana B. La Torre Torres; Timothy Callahan


    Understanding the hydrologic processes is the first step in making sound watershed management decisions including designing Best Management Practices for nonpoint source pollution control. Over the past fifty years, various forest experimental watersheds have been instrumented across the Carolinas through collaborative studies among federal, state, and private...

  8. Effects of hydrologic conditions on biogeochemical processes and organic pollutant degradation in salt marsh sediments (United States)

    W. James Catallo


    This work addressed the influence of tidal vs. static hydrologic conditions on biogeochemical processes and the transformation of pollutant organic chemicals (eight representative N-, O-, and S-heterocycles (NOSHs) from coal chemicals, crude oils, and pyrogenic mixtures) in salt marsh sediments. The goals were to: (1) determine the effects of static (flooded, drained)...

  9. Simulating hydrological processes in a sub-basin of the Mekong using GBHM and RS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang


    Full Text Available This paper presents simulations of daily hydrological process of the Mun River, the largest tributary of the Mekong, with a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM driven by two forcing sets: traditional station data and grid data derived from remote sensing and GLDAS products. Driven by the station data, the Mun-GBHM model is successfully calibrated against the discharge observed in 1991, but the model accuracy decreases with the increase of simulation time during the validation period of 1992–1999. Driven by the TRMM rainfall and other meteorological data from GLDAS, using the same parameters as above, the model performs reliably at both the monthly and daily scale. Moreover, when the model is calibrated with one year of gridded data, its performance can be further improved. Our results demonstrate that TRMM and GLDAS are able to drive the GBHM so providing reliable hydrologic predictions in such data-poor or ungauged basins.

  10. On the appropriate definition of soil profile configuration and initial conditions for land surface-hydrology models in cold regions (United States)

    Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo; Gamazo, Pablo; Razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard S.


    Arctic and subarctic regions are amongst the most susceptible regions on Earth to global warming and climate change. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change in these regions require a proper process representation of the interactions between climate, carbon cycle, and hydrology in Earth system models. This study focuses on land surface models (LSMs) that represent the lower boundary condition of general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs), which simulate climate change evolution at the global and regional scales, respectively. LSMs typically utilize a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 m, whereas for cold, permafrost regions, field experiments show that attention to deep soil profiles is needed to understand and close the water and energy balances, which are tightly coupled through the phase change. To address this gap, we design and run a series of model experiments with a one-dimensional LSM, called CLASS (Canadian Land Surface Scheme), as embedded in the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire - Surface and Hydrology) modelling system, to (1) characterize the effect of soil profile depth under different climate conditions and in the presence of parameter uncertainty; (2) assess the effect of including or excluding the geothermal flux in the LSM at the bottom of the soil column; and (3) develop a methodology for temperature profile initialization in permafrost regions, where the system has an extended memory, by the use of paleo-records and bootstrapping. Our study area is in Norman Wells, Northwest Territories of Canada, where measurements of soil temperature profiles and historical reconstructed climate data are available. Our results demonstrate a dominant role for parameter uncertainty, that is often neglected in LSMs. Considering such high sensitivity to parameter values and dependency on the climate condition, we show that a minimum depth of 20 m is essential to adequately represent

  11. On the appropriate definition of soil profile configuration and initial conditions for land surface–hydrology models in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sapriza-Azuri


    Full Text Available Arctic and subarctic regions are amongst the most susceptible regions on Earth to global warming and climate change. Understanding and predicting the impact of climate change in these regions require a proper process representation of the interactions between climate, carbon cycle, and hydrology in Earth system models. This study focuses on land surface models (LSMs that represent the lower boundary condition of general circulation models (GCMs and regional climate models (RCMs, which simulate climate change evolution at the global and regional scales, respectively. LSMs typically utilize a standard soil configuration with a depth of no more than 4 m, whereas for cold, permafrost regions, field experiments show that attention to deep soil profiles is needed to understand and close the water and energy balances, which are tightly coupled through the phase change. To address this gap, we design and run a series of model experiments with a one-dimensional LSM, called CLASS (Canadian Land Surface Scheme, as embedded in the MESH (Modélisation Environmentale Communautaire – Surface and Hydrology modelling system, to (1 characterize the effect of soil profile depth under different climate conditions and in the presence of parameter uncertainty; (2 assess the effect of including or excluding the geothermal flux in the LSM at the bottom of the soil column; and (3 develop a methodology for temperature profile initialization in permafrost regions, where the system has an extended memory, by the use of paleo-records and bootstrapping. Our study area is in Norman Wells, Northwest Territories of Canada, where measurements of soil temperature profiles and historical reconstructed climate data are available. Our results demonstrate a dominant role for parameter uncertainty, that is often neglected in LSMs. Considering such high sensitivity to parameter values and dependency on the climate condition, we show that a minimum depth of 20 m is essential to

  12. Evaluation of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes in the Salt River Basin, Missouri, United States (United States)

    The impact of climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes at the watershed scale is needed by land managers and policy makers to properly assess potential adaptation strategies. While numerous studies have been conducted on hydrologic processes in the Midwest, only a few have analyzed the l...

  13. Effects of Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age on the hydrology of Mediterranean region (United States)

    Markonis, Y.; Kossieris, P.; Lykou, A.; Koutsoyiannis, D.


    Medieval Warm Period (950 - 1250) and Little Ice Age (1450 - 1850) are the most recent periods that reflect the magnitude of natural climate variability. As their names suggest, the first one was characterized by higher temperatures and a generally moister climate, while the opposite happened during the second period. Although their existence is well documented for Northern Europe and North America, recent findings suggest strong evidence in lower latitudes as well. Here we analyze qualitatively the influence of these climatic fluctuations on the hydrological cycle all over the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the spatial characteristics of precipitation and runoff. We use both qualitative estimates from literature review in the field of paleoclimatology and statistical analysis of proxy data series. We investigate possible regional patterns and possible tele-connections with large scale atmospheric circulation phenomena such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Siberian High, African Sahel Rainfall and Indian Monsoon.

  14. Improved hydrological modeling for remote regions using a combination of observed and simulated precipitation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Linden, Sandra; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg


    -resolution regional climate model (HIRHAM4) with a mean-field bias correction using observed precipitation. A hydrological model (USAFLOW) was applied to simulate runoff using observed precipitation and a combination of observed and simulated precipitation as input. The method was illustrated for the remote Usa basin......, situated in the European part of Arctic Russia, close to the Ural Mountains. It was shown that runoff simulations agree better with observations when the combined precipitation data set was used than when only observed precipitation was used. This appeared to be because the HIRHAM4 model data compensated...... for the absence of observed data from mountainous areas where precipitation is orographically enhanced. In both cases, the runoff simulated by USAFLOW was superior to the runoff simulated within the HIRHAM4 model itself. This was attributed to the rather simplistic description of the water balance in the HIRHAM4...

  15. Influence of feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios (United States)

    van Walsum, P. E. V.


    Climate change impact modelling of hydrologic responses is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. Reducing this dependency was one of the goals of extending the regional hydrologic modelling system SIMGRO with a two-way coupling to the crop growth simulation model WOFOST. The coupling includes feedbacks to the hydrologic model in terms of the root zone depth, soil cover, leaf area index, interception storage capacity, crop height and crop factor. For investigating whether such feedbacks lead to significantly different simulation results, two versions of the model coupling were set up for a test region: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous simulation of the crop growth, the "dynamic" model WOFOST. The used parameterization methods of the static/dynamic vegetation models ensure that for the current climate the simulated long-term average of the actual evapotranspiration is the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios. Owing to the higher temperatures in combination with a higher CO2-concentration of the atmosphere, a forward time shift of the crop development is simulated in the dynamic model; the used arable land crop, potatoes, also shows a shortening of the growing season. For this crop, a significant reduction of the potential transpiration is simulated compared to the static model, in the example by 15% in a warm, dry year. In consequence, the simulated crop water stress (the unit minus the relative transpiration) is lower when the dynamic model is used; also the simulated increase of crop water stress due to climate change is lower; in the example, the simulated increase is 15 percentage points less (of 55) than when a static model is used. The static/dynamic models also simulate different absolute values of the transpiration. The difference is most pronounced for potatoes at locations with ample moisture supply; this supply can either come from storage release of a

  16. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.


    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  17. Predicting invasive species impacts on hydrological processes: the consequences of plant physiology for landscape processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C


    Full Text Available The adverse impacts of invading alien organisms are widely recognized as one of the major threats to biodiversity and are receiving growing recognition as a major socioeconomic threat. The hydrological impacts of alien plants have received less...

  18. Assessment of climate change impact on hydrological extremes in two source regions of the Nile River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Taye


    Full Text Available The potential impact of climate change was investigated on the hydrological extremes of Nyando River and Lake Tana catchments, which are located in two source regions of the Nile River basin. Climate change scenarios were developed for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (ETo, considering 17 General Circulation Model (GCM simulations to better understand the range of possible future change. They were constructed by transferring the extracted climate change signals to the observed series using a frequency perturbation downscaling approach, which accounts for the changes in rainfall extremes. Projected changes under two future SRES emission scenarios A1B and B1 for the 2050s were considered. Two conceptual hydrological models were calibrated and used for the impact assessment. Their difference in simulating the flows under future climate scenarios was also investigated.

    The results reveal increasing mean runoff and extreme peak flows for Nyando catchment for the 2050s while unclear trend is observed for Lake Tana catchment for mean volumes and high/low flows. The hydrological models for Lake Tana catchment, however, performed better in simulating the hydrological regimes than for Nyando, which obviously also induces a difference in the reliability of the extreme future projections for both catchments. The unclear impact result for Lake Tana catchment implies that the GCM uncertainty is more important for explaining the unclear trend than the hydrological models uncertainty. Nevertheless, to have a better understanding of future impact, hydrological models need to be verified for their credibility of simulating extreme flows.

  19. Water Vapor Tacers as Diagnostics of the Regional Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle, especially in North America where moisture transport and local evaporation are important sources of water for precipitation. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. All evaporative sources of water are accounted for by tracers, and the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites General Circulation Model (GEOS GCM) is used to simulate several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. Using this methodology, a detailed analysis of the recycling of water, interannual variability of the sources of water and links to the Great Plains low-level jet and North American monsoon will be presented. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation especially regarding the North American monsoon and GEWEX America Prediction Project (GAPP) will be discussed.

  20. An eco-hydrological project on Turkey Creek watershed, South Carolina, U.S.A. (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Carl Trettin


    The low-gradient, forested wetland landscape of the southeastern United States’ Coastal Plain represents an important eco-hydrologic system, yet there is a very little information available on the region’s ecological, hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Long-term hydrologic monitoring can provide the information needed to understand basic hydrologic processes...

  1. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin (United States)

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.


    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to Amazon vary by approximately + /− 5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by + /− 2·5 cm is likely due to 0·5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin.

  2. Combined use of local and global hydrometeorological data with regional and global hydrological models in the Magdalena - Cauca river basin, Colombia (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erasmo; Sanchez, Ines; Duque, Nicolas; Lopez, Patricia; Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Arboleda, Pedro


    The Magdalena Cauca Macrobasin (MCMB) in Colombia, with an area of about 257,000 km2, is the largest and most important water resources system in the country. With almost 80% of the Colombian population (46 million people) settled in the basin, it is the main source of water for demands including human consumption, agriculture, hydropower generation, industrial activities and ecosystems. Despite its importance, the basin has witnessed enormous changes in land-cover and extensive deforestation during the last three decades. To make things more complicated, the MCMB currently lacks a set of tools to support planning and decision making processes at scale of the whole watershed. Considering this, the MCMB has been selected as one of the six different regional case studies in the eartH2Observe research project, in which hydrological and meteorological reanalysis products are being validated for the period 1980-2012. The combined use of the hydrological and meteorological reanalysis data, with local hydrometeorological data (precipitation, temperature and streamflow) provided by the National Hydrometeorological Agency (IDEAM), has given us the opportunity to implement and test three hydrological models (VIC, WFLOW and a Water Balance Model based on the Budyko framework) at the basin scale. Additionally, results from the global models in the eartH2Observe hydrological reanalysis have been used to evaluate their performance against the observed streamflow data. This paper discusses the comparison between streamflow observations and simulations from the global hydrological models forced with the WFDEI data, and regional models forced with a combination of observed and meteorological reanalysis data, in the whole domain of the MCMB. For the three regional models analysed results show good performances for some sub-basins and poor performances for others. This can be due to the smoothing of the precipitation fields, interpolated from point daily rainfall data, the effect of

  3. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cau


    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation. Our analysis suggests that of the four options, the most widely acceptable consists in the transfer of intensive agricultural practices to the larger watershed, which is less vulnerable, in tandem with wastewater reuse, which rates highly due to water scarcity in this region of the Mediterranean. More generally, the work demonstrates how both qualitative and quantitative methods and information can assist decision making in complex settings.

  4. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction? (United States)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.


    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  5. Hydrological cycle research by D & 18 O tracing in small watershed in the loess hilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xuexuan


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of the hydrologic cycle in the loess area in China. Sixty eight water samples from precipitation, soil water of the 0 – 4 m layer, surface water in the valley, ground water (spring and well were collected and the Deuterium (D and Oxygen – 18 (O of these water samples were analyzed to interpret the relationship among those waters in the watershed in the loess hilly region during 2005 – 2009. The results show that: the D & 18O of precipitation in Yangou was consistent with that of Xi'an, apparently the north migration of water vapor in Xi'an; according to the correlations among the differential waters in D & 18 O, confirmed that precipitation recharge could account for most of the sources of valley flow, with part of the recharge water going to soil water recharge. The D & 18O of groundwater were very close to that of precipitation, likely the soil preferential flow was dominant in groundwater recharge although the infiltration had a certain lag. Under the influence of rainfall and evaporation, the response of the soil moisture profile, and its D & 18O profile were different. The soil moisture had the strong influenced layer in the 0 60 cm range, a weak impacted layer in 60 160 cm, and a stable layer below 160 cm. It was shown that the soil evaporation depth could be up to 160 cm because the D & 18O changed in that depth. The study could increase our understanding of the magnitude and pattern of the hydrologic cycle, which should improve water resources management in the watershed scale.

  6. Improving the spatial representation of soil properties and hydrology using topographically derived initialization processes in the SWAT model (United States)

    Topography exerts critical controls on many hydrologic, geomorphologic, and environmental biophysical processes. Unfortunately many watershed modeling systems use topography only to define basin boundaries and stream channels and do not explicitly account for the topographic controls on processes su...

  7. Future discharge drought across climate regions around the world modelled with a synthetic hydrological modelling approach forced by three general circulation models (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.


    Hydrological drought characteristics (drought in groundwater and streamflow) likely will change in the 21st century as a result of climate change. The magnitude and directionality of these changes and their dependency on climatology and catchment characteristics, however, is uncertain. In this study a conceptual hydrological model was forced by downscaled and bias-corrected outcome from three general circulation models for the SRES A2 emission scenario (GCM forced models), and the WATCH Forcing Data set (reference model). The threshold level method was applied to investigate drought occurrence, duration and severity. Results for the control period (1971-2000) show that the drought characteristics of each GCM forced model reasonably agree with the reference model for most of the climate types, suggesting that the climate models' results after post-processing produce realistic outcomes for global drought analyses. For the near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) the GCM forced models show a decrease in drought occurrence for all major climates around the world and increase of both average drought duration and deficit volume of the remaining drought events. The largest decrease in hydrological drought occurrence is expected in cold (D) climates where global warming results in a decreased length of the snow season and an increased precipitation. In the dry (B) climates the smallest decrease in drought occurrence is expected to occur, which probably will lead to even more severe water scarcity. However, in the extreme climate regions (desert and polar), the drought analysis for the control period showed that projections of hydrological drought characteristics are most uncertain. On a global scale the increase in hydrological drought duration and severity in multiple regions will lead to a higher impact of drought events, which should motivate water resource managers to timely anticipate the increased risk of more severe drought in groundwater and streamflow

  8. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    Natural and human-induced environmental changes have been altering the earth's surface and hydrological processes, and thus directly contribute to the severity of flood hazards. To understand these changes and their impacts, this research developed a GIS-based hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data have been addressed. This research develops an object-oriented hydrological modeling framework. Compared with traditional lumped or cell-based distributed hydrological modeling frameworks, the object-oriented framework allows basic spatial hydrologic units to have various size and irregular shape. This framework is capable of assimilating various GIS and remotely-sensed data with different spatial resolutions. It ensures the computational efficiency, while preserving sufficient spatial details of input data and model outputs. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of high resolution LIDAR DEM with traditional USGS 30m resolution DEM suggests that the use of LIDAR DEMs can greatly reduce uncertainty in calibration of flow parameters in the hydrologic model and hence increase the reliability of modeling results. In addition, subtle topographic features and hydrologic objects like surface depressions and detention basins can be extracted from the high resolution LiDAR DEMs. An innovative algorithm has been developed to efficiently delineate surface depressions and detention basins from LiDAR DEMs. Using a time series of Landsat images, a retrospective analysis of surface imperviousness has been conducted to assess the hydrologic impact of urbanization. The analysis reveals that with rapid urbanization the impervious surface has been increased from 10.1% to 38.4% for the case study area during 1974--2002. As a result, the peak flow for a 100-year flood event has increased by 20% and

  9. Peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region


    V. Baban; I. Gamaliy.


    This paper deals with analysis of hydrological regime of the fishery water reservoirs at the basin of the Southern Bug of Vinnytsia region. Systematization of the investigated water bodies was performed by the authors on the basis of previously developed classification and typing of water reservoirs.

  10. Applying Topographic Classification, Based on the Hydrological Process, to Design Habitat Linkages for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwon Mo


    Full Text Available The use of biodiversity surrogates has been discussed in the context of designing habitat linkages to support the migration of species affected by climate change. Topography has been proposed as a useful surrogate in the coarse-filter approach, as the hydrological process caused by topography such as erosion and accumulation is the basis of ecological processes. However, some studies that have designed topographic linkages as habitat linkages, so far have focused much on the shape of the topography (morphometric topographic classification with little emphasis on the hydrological processes (generic topographic classification to find such topographic linkages. We aimed to understand whether generic classification was valid for designing these linkages. First, we evaluated whether topographic classification is more appropriate for describing actual (coniferous and deciduous and potential (mammals and amphibians habitat distributions. Second, we analyzed the difference in the linkages between the morphometric and generic topographic classifications. The results showed that the generic classification represented the actual distribution of the trees, but neither the morphometric nor the generic classification could represent the potential animal distributions adequately. Our study demonstrated that the topographic classes, according to the generic classification, were arranged successively according to the flow of water, nutrients, and sediment; therefore, it would be advantageous to secure linkages with a width of 1 km or more. In addition, the edge effect would be smaller than with the morphometric classification. Accordingly, we suggest that topographic characteristics, based on the hydrological process, are required to design topographic linkages for climate change.

  11. The Impacts of Climate Change on the Frozen Soil and Eco-hydrology in the Source Region of Yellow River, China (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Yang, D.; Gao, B.


    The source region of Yellow River, located in the transition zone of discontinuous and continuous permafrost on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, has experienced dramatic climate change during the past decades. The long-term changes in the seasonally frozen ground remarkably affected the eco-hydrological processes in the source region and the water availability in the middle and lower reaches. In this study, we employed a geomorphology-based eco-hydrological model (GBEHM) to quantitatively assess the impacts of climate change on the frozen soil and regional eco-hydrology. It was found that the air temperature has increased by 2.1 °C since the 1960s and most significantly during the recent decade (0.67 °C /10a), while there was no significant trend of the precipitation. Based on a 34-year (1981-2014) simulation, the maximum frozen soil depth was in the range of 0.7-2.1 m and decreased by 1.5-7.9 cm/10a because of the warming climate. The model simulation adequately reproduced the observed streamflow changes, including the drought period in the 1990s and wet period in the 2000s, and the variability in hydrological behavior was closely associated with the climate and landscape conditions. The vegetation responses to climate changes manifested as advancing green-up dates and increasing leaf area index at the initial stage of growing season. Our study shows that the ecohydrological processes are changing along with the frozen soil degradation in headwater areas on the Tibetan Plateau, which could influence the availability of water resources in the middle and lower reaches.

  12. A Lightweight Modeling System for Region-Wide Monitoring of Hydrologic Threats (United States)

    Luna, D.; Hernandez, F.; Wang, R.; Liang, Y.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, X.


    Transportation infrastructure is subject to multiple hydrology-related threats, including floods, bridge scouring, landslides, and icing. While modern land-surface models could potentially assist in forecast and response operations, applying these models is challenging, because of the extensiveness of the infrastructure that the government transportation agencies are responsible for. Constructing detailed models for every point of interest and running them in real time would require significant efforts from a team of modeling professionals and considerable computational resources. To address this challenge, we introduce the Hydrologic Disaster Forecast and Response (HDFR) system, a lightweight software framework (under development) that streamlines the process of acquiring real-time and forecast data, inputting it into hydrologic models, and translating the results into concrete actionable information for field-team deployment. HDFR integrates a series of data, modeling, and severity modules behind a unified GIS graphical user interface. The latter interface allows non-expert users to easily execute complex workflows, ranging from forcing information acquisition to severity level computations at specific locations. The HDFR allows the performance of these monitoring tasks without the need of a supercomputer-grade infrastructure. Currently, the HDFR uses a regression algorithm as a proxy for physically-based models, to estimate return periods of variables of interest for watersheds of concern, based on key forcing and state variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture). This method only requires the execution of land-surface simulations during an offline training phase; however, the HDFR also features a hierarchical multi-scale modeling strategy for improved forecast precision. This approach minimizes the number of models runs to those for selected areas and resolutions, depending on observed conditions. Several prototype versions of the HDFR built on GRASS GIS

  13. Modeling Hydrologic Processes after Vegetation Restoration in an Urban Watershed with HEC-HMS (United States)

    Stevenson, K.; Kinoshita, A. M.


    The San Diego River Watershed in California (USA) is highly urbanized, where stream channel geomorphology are directly affected by anthropogenic disturbances. Flooding and water quality concerns have led to an increased interest in improving the condition of urban waterways. Alvarado Creek, a 1200-meter section of a tributary to the San Diego River will be used as a case study to understand the degree to which restoration efforts reduce the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on hydrologic processes and water quality in urban stream ecosystems. In 2016, non-native vegetation (i.e. Washingtonia spp. (fan palm), Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island palm)) and approximately 7257 kilograms of refuse were removed from the study reach. This research develops the United States Army Corp of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydraulic Modeling System (USACE HEC-HMS) using field-based data to model and predict the short- and long-term impacts of restoration on geomorphic and hydrologic processes. Observations include cross-sectional area, grain-size distributions, water quality, and continuous measurements of streamflow, temperature, and precipitation. Baseline and design storms are simulated before and after restoration. The model will be calibrated and validated using field observations. The design storms represent statistical likelihoods of storms occurrences, and the pre- and post-restoration hydrologic responses will be compared to evaluate the impact of vegetation and waste removal on runoff processes. Ultimately model parameters will be transferred to other urban creeks in San Diego that may potentially undergo restoration. Modeling will be used to learn about the response trajectory of rainfall-runoff processes following restoration efforts in urban streams and guide future management and restoration activities.

  14. A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system


    Li, Xin; Liu, Shaomin; Xiao, Qin; Ma, Mingguo; Jin, Rui; Che, Tao; Wang, Weizhen; Hu, Xiaoli; Xu, Ziwei; Wen, Jianguang; Wang, Liangxu


    We introduce a multiscale dataset obtained from Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) in an oasis-desert area in 2012. Upscaling of eco-hydrological processes on a heterogeneous surface is a grand challenge. Progress in this field is hindered by the poor availability of multiscale observations. HiWATER is an experiment designed to address this challenge through instrumentation on hierarchically nested scales to obtain multiscale and multidisciplinary data. The HiWAT...

  15. Hydrological Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical report (December 1937-April 1948) containing hydrologic information for the United States, divided into ten regions. While hourly precipitation tables...

  16. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo


    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  17. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo


    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995-2014) and near future (2015-2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses.

  18. Microbial contamination of drinking water from risky tubewells situated in different hydrological regions of Bangladesh. (United States)

    Dey, Nepal C; Parvez, Mahmood; Dey, Digbijoy; Saha, Ratnajit; Ghose, Lucky; Barua, Milan K; Islam, Akramul; Chowdhury, Mushtaque R


    This study, conducted in 40 selected upazilas covering four hydrological regions of Bangladesh, aimed at determining the risk of selected shallow tubewells (depthcontamination of shallow tubewells. The main objective of the study was to observe the seasonal and regional differences of microbial contamination and finally reaching a conclusion about safe distance between tubewells and latrines by comparing the contamination of two tubewell categories (category-1: distance ≤10m from nearest latrine; n=80 and category 2: distances 11-20m from nearest latrine; n=80) in different geographical contexts. About 62% of sampled tubewells were at medium to high risk according to WHO's sanitary inspection guidelines, while the situation was worst in south-west region. Microbiological contamination was significantly higher in sampled category-1 tubewells compared to category-2 tubewells, while the number of contaminated tubewells and level of contamination was higher during wet season. About 21% (CI 95 =12%-30%), 54% (CI 95 =43%-65%) and 58% (CI 95 =46%-69%) of water samples collected from category-1 tubewells were contaminated by E. coli, FC, and TC respectively during the wet season. The number of category-1 tubewells having E.coli was highest in the north-west (n=8) and north-central (n=4) region during wet season and dry season respectively, while the level of E.coli contamination in tubewell water (number of CFU/100ml of sample) was significantly higher in north-central region. However, the south-west region had the highest number of FC contaminated category-1 tubewells (n=16 & n=17; respectively during wet and dry season) and significantly a higher level of TC and FC in sampled Category-1 tubewells than north-west, north-central and south-east region, mainly during wet season. Multivariate regression analysis could identified some sanitary inspection indicators, such as tubewell within contaminants in tubewell water (pcontamination. Construction of pit latrine in areas

  19. Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing: A new tool for assessment and monitoring of hydrologic processes (United States)

    Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, Cian B.; Nelms, David L.; Miller, Cheryl; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Harvey, Charles F.; Karam, Hanan N.


    Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing (FO DTS) is an emerging technology for characterizing and monitoring a wide range of important earth processes. FO DTS utilizes laser light to measure temperature along the entire length of standard telecommunications optical fibers. The technology can measure temperature every meter over FO cables up to 30 kilometers (km) long. Commercially available systems can measure fiber temperature as often as 4 times per minute, with thermal precision ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 °C depending on measurement integration time. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a project to demonstrate and evaluate DTS as a technology to support hydrologic studies. This paper demonstrates the potential of the technology to assess and monitor hydrologic processes through case‐study examples of FO DTS monitoring of stream‐aquifer interaction on the Shenandoah River near Locke's Mill, Virginia, and on Fish Creek, near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and estuary‐aquifer interaction on Waquoit Bay, Falmouth, Massachusetts. The ability to continuously observe temperature over large spatial scales with high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new opportunity to observe and monitor a wide range of hydrologic processes with application to other disciplines including hazards, climate‐change, and ecosystem monitoring.

  20. Wetland Hydrology (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  1. Understanding controls of hydrologic processes across two headwater monolithological catchments using model-data synthesis (United States)

    Xiao, D.; Shi, Y.; Hoagland, B.; Del Vecchio, J.; Russo, T. A.; DiBiase, R. A.; Li, L.


    How do watershed hydrologic processes differ in catchments derived from different lithology? This study compares two first order, deciduous forest watersheds in Pennsylvania, a sandstone watershed, Garner Run (GR, 1.34 km2), and a shale-derived watershed, Shale Hills (SH, 0.08 km2). Both watersheds are simulated using a combination of national datasets and field measurements, and a physics-based land surface hydrologic model, Flux-PIHM. We aim to evaluate the effects of lithology on watershed hydrology and assess if we can simulate a new watershed without intensive measurements, i.e., directly use calibration information from one watershed (SH) to reproduce hydrologic dynamics of another watershed (GR). Without any calibration, the model at GR based on national datasets and calibration inforamtion from SH cannot capture some discharge peaks or the baseflow during dry periods. The model prediction agrees well with the GR field discharge and soil moisture after calibrating the soil hydraulic parameters using the uncertainty based Hornberger-Spear-Young algorithm and the Latin Hypercube Sampling method. Agreeing with the field observation and national datasets, the difference in parameter values shows that the sandstone watershed has a larger averaged soil pore diameter, greater water storage created by porosity, lower water retention ability, and greater preferential flow. The water budget calculation shows that the riparian zone and the colluvial valley serves as buffer zones that stores water at GR. Using the same procedure, we compared Flux-PIHM simulations with and without a field measured surface boulder map at GR. When the boulder map is used, the prediction of areal averaged soil moisture is improved, without performing extra calibration. When calibrated separately, the cases with or without boulder map yield different calibration values, but their hydrologic predictions are similar, showing equifinality. The calibrated soil hydraulic parameter values in the

  2. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS (United States)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.


    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  3. [Review on HSPF model for simulation of hydrology and water quality processes]. (United States)

    Li, Zhao-fu; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yan


    Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), written in FORTRAN, is one ol the best semi-distributed hydrology and water quality models, which was first developed based on the Stanford Watershed Model. Many studies on HSPF model application were conducted. It can represent the contributions of sediment, nutrients, pesticides, conservatives and fecal coliforms from agricultural areas, continuously simulate water quantity and quality processes, as well as the effects of climate change and land use change on water quantity and quality. HSPF consists of three basic application components: PERLND (Pervious Land Segment) IMPLND (Impervious Land Segment), and RCHRES (free-flowing reach or mixed reservoirs). In general, HSPF has extensive application in the modeling of hydrology or water quality processes and the analysis of climate change and land use change. However, it has limited use in China. The main problems with HSPF include: (1) some algorithms and procedures still need to revise, (2) due to the high standard for input data, the accuracy of the model is limited by spatial and attribute data, (3) the model is only applicable for the simulation of well-mixed rivers, reservoirs and one-dimensional water bodies, it must be integrated with other models to solve more complex problems. At present, studies on HSPF model development are still undergoing, such as revision of model platform, extension of model function, method development for model calibration, and analysis of parameter sensitivity. With the accumulation of basic data and imorovement of data sharing, the HSPF model will be applied more extensively in China.

  4. Hydrologic testing in wells near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.S.; Olsen, J.H.; Ralston, D.R.


    The Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the INEL is often viewed as a 2-dimensional system, but may actually possess 3-dimensional properties of concern. A straddle-packer system is being used by the State's INEL Oversight Program to isolate specific aquifer intervals and define the 3-dimensional chemical and hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer. The hydrologic test results from wells USGS 44, 45, and 46 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant indicate that: (1) Vertical variation in static head is less than 0.3 feed, (2) barometric efficiencies are between 25 and 55 percent, and (3) the system responds to distant pumping as a multi-layered, but interconnected system. 3 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Evaluating terrestrial water storage variations from regionally constrained GRACE mascon data and hydrological models over Southern Africa – Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.


    ). In this paper we explore an experimental set of regionally constrained mascon blocks over Southern Africa where a system of 1.25° × 1.5° and 1.5° × 1.5° blocks has been designed. The blocks are divided into hydrological regions based on drainage patterns of the largest river basins, and are constrained...... Malawi with water level from altimetry. Results show that weak constraints across regions in addition to intra-regional constraints are necessary, to reach reasonable mass variations....

  6. VIC–CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Malek


    Full Text Available Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively. A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC–CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology, it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC–CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC–CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land–atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC–CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois. The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET, applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI, and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  7. VIC-CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Stöckle, Claudio; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran; Nelson, Roger; Liu, Mingliang; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Barik, Muhammad; Adam, Jennifer C.


    Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively). A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC-CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology), it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC-CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC-CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land-atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC-CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest) and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois). The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET), applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI), and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  8. Elucidating Critical Zone Process Interactions with an Integrated Hydrology Model in a Headwaters Research Catchment (United States)

    Collins, C.; Maxwell, R. M.


    Providence Creek (P300) watershed is an alpine headwaters catchment located at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). Evidence of groundwater-dependent vegetation and drought-induced tree mortality at P300 along with the effect of subsurface characterization on mountain ecohydrology motivates this study. A hyper resolution integrated hydrology model of this site, along with extensive instrumentation, provides an opportunity to study the effects of lateral groundwater flow on vegetation's tolerance to drought. ParFlow-CLM is a fully integrated surface-subsurface model that is driven with reconstructed meteorology, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2) dataset. However, large-scale data products mute orographic effects on climate at smaller scales. Climate variables often do not behave uniformly in highly heterogeneous mountain regions. Therefore, forcing physically-based integrated hydrologic models—especially of mountain headwaters catchments—with a large-scale data product is a major challenge. Obtaining reliable observations in complex terrain is challenging and while climate data products introduce uncertainties likewise, documented discrepancies between several data products and P300 observations suggest these data products may suffice. To tackle these issues, a suite of simulations was run to parse out (1) the effects of climate data source (data products versus observations) and (2) the effects of climate data spatial variability. One tool for evaluating the effect of climate data on model outputs is the relationship between latent head flux (LH) and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning with water table depth (WTD). This zone of LH sensitivity to WTD is referred to as the "critical zone." Preliminary results suggest that these critical zone relationships are preserved despite forcing albeit significant shifts in magnitude. These results demonstrate that integrated hydrology models are sensitive

  9. Sensitivity study on the parameters of the regional hydrology model for the Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Davenport, J.M.; Waddell, R.K.; Stephens, H.P.; Leap, D.I.


    Statistical methodology has been applied to the investigation of the regional hydrologic systems of a large area encompassing the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a part of the overall evaluation of the NTS for deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Statistical techniques including Latin hypercube sampling were used to perform a sensitivity analysis on a two-dimensional finite-element code of 16 geohydrologic zones used to model the regional ground-water flow system. The Latin hypercube sample has been modified to include correlations between corresponding variables from zone to zone. From the results of sensitivity analysis it was found that: (1) the ranking of the relative importance of input variables between locations within the same geohydrologic zone were similar, but not identical; and (2) inclusion of a correlation structure for input variables had a significant effect on the ranking of their relative importance. The significance of these results is discussed with respect to the hydrology of the region

  10. Influences of Coupled Hydrologic and Microbial Processes on River Corridor Biogeochemistry and Ecology (United States)

    Scheibe, T. D.; Song, H. S.; Stegen, J.; Graham, E.; Bao, J.; Goldman, A.; Zhou, T.; Crump, A.; Hou, Z.; Hammond, G. E.; Chen, X.; Huang, M.; Zhang, X.; Nelson, W. C.; Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.


    The exchange of water between rivers and surrounding subsurface environments (hydrologic exchange flows or HEFs) is a vital aspect of river ecology and watershed function. HEFs play a key role in water quality, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem health, and they modulate water temperatures and enhance exchange of terrestrial and aquatic nutrients, which lead to elevated biogeochemical activity. However, these coupled hydrologic and microbiological processes are not well understood, particularly in the context of large managed river systems with highly variable discharge, and are poorly represented in system-scale quantitative models. Using the 75 km Hanford Reach of the Columbia River as the research domain, we apply high-resolution flow simulations supported by field observations to understand how variable river discharge interacts with hydromorphic and hydrogeologic structures to generate HEFs and distributions of subsurface residence times. We combine this understanding of hydrologic processes with microbiological activity measurements and reactive transport models to elucidate the holistic impacts of variable discharge on river corridor (surface and subsurface) ecosystems. In particular, our project seeks to develop and test new conceptual and numerical models that explicitly incorporate i) the character (chemical speciation and thermodynamics) of natural organic matter as it varies along flow paths and through mixing of groundwater and surface water, and ii) the history-dependent response of microbial communities to varying time scales of inundation associated with fluctuations in river discharge. The results of these high-resolution mechanistic models are guiding formulation and parameterization of reduced-order models applicable at reach to watershed scales. New understanding of coupled hydrology and microbiology in the river corridor will play a key role in reduction of uncertainties associated with major Earth system biogeochemical fluxes, improving

  11. Improving Robustness of Hydrologic Ensemble Predictions Through Probabilistic Pre- and Post-Processing in Sequential Data Assimilation (United States)

    Wang, S.; Ancell, B. C.; Huang, G. H.; Baetz, B. W.


    Data assimilation using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been increasingly recognized as a promising tool for probabilistic hydrologic predictions. However, little effort has been made to conduct the pre- and post-processing of assimilation experiments, posing a significant challenge in achieving the best performance of hydrologic predictions. This paper presents a unified data assimilation framework for improving the robustness of hydrologic ensemble predictions. Statistical pre-processing of assimilation experiments is conducted through the factorial design and analysis to identify the best EnKF settings with maximized performance. After the data assimilation operation, statistical post-processing analysis is also performed through the factorial polynomial chaos expansion to efficiently address uncertainties in hydrologic predictions, as well as to explicitly reveal potential interactions among model parameters and their contributions to the predictive accuracy. In addition, the Gaussian anamorphosis is used to establish a seamless bridge between data assimilation and uncertainty quantification of hydrologic predictions. Both synthetic and real data assimilation experiments are carried out to demonstrate feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Results suggest that statistical pre- and post-processing of data assimilation experiments provide meaningful insights into the dynamic behavior of hydrologic systems and enhance robustness of hydrologic ensemble predictions.

  12. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed


    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay


    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functio...

  13. Causes and consequences of the hydrological droughts in the south region of European Russia (United States)

    Kireeva, Maria; Ilich, Vladislav; Kharlamov, Maksim; Frolova, Natalia; Goncharov, Aleksandr


    In the last decade the number of extreme low-flow periods on Russian rivers has increased significantly. The most severe water shortage currently observed in the Don and Volga basin. Also suffers from lack of water of Lake Baikal region, left-bank tributaries of the Lena. The most acute problem of water shortage is in the basin of the Don river. It is located in the south od European part of Russia and has an area of 422 ths km2, which is very densely populated (more than 29 million inhabitants). The river and its tributaries are the main sources of fresh water for the population. In addition, they play a key role in industries such as fisheries, recreation, shipping, hydropower (HPP Tsimlyanskaya). Don anciently was very famous for its biodiversity and the number of organisms of the floodplain ecosystems. However, at the present time due to anthropogenic stress and climate change, these figures dropped down. This study is devoted to the complex analysis arising in the district. Don water shortage. As part of the research was carried out the spatial distribution of runoff, revealing its meteorological reasons of water shortage, the impact of water scarcity on the ecosystem in general and fish fauna in particular. Hydrological drought is clearly manifested in the annual runoff only in the lower part of the basin. From 2007 the annual runoff probability here are higher than 80%. It was found that the longest (during record from 1930ths) duration of the event associated with rotation of water shortages on the left and right-bank tributaries of the river. In addition, the analysis of the spatial distribution of seasonal runoff probability showed that in the upper catchment hydrological drought is hardly observed: the rate accounts for 60% and lower. Drought has led to the transformation of the aquatic ecosystem of the Don river and its transition from oligotrophic to eutrophic state. The concentration of phytoplankton in the August - September during low flow period

  14. Application of a hybrid multiscale approach to simulate hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the river-groundwater interaction zone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Yang, Xiaofan; Song, Xuehang; Song, Hyun-Seob; Hou, Zhangshuan; Chen, Xingyuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Scheibe, Tim


    The groundwater-surface water interaction zone (GSIZ) plays an important role in riverine and watershed ecosystems as the exchange of waters of variable composition and temperature (hydrologic exchange flows) stimulate microbial activity and associated biogeochemical reactions. Variable temporal and spatial scales of hydrologic exchange flows, heterogeneity of the subsurface environment, and complexity of biogeochemical reaction networks in the GSIZ present challenges to incorporation of fundamental process representations and model parameterization across a range of spatial scales (e.g. from pore-scale to field scale). This paper presents a novel hybrid multiscale simulation approach that couples hydrologic-biogeochemical (HBGC) processes between two distinct length scales of interest.

  15. Impact of climate change on hydrological extremes in Dobrogea region, Romania (United States)

    Buta, Constantin; Maftei, Carmen


    Over time, Dobrogea territory has faced with fluctuations more or less severe in terms of basic parameters such as temperature, precipitations and annual discharges of rivers. It is highlighted the trend of aridity in the area, because of the fact that Dobrogea receives small amounts of water, ranging between 200-450 mm/year, with annual average temperatures lying around and above the average of 11°C. This fact is also proceeding from the many studies realized by other researchers. For this area there are also characteristic torrents (form of rainfall during the summer), the storms and floods accompanying these torrents of water on the narrow valleys, often intermittent, sometimes causing significant damage and even fatalities. Torrential rainfalls and flash floods are sometimes very strong and produce catastrophic damages, as happened at Constanta (in 2001), at Tulcea (in 13.07.2004 and in 29.08.2004), at Tuzla, Pantelimon, Agigea and others. At the opposite pole of the sporadic excess rainfall is drought, which is the largest meteorological phenomenon (both in time and in space) and the most obvious in Dobrogea climate. Drought represents the main argument of semi aridity of this region and the most visible image component which is observed by the inhabitants of this environment. Correlation and study of hydro-meteorological extremes is performed using indices that take into account meteorological and hydrological parameters such as precipitations, temperature, discharges of rivers etc. Hydro-meteorological indices used for this study are: Angot rainfall index; Peguy Climograms; de Martonne drought index; Thornthwaite index Moduli coefficients and Deciles. According to the studied indices, for the accomplishment of this present paper, we can say that Dobrogea is among the driest regions in the country. History of drought in Romania includes many dry years, of which are mentioned: 1894, 1888, 1904, 1918, 1934, 1945, but the droughts years with greater durations

  16. Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs


    Long-term hydrologic data are essential for understanding the hydrologic processes, as base line data for assessment of impacts and conservation of regional ecosystems, and for developing and testing eco-hydrological models. This study presents 6-year (1996-2001) of rainfall, water table and outflow data from a USDA Forest Service coastal experimental watershed on a...

  17. Coupling of Processes and Data in PennState Integrated Hydrologic Modeling (PIHM) System (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Duffy, C.


    Full physical coupling, "natural" numerical coupling and parsimonious but accurate data coupling is needed to comprehensively and accurately capture the interaction between different components of a hydrologic continuum. Here we present a physically based, spatially distributed hydrologic model that incorporates all the three coupling strategies. Physical coupling of interception, snow melt, transpiration, overland flow, subsurface flow, river flow, macropore based infiltration and stormflow, flow through and over hydraulic structures likes weirs and dams, and evaporation from interception, ground and overland flow is performed. All the physically coupled components are numerically coupled through semi-discrete form of ordinary differential equations, that define each hydrologic process, using Finite-Volume based approach. The fully implicit solution methodology using CVODE solver solves for all the state variables simultaneously at each adaptive time steps thus providing robustness, stability and accuracy. The accurate data coupling is aided by use of constrained unstructured meshes, flexible data model and use of PIHMgis. The spatial adaptivity of decomposed domain and temporal adaptivity of the numerical solver facilitates capture of varied spatio-temporal scales that are inherent in hydrologic process interactions. The implementation of the model has been performed on a meso-scale Little-Juniata Watershed. Model results are validated by comparison of streamflow at multiple locations. We discuss some of the interesting hydrologic interactions between surface, subsurface and atmosphere witnessed during the year long simulation such as a) inverse relationship between evaporation from interception storage and transpiration b) relative influence of forcing (precipitation, temperature and radiation) and source (soil moisture and overland flow) on evaporation c) influence of local topography on gaining, loosing or "flow-through" behavior of river-aquifer interactions

  18. AQUAGRID: The subsurface hydrology Grid service of the Sardinian regional Grid infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, G.; Murgia, F.; Maggi, P.; Perias, A.


    AQUAGRID is the subsurface hydrology service of the Sardinian regional Grid infrastructure, designed to deliver complex environmental applications via a user-friendly Web portal. The service is oriented towards the needs of water professionals providing them a flexible and powerful tool to solve water resources management problems and aid decision between different remediation options for contaminated soil and groundwater. In this paper, the AQUAGRID application concept and the enabling technologies are illustrated. The heart of the service is the CODESA-3D hydrogeological model to simulate complex and large groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The relevant experience gained from the porting of the CODESA-3D application on the EGEE infrastructure, via the GILDA test bed (, has contributed to the service prototype. AQUAGRID is built on top of compute-Grid technologies by means of the EnginFrame Grid portal. The portal enables the interaction with the underlying Grid infrastructure and manages the computational requirements of the whole application system. Data management, distribution and visualization mechanisms are based on the tools provided by the DatacroSSing Decision Support System ( The DSS, built on top of the SRB data-Grid middleware, is based on Web-GIS and relational database technologies. The resulting production environment allows the end-user to visualize and interact with the results of the performed analyses, using graphs, annotated maps and 3D objects. Such a set of graphical widgets increases enormously the number of AQUAGRID potential users because it does not require any specific expertise of the physical model and technological background to be understood. (Author)

  19. Regional hydrology of the Blanding-Durango area, southern Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, M.S. Jr.; Thordarson, W.; Oatfield, W.J.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Rueger, B.F.


    Principal findings of this study that are pertinent to an assessment of suitability of the hydrogeologic systems to store and contain radioactive waste in salt anticlines of adjacent areas are: water in the upper ground-water flow system discharges to the San Juan River - a major tributary of the Colorado River. Discharge of water from the upper aquifer system to streambed channels of the San Juan River and its tributaries during low-flow periods primarily is through evapotranspiration from areas on flood plains and maintenance of streamflow; the lower ground-water system does not have known recharge or discharge areas within the study area; subsurface inflow to this system comes from recharge areas located north and northeast of the study area; the upper and lower ground-water systems are separated regionally by thick salt deposits in the Blanding-Durango study area of the Paradox basin; potential exists in mountainous areas for downward leakage between the upper and lower ground-water systems, where salt deposits are thin, absent, or faulted; no brines were found in this study area with outflow to the biosphere; water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh. Water in the lower ground-water system generally is brackish or saline; and ground-water flow disruptions by contiguous faults probably are common in the upper ground-water system. These disruptions of flow are not apparent in the lower ground-water system, perhaps because available hydrologic data for the lower ground-water system are scarce. The above major findings do not preclude the potential for waste storage in salt; however, they do not allow the prediction of detailed ground-water flow rates and directions through this area. 55 references, 13 figures, 15 tables

  20. Change in frozen soils and its effect on regional hydrology, upper Heihe basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Gao, Bing; Yang, Dawen; Qin, Yue; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Hongyi; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Tingjun


    Frozen ground has an important role in regional hydrological cycles and ecosystems, particularly on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), which is characterized by high elevations and a dry climate. This study modified a distributed, physically based hydrological model and applied it to simulate long-term (1971-2013) changes in frozen ground its the effects on hydrology in the upper Heihe basin, northeastern QTP. The model was validated against data obtained from multiple ground-based observations. Based on model simulations, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in frozen soils and their effects on hydrology. Our results show that the area with permafrost shrank by 8.8 % (approximately 500 km2), predominantly in areas with elevations between 3500 and 3900 m. The maximum depth of seasonally frozen ground decreased at a rate of approximately 0.032 m decade-1, and the active layer thickness over the permafrost increased by approximately 0.043 m decade-1. Runoff increased significantly during the cold season (November-March) due to an increase in liquid soil moisture caused by rising soil temperatures. Areas in which permafrost changed into seasonally frozen ground at high elevations showed especially large increases in runoff. Annual runoff increased due to increased precipitation, the base flow increased due to changes in frozen soils, and the actual evapotranspiration increased significantly due to increased precipitation and soil warming. The groundwater storage showed an increasing trend, indicating that a reduction in permafrost extent enhanced the groundwater recharge.

  1. Exploring the Influence of Topography on Belowground C Processes Using a Coupled Hydrologic-Biogeochemical Model (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Davis, K. J.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Kaye, J. P.; Duffy, C.; Yu, X.; He, Y.


    Belowground carbon processes are affected by soil moisture and soil temperature, but current biogeochemical models are 1-D and cannot resolve topographically driven hill-slope soil moisture patterns, and cannot simulate the nonlinear effects of soil moisture on carbon processes. Coupling spatially-distributed physically-based hydrologic models with biogeochemical models may yield significant improvements in the representation of topographic influence on belowground C processes. We will couple the Flux-PIHM model to the Biome-BGC (BBGC) model. Flux-PIHM is a coupled physically-based land surface hydrologic model, which incorporates a land-surface scheme into the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM). The land surface scheme is adapted from the Noah land surface model. Because PIHM is capable of simulating lateral water flow and deep groundwater, Flux-PIHM is able to represent the link between groundwater and the surface energy balance, as well as the land surface heterogeneities caused by topography. The coupled Flux-PIHM-BBGC model will be tested at the Susquehanna/Shale Hills critical zone observatory (SSHCZO). The abundant observations, including eddy covariance fluxes, soil moisture, groundwater level, sap flux, stream discharge, litterfall, leaf area index, above ground carbon stock, and soil carbon efflux, make SSHCZO an ideal test bed for the coupled model. In the coupled model, each Flux-PIHM model grid will couple a BBGC cell. Flux-PIHM will provide BBGC with soil moisture and soil temperature information, while BBGC provides Flux-PIHM with leaf area index. Preliminary results show that when Biome- BGC is driven by PIHM simulated soil moisture pattern, the simulated soil carbon is clearly impacted by topography.

  2. Field Investigation and Modeling Development for Hydrological and Carbon Cycles in Southwest Karst Region of China (United States)

    Hu, X. B.


    It is required to understanding water cycle and carbon cycle processes for water resource management and pollution prevention and global warming influence in southwest karst region of China. Lijiang river basin is selected as our study region. Interdisciplinary field and laboratory experiments with various technologies are conducted to characterize the karst aquifers in detail. Key processes in the karst water cycle and carbon cycle are determined. Based on the MODFLOW-CFP model, new watershed flow and carbon cycle models are developed coupled subsurface and surface water flow models. Our study focus on the karst springshed in Mao village, the mechanisms coupling carbon cycle and water cycle are explored. This study provides basic theory and simulation method for water resource management and groundwater pollution prevention in China karst region.

  3. Environmental change and hydrological responses in the interior of western Canada: Towards improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction by the Changing Cold Regions Network (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Carey, S. K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.


    The past several decades have been a period of rapid climatic and environmental change. In western Canada, as in other areas globally, warming and changes in precipitation have led to vast reductions in seasonal snowcover and freshwater ice cover, retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, changing forest composition and structure, increasing northern shrub coverage, and earlier timing of river flows in spring. Yet streamflow volume has exhibited a variety of responses across the region and over different time scales, and patterns of change are not easily generalizable. Improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of the rapidly changing components of the Earth system are key to managing uncertain water futures, but this is challenging due to complex system behavior and sometimes compensatory responses. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a Canadian research network and GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Project that is addressing these issues, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River basins. This paper will present examples of the changes that have been observed at a set of long-term and well-studied headwater research basins, and highlight how various processes confound hydrological responses here, pointing to the need for careful diagnosis. We will discuss some recent CCRN activities and progress toward improving conceptual understanding and developing scenarios of change for the 21st century, which can then be applied within process-based hydrological models for future prediction. Several priority research areas that will be a focus of continued work in CCRN will be recommended.

  4. Pacific Northwest geomorphology and hydrology: rates and probabilities of selected processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbs, D.W.


    This report presents results of one of the geomorphological and hydrological studies that have been conducted for the release scenario analysis of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Three general topics are considered: (1) determination of rates of denudation, (2) estimation of the probability of flooding due to each of several causes, and (3) evaluation of other surface processes that should be considered in the release scenario analysis. The third general topic was ultimately narrowed to the possible effects of landsliding. Rates of erosion are expressed as centimeters per 100 years, except that the original units are retained in figures taken from other sources. Probabilities are also expressed per 100 years

  5. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay


    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

  6. Applying Hillslope Hydrology to Bridge between Ecosystem and Grid-Scale Processes within an Earth System Model (United States)

    Subin, Z. M.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.


    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface energy fluxes, vegetation properties, and soil carbon cycling. Its interactions with ecosystem processes are highly nonlinear across a large range, as both drought stress and anoxia can impede vegetation and microbial growth. Earth System Models (ESMs) generally only represent an average soil-moisture state in grid cells at scales of 50-200 km, and as a result are not able to adequately represent the effects of subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, especially in regions with large wetland areas. We addressed this deficiency by developing the first ESM-coupled subgrid hillslope-hydrological model, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), embedded within the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model. In each grid cell, one or more representative hillslope geometries are discretized into land model tiles along an upland-to-lowland gradient. These geometries represent ~1 km hillslope-scale hydrological features and allow for flexible representation of hillslope profile and plan shapes, in addition to variation of subsurface properties among or within hillslopes. Each tile (which may represent ~100 m along the hillslope) has its own surface fluxes, vegetation state, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. Resolution of water state in deep layers (~200 m) down to bedrock allows for physical integration of groundwater transport with unsaturated overlying dynamics. Multiple tiles can also co-exist at the same vertical position along the hillslope, allowing the simulation of ecosystem heterogeneity due to disturbance. The hydrological model is coupled to the vertically-resolved Carbon, Organisms, Respiration, and Protection in the Soil Environment (CORPSE) model, which captures non-linearity resulting from interactions between vertically-heterogeneous soil carbon and water profiles. We present comparisons of simulated water table depth to observations. We examine sensitivities to

  7. The testing of thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes using a large block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Chesnut, D.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Roberts, J.J.


    The radioactive decay heat from nuclear waste packages may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near-field environment of a repository. A group of tests on a large block (LBT) are planned to provide a timely opportunity to test and calibrate some of the TMHC model concepts. The LBT is advantageous for testing and verifying model concepts because the boundary conditions are controlled, and the block can be characterized before and after the experiment. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m will be sawed and isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block will be collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. The large block will be heated with one heater in each borehole and guard heaters on the sides so that a dry-out zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress and displacement will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes

  8. Memory for color reactivates color processing region. (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D


    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  9. Improving regional climate and hydrological forecasting following the record setting flooding across the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Seglenieks, F.; Bruxer, J.; Fortin, V.; Noel, J.


    In the spring of 2017, water levels across Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River exceeded record high levels, leading to widespread flooding, damage to property, and controversy over regional dam operating protocols. Only a few years earlier, water levels on Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron (upstream of Lake Ontario) had dropped to record low levels leading to speculation that either anthropogenic controls or climate change were leading to chronic water loss from the Great Lakes. The contrast between low water level conditions across Earth's largest lake system from the late 1990s through 2013, and the rapid rise prior to the flooding in early 2017, underscores the challenges of quantifying and forecasting hydrologic impacts of rising regional air and water temperatures (and associated changes in lake evaporation) and persistent increases in long-term precipitation. Here, we assess the hydrologic conditions leading to the recent record flooding across the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system, with a particular emphasis on understanding the extent to which those conditions were consistent with observed and anticipated changes in historical and future climate, and the extent to which those conditions could have been anticipated through improvements in seasonal climate outlooks and hydrological forecasts.

  10. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ohene Asare

    Full Text Available Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  11. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations. (United States)

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne


    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  12. Controls on the Environmental Fate of Compounds Controlled by Coupled Hydrologic and Reactive Processes (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.


    Current understanding of how compounds interact with hydrologic processes or reactive processes have been well established. However, the environmental fate for compounds that interact with hydrologic AND reactive processes is not well known, yet critical in evaluating environmental risk. Evaluations of risk are often simplified to homogenize processes in space and time and to assess processes independently of one another. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reactivities complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and is further complicated by the interaction of these processes, limiting our ability to accurately predict risk. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  13. On the Representation of Subgrid Microtopography Effects in Process-based Hydrologic Models (United States)

    Jan, A.; Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.


    Increased availability of high-resolution digital elevation are enabling process-based hydrologic modeling on finer and finer scales. However, spatial variability in surface elevation (microtopography) exists below the scale of a typical hyper-resolution grid cell and has the potential to play a significant role in water retention, runoff, and surface/subsurface interactions. Though the concept of microtopographic features (depressions, obstructions) and the associated implications on flow and discharge are well established, representing those effects in watershed-scale integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models remains a challenge. Using the complex and coupled hydrologic environment of the Arctic polygonal tundra as an example, we study the effects of submeter topography and present a subgrid model parameterized by small-scale spatial heterogeneities for use in hyper-resolution models with polygons at a scale of 15-20 meters forming the surface cells. The subgrid model alters the flow and storage terms in the diffusion wave equation for surface flow. We compare our results against sub-meter scale simulations (acts as a benchmark for our simulations) and hyper-resolution models without the subgrid representation. The initiation of runoff in the fine-scale simulations is delayed and the recession curve is slowed relative to simulated runoff using the hyper-resolution model with no subgrid representation. Our subgrid modeling approach improves the representation of runoff and water retention relative to models that ignore subgrid topography. We evaluate different strategies for parameterizing subgrid model and present a classification-based method to efficiently move forward to larger landscapes. This work was supported by the Interoperable Design of Extreme-scale Application Software (IDEAS) project and the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Arctic (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the

  14. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from...

  15. Effects of coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes on nuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.


    Coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes can be classified in two categories. One category consists of the ''Onsager'' type of processes driven by gradients of thermodynamic state variables. These processes occur simultaneously with the direct transport processes. In particular, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration may be prominent in semipermeable materials such as clays. The other category consists of processes affected indirectly by magnitudes of thermodynamic state variables. An important example of this category is the effect of temperature on rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibria. Coupled processes in both categories may affect transport of radionuclides. Although computational models of limited extent have been constructed, there exists no model that accounts for the full set of THC-coupled processes. In the category of Onsager coupled processes, further model development and testing is severely constrained by a deficient data base of phenomenological coefficients. In the second category, the lack of a general description of effects of heterogeneous chemical reactions on permeability of porous media inhibits progress in quantitative modeling of hydrochemically coupled transport processes. Until fundamental data necessary for further model development have been acquired, validation efforts will be limited necessarily to testing of incomplete models of nuclide transport under closely controlled experimental conditions. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Modeling erosion and sedimentation coupled with hydrological and overland flow processes at the watershed scale (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.


    A novel two-dimensional, physically based model of soil erosion and sediment transport coupled to models of hydrological and overland flow processes has been developed. The Hairsine-Rose formulation of erosion and deposition processes is used to account for size-selective sediment transport and differentiate bed material into original and deposited soil layers. The formulation is integrated within the framework of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic model tRIBS-OFM, Triangulated irregular network-based, Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator-Overland Flow Model. The integrated model explicitly couples the hydrodynamic formulation with the advection-dominated transport equations for sediment of multiple particle sizes. To solve the system of equations including both the Saint-Venant and the Hairsine-Rose equations, the finite volume method is employed based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver on an unstructured grid. The formulation yields space-time dynamics of flow, erosion, and sediment transport at fine scale. The integrated model has been successfully verified with analytical solutions and empirical data for two benchmark cases. Sensitivity tests to grid resolution and the number of used particle sizes have been carried out. The model has been validated at the catchment scale for the Lucky Hills watershed located in southeastern Arizona, USA, using 10 events for which catchment-scale streamflow and sediment yield data were available. Since the model is based on physical laws and explicitly uses multiple types of watershed information, satisfactory results were obtained. The spatial output has been analyzed and the driving role of topography in erosion processes has been discussed. It is expected that the integrated formulation of the model has the promise to reduce uncertainties associated with typical parameterizations of flow and erosion processes. A potential for more credible modeling of earth-surface processes is thus anticipated.

  17. Glacier beds that will be exposed in the future: How will geomorphologic and hydrologic processes develop? (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Paul, Frank; Haeberli, Wilfried


    The rapid shrinkage of glaciers in the Alps has widespread impacts on relief development and hydrology. Slope failures, collapse of lateral moraines, loose debris in glacier fore-fields, new lakes and changing river beds are among the most visible impacts. They already require increased attention by tourists, monitoring by local authorities and mitigation measures (e.g. A view into potential future developments (after glaciers have disappeared) is thus of high interest. With recently developed models that reconstruct glacier bed topography from easily available datasets (e.g. glacier outlines and a DEM) over entire mountain ranges, potential developments of the landscape and hydrology can be quantitatively determined. The modelled glacier beds - though they must be seen as a rough first order approximation only - also allows the investigation of a wide range of glaciological relations and dependencies that have been widely applied but were never investigated for a large sample of glaciers so far. A key reason is that information on glacier thickness distribution and total ice volume is sparse and that the future development of glaciers can only be modelled realistically when a glacier bed is available. Hence, with the glacier beds now available there is a larger number of geomorphological, glaciological and hydrological studies ahead of us. This presentation is providing an overview on the lessons learned about glaciers and their future development from the modelled glacier beds, the expected changes in hydrology (e.g. decreasing glacier volume and formation of new lakes) and potential impacts from the altered geomorphology (e.g. debuttressing of rock walls). In particular the flat tongues of larger valley glaciers are rather thick and leave oversteepened lateral moraines or rock walls behind, towering above overdeepenings in the glacier bed that might be filled with water. It is thus expected that the hazard potential will further increase in

  18. Enabling Web-Based Analysis of CUAHSI HIS Hydrologic Data Using R and Web Processing Services (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Bayles, M.; Seul, M.; Hooper, R. P.; Cummings, B.


    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (CUAHSI HIS) provides open access to a large number of hydrological time series observation and modeled data from many parts of the world. Several software tools have been designed to simplify searching and access to the CUAHSI HIS datasets. These software tools include: Desktop client software (HydroDesktop, HydroExcel), developer libraries (WaterML R Package, OWSLib, ulmo), and the new interactive search website, An issue with using the time series data from CUAHSI HIS for further analysis by hydrologists (for example for verification of hydrological and snowpack models) is the large heterogeneity of the time series data. The time series may be regular or irregular, contain missing data, have different time support, and be recorded in different units. R is a widely used computational environment for statistical analysis of time series and spatio-temporal data that can be used to assess fitness and perform scientific analyses on observation data. R includes the ability to record a data analysis in the form of a reusable script. The R script together with the input time series dataset can be shared with other users, making the analysis more reproducible. The major goal of this study is to examine the use of R as a Web Processing Service for transforming time series data from the CUAHSI HIS and sharing the results on the Internet within HydroShare. HydroShare is an online data repository and social network for sharing large hydrological data sets such as time series, raster datasets, and multi-dimensional data. It can be used as a permanent cloud storage space for saving the time series analysis results. We examine the issues associated with running R scripts online: including code validation, saving of outputs, reporting progress, and provenance management. An explicit goal is that the script which is run locally should produce exactly the same results as the script run on the Internet. Our design can

  19. Estimating the effects of potential climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes of a large agriculture dominated watershed (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Kumar, Sandeep


    Land use and climate are two major components that directly influence catchment hydrologic processes, and therefore better understanding of their effects is crucial for future land use planning and water resources management. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess the effects of potential land use change and climate variability on hydrologic processes of large agriculture dominated Big Sioux River (BSR) watershed located in North Central region of USA. Future climate change scenarios were simulated using average output of temperature and precipitation data derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B, and A2) for end-21st century. Land use change was modeled spatially based on historic long-term pattern of agricultural transformation in the basin, and included the expansion of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation by 2, 5, and 10%. We estimated higher surface runoff in all land use scenarios with maximum increase of 4% while expanding 10% corn cultivation in the basin. Annual stream discharge was estimated higher with maximum increase of 72% in SRES-B1 attributed from higher groundwater contribution of 152% in the same scenario. We assessed increased precipitation during spring season but the summer precipitation decreased substantially in all climate change scenarios. Similar to decreased summer precipitation, discharge of the BSR also decreased potentially affecting agricultural production due to reduced future water availability during crop growing season in the basin. However, combined effects of potential land use change with climate variability enhanced for higher annual discharge of the BSR. Therefore, these estimations can be crucial for implications of future land use planning and water resources management of the basin.

  20. Hydrology and Oceanography Analysis Regarding The NPP Site Screening Process at Banten Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Regarding the NPP development in the future, it is needed to make inventory of potential site in the Java Island as well as in the outside Java Island. The NPP site inventory availability is to answer the energy demand challenge. Site screening process should be performed in accordance with the IAEA safety standard regarding the site selection, investigating several aspects related to the NPP safety (exclusion, safety and suitability factor) in the large area to obtain potential site candidates. For the site survey stage of hydrology and oceanography aspects, the analysis are more focused on the tidal phenomena along the north coastline, bathymetry, water resource, and hydrology system in the Banten Province. The method used are secondary data collection, field confirmation and internet searching. The result of the study showed that Tanjung Pujut and Tanjung Pasir are suitable based on the bathymetry and water intake facility consideration. Meanwhile Tanjung Kait and Tanjung Pasir more suitable considering tsunami aspects that may be generated by Krakatau Volcano. (author)

  1. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado (United States)

    Hurr, R. Theodore


    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  2. Desertification triggered by hydrological and geomorphological processes and palaeoclimatic changes in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China (United States)

    Yang, X.; Scuderi, L. A.; Wang, X.; Zhang, D.; Li, H.; Forman, S. L.


    Although Pleistocene and earlier aeolian sediments in the adjacent regions of deserts were used as indicators for the occurrence of the deserts in northern China, our multidisciplinary investigation in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, a typical landscape in the eastern portion of the Asian mid-latitude desert belt, demonstrates that this sandy desert is just ca. 4000 years old. Before the formation of the current sand dunes, Hunshandke was characterized with large and deep lakes and grasssland vegetation, as many sedimentary sections indicate. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) chronology shows that the three large former lakes where we have done detailed investigation, experienced high stands from early Holocene to ca. 5 ka. During the early and middle Holocene this desert was a temperate steppe environment, dominated by grasslands and trees near lakes and streams, as various palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest. While North Hemisphere's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases at ca. 4.2 ka, many parts of the presently arid and semi-arid zone in northern China were shifted from Green to Desert state. In the eastern portion of the Hunshandake, the desertification was, however, directly associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River, as the palaeo-drainage remains show. The process of groundwater sapping initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that lowered the groundwater table and exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, and further resulting in post-Humid period mass migration of northern China's Hongshan culture from that we think the modern Chinese civilization has been rooted.

  3. Hydrological and pollution processes in mining area of Fenhe River Basin in China. (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Meng, Zhilong; Jiao, Wentao


    The hydrological and pollution processes are an important science problem for aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the samples of river water, reservoir water, shallow groundwater, deep groundwater, and precipitation in mining area are collected and analyzed. δD and δ 18 O are used to identify hydrological process. δ 15 N-NO 3 - and δ 18 O-NO 3 - are used to identify the sources and pollution process of NO 3 - . The results show that the various water bodies in Fenhe River Basin are slightly alkaline water. The ions in the water mainly come from rock weathering. The concentration of SO 4 2- is high due to the impact of coal mining activity. Deep groundwater is significantly less affected by evaporation and human activity, which is recharged by archaic groundwater. There are recharge and discharge between reservoir water, river water, soil water, and shallow groundwater. NO 3 - is the main N species in the study area, and forty-six percent of NO 3 - -N concentrations exceed the drinking water standard of China (NO 3 - -N ≤ 10 mg/L content). Nitrification is the main forming process of NO 3 - . Denitrification is also found in river water of some river branches. The sources of NO 3 - are mainly controlled by land use type along the riverbank. NO 3 - of river water in the upper reaches are come from nitrogen in precipitation and soil organic N. River water in the lower reaches is polluted by a mixture of soil organic N and fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroclimatology of Lake Victoria region using hydrologic model and satellite remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Khan


    Full Text Available Study of hydro-climatology at a range of temporal scales is important in understanding and ultimately mitigating the potential severe impacts of hydrological extreme events such as floods and droughts. Using daily in-situ data over the last two decades combined with the recently available multiple-years satellite remote sensing data, we analyzed and simulated, with a distributed hydrologic model, the hydro-climatology in Nzoia, one of the major contributing sub-basins of Lake Victoria in the East African highlands. The basin, with a semi arid climate, has no sustained base flow contribution to Lake Victoria. The short spell of high discharge showed that rain is the prime cause of floods in the basin. There is only a marginal increase in annual mean discharge over the last 21 years. The 2-, 5- and 10- year peak discharges, for the entire study period showed that more years since the mid 1990's have had high peak discharges despite having relatively less annual rain. The study also presents the hydrologic model calibration and validation results over the Nzoia basin. The spatiotemporal variability of the water cycle components were quantified using a hydrologic model, with in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets. The model is calibrated using daily observed discharge data for the period between 1985 and 1999, for which model performance is estimated with a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSCE of 0.87 and 0.23% bias. The model validation showed an error metrics with NSCE of 0.65 and 1.04% bias. Moreover, the hydrologic capability of satellite precipitation (TRMM-3B42 V6 is evaluated. In terms of reconstruction of the water cycle components the spatial distribution and time series of modeling results for precipitation and runoff showed considerable agreement with the monthly model runoff estimates and gauge observations. Runoff values responded to precipitation events that occurred across the catchment during the wet season from March to

  5. Cross-scale intercomparison of climate change impacts simulated by regional and global hydrological models in eleven large river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Krysanova, V.; Gosling, S. N.; Dankers, R.; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Flörke, M.; Huang, S.; Motovilov, Y.; Buda, S.; Yang, T.; Müller, C.; Leng, G.; Tang, Q.; Portmann, F. T.; Hagemann, S.; Gerten, D.; Wada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Alemayehu, T.; Satoh, Y.; Samaniego, L.


    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity of impact models designed for either scale to climate variability and change is comparable. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a much better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases with distinct differences in others, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability, but whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models validated against observed discharge should be used.

  6. Regionalism and Economic Processes with Global Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina TABAC


    Full Text Available Regionalism has become one of the most discussed topics at the moment, in recent years and become one of the central challenges of the future in the modern system of international relations. Finally, in the XIX-XX centuries, scientists have expressed it a worldwide phenomenon through a process of radical change "external environment" and significant internal changes. It can be expressed in the world in one way or another, even if it has not been shown modest form until recently. Currently, regionalism and regional integration are considered as key indicators of international developments in the research of foreign policy and international relations. Theory followed the end of the era of "Cold War" and entered the post-bipolar world, multi-faceted development stage. The attention of researchers has grown to regionalization and regional integration by increasing the role and activities of regional organizations such as the EU, ASEAN, APEC and NAFTA, which coordinates the process of decision-making at supranational level, as well as issues of international regulation.

  7. An Integrated Decision Support System with Hydrological Processes and Socio-economic Assessments (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide


    The debate over the effectiveness of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in practice has lasted for years. As the complexity and scope of IWRM increases, the difficulties of hydrological modeling is shifting from the model itself into the links with other cognate sciences, to understand the interactions among water, earth, ecosystem and humans. This work presents the design and development of a decision support system (DSS) that links the outputs of hydrological models with real-time decision making on social-economic assessments and land use changes. Discharge and glacier geometry changes were simulated with hydrological model WASA. Irrigation and ecological water were simulated by a new commercial software MIKE HYDRO. Groundwater was simulated by MODFLOW. All the outputs of theses hydrological models were integrated as inputs into the DSS in three types of links: regression equations, stationary data inputs, or dynamic data inputs into DSS as the models running parallel in the simulation periods. Within DSS, three types of logics were established: equations, conditional statements and fuzzy logics. The programming was realized in C++. The implementation of DSS takes place in the Tarim River Basin. With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. Project SuMaRiO focus on realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups

  8. Isotope hydrological investigations in the region of the Schirmacher Oasis (East Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowski, P.; Richter, W.


    A first complete view is given about the isotope hydrological situation of the Schirmacher Oasis and surroundings by means of studies of delta Deuterium and delta Oxygen 18 variations. The precipitation is assumed to be condensed in a distance of about 100 km and in a hight of the surface of the inland ice between 1,000 m and 1,500 m a.s.l. in the mean wind direction South East. The deltaD value studies of the shelf and inland ice have shown that both the basal zone of the inland ice and the ice shelf represent relics of an assumed thicker late Pleistocene ice cap of Dronning Maud Land. The main part of the glacier ice is composed of recent local precipitation. The isotope hydrological studies are also a contribution to the characterisation of the high polar fresh-water lakes, ponds and pools under different limnological conditions. (author)

  9. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal (United States)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.


    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  10. Assessing the Climate Change Impact on Snow-Glacier Melting Dominated Basins in the Greater Himalaya Region Using a Distributed Glacio-Hydrologic Model (United States)

    Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Khalil, A.


    Glacier and snow melting is main source of water supply making a large contribution to streamflow of major river basins in the Greater Himalaya region including the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra basins. Due to the critical role of glacier and snow melting as water supply for both food production and hydropower generation in the region (especially during the low flow season), it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of snow and glacier melting streamflow to different climate conditions. In this study, a distributed glacio-hydrologic model with high resolution climate input is developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates all major hydrological processes and the glacier and snow dynamics for area further discretized by elevation bands. The distributed modeling structure and the glacier and snow modules provide a better understanding about how temperature and precipitation alterations are likely to affect current glacier ice reserves. Climate stress test is used to explore changes in the total streamflow change, snow/glacier melting contribution and glacier accumulation and ablation under a variety of different temperature and precipitation conditions. The latest future climate projections provided from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to inform the possibility of different climate conditions.

  11. Modeling alpine grasslands with two integrated hydrologic models: a comparison of the different process representation in CATHY and GEOtop (United States)

    Camporese, M.; Bertoldi, G.; Bortoli, E.; Wohlfahrt, G.


    Integrated hydrologic surface-subsurface models (IHSSMs) are increasingly used as prediction tools to solve simultaneously states and fluxes in and between multiple terrestrial compartments (e.g., snow cover, surface water, groundwater), in an attempt to tackle environmental problems in a holistic approach. Two such models, CATHY and GEOtop, are used in this study to investigate their capabilities to reproduce hydrological processes in alpine grasslands. The two models differ significantly in the complexity of the representation of the surface energy balance and the solution of Richards equation for water flow in the variably saturated subsurface. The main goal of this research is to show how these differences in process representation can lead to different predictions of hydrologic states and fluxes, in the simulation of an experimental site located in the Venosta Valley (South Tyrol, Italy). Here, a large set of relevant hydrological data (e.g., evapotranspiration, soil moisture) has been collected, with ground and remote sensing observations. The area of interest is part of a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, a mountain steep, heterogeneous slope, where the predominant land use types are meadow, pasture, and forest. The comparison between data and model predictions, as well as between simulations with the two IHSSMs, contributes to advance our understanding of the tradeoffs between different complexities in modeĺs process representation, model accuracy, and the ability to explain observed hydrological dynamics in alpine environments.

  12. Research into the influence of spatial variability and scale on the parameterization of hydrological processes (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.


    The objectives of the research were as follows: (1) Extend the Representative Elementary Area (RE) concept, first proposed and developed in Wood et al, (1988), to the water balance fluxes of the interstorm period (redistribution, evapotranspiration and baseflow) necessary for the analysis of long-term water balance processes. (2) Derive spatially averaged water balance model equations for spatially variable soil, topography and vegetation, over A RANGE OF CLIMATES. This is a necessary step in our goal to derive consistent hydrologic results up to GCM grid scales necessary for global climate modeling. (3) Apply the above macroscale water balance equations with remotely sensed data and begin to explore the feasibility of parameterizing the water balance constitutive equations at GCM grid scale.

  13. Virtual experiments: a new approach for improving process conceptualization in hillslope hydrology (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; McDonnell, Jeff


    We present an approach for process conceptualization in hillslope hydrology. We develop and implement a series of virtual experiments, whereby the interaction between water flow pathways, source and mixing at the hillslope scale is examined within a virtual experiment framework. We define these virtual experiments as 'numerical experiments with a model driven by collective field intelligence'. The virtual experiments explore the first-order controls in hillslope hydrology, where the experimentalist and modeler work together to cooperatively develop and analyze the results. Our hillslope model for the virtual experiments (HillVi) in this paper is based on conceptualizing the water balance within the saturated and unsaturated zone in relation to soil physical properties in a spatially explicit manner at the hillslope scale. We argue that a virtual experiment model needs to be able to capture all major controls on subsurface flow processes that the experimentalist might deem important, while at the same time being simple with few 'tunable parameters'. This combination makes the approach, and the dialog between experimentalist and modeler, a useful hypothesis testing tool. HillVi simulates mass flux for different initial conditions under the same flow conditions. We analyze our results in terms of an artificial line source and isotopic hydrograph separation of water and subsurface flow. Our results for this first set of virtual experiments showed how drainable porosity and soil depth variability exert a first order control on flow and transport at the hillslope scale. We found that high drainable porosity soils resulted in a restricted water table rise, resulting in more pronounced channeling of lateral subsurface flow along the soil-bedrock interface. This in turn resulted in a more anastomosing network of tracer movement across the slope. The virtual isotope hydrograph separation showed higher proportions of event water with increasing drainable porosity. When

  14. Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea? (United States)

    Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.


    As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool

  15. Combined effects of hydrologic alteration and cyprinid fish in mediating biogeochemical processes in a Mediterranean stream. (United States)

    Rubio-Gracia, Francesc; Almeida, David; Bonet, Berta; Casals, Frederic; Espinosa, Carmen; Flecker, Alexander S; García-Berthou, Emili; Martí, Eugènia; Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Zamora, Lluis; Guasch, Helena


    Flow regimes are important drivers of both stream community and biogeochemical processes. However, the interplay between community and biogeochemical responses under different flow regimes in streams is less understood. In this study, we investigated the structural and functional responses of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to different densities of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis, Cyprinidae) in two stream reaches differing in flow regime. The study was conducted in Llémena Stream, a small calcareous Mediterranean stream with high nutrient levels. We selected a reach with permanent flow (permanent reach) and another subjected to flow regulation (regulated reach) with periods of flow intermittency. At each reach, we used in situ cages to generate 3 levels of fish density. Cages with 10 barbels were used to simulate high fish density (>7indm -2 ); cages with open sides were used as controls (i.e. exposed to actual fish densities of each stream reach) thus having low fish density; and those with no fish were used to simulate the disappearance of fish that occurs with stream drying. Differences in fish density did not cause significant changes in periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density. However, phosphate uptake by periphyton was enhanced in treatments lacking fish in the regulated reach with intermittent flow but not in the permanent reach, suggesting that hydrologic alteration hampers the ability of biotic communities to compensate for the absence of fish. This study indicates that fish density can mediate the effects of anthropogenic alterations such as flow intermittence derived from hydrologic regulation on stream benthic communities and associated biogeochemical processes, at least in eutrophic streams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Integrated water system simulation by considering hydrological and biogeochemical processes: model development, with parameter sensitivity and autocalibration (United States)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Shao, Q. X.; Ye, A. Z.; Xing, H. T.; Xia, J.


    Integrated water system modeling is a feasible approach to understanding severe water crises in the world and promoting the implementation of integrated river basin management. In this study, a classic hydrological model (the time variant gain model: TVGM) was extended to an integrated water system model by coupling multiple water-related processes in hydrology, biogeochemistry, water quality, and ecology, and considering the interference of human activities. A parameter analysis tool, which included sensitivity analysis, autocalibration and model performance evaluation, was developed to improve modeling efficiency. To demonstrate the model performances, the Shaying River catchment, which is the largest highly regulated and heavily polluted tributary of the Huai River basin in China, was selected as the case study area. The model performances were evaluated on the key water-related components including runoff, water quality, diffuse pollution load (or nonpoint sources) and crop yield. Results showed that our proposed model simulated most components reasonably well. The simulated daily runoff at most regulated and less-regulated stations matched well with the observations. The average correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. Both the simulated low and high flows at most stations were improved when the dam regulation was considered. The daily ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration was also well captured with the average correlation coefficient of 0.67. Furthermore, the diffuse source load of NH4-N and the corn yield were reasonably simulated at the administrative region scale. This integrated water system model is expected to improve the simulation performances with extension to more model functionalities, and to provide a scientific basis for the implementation in integrated river basin managements.

  17. Observation of Hydrological Processes Using Remote Sensing. Chapter 2.14; Volume 2: The Science of Hydrology (United States)

    Wilder, Peter (Editor); Su, Z.; Robeling, R. A.; Schulz, J.; Holleman, I.; Levizzani, V.; Timmermans, W. J.; Rott, H.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; de Jeu, R.; hide


    Improving water management can make a significant contribution to achieving most of the Millennium Development Goals established by the UN General Assembly in 2000, especially those related to poverty, hunger, and major diseases. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 recognized this need. Water and sanitation in particular received great attention from the Summit. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation recommended to improve water resources management and scientific understanding of the water cycle through joint cooperation and research. For this purpose, it is recommended to promote knowledge sharing, provide capacity building, and facilitate the transfer of technology including remote-sensing (RS) and satellite technologies, especially to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and to support these countries in their efforts to monitor and assess the quantity and quality of water resources, for example, by establishing and/or further developing national monitoring networks and water resources databases and by developing relevant national indicators. The Johannesburg Plan also adopted integrated water resources management as the overarching concept in addressing and solving water-related issues. As a result of the commitments made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, several global and regional initiatives have emerged. Current international initiatives such as the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program of the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10-Year Implementation Plan, have all identified Earth observation (EO) of the water cycle as the key in helping to solve the world s water problems. The availability of spatial information on water quantity and quality will also enable closure of the water budget at river basin and continental scales to the point where effective water management is essential (e.g., as

  18. Scaling considerations related to interactions of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes (Invited) (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.


    Hydrologic, pedologic, and geomorphic processes are strongly interrelated and affected by scale. These interactions exert important controls on runoff generation, preferential flow, contaminant transport, surface erosion, and mass wasting. Measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) and infiltration capacity at small scales generally underestimates these values for application at larger field, hillslope, or catchment scales. Both vertical and slope-parallel saturated flow and related contaminant transport are often influenced by interconnected networks of preferential flow paths, which are not captured in K measurements derived from soil cores. Using such K values in models may underestimate water and contaminant fluxes and runoff peaks. As shown in small-scale runoff plot studies, infiltration rates are typically lower than integrated infiltration across a hillslope or in headwater catchments. The resultant greater infiltration-excess overland flow in small plots compared to larger landscapes is attributed to the lack of preferential flow continuity; plot border effects; greater homogeneity of rainfall inputs, topography and soil physical properties; and magnified effects of hydrophobicity in small plots. At the hillslope scale, isolated areas with high infiltration capacity can greatly reduce surface runoff and surface erosion at the hillslope scale. These hydropedologic and hydrogeomorphic processes are also relevant to both occurrence and timing of landslides. The focus of many landslide studies has typically been either on small-scale vadose zone process and how these affect soil mechanical properties or on larger scale, more descriptive geomorphic studies. One of the issues in translating laboratory-based investigations on geotechnical behavior of soils to field scales where landslides occur is the characterization of large-scale hydrological processes and flow paths that occur in heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media. These processes are not only affected

  19. The evolution of process-based hydrologic models: historical challenges and the collective quest for physical realism (United States)

    Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Wood, A.; Mizukami, N.; Newman, A. J.


    The diversity in hydrologic models has historically led to great controversy on the "correct" approach to process-based hydrologic modeling, with debates centered on the adequacy of process parameterizations, data limitations and uncertainty, and computational constraints on model analysis. In this paper, we revisit key modeling challenges on requirements to (1) define suitable model equations, (2) define adequate model parameters, and (3) cope with limitations in computing power. We outline the historical modeling challenges, provide examples of modeling advances that address these challenges, and define outstanding research needs. We illustrate how modeling advances have been made by groups using models of different type and complexity, and we argue for the need to more effectively use our diversity of modeling approaches in order to advance our collective quest for physically realistic hydrologic models.

  20. Landscape-Scale Disturbance: Insights into the Complexity of Catchment Hydrology in the Mountaintop Removal Mining Region of the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller


    Full Text Available Few land disturbances impact watersheds at the scale and extent of mountaintop removal mining (MTM. This practice removes forests, soils and bedrock to gain access to underground coal that results in likely permanent and wholesale changes that impact catchment hydrology, geochemistry and ecosystem health. MTM is the dominant driver of land cover changes in the central Appalachian Mountains region of the United States, converting forests to mine lands and burying headwater streams. Despite its dominance on the landscape, determining the hydrological impacts of MTM is complicated by underground coal mines that significantly alter groundwater hydrology. To provide insight into how coal mining impacts headwater catchments, we compared the hydrologic responses of an MTM and forested catchment using event rainfall-runoff analysis, modeling and isotopic approaches. Despite similar rainfall characteristics, hydrology in the two catchments differed in significant ways, but both catchments demonstrated threshold-mediated hydrologic behavior that was attributed to transient storage and the release of runoff from underground mines. Results suggest that underground mines are important controls for runoff generation in both obviously disturbed and seemingly undisturbed catchments and interact in uncertain ways with disturbance from MTM. This paper summarizes our results and demonstrates the complexity of catchment hydrology in the MTM region.

  1. Combined Economic and Hydrologic Modeling to Support Collaborative Decision Making Processes (United States)

    Sheer, D. P.


    For more than a decade, the core concept of the author's efforts in support of collaborative decision making has been a combination of hydrologic simulation and multi-objective optimization. The modeling has generally been used to support collaborative decision making processes. The OASIS model developed by HydroLogics Inc. solves a multi-objective optimization at each time step using a mixed integer linear program (MILP). The MILP can be configured to include any user defined objective, including but not limited too economic objectives. For example, an estimated marginal value for water for crops and M&I use were included in the objective function to drive trades in a model of the lower Rio Grande. The formulation of the MILP, constraints and objectives, in any time step is conditional: it changes based on the value of state variables and dynamic external forcing functions, such as rainfall, hydrology, market prices, arrival of migratory fish, water temperature, etc. It therefore acts as a dynamic short term multi-objective economic optimization for each time step. MILP is capable of solving a general problem that includes a very realistic representation of the physical system characteristics in addition to the normal multi-objective optimization objectives and constraints included in economic models. In all of these models, the short term objective function is a surrogate for achieving long term multi-objective results. The long term performance for any alternative (especially including operating strategies) is evaluated by simulation. An operating rule is the combination of conditions, parameters, constraints and objectives used to determine the formulation of the short term optimization in each time step. Heuristic wrappers for the simulation program have been developed improve the parameters of an operating rule, and are initiating research on a wrapper that will allow us to employ a genetic algorithm to improve the form of the rule (conditions, constraints

  2. Learning from Nature - Mapping of Complex Hydrological and Geomorphological Process Systems for More Realistic Modelling of Hazard-related Maps (United States)

    Chifflard, Peter; Tilch, Nils


    Introduction Hydrological or geomorphological processes in nature are often very diverse and complex. This is partly due to the regional characteristics which vary over time and space, as well as changeable process-initiating and -controlling factors. Despite being aware of this complexity, such aspects are usually neglected in the modelling of hazard-related maps due to several reasons. But particularly when it comes to creating more realistic maps, this would be an essential component to consider. The first important step towards solving this problem would be to collect data relating to regional conditions which vary over time and geographical location, along with indicators of complex processes. Data should be acquired promptly during and after events, and subsequently digitally combined and analysed. Study area In June 2009, considerable damage occurred in the residential area of Klingfurth (Lower Austria) as a result of great pre-event wetness and repeatedly heavy rainfall, leading to flooding, debris flow deposit and gravitational mass movement. One of the causes is the fact that the meso-scale watershed (16 km²) of the Klingfurth stream is characterised by adverse geological and hydrological conditions. Additionally, the river system network with its discharge concentration within the residential zone contributes considerably to flooding, particularly during excessive rainfall across the entire region, as the flood peaks from different parts of the catchment area are superposed. First results of mapping Hydro(geo)logical surveys across the entire catchment area have shown that - over 600 gravitational mass movements of various type and stage have occurred. 516 of those have acted as a bed load source, while 325 mass movements had not reached the final stage yet and could thus supply bed load in the future. It should be noted that large mass movements in the initial or intermediate stage were predominately found in clayey-silty areas and weathered material

  3. Spatial structure and scaling of macropores in hydrological process at small catchment scale (United States)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Broer, Martine; Blöschl, Günter


    During rainfall events, the formation of overland flow can occur under the circumstances of saturation excess and/or infiltration excess. These conditions are affected by the soil moisture state which represents the soil water content in micropores and macropores. Macropores act as pathway for the preferential flows and have been widely studied locally. However, very little is known about their spatial structure and conductivity of macropores and other flow characteristic at the catchment scale. This study will analyze these characteristics to better understand its importance in hydrological processes. The research will be conducted in Petzenkirchen Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL), a 64 ha catchment located 100 km west of Vienna. The land use is divided between arable land (87%), pasture (5%), forest (6%) and paved surfaces (2%). Video cameras will be installed on an agricultural field to monitor the overland flow pattern during rainfall events. A wireless soil moisture network is also installed within the monitored area. These field data will be combined to analyze the soil moisture state and the responding surface runoff occurrence. The variability of the macropores spatial structure of the observed area (field scale) then will be assessed based on the topography and soil data. Soil characteristics will be supported with laboratory experiments on soil matrix flow to obtain proper definitions of the spatial structure of macropores and its variability. A coupled physically based distributed model of surface and subsurface flow will be used to simulate the variability of macropores spatial structure and its effect on the flow behaviour. This model will be validated by simulating the observed rainfall events. Upscaling from field scale to catchment scale will be done to understand the effect of macropores variability on larger scales by applying spatial stochastic methods. The first phase in this study is the installation and monitoring configuration of video

  4. Integrating retention soil filters into urban hydrologic models - Relevant processes and important parameters (United States)

    Bachmann-Machnik, Anna; Meyer, Daniel; Waldhoff, Axel; Fuchs, Stephan; Dittmer, Ulrich


    Retention Soil Filters (RSFs), a form of vertical flow constructed wetlands specifically designed for combined sewer overflow (CSO) treatment, have proven to be an effective tool to mitigate negative impacts of CSOs on receiving water bodies. Long-term hydrologic simulations are used to predict the emissions from urban drainage systems during planning of stormwater management measures. So far no universally accepted model for RSF simulation exists. When simulating hydraulics and water quality in RSFs, an appropriate level of detail must be chosen for reasonable balancing between model complexity and model handling, considering the model input's level of uncertainty. The most crucial parameters determining the resultant uncertainties of the integrated sewer system and filter bed model were identified by evaluating a virtual drainage system with a Retention Soil Filter for CSO treatment. To determine reasonable parameter ranges for RSF simulations, data of 207 events from six full-scale RSF plants in Germany were analyzed. Data evaluation shows that even though different plants with varying loading and operation modes were examined, a simple model is sufficient to assess relevant suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 emissions from RSFs. Two conceptual RSF models with different degrees of complexity were assessed. These models were developed based on evaluation of data from full scale RSF plants and column experiments. Incorporated model processes are ammonium adsorption in the filter layer and degradation during subsequent dry weather period, filtration of SS and particulate COD (XCOD) to a constant background concentration and removal of solute COD (SCOD) by a constant removal rate during filter passage as well as sedimentation of SS and XCOD in the filter overflow. XCOD, SS and ammonium loads as well as ammonium concentration peaks are discharged primarily via RSF overflow not passing through the filter bed. Uncertainties of the integrated

  5. An interactive modelling tool for understanding hydrological processes in lowland catchments (United States)

    Brauer, Claudia; Torfs, Paul; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    Recently, we developed the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS), a rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater (Brauer et al., 2014ab). WALRUS explicitly simulates processes which are important in lowland catchments, such as feedbacks between saturated and unsaturated zone and between groundwater and surface water. WALRUS has a simple model structure and few parameters with physical connotations. Some default functions (which can be changed easily for research purposes) are implemented to facilitate application by practitioners and students. The effect of water management on hydrological variables can be simulated explicitly. The model description and applications are published in open access journals (Brauer et al, 2014). The open source code (provided as R package) and manual can be downloaded freely ( We organised a short course for Dutch water managers and consultants to become acquainted with WALRUS. We are now adapting this course as a stand-alone tutorial suitable for a varied, international audience. In addition, simple models can aid teachers to explain hydrological principles effectively. We used WALRUS to generate examples for simple interactive tools, which we will present at the EGU General Assembly. C.C. Brauer, A.J. Teuling, P.J.J.F. Torfs, R. Uijlenhoet (2014a): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): a lumped rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2313-2332. C.C. Brauer, P.J.J.F. Torfs, A.J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet (2014b): The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4007-4028.

  6. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.


    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  7. Regional controls on geomorphology, hydrology, and ecosystem integrity in the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (United States)

    Warne, A.G.; Meade, R.H.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Gibeaut, J.; Smyth, R.C.; Aslan, A.; Tremblay, T.


    Interacting river discharge, tidal oscillation, and tropical rainfall across the 22,000 km2 Orinoco delta plain support diverse fresh and brackish water ecosystems. To develop environmental baseline information for this largely unpopulated region, we evaluate major coastal plain, shallow marine, and river systems of northeastern South America, which serves to identify principal sources and controls of water and sediment flow into, through, and out of the Orinoco Delta. The regional analysis includes a summary of the geology, hydrodynamics, sediment dynamics, and geomorphic characteristics of the Orinoco drainage basin, river, and delta system. Because the Amazon River is a major source of sediment deposited along the Orinoco coast, we summarize Amazon water and sediment input to the northeastern South American littoral zone. We investigate sediment dynamics and geomorphology of the Guiana coast, where marine processes and Holocene history are similar to the Orinoco coast. Major factors controlling Orinoco Delta water and sediment dynamics include the pronounced annual flood discharge; the uneven distribution of water and sediment discharge across the delta plain; discharge of large volumes of water with low sediment concentrations through the Rio Grande and Araguao distributaries; water and sediment dynamics associated with the Guayana littoral current along the northeastern South American coast; inflow of large volumes of Amazon sediment to the Orinoco coast; development of a fresh water plume seaward of Boca Grande; disruption of the Guayana Current by Trinidad, Boca de Serpientes, and Gulf of Paria; and the constriction at Boca de Serpientes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integration of Satellite, Global Reanalysis Data and Macroscale Hydrological Model for Drought Assessment in Sub-Tropical Region of India (United States)

    Pandey, V.; Srivastava, P. K.


    Change in soil moisture regime is highly relevant for agricultural drought, which can be best analyzed in terms of Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI). A macroscale hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) was used to simulate the hydro-climatological fluxes including evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture storage to reconstruct the severity and duration of agricultural drought over semi-arid region of India. The simulations in VIC were performed at 0.25° spatial resolution by using a set of meteorological forcing data, soil parameters and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) and vegetation parameters. For calibration and validation, soil parameters obtained from National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSSLUP) and ESA's Climate Change Initiative soil moisture (CCI-SM) data respectively. The analysis of results demonstrates that most of the study regions (> 80 %) especially for central northern part are affected by drought condition. The year 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 and 2009 was highly affected by agricultural drought. Due to high average and maximum temperature, we observed higher soil evaporation that reduces the surface soil moisture significantly as well as the high topographic variations; coarse soil texture and moderate to high wind speed enhanced the drying upper soil moisture layer that incorporate higher negative SMDI over the study area. These findings can also facilitate the archetype in terms of daily time step data, lengths of the simulation period, various hydro-climatological outputs and use of reasonable hydrological model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pandey


    Full Text Available Change in soil moisture regime is highly relevant for agricultural drought, which can be best analyzed in terms of Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI. A macroscale hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC was used to simulate the hydro-climatological fluxes including evapotranspiration, runoff, and soil moisture storage to reconstruct the severity and duration of agricultural drought over semi-arid region of India. The simulations in VIC were performed at 0.25° spatial resolution by using a set of meteorological forcing data, soil parameters and Land Use Land Cover (LULC and vegetation parameters. For calibration and validation, soil parameters obtained from National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSSLUP and ESA's Climate Change Initiative soil moisture (CCI-SM data respectively. The analysis of results demonstrates that most of the study regions (> 80 % especially for central northern part are affected by drought condition. The year 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 and 2009 was highly affected by agricultural drought. Due to high average and maximum temperature, we observed higher soil evaporation that reduces the surface soil moisture significantly as well as the high topographic variations; coarse soil texture and moderate to high wind speed enhanced the drying upper soil moisture layer that incorporate higher negative SMDI over the study area. These findings can also facilitate the archetype in terms of daily time step data, lengths of the simulation period, various hydro-climatological outputs and use of reasonable hydrological model.

  10. Hydrological response and thermal effect of karst springs linked to aquifer geometry and recharge processes (United States)

    Luo, Mingming; Chen, Zhihua; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Liang; Han, Zhaofeng


    To be better understand the hydrological and thermal behavior of karst systems in South China, seasonal variations in flow, hydrochemistry and stable isotope ratios of five karst springs were used to delineate flow paths and recharge processes, and to interpret their thermal response. Isotopic data suggest that mean recharge elevations are 200-820 m above spring outlets. Springs that originate from high elevations have lower NO3 - concentrations than those originating from lower areas that have more agricultural activity. Measured Sr2+ concentrations reflect the strontium contents of the host carbonate aquifer and help delineate the spring catchment's saturated zone. Seasonal variations of NO3 - and Sr2+ concentrations are inversely correlated, because the former correlates with event water and the latter with baseflow. The mean annual water temperatures of springs were only slightly lower than the local mean annual surface temperature at the outlet elevations. These mean spring temperatures suggest a vertical gradient of 6 °C/vertical km, which resembles the adiabatic lapse rate of the Earth's stable atmosphere. Seasonal temperature variations in the springs are in phase with surface air temperatures, except for Heilongquan (HLQ) spring. Event-scale variations of thermal response are dramatically controlled by the circulation depth of karst systems, which determines the effectiveness of heat exchange. HLQ spring undergoes the deepest circulation depth of 820 m, and its thermal responses are determined by the thermally effective regulation processes at higher elevations and the mixing processes associated with thermally ineffective responses at lower elevations.

  11. Yellowstone as an Analog for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Processes at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, P. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Simmons, A.; Hulen, J.


    Enhanced water-rock interaction resulting from the emplacement of heat-generating nuclear waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, may result in changes to fluid flow (resulting from mineral dissolution and precipitation in condensation and boiling zones, respectively). Studies of water-rock interaction in active and fossil geothermal systems (natural analogs) provide evidence for changes in permeability and porosity resulting from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes. The objective of this research is to document the effects of coupled THC processes at Yellowstone and then examine how differences in scale could influence the impact that these processes may have on the Yucca Mountain system. Subsurface samples from Yellowstone National Park, one of the largest active geothermal systems in the world, contain some the best examples of hydrothermal self-sealing found in geothermal systems. We selected core samples from two USGS research drill holes from the transition zone between conductive and convective portions of the geothermal system (where sealing was reported to occur). We analyzed the core, measuring the permeability, porosity, and grain density of selected samples to evaluate how lithology, texture, and degree of hydrothermal alteration influence matrix and fracture permeability

  12. Isotope hydrology of some hydrothermal systems of the Kurilo-Kamchatskay volcanic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esikov, A.D.


    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition of underground and surface (thermal and cold) waters, as well as local precipitation waters from the geothermal fields of the Uzon caldera, the Mutnovsky volcano (Kamchatka), and the Baransky volcano (island of Iturup) have been analysed. As has been demonstrated, hydrothermal solutions were formed due to hypogene circulation of water originating from local precipitation. Observed variations in the isotope composition of the water are easily explained by underground boiling of hydrothermal solutions and their exchange with bedrock, and also by the processes of non-steady evaporation of water under differing surface conditions and the widely-spread mutual intermixing of waters of different origin. Data on the isotope composition of 50 samples from the region studied are to be found in the paper. The method of constructing diagrams in coordinates of δD vs δ 18 O is discussed in detail, reflecting a single-step separation of the thermal fluid. Data obtained during the analysis of the thermal fields estimates the processes forming the isotope composition of the world's geothermal sub-aerial systems as being unique. (author)

  13. An overview of current applications, challenges, and future trends in distributed process-based models in hydrology (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Odgen, Fred L; Ivanov, Valeriy Y; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Gochis, David; Downer, Charles W; Camporese, Matteo; Davison, Jason H; Ebel, Brian A.; Jones, Norm; Kim, Jongho; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Niswonger, Richard G.; Restrepo, Pedro; Rigon, Riccardo; Shen, Chaopeng; Sulis, Mauro; Tarboton, David


    Process-based hydrological models have a long history dating back to the 1960s. Criticized by some as over-parameterized, overly complex, and difficult to use, a more nuanced view is that these tools are necessary in many situations and, in a certain class of problems, they are the most appropriate type of hydrological model. This is especially the case in situations where knowledge of flow paths or distributed state variables and/or preservation of physical constraints is important. Examples of this include: spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture, groundwater flow and runoff generation, sediment and contaminant transport, or when feedbacks among various Earth’s system processes or understanding the impacts of climate non-stationarity are of primary concern. These are situations where process-based models excel and other models are unverifiable. This article presents this pragmatic view in the context of existing literature to justify the approach where applicable and necessary. We review how improvements in data availability, computational resources and algorithms have made detailed hydrological simulations a reality. Avenues for the future of process-based hydrological models are presented suggesting their use as virtual laboratories, for design purposes, and with a powerful treatment of uncertainty.

  14. An overview of current applications, challenges, and future trends in distributed process-based models in hydrology (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Ogden, Fred L.; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Mirus, Benjamin; Gochis, David; Downer, Charles W.; Camporese, Matteo; Davison, Jason H.; Ebel, Brian; Jones, Norm; Kim, Jongho; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Niswonger, Richard; Restrepo, Pedro; Rigon, Riccardo; Shen, Chaopeng; Sulis, Mauro; Tarboton, David


    Process-based hydrological models have a long history dating back to the 1960s. Criticized by some as over-parameterized, overly complex, and difficult to use, a more nuanced view is that these tools are necessary in many situations and, in a certain class of problems, they are the most appropriate type of hydrological model. This is especially the case in situations where knowledge of flow paths or distributed state variables and/or preservation of physical constraints is important. Examples of this include: spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture, groundwater flow and runoff generation, sediment and contaminant transport, or when feedbacks among various Earth's system processes or understanding the impacts of climate non-stationarity are of primary concern. These are situations where process-based models excel and other models are unverifiable. This article presents this pragmatic view in the context of existing literature to justify the approach where applicable and necessary. We review how improvements in data availability, computational resources and algorithms have made detailed hydrological simulations a reality. Avenues for the future of process-based hydrological models are presented suggesting their use as virtual laboratories, for design purposes, and with a powerful treatment of uncertainty.

  15. Periodicity of Climatic, Hydrological and Lacustrine Sedimentation Processes in the South of the East-European Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisetskii, F.N.; Stolba, Vladimir; Pichura, V.I.


    s did not result in an increase in the water volume in the Dnieper. This suggests that the declining sensitivity of the hydrological cycles to the climatic rhythms is the effect of a strong anthropogenic impact. Accordingly, the Dnieper water-volume formation period (1900–1946) optimal...... make it possible to define the contribution of annual sums of precipitation and air temperature to the riverine discharge, the study has established the climatic dependence of the hydrological processes. It has also demonstrated that an essential increase in the annual precipitation sums since the 1940...... for simulation has been defined, which most accurately reflects the impact of natural climatic factors on the riverine discharge. The regression model for the conditions when the water discharge is over 1686 m3/s can be used for prognosis (and retrognosis) of extreme hydrological events in the south of the East...

  16. Urban runoff (URO) process for MODFLOW 2005: simulation of sub-grid scale urban hydrologic processes in Broward County, FL (United States)

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Hughes, J.D.


    Climate change and sea-level rise could cause substantial changes in urban runoff and flooding in low-lying coast landscapes. A major challenge for local government officials and decision makers is to translate the potential global effects of climate change into actionable and cost-effective adaptation and mitigation strategies at county and municipal scales. A MODFLOW process is used to represent sub-grid scale hydrology in urban settings to help address these issues. Coupled interception, surface water, depression, and unsaturated zone storage are represented. A two-dimensional diffusive wave approximation is used to represent overland flow. Three different options for representing infiltration and recharge are presented. Additional features include structure, barrier, and culvert flow between adjacent cells, specified stage boundaries, critical flow boundaries, source/sink surface-water terms, and the bi-directional runoff to MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing process. Some abilities of the Urban RunOff (URO) process are demonstrated with a synthetic problem using four land uses and varying cell coverages. Precipitation from a hypothetical storm was applied and cell by cell surface-water depth, groundwater level, infiltration rate, and groundwater recharge rate are shown. Results indicate the URO process has the ability to produce time-varying, water-content dependent infiltration and leakage, and successfully interacts with MODFLOW.

  17. Temporal hydrological and hydrochemical behaviour of the regional discharge area of a carbonate system - why we can not see fast responses? (United States)

    Bodor, Petra; Eröss, Anita; Kovács, József; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit


    The subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the saturated groundwater flow can be mostly studied in regional discharge areas. In these regions the water has already spent geologically long time under the surface, therefore the upwelling water reflect the effect of the geometry and boundary conditions of the whole flow field, its geology and chemical processes. According to these conditions, the discharging waters can be characterized with different values and variability of physicochemical parameters (temperature, total dissolved solids, cations, anions, gas content etc.). This question has special interest in carbonate systems where the concept of regional groundwater flow was only introduced in the last few years. Hydrographs and chemographs are frequently used in karst studies to demonstrate the effect of variability of the system and to derive information for the nature of flow inside the karst (channel, fracture or matrix). Usually these graphs show abrupt changes after precipitation events, but this is typical for epigenic karsts. However, discharge areas, where hypogenic karsts developed, can behave differently due to their feeding flow systems. These systems and their effects are not so well studied yet. In this study we examined hydrographs and chemographs of the regional discharge area of a deep and thick carbonate range of Buda Thermal Karst and tried to understand those mechanisms which determine the hydrological and hydrochemical behaviour of the region. Here cold, lukewarm and also thermal waters discharge along the River Danube. The variability of physicochemical parameters (temperature, electric conductivity, pH, volume discharge, water level, dissolved CO2 and 222Rn, δ18O, δD) of the discharging water was studied to understand influencing mechanisms. We tried to understand the effect of precipitation (short and long term) and the effect of River Danube with geomathematical methods for the lukewarm components of the discharging water. Based on

  18. Investigation of Relationship Between Hydrologic Processes of Precipitation, Evaporation and Stream Flow Using Linear Time Series Models (Case study: Western Basins of Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moravej


    Full Text Available Introduction: Studying the hydrological cycle, especially in large scales such as water catchments, is difficult and complicated despite the fact that the numbers of hydrological components are limited. This complexity rises from complex interactions between hydrological components and environment. Recognition, determination and modeling of all interactive processes are needed to address this issue, but it's not feasible for dealing with practical engineering problems. So, it is more convenient to consider hydrological components as stochastic phenomenon, and use stochastic models for modeling them. Stochastic simulation of time series models related to water resources, particularly hydrologic time series, have been widely used in recent decades in order to solve issues pertaining planning and management of water resource systems. In this study time series models fitted to the precipitation, evaporation and stream flow series separately and the relationships between stream flow and precipitation processes are investigated. In fact, the three mentioned processes should be modeled in parallel to each other in order to acquire a comprehensive vision of hydrological conditions in the region. Moreover, the relationship between the hydrologic processes has been mostly studied with respect to their trends. It is desirable to investigate the relationship between trends of hydrological processes and climate change, while the relationship of the models has not been taken into consideration. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between hydrological processes and their effects on each other and the selected models. Material and Method: In the current study, the four sub-basins of Lake Urmia Basin namely Zolachay (A, Nazloochay (B, Shahrchay (C and Barandoozchay (D were considered. Precipitation, evaporation and stream flow time series were modeled by linear time series. Fundamental assumptions of time series analysis namely

  19. Hydrological and dynamical characterization of Meddies in the Azores region: A paradigm for baroclinic vortex dynamics (United States)

    Tychensky, A.; Carton, X.


    The Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) oceanographic experiment surveyed a 500 × 500 km2 domain south of the Azores from June to November 1993 and collected hydrological data, float trajectories, and current meter recordings. This data exhibited three intrathermocline eddies of Mediterranean water (Meddies), two of them being repeatedly sampled. Their hydrological and dynamical properties are quantified here by an isopycnic analysis. For the three Meddies, intense temperature and salinity anomalies (up to 4°C and 1.1 practical salinity units (psu)) are observed extending vertically over up to 1000 m and centered around 1000 m. Horizontally, these anomalies spread out to radii of 50-60 km, while the maximum azimuthal velocities (30 cm s-1, as computed by geostrophy) lie only at 35-40 km from the central axis. These Meddies followed curved trajectories, with drift velocities up to 7.5 cm s-1, under the influence of the neighboring mesoscale features (cyclonic vortices or Azores Current meanders). The three-dimensional structure of potential vorticity in and around these features evidences their complex interactions. Northwest of the domain, a Meddy was coupled to a subsurface anticyclone, forming an "aligned" vortex. It later interacted with the Azores Current, creating a large-amplitude northward meander by vertical alignment of vorticity. In the southeastern part of the domain, another Meddy was vertically aligned with an anticyclonic meander of the Azores Current and horizontally coupled with a cyclone of large vertical extent. These two features, as well as a small warm and salty fragment in their vicinity, seem to result from the southward crossing of the Meddy under the Azores Current. These observations illustrate previous theoretical studies of baroclinic vortex dynamics.

  20. Assessing the elements mobility through the regolith and their potential as tracers for hydrological processes (United States)

    Moragues-Quiroga, Cristina; Hissler, Christophe; Chabaux, François; Legout, Arnaud; Stille, Peter


    Regoliths encompass different materials from the fresh bedrock to the top of the organic horizons. The regolith is a major component of the critical zone where fluxes of water, energy, solutes and matter occur. Therefore, its bio-physico-chemical properties drastically impact the water that percolates and/or stores in its different parts (organic and mineral soil horizons, and weathered and fractured bedrock). In order to better understand the critical zone functioning, we propose to assess the interaction between chemical elements from the regolith matrix and water during drainage infiltration. For this, we focus firstly on the potential mobility of different groups of major and trace elements according to a leaching experiment made on 10 different layers of a 7.5 m depth slate regolith, which covers a large part of the Rhenish Massif. Secondly, we carried out Sr-Nd-Pb-U-Th isotope analyses for 5 of these samples in both the untreated and leached samples. Given the specific chemical and mineralogical composition of each sampled material, our approach enables to trace the origin of major and trace elements and eventually assess their mobility. The results deliver valuable information on exchange processes at the water-mineral interface in the different zones of the regolith, which could improve the selection of tracers for the study of hydrological processes.

  1. Contribution to the stochastically studies of space-time dependable hydrological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaevski, Ivancho


    One of the fundaments of today's planning and water economy is Science of Hydrology. Science of Hydrology through the history had followed the development of the water management systems. Water management systems, during the time from single-approach evolved to complex and multi purpose systems. The dynamic and development of the today's society contributed for increasing the demand of clean water, and in the same time, the resources of clean water in the nature are reduced. In this kind of conditions, water management systems should resolve problems that are more complicated during managing of water sources. Solving the problems in water management, enable development and applying new methods and technologies in planning and management with water resources and water management systems like: systematical analyses, operational research, hierarchy decisions, expert systems, computer technology etc. Planning and management of water sources needs historical measured data for hydro metrological processes. In our country there are data of hydro metrological processes in period of 50-70, but in some Europe countries there are data more than 100 years. Water economy trends follow the hydro metrological trend research. The basic statistic techniques like sampling, probability distribution function, correlation and regression, are used about one intended and simple water management problems. Solving new problems about water management needs using of space-time stochastic technique, modem mathematical and statistical techniques during simulation and optimization of complex water systems. We need tree phases of development of the techniques to get secure hydrological models: i) Estimate the quality of hydro meteorological data, analyzing of their consistency, and homogeneous; ii) Structural analyze of hydro meteorological processes; iii) Mathematical models for modeling hydro meteorological processes. Very often, the third phase is applied for analyzing and modeling of hydro

  2. Hydrologic processes and radionuclide distribution in a cavity and chimney produced by the Cannikin nuclear explosion, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.C.


    An analysis of hydraulic, chemical, and radiochemical data obtained in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear explosion (code-named Cannikin, 1971), on Amchitka Island, Alaska, was undertaken to describe the hydrologic processes associated with the saturation of subsurface void space produced by the explosion. Immediately after detonation of the explosive, a subsurface cavity was created surrounding the explosion point. This cavity soon was partly filled by collapse of overburden, producing void volume in a rubble chimney extending to land surface and forming a surface-collapse sink. Surface and groundwater immediately began filling the chimney but was excluded for a time from the cavity by the presence of steam. When the steam condensed, the accumulated water in the chimney flowed into the cavity region, picking up and depositing radioactive materials along its path. Refilling of the chimney voids then resumed and was nearly complete about 260 days after the explosion. The hydraulic properties of identified aquifers intersecting the chimney were used with estimates of surface-water inflow, chimney dimensions, and the measured water-level rise in the chimney to estimate the distribution of explosion-created porosity in the chimney, which ranged from about 10 percent near the bottom to 4 percent near the top. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of water from the cavity resulted in identification of three aqueous phases: groundwater, surface water, and condensed steam. Although most water samples represented mixtures of these phases, they contained radioactivity representative of all radioactivity produced by the explosion

  3. Investigation of Relationship Between Hydrologic Processes of Precipitation, Evaporation and Stream Flow Using Linear Time Series Models (Case study: Western Basins of Lake Urmia)


    M. Moravej; K. Khalili; J. Behmanesh


    Introduction: Studying the hydrological cycle, especially in large scales such as water catchments, is difficult and complicated despite the fact that the numbers of hydrological components are limited. This complexity rises from complex interactions between hydrological components and environment. Recognition, determination and modeling of all interactive processes are needed to address this issue, but it's not feasible for dealing with practical engineering problems. So, it is more convenie...

  4. Investigating hydrological regimes and processes in a set of catchments with temporary waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallart, F.; Amaxidis, Y.; Botti, P.; Cane, B.; Castillo, V.; Chapman, P.; Froebrich, J.; Garcia, J.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Porto, Lo A.; Morais, M.; Neves, N.; Ninov, P.; Perrin, J.L.; Ribarova, I.; Skoulikidis, N.; Tournoud, M.G.


    Seven catchments of diverse size in Mediterranean Europe were investigated in order to understand the main aspects of their hydrological functioning. The methods included the analysis of daily and monthly precipitation, monthly potential evapotranspiration rates, flow duration curves,

  5. An Alternative Approach to Overcome the Limitation of HRUs in Analyzing Hydrological Processes Based on Land Use/Cover Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhao Meng


    Full Text Available Since the concept of hydrological response units (HRUs is used widely in hydrological modeling, the land use change scenarios analysis based on HRU may have direct influence on hydrological processes due to its simplified flow routing and HRU spatial distribution. This paper intends to overcome this issue based on a new analysis approach to explain what impacts for the impact of land use/cover change on hydrological processes (LUCCIHP, and compare whether differences exist between the conventional approach and the improved approach. Therefore, we proposed a sub-basin segmentation approach to obtain more reasonable impact assessment of LUCC scenario by re-discretizing the HRUs and prolonging the flow path in which the LUCC occurs. As a scenario study, the SWAT model is used in the Aksu River Basin, China, to simulate the response of hydrological processes to LUCC over ten years. Moreover, the impacts of LUCC on hydrological processes before and after model modification are compared and analyzed at three levels (catchment scale, sub-basin scale and HRU scale. Comparative analysis of Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE, RSR and Pbias, model simulations before and after model improvement shows that NSE increased by up to 2%, RSR decreased from 0.73 to 0.72, and Pbias decreased from 0.13 to 0.05. The major LUCCs affecting hydrological elements in this basin are related to the degradation of grassland and snow/ice and expansion of farmland and bare land. Model simulations before and after model improvement show that the average variation of flow components in typical sub-basins (surface runoff, lateral flow and groundwater flow are changed by +11.09%, −4.51%, and −6.58%, and +10.53%, −1.55%, and −8.98% from the base period model scenario, respectively. Moreover, the spatial response of surface runoff at the HRU level reveals clear spatial differences between before and after model improvement. This alternative approach illustrates the potential

  6. Evidence of linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes in homogeneous and layered vadose zone systems (United States)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.


    Understanding chemical fate and transport in the vadose zone is critical to protect groundwater resources and preserve ecosystem health. However, prediction can be challenging due to the dynamic hydrologic and biogeochemical nature of the vadose zone. Additional controls on hydrobiogeochemical processes are added by subsurface structural heterogeneity. This study uses repacked soil column experiments to quantify linkages between microbial activity, geochemical cycling and hydrologic flow. Three “short” laboratory soil columns were constructed to evaluate the effects of soil layering: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. In addition, two “long” columns were constructed using either gamma-irradiated (sterilized) or untreated sediments to evaluate the effects of both soil layers and the presence of microorganisms. The long columns were packed identically; a medium-grained sand matrix with two vertically separated and horizontally offset lenses of organic-rich loam. In all 5 columns, downward and upward infiltration of water was evaluated to simulate rainfall and rising water table events respectively. In-situ colocated probes were used to measure soil water content, matric potential, Eh, major anions, ammonium, Fe2+, and total sulfide. Enhanced biogeochemical cycling was observed in the short layered column versus the short, homogeneous columns, and enumerations of iron and sulfate reducing bacteria were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater. In the long columns, microbial activity caused mineral bands and produced insoluble gases that impeded water flow through the pores of the sediment. Capillary barriers, formed around the lenses due to soil textural differences, retarded water flow rates through the lenses. This allowed reducing conditions to develop, evidenced by the production of Fe2+ and S2-. At the fringes of the lenses, Fe2+ oxidized to form Fe(III)-oxide bands that further retarded water

  7. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla


    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  8. Determinism Of Hydrological Recession Processes On Oueme Basin Catchment And Application Of Least Actions Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avahounlin Ringo F.


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aim to analyze the hydrodynamic process of oueme basin catchment basin located in Benin between 758N and 1012N latitude and 135 and 305E longitude. From rainfall and discharge data chronic rates over the period 2000-2009 empirical hydrological modeling based on linearization of Boussinesqs equation and least actions principle methods were used to predict the mechanism of the water drain to determine the streamflow recession curves to the watershed scale and compare the modeling findings with hygrogram obtained by applied of principle of the least actions. An analysis of drying up showed a varied trend in four sub-basins. At Beterou and Bonou sub-basin the non-linear character observed reflects a succession of phases of drying up. A conceptual linearization formulation of the basic equations of Boussinesq considering the non-linear character of the drying up of the two sub-basins helped simulate low flow rates with high efficiency and to determine the types low flow curves. Successfully comparing analyzed of modeling findings with recession curves obtained by least actions principle confirm the heterogeneity of recession nature at oueme basin scale.

  9. Analyzing heterogeneous hydrological processes within soil mantle and shallow bedrock in a granitic foothill (United States)

    Yamakawa, Y.; Kosugi, K.; Mizuyama, T.; Kinoshita, A.


    In mountainous watersheds, groundwater flowing contributes significantly to runoff generation and plays an important role in the occurrence of landslides. Understanding the hydrological processes within not only the soil mantle but also bedrock is essential for modeling runoff generation and predicting landslides, but it is limited by the physical difficulties of observations. In this study, we conducted intensive in-situ investigations including hydrometric observations using dense borehole well network drilled within soil mantle (central Japan. Groundwater levels in soil mantle showed large spatial and temporal variations in response to rainfall; time lag of peaks between right and left banks in the watershed and localized existences of confined groundwater aquifers. The groundwater movement within soil mantle could be significantly affected by soil mantle structure, i.e., water retention characteristics of soil and soil thickness distributions, as well as groundwater flowing within bedrock. Moreover, the groundwater movement within bedrock also varied considerably with location, which could be controlled by structural condition such as weathering of the bedrock and existence of faults.

  10. Dynamic Inversion for Hydrological Process Monitoring with Electrical Resistance Tomography Under Model Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehikoinen, A.; Huttunen, J.M.J.; Finsterle, S.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Kaipio, J.P.


    We propose an approach for imaging the dynamics of complex hydrological processes. The evolution of electrically conductive fluids in porous media is imaged using time-lapse electrical resistance tomography. The related dynamic inversion problem is solved using Bayesian filtering techniques, that is, it is formulated as a sequential state estimation problem in which the target is an evolving posterior probability density of the system state. The dynamical inversion framework is based on the state space representation of the system, which involves the construction of a stochastic evolution model and an observation model. The observation model used in this paper consists of the complete electrode model for ERT, with Archie's law relating saturations to electrical conductivity. The evolution model is an approximate model for simulating flow through partially saturated porous media. Unavoidable modeling and approximation errors in both the observation and evolution models are considered by computing approximate statistics for these errors. These models are then included in the construction of the posterior probability density of the estimated system state. This approximation error method allows the use of approximate - and therefore computationally efficient - observation and evolution models in the Bayesian filtering. We consider a synthetic example and show that the incorporation of an explicit model for the model uncertainties in the state space representation can yield better estimates than a frame-by-frame imaging approach.

  11. Hydrological Assessment of Model Performance and Scenario Analyses of Land Use Change and Climate Change in lowlands of Veneto Region (Italy) (United States)

    Pijl, Anton; Brauer, Claudia; Sofia, Giulia; Teuling, Ryan; Tarolli, Paolo


    Growing water-related challenges in lowland areas of the world call for good assessment of our past and present actions, in order to guide our future decisions. The novel Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS; Brauer et al., 2014) was developed to simulate hydrological processes and has showed promising performance in recent studies in the Netherlands. Here the model was applied to a coastal basin of 2800 ha in the Veneto Region (northern Italy) to test model performance and evaluate scenario analyses of land use change and climate change. Located partially below sea-level, the reclaimed area is facing persistent land transformation and climate change trends, which alter not only the processes in the catchment but also the demands from it (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). Firstly results of the calibration (NSE = 0.77; year simulation, daily resolution) and validation (NSE = 0.53; idem) showed that the model is able to reproduce the dominant hydrological processes of this lowland area (e.g. discharge and groundwater fluxes). Land use scenarios between 1951 and 2060 were constructed using demographic models, supported by orthographic interpretation techniques. Climate scenarios were constructed by historical records and future projections by COSMO-CLM regional climate model (Rockel et al., 2008) under the RCP4.5 pathway. WALRUS simulations showed that the land use changes result in a wetter catchment with more discharge, and the climatic changes cause more extremes with longer droughts and stronger rain events. These changes combined show drier summers (-33{%} rainfall, +27{%} soil moisture deficit) and wetter (+13{%} rainfall) and intenser (+30{%} rain intensity) autumn and winters in the future. The simulated discharge regime -particularly peak flow- follows these polarising trends, in good agreement with similar studies in the geographical zone (e.g. Vezzoli et al., 2015). This will increase the pressure on the fully-artificial drainage and agricultural systems

  12. Uncertainties in hydrological extremes projections and its effects on decision-making processes in an Amazonian sub-basin. (United States)

    Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Garofolo, Lucas; Lazaro Siqueira Junior, Jose


    Uncertainties in Climate Change projections are affected by irreducible uncertainties due to knowledge's limitations, chaotic nature of climate system and human decision-making process. Such uncertainties affect the impact studies, complicating the decision-making process aimed at mitigation and adaptation. However, these uncertainties allow the possibility to develop exploratory analyses on system's vulnerability to different sceneries. Through these kinds of analyses it is possible to identify critical issues, which must be deeper studied. For this study we used several future's projections from General Circulation Models to feed a Hydrological Model, applied to the Amazonian sub-basin of Ji-Paraná. Hydrological Model integrations are performed for present historical time (1970-1990) and for future period (2010-2100). Extreme values analyses are performed to each simulated time series and results are compared with extremes events in present time. A simple approach to identify potential vulnerabilities consists of evaluating the hydrologic system response to climate variability and extreme events observed in the past, comparing them with the conditions projected for the future. Thus it is possible to identify critical issues that need attention and more detailed studies. For the goal of this work, we used socio-economic data from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Operator of the National Electric System, the Brazilian National Water Agency and scientific and press published information. This information is used to characterize impacts associated to extremes hydrological events in the basin during the present historical time and to evaluate potential impacts in the future face to the different hydrological projections. Results show inter-model variability results in a broad dispersion on projected extreme's values. The impact of such dispersion is differentiated for different aspects of socio-economic and natural systems and must be carefully

  13. Spatial-Scale Characteristics of Precipitation Simulated by Regional Climate Models and the Implications for Hydrological Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.H.; Christensen, J. H.; Drews, Martin


    Precipitation simulated by regional climate models (RCMs) is generally biased with respect to observations, especially at the local scale of a few tens of kilometers. This study investigates how well two different RCMs are able to reproduce the spatial correlation patterns of observed summer...... length scales on the order of 130 km are found in both observed data and RCM simulations. When simulations and observations are aggregated to different grid sizes, the pattern correlation significantly decreases when the aggregation length is less than roughly 100 km. Furthermore, the intermodel standard......, reflecting larger predictive certainty of the RCMs at larger scales. The findings on aggregated grid scales are shown to be largely independent of the underlying RCMs grid resolutions but not of the overall size of RCM domain. With regard to hydrological modeling applications, these findings indicate...

  14. Regional parametrisation of a monthly hydrological model for estimating discharges in ungaued catchments (United States)

    Hlavcova, K.; Szolgay, J.; Kohnova, S.; Kalas, M.


    In the case of the absence of measured runoff optimisation techniques cannot be used to estimate the parameters of monthly rainfall-runoff models. In such a case usually empirical regression methods were used for relating the model parameters to the catchment characteristics in a given region. In the paper a different method for the regional calibration of a monthly water balance model, which can be used for planning purposes, is proposed. Instead of using the regional regression approach a method is proposed, which involves the calibration of a monthly water balance model to gauged sites in the given region simultaneously. A regional objective function was constructed and for the calibration a genetic programming algorithm was employed. It is expected, that the regionally calibrated model parameters can be used in ungauged basins with similar physiographic conditions. The comparison of the performance of such a regional calibration scheme was compared with two single site calibration methods in a region of West Slovakia. The results are based on a study that aimed at computing surface water inflow into a lowland area with valuable groundwater resources. Monthly discharge time series had to be estimated in small ungauged rivers entering the study area.

  15. Latin America Region: Between Dependence and Autonomy in Regional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Vaca Hernández


    Full Text Available The space called Latin America has a particular history marked by centuries of colonialism and coloniality. The latter concept implies that the basic structure of the colonial system has not changed even though formal independence has been achieved. For this reason, the subcontinent has fluctuated between dependence and the quest for autonomy. These successive cycles have manifested themselves both in the internal configurations and in the regional schemes that have been undertaken. This paper analyzes the construction and evolution of the idea of a region: Latin America and the Caribbean. To that end it examines the concepts of region, regionalism, what Latin America and the Caribbean implies, and what are the transformations in these ideas that have emerged from the regional configurations of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC as plural organisms with broad objectives.

  16. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali


    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  17. Performance Assessment of Spatial Interpolation of Precipitation for Hydrological Process Simulation in the Three Gorges Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Cheng


    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of spatial and temporal precipitation is crucial for simulating hydrological processes in basins, but is challenging due to insufficient rain gauges. Our study aims to analyze different precipitation interpolation schemes and their performances in runoff simulation during light and heavy rain periods. In particular, combinations of different interpolation estimates are explored and their performances in runoff simulation are discussed. The study was carried out in the Pengxi River basin of the Three Gorges Basin. Precipitation data from 16 rain gauges were interpolated using the Thiessen Polygon (TP, Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, and Co-Kriging (CK methods. Results showed that streamflow predictions employing CK inputs demonstrated the best performance in the whole process, in terms of the Nash–Sutcliffe Coefficient (NSE, the coefficient of determination (R2, and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE indices. The TP, IDW, and CK methods showed good performance in the heavy rain period but poor performance in the light rain period compared with the default method (least sophisticated nearest neighbor technique in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. Furthermore, the correlation between the dynamic weight of one method and its performance during runoff simulation followed a parabolic function. The combination of CK and TP achieved a better performance in decreasing the largest and lowest absolute errors compared to any single method, but the IDW method outperformed all methods in terms of the median absolute error. However, it is clear from our findings that interpolation methods should be chosen depending on the amount of precipitation, adaptability of the method, and accuracy of the estimate in different rain periods.

  18. An integrative approach to characterize hydrological processes and water quality in a semi-arid watershed in Northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Fernandes, N.; Veiga, L. H. S.; Melo, L. R.; Santos, A. C. S.; Araujo, V. P.


    Arid and semi-arid regions face serious challenges in the management of scarce water resources. This situation tends to become worse with the increasing population growth rates and consequently increasing water demand. Groundwater is the most important water resource in these areas and, therefore, the sustainability of its use depends on the effectiveness in which it is managed, both in terms of quantity and quality. The Caetité Experimental Basin (CEB), located in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity, but also changes in landscape and potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations as well as the survival of the local community are highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. Hydrogeological studies in this area are scarce, and the potential contamination and overexploitation of groundwater can not be ruled out. Therefore, a national project was launched in order to improve the understanding and quantification of the interaction between the hydrogeological system and human health. The methodological approach involved hydrological and geochemical monitoring and characterization of the CEB, use of isotopic techniques, groundwater modeling, water quality diagnosis and human health risk assessment due to water ingestion. The results suggested that the groundwater in the CEB are not totally connected, with evidence of a mixture of recent and old waters. The Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl is the dominant water type (50%) followed by Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl water type (17%). The relevant non-radioactive contaminants are Mn, F, NO3 and Ba, mostly from natural origin, with the exception of NO3 that could be associated with the livestock activities. The estimated effective doses due to groundwater ingestion containing radionuclides are below the recommended

  19. Cracking up (and down): Linking multi-domain hydraulic properties with multi-scale hydrological processes in shrink-swell soils (United States)

    Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Abou Najm, M. R.; Selker, J. S.


    Shrink-swell soils, often classified as Vertisols or vertic intergrades, are found on every continent except Antarctica and within many agricultural and urban regions. These soils are characterized by cyclical shrinking and swelling, in which bulk density and porosity distributions vary as functions of time and soil moisture. Crack networks that form in these soils act as dominant environmental controls on the movement of water, contaminants, and gases, making it important to develop fundamental understanding and tractable models of their hydrologic characteristics and behaviors. In this study, which took place primarily in the Secano Interior region of South-Central Chile, we quantified soil-water interactions across scales using a diverse and innovative dataset. These measurements were then utilized to develop a set of parsimonious multi-domain models for describing hydraulic properties and hydrological processes in shrink-swell soils. In a series of examples, we show how this model can predict porosity distributions, crack widths, saturated hydraulic conductivities, and surface runoff (i.e., overland flow) thresholds, by capturing the dominant mechanisms by which water moves through and interacts with clayey soils. Altogether, these models successfully link small-scale shrinkage/swelling behaviors with large-scale thresholds, and can be applied to describe important processes such as infiltration, overland flow development, and the preferential flow and transport of fluids and gases.

  20. Regional Hydrological Cycle over the Red Sea in ERA-Interim

    KAUST Repository

    Zolina, Olga


    The major sources of atmospheric moisture over the Red Sea are analyzed using ERA-Interim for the 1979-2013 period. The vertical structure of moisture transports across the coastlines has been computed separately for the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The vertical structure of the moisture transport from the Red Sea to the continents is dominated by a breeze-like circulation in the near-surface layer and the Arabian high above 850 hPa. The lower-layer, breeze-like circulation is acting to export the moisture to the northwest of Africa and to the Arabian Peninsula and contributes about 80% of the moisture exports from the Red Sea, dominating over the transport in the upper layer, where the moisture is advected to the Arabian Peninsula in the northern part of the sea and to the African continent in the southern part. Integrated moisture divergence over the Red Sea decreased from the early 1980s to 1997 and then increased until the 2010s. Associated changes in the moisture export were provided primarily by the increasing intensity of the breeze-associated transports. The transports above the boundary layer, while being strong across the western and the eastern coasts, have a smaller effect on the net moisture export. The interannual variability of the moisture export in the near-surface layer was found to be closely correlated with the variability in sea surface temperature, especially in summer. Implications of the observed changes in the moisture advection for the hydrological cycle of the Middle East are discussed.

  1. Regional Hydrological Cycle over the Red Sea in ERA-Interim

    KAUST Repository

    Zolina, Olga; Dufour, Ambroise; Gulev, Sergey K.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    The major sources of atmospheric moisture over the Red Sea are analyzed using ERA-Interim for the 1979-2013 period. The vertical structure of moisture transports across the coastlines has been computed separately for the western and eastern coasts of the Red Sea. The vertical structure of the moisture transport from the Red Sea to the continents is dominated by a breeze-like circulation in the near-surface layer and the Arabian high above 850 hPa. The lower-layer, breeze-like circulation is acting to export the moisture to the northwest of Africa and to the Arabian Peninsula and contributes about 80% of the moisture exports from the Red Sea, dominating over the transport in the upper layer, where the moisture is advected to the Arabian Peninsula in the northern part of the sea and to the African continent in the southern part. Integrated moisture divergence over the Red Sea decreased from the early 1980s to 1997 and then increased until the 2010s. Associated changes in the moisture export were provided primarily by the increasing intensity of the breeze-associated transports. The transports above the boundary layer, while being strong across the western and the eastern coasts, have a smaller effect on the net moisture export. The interannual variability of the moisture export in the near-surface layer was found to be closely correlated with the variability in sea surface temperature, especially in summer. Implications of the observed changes in the moisture advection for the hydrological cycle of the Middle East are discussed.

  2. Clarifying regional hydrologic controls of the Marañón River, Peru through rapid assessment to inform system-wide basin planning approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Hill


    Full Text Available We use remote sensing to enhance the interpretation of the first baseline dataset of hydrologic, isotopic and hydrochemical variables spanning 620 km of the upper Marañón River, in Andean Peru, from the steep alpine canyons to the lower lying jungle. Remote, data-scarce river systems are under increased hydropower development pressure to meet rising energy demands. The upstream-downstream river continuum, which serves as a conduit for resource exchange across ecosystems, is at risk, potentially endangering the people, environments, and economies that rely on river resources. The Marañón River, one of the final free-flowing headwater connections between the Andes and the Amazon, is the subject of myriad large-scale hydropower proposals. Due to challenging access, environmental data are scarce in the upper Marañón, limiting our ability to do system-wide river basin planning. We capture key processes and transitions in the context of hydropower development. Two hydrologic regimes control the Marañón dry-season flow: in the higher-elevation upper reaches, a substantial baseflow is fed by groundwater recharged from wet season rains, in contrast to the lower reaches where the mainstem discharge is controlled by rain-fed tributaries that receive rain from lowland Amazon moisture systems. Sustainability of the upper corridor’s dry-season baseflow appears to be more highly connected to the massive natural storage capacity of extensive wetlands in the puna (alpine grasslands than with cryospheric water inputs. The extent and conservation of puna ecosystems and glacier reservoirs may be interdependent, bringing to bear important conservation questions in the context of changing climate and land use in the region. More generally, this case study demonstrates an efficient combined remote sensing and field observation approach to address data scarcity across regional scales in mountain basins facing imminent rapid change.

  3. Simulation of future land use change and climate change impacts on hydrological processes in a tropical catchment (United States)

    Marhaento, H.; Booij, M. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.


    Future hydrological processes in the Samin catchment (278 km2) in Java, Indonesia have been simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model using inputs from predicted land use distributions in the period 2030 - 2050, bias corrected Regional Climate Model (RCM) output and output of six Global Climate Models (GCMs) to include climate model uncertainty. Two land use change scenarios namely a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, where no measures are taken to control land use change, and a controlled (CON) scenario, where the future land use follows the land use planning, were used in the simulations together with two climate change scenarios namely Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. It was predicted that in 2050 settlement and agriculture area of the study catchment will increase by 33.9% and 3.5%, respectively under the BAU scenario, whereas agriculture area and evergreen forest will increase by 15.2% and 10.2%, respectively under the CON scenario. In comparison to the baseline conditions (1983 - 2005), the predicted mean annual maximum and minimum temperature in 2030 - 2050 will increase by an average of +10C, while changes in the mean annual rainfall range from -20% to +19% under RCP 4.5 and from -25% to +15% under RCP 8.5. The results show that land use change and climate change individually will cause changes in the water balance components, but that more pronounced changes are expected if the drivers are combined, in particular for changes in annual stream flow and surface runoff. It was observed that combination of the RCP 4.5 climate scenario and BAU land use scenario resulted in an increase of the mean annual stream flow from -7% to +64% and surface runoff from +21% to +102%, which is 40% and 60% more than when land use change is acting alone. Furthermore, under the CON scenario the annual stream flow and surface runoff could be potentially reduced by up to 10% and 30%, respectively indicating the effectiveness of applied

  4. Regional Curve Development and Use in Stream Restoration and Hydrologic Assessment in High Gradient Headwater Streams (United States)

    Introduction to Regional Curves including; regressions relating bankfull channelcharacteristics to drainage area, providing estimates of bankfull discharge and channel geometry, validating the selection of the bankfull channel as determined in the field

  5. Regional Variation in Gravel Riverbed Mobility, Controlled by Hydrologic Regime and Sediment Supply (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Allison M.; Finnegan, Noah J.


    The frequency and intensity of riverbed mobility are of paramount importance to the inhabitants of river ecosystems as well as to the evolution of bed surface structure. Because sediment supply varies by orders of magnitude across North America, the intensity of bedload transport varies by over an order of magnitude. Climate also varies widely across the continent, yielding a range of flood timing, duration, and intermittency. Together, the differences in sediment supply and hydroclimate result in diverse regimes of bed surface stability. To quantitatively characterize this regional variation, we calculate multidecadal time series of estimated bed surface mobility for 29 rivers using sediment transport equations. We use these data to compare predicted bed mobility between rivers and regions. There are statistically significant regional differences in the (a) exceedance probability of bed-mobilizing flows (W* > 0.002), (b) maximum bed mobility, and (c) number of discrete bed-mobilizing events in a year.

  6. Aggregation and sampling in deterministic chaos: implications for chaos identification in hydrological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Salas


    Full Text Available A review of the literature reveals conflicting results regarding the existence and inherent nature of chaos in hydrological processes such as precipitation and streamflow, i.e. whether they are low dimensional chaotic or stochastic. This issue is examined further in this paper, particularly the effect that certain types of transformations, such as aggregation and sampling, may have on the identification of the dynamics of the underlying system. First, we investigate the dynamics of daily streamflows for two rivers in Florida, one with strong surface and groundwater storage contributions and the other with a lesser basin storage contribution. Based on estimates of the delay time, the delay time window, and the correlation integral, our results suggest that the river with the stronger basin storage contribution departs significantly from the behavior of a chaotic system, while the departure is less significant for the river with the smaller basin storage contribution. We pose the hypothesis that the chaotic behavior depicted on continuous precipitation fields or small time-step precipitation series becomes less identifiable as the aggregation (or sampling time step increases. Similarly, because streamflows result from a complex transformation of precipitation that involves accumulating and routing excess rainfall throughout the basin and adding surface and groundwater flows, the end result may be that streamflows at the outlet of the basin depart from low dimensional chaotic behavior. We also investigate the effect of aggregation and sampling using series derived from the Lorenz equations and show that, as the aggregation and sampling scales increase, the chaotic behavior deteriorates and eventually ceases to show evidence of low dimensional determinism.

  7. Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.


    Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher

  8. RWater - A Novel Cyber-enabled Data-driven Educational Tool for Interpreting and Modeling Hydrologic Processes (United States)

    Rajib, M. A.; Merwade, V.; Zhao, L.; Song, C.


    Explaining the complex cause-and-effect relationships in hydrologic cycle can often be challenging in a classroom with the use of traditional teaching approaches. With the availability of observed rainfall, streamflow and other hydrology data on the internet, it is possible to provide the necessary tools to students to explore these relationships and enhance their learning experience. From this perspective, a new online educational tool, called RWater, is developed using Purdue University's HUBzero technology. RWater's unique features include: (i) its accessibility including the R software from any java supported web browser; (ii) no installation of any software on user's computer; (iii) all the work and resulting data are stored in user's working directory on RWater server; and (iv) no prior programming experience with R software is necessary. In its current version, RWater can dynamically extract streamflow data from any USGS gaging station without any need for post-processing for use in the educational modules. By following data-driven modules, students can write small scripts in R and thereby create visualizations to identify the effect of rainfall distribution and watershed characteristics on runoff generation, investigate the impacts of landuse and climate change on streamflow, and explore the changes in extreme hydrologic events in actual locations. Each module contains relevant definitions, instructions on data extraction and coding, as well as conceptual questions based on the possible analyses which the students would perform. In order to assess its suitability in classroom implementation, and to evaluate users' perception over its utility, the current version of RWater has been tested with three different groups: (i) high school students, (ii) middle and high school teachers; and (iii) upper undergraduate/graduate students. The survey results from these trials suggest that the RWater has potential to improve students' understanding on various

  9. Hydrologic Source Term Processes and Models for the Clearwater and Wineskin Tests, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Steven F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report describes the development, processes, and results of a hydrologic source term (HST) model for the CLEARWATER (U12q) and WINESKIN (U12r) tests located on Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada (Figure 1.1). Of the 61 underground tests (involving 62 unique detonations) conducted on Rainier Mesa (Area 12) between 1957 and 1992 (USDOE, 2015), the CLEARWATER and WINESKIN tests present many unique features that warrant a separate HST modeling effort from other Rainier Mesa tests.

  10. GRACE Hydrological estimates for small basins: Evaluating processing approaches on the High Plains Aquifer, USA (United States)

    Longuevergne, Laurent; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Wilson, Clark R.


    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide observations of water storage variation at regional scales. However, when focusing on a region of interest, limited spatial resolution and noise contamination can cause estimation bias and spatial leakage, problems that are exacerbated as the region of interest approaches the GRACE resolution limit of a few hundred km. Reliable estimates of water storage variations in small basins require compromises between competing needs for noise suppression and spatial resolution. The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate processing methods and their impacts on bias, leakage, GRACE noise reduction, and estimated total error, allowing solution of the trade-offs. Among the methods tested is a recently developed concentration algorithm called spatiospectral localization, which optimizes the basin shape description, taking into account limited spatial resolution. This method is particularly suited to retrieval of basin-scale water storage variations and is effective for small basins. To increase confidence in derived methods, water storage variations were calculated for both CSR (Center for Space Research) and GRGS (Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale) GRACE products, which employ different processing strategies. The processing techniques were tested on the intensively monitored High Plains Aquifer (450,000 km2 area), where application of the appropriate optimal processing method allowed retrieval of water storage variations over a portion of the aquifer as small as ˜200,000 km2.

  11. Hydrological modeling in semi-arid region using HEC-HMS model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to simulate rainfall-runoff in the semi-arid region of ... the frequency storm is used for the meteorological model, the SCS curve number is ... SCS unit hydrograph method have been applied to simulate the runoff rate.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rodriguez-Pineda; P. Goodell; P. Dobson; J. Walton; R. Olver; R. de la Garza; S. Harder


    The objectives of this report are: (1) Determine the main source of the groundwater (GW) found within the DOE wells (PB-1, PB-2, and PB-3); and (2) Determine whether the Nopal I GW has any relationship to the connectivity between the regional Encinillas Aquifer to the west and the El Cuervo Aquifer to the east.

  13. Modeling the effect of urban infrastructure on hydrologic processes within i-Tree Hydro, a statistically and spatially distributed model (United States)

    Taggart, T. P.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.


    Gray and green infrastructure in urban environments alters many natural hydrologic processes, creating an urban water balance unique to the developed environment. A common way to assess the consequences of impervious cover and grey infrastructure is by measuring runoff hydrographs. This focus on the watershed outlet masks the spatial variation of hydrologic process alterations across the urban environment in response to localized landscape characteristics. We attempt to represent this spatial variation in the urban environment using the statistically and spatially distributed i-Tree Hydro model, a scoping level urban forest effects water balance model. i-Tree Hydro has undergone expansion and modification to include the effect of green infrastructure processes, road network attributes, and urban pipe system leakages. These additions to the model are intended to increase the understanding of the altered urban hydrologic cycle by examining the effects of the location of these structures on the water balance. Specifically, the effect of these additional structures and functions on the spatially varying properties of interception, soil moisture and runoff generation. Differences in predicted properties and optimized parameter sets between the two models are examined and related to the recent landscape modifications. Datasets used in this study consist of watersheds and sewersheds within the Syracuse, NY metropolitan area, an urban area that has integrated green and gray infrastructure practices to alleviate stormwater problems.

  14. Results from an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Rutqvist; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q.S. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C.Y. Zhang


    As part of the ongoing international code comparison project DECOVALEX, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near underground waste emplacement drifts. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types with open or back-filled repository drifts under higher and lower post-closure temperature, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses are currently being resolved. Good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even with some teams using relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglect complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified (and well-known) process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level. The research teams have now moved on to the second phase of the project, the analysis of THM-induced permanent (irreversible) changes and the impact of those changes on the fluid flow field near an emplacement drift

  15. Results From an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang


    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  16. Hydrological performance assessment on siting the high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Wang Zhiming; Su Rui; Lv Chuanhe; Zong Zihua


    Based on the research experiences in China and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for the siting of high radioactive repository are discussed in this paper. The methods and contents of hydrological performance assessment are discussed respectively for region, area and site hydrological investigation stages. At the same time, the hydrological performance assessment of the potential site for high level radioactive waste in China is introduced. (authors)

  17. Embedding complex hydrology in the climate system - towards fully coupled climate-hydrology models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, M.; Rasmussen, S.H.; Ridler, M.


    Motivated by the need to develop better tools to understand the impact of future management and climate change on water resources, we present a set of studies with the overall aim of developing a fully dynamic coupling between a comprehensive hydrological model, MIKE SHE, and a regional climate...... distributed parameters using satellite remote sensing. Secondly, field data are used to investigate the effects of model resolution and parameter scales for use in a coupled model. Finally, the development of the fully coupled climate-hydrology model is described and some of the challenges associated...... with coupling models for hydrological processes on sub-grid scales of the regional climate model are presented....

  18. netherland hydrological modeling instrument (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.


    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  19. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.


    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models

  20. Study on uncertainty evaluation methodology related to hydrological parameter of regional groundwater flow analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Ohoka, Masao; Kameya, Hiroshi


    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is important to develop a methodology for long-term estimation of regional groundwater flow from data acquisition to numerical analyses. In the uncertainties associated with estimation of regional groundwater flow, there are the one that concerns parameters and the one that concerns the hydrologeological evolution. The uncertainties of parameters include measurement errors and their heterogeneity. The authors discussed the uncertainties of hydraulic conductivity as a significant parameter for regional groundwater flow analysis. This study suggests that hydraulic conductivities of rock mass are controlled by rock characteristics such as fractures, porosity and test conditions such as hydraulic gradient, water quality, water temperature and that there exists variations more than ten times in hydraulic conductivity by difference due to test conditions such as hydraulic gradient or due to rock type variations such as rock fractures, porosity. In addition this study demonstrated that confining pressure change caused by uplift and subsidence and change of hydraulic gradient under the long-term evolution of hydrogeological environment could possibly produce variations more than ten times of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity. It was also shown that the effect of water quality change on hydraulic conductivity was not negligible and that the replacement of fresh water and saline water caused by sea level change could induce 0.6 times in current hydraulic conductivities in case of Horonobe site. (author)

  1. Regional Climate Simulations of the Hydrological Cycle in the Iberian Peninsula with a Coupled WRF-HYDRO Model (United States)

    Rios-Entenza, A.; Miguez-Macho, G.


    Land-atmosphere water exchanges and heat fluxes play an important role in climate and particularly in controlling precipitation in water-limited regions. One of such regions is the Iberian Peninsula, and in this study we examine the relevance of water recycling in convective precipitation regimes of the Fall and Spring there, when rainfall is critical for agriculture and many other human activities. We conducted simulations with WRF-ARW model at 5 km horizontal resolution, using a 1500 km x 1500 km nested grid that covers the Iberian Peninsula, with a parent domain that uses spectral nudging in order to avoid the distortion of the large-scale circulation caused by the interaction of the modeled flow with the lateral boundaries of the nested grid. For land-surface interactions we coupled WRF with the LEAF-HYDRO land surface model, which includes water table dynamics. We use therefore a tool that simulates the entire water cycle, including the water table, which has been reported to be critical for soil moisture dynamics in semi-arid regions like the Iberian Peninsula. For each one of the events that we selected, we performed two simulations: a control one, where all land-atmosphere feedbacks are taken into account, and the experiment, where infiltration of the precipitated water into the soil was suppressed. In this manner we explore the role of upward latent and sensible heat fluxes and evapotranspiration in precipitation dynamics. Preliminary results suggest that water recycling is a key factor in extending convective precipitation during several days, and that the total new water added in the area as a whole is only a fraction of the total measured rainfall. An estimation of this fraction is very important to better understanding the water budget and for hydrological planning in this water-stressed region.

  2. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data (United States)

    Otto, M.; Scherer, D.; Richters, J.


    High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA) belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV) indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 12 800 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi-temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII) data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000) and at the end of austral summer (May 2001). The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6 %). Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Analyses on the relation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43) and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2) from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies on precipitation conditions. A strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82) in dry austral winter months (June to August) and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75) during austral summer (March to May). Annual changes in spatial extend of perennial HAWA

  3. Hydrological response to land cover changes and human activities in arid regions using a geographic information system and remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereif H Mahmoud

    Full Text Available The hydrological response to land cover changes induced by human activities in arid regions has attracted increased research interest in recent decades. The study reported herein assessed the spatial and quantitative changes in surface runoff resulting from land cover change in the Al-Baha region of Saudi Arabia between 1990 and 2000 using an ArcGIS-surface runoff model and predicted land cover and surface runoff depth in 2030 using Markov chain analysis. Land cover maps for 1990 and 2000 were derived from satellite images using ArcGIS 10.1. The findings reveal a 26% decrease in forest and shrubland area, 28% increase in irrigated cropland, 1.5% increase in sparsely vegetated land and 0.5% increase in bare soil between 1990 and 2000. Overall, land cover changes resulted in a significant decrease in runoff depth values in most of the region. The decrease in surface runoff depth ranged from 25-106 mm/year in a 7020-km2 area, whereas the increase in such depth reached only 10 mm/year in a 243-km2 area. A maximum increase of 73 mm/year was seen in a limited area. The surface runoff depth decreased to the greatest extent in the central region of the study area due to the huge transition in land cover classes associated with the construction of 25 rainwater harvesting dams. The land cover prediction revealed a greater than twofold increase in irrigated cropland during the 2000-2030 period, whereas forest and shrubland are anticipated to occupy just 225 km2 of land area by 2030, a significant decrease from the 747 km2 they occupied in 2000. Overall, changes in land cover are predicted to result in an annual increase in irrigated cropland and dramatic decline in forest area in the study area over the next few decades. The increase in surface runoff depth is likely to have significant implications for irrigation activities.

  4. Anthropogenic hydrological cycle disturbance at a regional scale: State-wide evapotranspiration trends (1979-2015) across Nebraska, USA (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef


    Trends in monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates across Nebraska, the most intensely irrigated state within the US, were calculated by the calibration-free version of the nonlinear complementary relationship of evaporation over the 1979-2015 period utilizing North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) net radiation, 10-m wind velocity, as well as Parameter Regression Independent Slope Model (PRISM) air- and dew-point temperature data. State-averaged modeled ET rates rose by 5.5 mm decade-1 due to the presence of wide-spread large-scale irrigation projects in accordance with a 2.4 mm decade-1 increase in PRISM precipitation (P) and a simultaneous -2.8 mm decade-1 drop in United States Geological Survey's state-averaged annual streamflow rates, raising the state-wide ET to P ratio from 0.89 to 0.91 over the modeled time-period. ET rates over irrigated crops increased by 7 mm decade-1 despite a -4.4 mm decade-1 drop in precipitation rates. A similar increase in ET rates (6 mm decade-1) required 8.1 mm decade-1 increase in precipitation rates across the non-irrigated Sand Hills of Nebraska. Published NARR ET rates are unable to pick up this unusual regional trend. Since an increase in precipitation rates should normally decrease the ET ratio, as predicted by the Budyko curve, this study yields evidence on how dramatically sustained large-scale irrigation can alter the regional hydrologic cycle not only through a) trivially depleting streamflow rates and/or lowering groundwater table levels; b) suppressing precipitation locally (while enhancing it a long distance downwind), but also; c) reversing the trajectory of the regional ET ratio under generally increasing trends of precipitation.

  5. An Analysis of Land Use Change Dynamics and Its Impacts on Hydrological Processes in the Jialing River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang


    Full Text Available Land use changes are important aspects of global change and affect regional water cycles, environmental quality, biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystems. To understand the temporal and spatial land use change in the Jialing River Basin and its impacts on the hydrological cycle, land use change models and the variable infiltration capacity (VIC model were applied separately to the Jialing River Basin. Real change and final change were analyzed to determine the consequences of land use changes and their hydrological consequences. Real change is defined as the total variation during a fixed period, including increases and decreases. Thus, real change is the sum of the absolute values of the decrease and the increase. Final change is defined as the difference between the beginning and end of a given period for a specific factor. Overall, the amounts of settlement and shrub land area changed significantly in the entire Jialing River (with final change rates of 20.77% and −16.07%, respectively, and real change rates of 34.2% and 30.1%, respectively, from 1985 to 1995, as well as final and real change rates of 29.37%, 12.40%, 39.9% and 32.8%, respectively, from 1995 to 2000. Compared with the final change, the real change highlighted the rate of change and the change in woodland area. The land use changes in the Lueyang (LY, Shehong (SH and Fengtan (FT subcatchments were more dynamic than in the other subcatchments. The economy, population and macro-policy were the main factors responsible for driving the land use changes. The decrease in woodland area in the LY subcatchment corresponded with an increase in evapotranspiration (ET and with decreases in the other hydrological elements. Overall, the final changes in the hydrological elements in the LY, SH and FT subcatchments were not significant due to the average and compensation effects. The LY subcatchment was mainly affected by the average effect, whereas the SH and FT subcatchments were affected

  6. Hydrological processes in the subsurface investigated by water isotopes and silica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šanda, M.; Kulasová, Alena; Císlerová, M.


    Roč. 4, Sp. is. 2 (2009), S83-S92 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : rainfall to runoff response * isotopes * geochemical tracers * streamflow generation * subsurface stormflow * groundwater recharge Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  7. Hydrological processes and model representation: impact of soft data on calibration (United States)

    J.G. Arnold; M.A. Youssef; H. Yen; M.J. White; A.Y. Sheshukov; A.M. Sadeghi; D.N. Moriasi; J.L. Steiner; Devendra Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; E.B. Haney; J. Jeong; M. Arabi; P.H. Gowda


    Hydrologic and water quality models are increasingly used to determine the environmental impacts of climate variability and land management. Due to differing model objectives and differences in monitored data, there are currently no universally accepted procedures for model calibration and validation in the literature. In an effort to develop accepted model calibration...

  8. Multiple effects of hydrological connectivity on floodplain processes in human modified river systems (United States)

    Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Preiner, Stefan; Reckendorfer, Walter; Tritthart, Michael; Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Welti, Nina


    Floodplain and riparian ecosystems provide multiple functions and services of importance for human well-being and are of strategic importance for different sectors at catchment scale. Especially floodplains in the vicinity of urban areas can be areas of conflicting interests ranging from different land use types, flood water retention, drinking water production and recreation to conservation of last remnants of former riverine landscape, as it is the case in floodplains in the Danube Nationalpark downstream Vienna. Many of these ecosystem functions and services are controlled by the exchange conditions between river main channel and floodplain systems, the hydrological connectivity. At the same time these systems have been highly altered and especially the connectivity has been severely impaired. Thus, far ranging effects of changes in hydrological connectivity at various levels can be expected in altered floodplain systems. The aim of this presentation is to explore the complex control of different ecosystem functions and associated services by different parameters of hydrological connectivity, ranging from nutrient, sediment and matter dynamics and biodiversity aspects. Increasing connectivity will be shown to impact microbial dynamics, sediment-water interactions, carbon dynamics and trophic conditions, thus affecting the fundamental functions of particular floodplain systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Based on these changes also the provision of ecosystem services of floodplains is affected. The results clearly show that hydrological connectivity needs to be considered in a sustainable management approach.

  9. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose


    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers...

  10. An integrated modeling framework of socio-economic, biophysical, and hydrological processes in Midwest landscapes: Remote sensing data, agro-hydrological model, and agent-based model (United States)

    Ding, Deng

    Intensive human-environment interactions are taking place in Midwestern agricultural systems. An integrated modeling framework is suitable for predicting dynamics of key variables of the socio-economic, biophysical, hydrological processes as well as exploring the potential transitions of system states in response to changes of the driving factors. The purpose of this dissertation is to address issues concerning the interacting processes and consequent changes in land use, water balance, and water quality using an integrated modeling framework. This dissertation is composed of three studies in the same agricultural watershed, the Clear Creek watershed in East-Central Iowa. In the first study, a parsimonious hydrologic model, the Threshold-Exceedance-Lagrangian Model (TELM), is further developed into RS-TELM (Remote Sensing TELM) to integrate remote sensing vegetation data for estimating evapotranspiration. The goodness of fit of RS-TELM is comparable to a well-calibrated SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and even slightly superior in capturing intra-seasonal variability of stream flow. The integration of RS LAI (Leaf Area Index) data improves the model's performance especially over the agriculture dominated landscapes. The input of rainfall datasets with spatially explicit information plays a critical role in increasing the model's goodness of fit. In the second study, an agent-based model is developed to simulate farmers' decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. The comparison between simulated crop land percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields (yield drag). The simulation results given alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed show that, farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form

  11. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris


    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant

  12. Drought on the North American High Plains: Modeling Effects of Vegetation, Temperature, and Rainfall Perturbations on Regional Hydrology (United States)

    Hein, A. E.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.


    Large scale droughts can disrupt the water supply for agriculture, municipalities and industrial use worldwide. For example, the Dustbowl drought of the 1930s severely damaged agriculture on the North American High Plains. The Dustbowl is generally attributed to three major factors: increased temperature, decreased precipitation, and a change from native grasses that might have tolerated these climate perturbations to dryland wheat farming, which did not. This study explores the individual importance of each of these factors and the feedbacks between them. Previous modeling studies have explored how the High Plains system responds to changes in precipitation or temperature, but these models often depend on simplified or lumped parameter approaches. These approaches may not fully represent all the relevant physical processes, especially those related to energy balance changes due to increased temperature. For this study, we built a high-resolution model of the High Plains using ParFlow-CLM, an integrated hydrologic model that solves both energy and water balances from the subsurface to the top of vegetation. Model inputs including geology and climate forcing, together with representative precipitation and temperature changes for a major drought were assembled from public data. Numerical experiments were run to perturb vegetation, precipitation and temperature separately, as well as a baseline scenario with no changes and a worst-case scenario with all three simultaneously. The impact of each factor on High Plains hydrology and water resources was examined by comparing soil moisture, stream flow and water table levels between the runs. The one-factor experiments were used to show which of these outputs was the most sensitive and responded most quickly to each change. The worst-case scenario revealed interactions between the three factors.

  13. Long-term monitoring of UK river basins: the disconnections between the timescales of hydrological processes and watershed management planning (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.


    The UK has a wealth of hydrological monitoring data that has both good coverage in space since the early 1970s, and also a few locations where records have been kept continuously for almost 150 years. Such datasets offer unique opportunities for the hydrologist to consider how the concepts of stationarity, change, and definitions of "baseline" resources should be used to shape how we build models of these systems, and how we devise appropriate and sustainable watershed management strategies. In this paper we consider some of the UK's longest hydrological and biogeochemical records, to explore how long records can be used to shape such understanding and, in some cases, how they can be used to identify new modes of behaviour that need to be incorporated into management planning, from the scale of individual watersheds right up to the national scale. We also consider how key timescales of hydrological responses that are evident within the data may pose major problems for watershed management unless appropriate attention is paid to the potential impacts of processes that work over decadal timescales - much longer than sub-decadal water industry investment cycles or short-term projects for watershed management planning. We use our long-term records to show how key processes can be identified, and to illustrate how careful interpretation of shorter term records will improve decision-making for water resource management.

  14. Isotopic hydrology and the ground water of the Esmeralda-Pica-Matilla region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, O.; Aravena, R.


    Groundwater form Esmeralda-Pica-Matilla region was analysed using environmental isotopes. Difference in the origin of groundwater from adjacent areas of Canchones and Esmeralda was found. This implies that an increase of the groundwater extraction at Esmeralda will not affect the pumping station of Canchones. At Pica-Matilla two different groundwater bodies were characterized, one seems to be connected with the Quisma creek and the other, related to the springs at Pica with the precipitation between the Huasco and Coposa salars. (Author)

  15. An analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs in a semi-arid region (United States)

    Annor, Frank; van de Giesen, Nick; Bogaard, Thom; Eilander, Dirk


    small reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Reservoirs without obvious large seepage losses (field survey) were selected. To verify this, stable water isotopic samples are collected from groundwater upstream and downstream from the reservoir. By looking at possible enrichment of downstream groundwater, a good estimate of seepage can be made in addition to estimates on evaporation. We estimated the evaporative losses and compared those with field measurements using eddy correlation measurements. Lastly, we determined the cumulative surface runoff curves for the small reservoirs .We will present this analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs and show the first results for our study region of northern Ghana.

  16. Human effects on the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, central Arizona, 1910–2005 and 2005–2110, using a regional groundwater flow model (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Pool, D.R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Forbes, Brandon T.


    Water budgets were developed for the Verde Valley of central Arizona in order to evaluate the degree to which human stresses have affected the hydrologic system and might affect it in the future. The Verde Valley is a portion of central Arizona wherein concerns have been raised about water availability, particularly perennial base flow of the Verde River. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater Flow Model (NARGFM) was used to generate the water budgets and was run in several configurations for the 1910–2005 and 2005–2110 time periods. The resultant water budgets were subtracted from one another in order to quantify the relative changes that were attributable solely to human stresses; human stresses included groundwater withdrawals and incidental and artificial recharge but did not include, for example, human effects on the global climate. Three hypothetical and varied conditions of human stresses were developed and applied to the model for the 2005–2110 period. On the basis of this analysis, human stresses during 1910–2005 were found to have already affected the hydrologic system of the Verde Valley, and human stresses will continue to affect the hydrologic system during 2005–2110. Riparian evapotranspiration decreased and underflow into the Verde Valley increased because of human stresses, and net groundwater discharge to the Verde River in the Verde Valley decreased for the 1910–2005 model runs. The model also showed that base flow at the upstream end of the study area, as of 2005, was about 4,900 acre-feet per year less than it would have been in the absence of human stresses. At the downstream end of the Verde Valley, base flow had been reduced by about 10,000 acre-feet per year by the year 2005 because of human stresses. For the 2005–2110 period, the model showed that base flow at the downstream end of the Verde Valley may decrease by an additional 5,400 to 8,600 acre-feet per year because of past, ongoing, and hypothetical future human

  17. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak


    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  18. Establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using satellite data and hydrologic modelling: Application in the pastoral regions of East Africa (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Alemu, Henok; Pervez, Shahriar Md; Asante, Kwabena O; Karuki, Gatarwa; Taa, Asefa; Angerer, Jay


    Timely information on the availability of water and forage is important for the sustainable development of pastoral regions. The lack of such information increases the dependence of pastoral communities on perennial sources, which often leads to competition and conflicts. The provision of timely information is a challenging task, especially due to the scarcity or non-existence of conventional station-based hydrometeorological networks in the remote pastoral regions. A multi-source water balance modelling approach driven by satellite data was used to operationally monitor daily water level fluctuations across the pastoral regions of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data were used for mapping and estimating the surface area of the waterholes. Satellite-based rainfall, modelled run-off and evapotranspiration data were used to model daily water level fluctuations. Mapping of waterholes was achieved with 97% accuracy. Validation of modelled water levels with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture the seasonal patterns and variations. Validation results indicate that the model explained 60% of the observed variability in water levels, with an average root-mean-squared error of 22%. Up-to-date information on rainfall, evaporation, scaled water depth and condition of the waterholes is made available daily in near-real time via the Internet ( Such information can be used by non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations and other stakeholders for early warning and decision making. This study demonstrated an integrated approach for establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modelling.

  19. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology. (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker


    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  20. Developing a Three Processes Framework to Analyze Hydrologic Performance of Urban Stormwater Management in a Watershed Scale (United States)

    Lyu, H.; Ni, G.; Sun, T.


    Urban stormwater management contributes to recover water cycle to a nearly natural situation. It is a challenge for analyzing the hydrologic performance in a watershed scale, since the measures are various of sorts and scales and work in different processes. A three processes framework is developed to simplify the urban hydrologic process on the surface and evaluate the urban stormwater management. The three processes include source utilization, transfer regulation and terminal detention, by which the stormwater is controlled in order or discharged. Methods for analyzing performance are based on the water controlled proportions by each process, which are calculated using USEPA Stormwater Management Model. A case study form Beijing is used to illustrate how the performance varies under a set of designed events of different return periods. This framework provides a method to assess urban stormwater management as a whole system considering the interaction between measures, and to examine if there is any weak process of an urban watershed to be improved. The results help to make better solutions of urban water crisis.

  1. Assessment of 21st century change of climate drivers to hydrological change across the Appalachian Region (United States)

    Fernandez, R.; Zegre, N.


    Atmospheric water supply and demand largely drives the available water in the land surface. Precipitation (P) is the main supply of water to the land surface, while water demand largely depends on energy supply. Most frameworks that analyze climate change have limit their scope to changes in P and temperature as an indicator of energy. However, atmospheric water demand is not only dependent on temperature but also on variables such as solar radiation, air humidity and wind. For this study, we use the downscaled GCM outputs of (P) and calculate atmospheric water demand by aggregating solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind as potential evapotranspiration (EP) using the Penman-Monteith equation across the Appalachian Region. We investigate absolute changes in P and EP and changes in their relation or aridity index (AI=EP/P) to spatially determine places becoming wetter or drier. Moreover, we explore how their changes are distributed throughout the year, i.e. changes in the seasonality for P and widening of the intra-annual cycle of EP. The changes in seasonality can act as a further indicator of the partition of precipitation into evaporation or land surface water. Changes of precipitation that occur during summer are likely to be partitioned towards evapotranspiration whereas changes in winter are likely to be absorbed by land surface components of storage and runoff. Furthermore, widening of the intra-annual cycle of EP means that there will be water demand for a longer part of the year (earlier in spring and later in autumn). Our results show that places with lower mean annual temperature are likely to experience larger temperature changes. Regarding the AI, the Eastern Coasts of North and South Carolina, and Georgia as well as Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky are likely to get drier. The states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, and inland North and South Carolina and Alabama are likely to become wetter, with West Virginia

  2. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.


    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7800 square kilometers or about 25% of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges have been identified

  3. Flood evolution assessment and monitoring using hydrological modelling techniques: analysis of the inundation areas at a regional scale (United States)

    Podhoranyi, M.; Kuchar, S.; Portero, A.


    The primary objective of this study is to present techniques that cover usage of a hydrodynamic model as the main tool for monitoring and assessment of flood events while focusing on modelling of inundation areas. We analyzed the 2010 flood event (14th May - 20th May) that occurred in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic). Under investigation were four main catchments: Opava, Odra, Olše and Ostravice. Four hydrodynamic models were created and implemented into the Floreon+ platform in order to map inundation areas that arose during the flood event. In order to study the dynamics of the water, we applied an unsteady flow simulation for the entire area (HEC-RAS 4.1). The inundation areas were monitored, evaluated and recorded semi-automatically by means of the Floreon+ platform. We focused on information about the extent and presence of the flood areas. The modeled flooded areas were verified by comparing them with real data from different sources (official reports, aerial photos and hydrological networks). The study confirmed that hydrodynamic modeling is a very useful tool for mapping and monitoring of inundation areas. Overall, our models detected 48 inundation areas during the 2010 flood event.

  4. Hydrological processes in small catchments of mountain headwater lakes: The Tatra Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křeček, J.; Turek, Jan; Ljungren, E.; Stuchlík, E.; Šporka, F.


    Roč. 61, Suppl. 18 (2006), S1-S10 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/04/0214 Grant - others:MSM(CZ) 6840770002; EC(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505540; EC(XE) EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : alpine catchments * evapotranspiration * runoff genesis * precipitation Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.213, year: 2006

  5. Investigation of isotopes and hydrological processes in Indus river system, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor Ahmad, M; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Akram, W.; Rafique, M.


    Indus River, one of the longest rivers in the World, has five major eastern tributaries viz. Bias, Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum) while many small rivers join it from the right side among which Kabul River is the biggest with its main tributaries, the Swat, Panjkora and Kunar. All these main rivers are perennial and originate from the mountains. Basic sources of these rivers are snow melt, rainfall and under certain conditions seepage from the formations. Different water sources are labeled with different isotope signatures which are used as fingerprints for identifying source and movement of water, geochemical and/or hydrological processes, and dynamics (age of water). Monitoring of isotopes in rivers can also enhance understanding of the water cycle of large river basins and to assess impacts of environmental and climatic changes on the water cycle. Therefore, a national network of suitable stations was established for isotopic monitoring of river waters in Indus Basin with specific objectives to study temporal variations of isotopes (/sup 2/H, /sup 18/O and /sup 3/H), understand water cycles and hydrological processes in the catchments of these rivers, and to develop comprehensive database to support future isotope-based groundwater studies in the basin on recharge mechanism, water balance and monitoring of ongoing environmental changes. Water samples were collected during 2002-2006 on monthly basis from more than 20 stations at the major rivers and analyzed for /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H isotopes. Headwaters of main Indus River (Hunza, Gilgit and Kachura tributaries), which are generally snow melt, have the most depleted values of delta /sup 18/O (-14.5 to -11.0%) and delta /sup 2/H ( 106.1 to -72.6%) due to precipitation at very high altitude and very low temperatures. Generally these waters have low d-excess showing that the moisture source is from Indian Ocean. High d-excess of some winter (November-February) samples from Hunza and Gilgit indicates


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaia


    Full Text Available Summary. In current market conditions, the economy and Russia's accession to international trade scholars and experts from various fields of knowledge paying special attention to a huge set of regional problems. The growing role of regional research determines the level of establishing effective mechanisms for the implementation of the economic interests of actors as well as economic development and improving the quality of human life is the priority objectives of federal, regional and local authorities. Today, the Russian economic science faces a global goal - to develop ways and means of transformation of the Russian economy and bring it to a path of sustainable, innovative development, providing new quality of life. Achieving this goal must surely be a central task of the Russian economics and politics, as in the near future and the long term In article authors opened the maintenance of determinants of innovative development of the territory, mediated by strengthening of regionalization of management by innovative activity: condition of resource and innovative potential; the developed forms and nature of interaction between public authorities of regional level, local community and business; applied forms of integration of subjects of managing for realization of their innovative potential due to expansion of opportunities of participation in the perspective directions of scientific and technical, economic and social development; system of the incentives developing favorable conditions for introduction and development of innovative technologies, and also increases in the enterprise activity, formed by the external institutional environment; regional economic policy as instrument of increase of efficiency of innovative activity.

  7. Process-based interpretation of conceptual hydrological model performance using a multinational catchment set (United States)

    Poncelet, Carine; Merz, Ralf; Merz, Bruno; Parajka, Juraj; Oudin, Ludovic; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles


    Most of previous assessments of hydrologic model performance are fragmented, based on small number of catchments, different methods or time periods and do not link the results to landscape or climate characteristics. This study uses large-sample hydrology to identify major catchment controls on daily runoff simulations. It is based on a conceptual lumped hydrological model (GR6J), a collection of 29 catchment characteristics, a multinational set of 1103 catchments located in Austria, France, and Germany and four runoff model efficiency criteria. Two analyses are conducted to assess how features and criteria are linked: (i) a one-dimensional analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test and (ii) a multidimensional analysis based on regression trees and investigating the interplay between features. The catchment features most affecting model performance are the flashiness of precipitation and streamflow (computed as the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations by the total amount in a year), the seasonality of evaporation, the catchment area, and the catchment aridity. Nonflashy, nonseasonal, large, and nonarid catchments show the best performance for all the tested criteria. We argue that this higher performance is due to fewer nonlinear responses (higher correlation between precipitation and streamflow) and lower input and output variability for such catchments. Finally, we show that, compared to national sets, multinational sets increase results transferability because they explore a wider range of hydroclimatic conditions.

  8. Regional hydrology of the Dolores River Basin, eastern Paradox Basin, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.E. Jr.; Maxfield, E.B.; Zimmerman, E.A.


    The Dolores River Basin, is in the eastern part of the Paradox Basin and includes the eastern slope of the La Sal Mountains, the western slopes of the Rico and La Plata Mountains, and the southwest flank of the Uncompahgre Plateau. The climate of this area is more humid than most of the surrounding Colorado Plateau region. Precipitation ranges from slightly 200 mm/yr to 1000 mm/yr; the estimated volume of water falling on the area is 4000 x 10 6 cm 3 /yr. Of this total, about 600 x 10 6 cm 3 /yr is runoff; 190 x 10 6 cm 3 /yr recharges the upper ground-water system; and an estimated 55 x 10 6 cm 3 returns to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration from stream valleys. The remainder evaporates. Principal hydrogeologic units are permeable sandstone and limestone and nearly impermeable salt (halitic) deposits. Structurally, the area is dominated by northwest-trending salt anticlines and contiguous faults paralleled by synclinal structures. The Uncompahgre Plateau lies along the north and northeast sides of the area. The instrusive masses that form the La Sal Mountains are laccoliths with bysmaliths and other complex intrusive forms comprising, in gross form, moderately faulted omal structures. Intrusive rocks underlie the La Plata and Rico Mountains along the southeastern edge of the area. These geologic structures significantly modify ground-water flow patterns in the upper ground-water system, but have no conspicuous effect on the flow regime in the lower ground-water system. The water in the upper ground-water system generally is fresh except where it is affected by evaporite dissolution from salt anticlines. The water of the lower ground-water system is slightly saline to briny. Water quality of the Dolores River is slightly saline to fresh, based on dissolved chemical constituents; some of the smaller tributaries of the river have saline water

  9. Understanding Hydrological Regime Alterations Caused by dams: the Santiago River case in the Andean Region of the Amazon Basin. (United States)

    Rosero-Lopez, D.; Flecker, A.; Walter, M. T.


    Water resources in South America have been clearly targeted as key sources for hydropower expansion over the next 30 years. Ecuador, among the most biologically diverse countries in the world, has the highest density of hydropower dams, either operational, under construction, or planned, in the Amazon Basin. Ecuador's ambitious plan to change its energy portfolio is conceived to satisfy the country's demand and to empower the country to be the region's first hydroelectric energy exporter. The Santiago watershed located in the southeast part of the country has 39 facilities either under construction or in operation. The Santiago River and its main tributaries (Zamora and Upano) are expected to be impounded by large dams over the next 10 years. In order to understand the magnitude and potential impacts of regional dam development on hydrological regimes, a 35-year historical data set of stream discharge was analyzed. We examined flow regimes for time series between the construction of each dam, starting with the oldest and largest built in 1982 up until the most recent dam built in 2005. Preliminary results indicate a systematic displacement in flow seasonality following post-dam compared to pre-dam conditions. There are also notable differences in the distributions of peaks and pulses in post-dam flows. The range of changes from these results shows that punctuated and cumulative impacts are related to the size of each new impoundment. These observations and their implications to the livelihoods, biota, and ecosystems services in the Santiago watershed need to be incorporated into a broader cost-benefit analysis of hydropower generation in the western Amazon Basin.

  10. Hydrological differentiation and spatial distribution of high altitude wetlands in a semi-arid Andean region derived from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otto


    Full Text Available High Altitude Wetlands of the Andes (HAWA belong to a unique type of wetland within the semi-arid high Andean region. Knowledge about HAWA has been derived mainly from studies at single sites within different parts of the Andes at only small time scales. On the one hand, HAWA depend on water provided by glacier streams, snow melt or precipitation. On the other hand, they are suspected to influence hydrology through water retention and vegetation growth altering stream flow velocity. We derived HAWA land cover from satellite data at regional scale and analysed changes in connection with precipitation over the last decade. Perennial and temporal HAWA subtypes can be distinguished by seasonal changes of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV indicating the perennial or temporal availability of water during the year. HAWA have been delineated within a region of 12 800 km2 situated in the Northwest of Lake Titicaca. The multi-temporal classification method used Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Differenced Infrared Index (NDII data derived from two Landsat ETM+ scenes at the end of austral winter (September 2000 and at the end of austral summer (May 2001. The mapping result indicates an unexpected high abundance of HAWA covering about 800 km2 of the study region (6 %. Annual HAWA mapping was computed using NDVI 16-day composites of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Analyses on the relation between HAWA and precipitation was based on monthly precipitation data of the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM 3B43 and MODIS Eight Day Maximum Snow Extent data (MOD10A2 from 2000 to 2010. We found HAWA subtype specific dependencies on precipitation conditions. A strong relation exists between perennial HAWA and snow fall (r2: 0.82 in dry austral winter months (June to August and between temporal HAWA and precipitation (r2: 0.75 during austral summer

  11. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan]. (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan


    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  12. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller


    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  13. Processing and inversion of commercial helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data for environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J.E., Podgorski; Auken, Esben; Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence


    Helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) surveying has historically been used for mineral exploration, but over the past decade it has started to be used in environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping. Such surveying is a cost-effective means of rapidly acquiring densely......%-23%, and the artificial lineations were practically eliminated. Our processing and inversion strategy is entirely general, such that with minor system-specific modifications it could be applied to any HTEM data set, including those recorded many years ago. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists....

  14. Agro-hydrology and multi temporal high resolution remote sensing: toward an explicit spatial processes calibration (United States)

    Ferrant, S.; Gascoin, S.; Veloso, A.; Salmon-Monviola, J.; Claverie, M.; Rivalland, V.; Dedieu, G.; Demarez, V.; Ceschia, E.; Probst, J.-L.; Durand, P.; Bustillo, V.


    The recent and forthcoming availability of high resolution satellite image series offers new opportunities in agro-hydrological research and modeling. We investigated the perspective offered by improving the crop growth dynamic simulation using the distributed agro-hydrological model, Topography based Nitrogen transfer and Transformation (TNT2), using LAI map series derived from 105 Formosat-2 (F2) images during the period 2006-2010. The TNT2 model (Beaujouan et al., 2002), calibrated with discharge and in-stream nitrate fluxes for the period 1985-2001, was tested on the 2006-2010 dataset (climate, land use, agricultural practices, discharge and nitrate fluxes at the outlet). A priori agricultural practices obtained from an extensive field survey such as seeding date, crop cultivar, and fertilizer amount were used as input variables. Continuous values of LAI as a function of cumulative daily temperature were obtained at the crop field level by fitting a double logistic equation against discrete satellite-derived LAI. Model predictions of LAI dynamics with a priori input parameters showed an temporal shift with observed LAI profiles irregularly distributed in space (between field crops) and time (between years). By re-setting seeding date at the crop field level, we proposed an optimization method to minimize efficiently this temporal shift and better fit the crop growth against the spatial observations as well as crop production. This optimization of simulated LAI has a negligible impact on water budget at the catchment scale (1 mm yr-1 in average) but a noticeable impact on in-stream nitrogen fluxes (around 12%) which is of interest considering nitrate stream contamination issues and TNT2 model objectives. This study demonstrates the contribution of forthcoming high spatial and temporal resolution products of Sentinel-2 satellite mission in improving agro-hydrological modeling by constraining the spatial representation of crop productivity.

  15. Roughing in Human Replumbing of the Water Cycle: Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Capturing the Influence of Water Management in Regional Models of Hydrology and Climate (United States)

    Flores, A. N.; Kaiser, K. E.; Steimke, A.; Leonard, A.; FitzGerald, K.; Benner, S. G.; Vache, K. B.; Hillis, V.; Bolte, J.; Han, B.


    Humans exert tremendous influence on the redistribution of water in space and time. Humans have developed substantial infrastructure to provide water in adequate quantity and quality for production of food and energy, while seeking to maintain landscape processes and properties giving rise to ecosystem services on which humans rely (even when and if they are not well understood). Cyber-physical infrastructure includes dams, distributary canal networks, ditches to manage return flow, and networks of sensors to monitor environmental conditions. Social infrastructure includes legal frameworks for water rights, governance networks, and land management policies aimed at maintaining water quality. Changes in regional climate, land use and its intensity, and land cover in source areas exert pressures on this infrastructure, requiring models to characterize system-wide vulnerability and resilience. Here we present a synthesis of several ongoing and completed studies aimed at advancing our fundamental understanding of and ability to numerically model a system in which biophysical and human components cannot be separated. These studies are set within the Boise and Snake River Basin in the US Pacific Northwest and are organized around the aims of: (1) developing improved understanding and models of the ways that humans interact with each other and with biophysical processes at a range of spatiotemporal scales, and (2) using those models to predict how changes in climate and societal drivers, including in-migration and shifts in agricultural practices, will impact regional hydroclimate and associated ecosystem services. Key findings indicate differential pressures on water availability based on water rights seniority within the Lower Boise River basin under historical conditions, the potential for significantly earlier curtailment of water rights in future decades, and potential changes in agricultural practices in anticipation of future climate changes. This ongoing suite of

  16. Hydrologic Conditions that Influence Streamflow Losses in a Karst Region of the Upper Peace River, Polk County, Florida (United States)

    Metz, P.A.; Lewelling, B.R.


    The upper Peace River from Bartow to Fort Meade, Florida, is described as a groundwater recharge area, reflecting a reversal from historical groundwater discharge patterns that existed prior to the 1950s. The upper Peace River channel and floodplain are characterized by extensive karst development, with numerous fractures, crevasses, and sinks that have been eroded in the near-surface and underlying carbonate bedrock. With the reversal in groundwater head gradients, river water is lost to the underlying groundwater system through these karst features. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hydrologic conditions that influence streamflow losses in the karst region of the upper Peace River. The upper Peace River is located in a basin that has been altered substantially by phosphate mining and increases in groundwater use. These alterations have changed groundwater flow patterns and caused streamflow declines through time. Hydrologic factors that have had the greatest influence on streamflow declines in the upper Peace River include the lowering of the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer beneath the riverbed elevation due to below-average rainfall (droughts), increases in groundwater use, and the presence of numerous karst features in the low-water channel and floodplain that enhance the loss of streamflow. Seepage runs conducted along the upper Peace River, from Bartow to Fort Meade, indicate that the greatest streamflow losses occurred along an approximate 2-mile section of the river beginning about 1 mile south of the Peace River at Bartow gaging station. Along the low-water and floodplain channel of this 2-mile section, there are about 10 prominent karst features that influence streamflow losses. Losses from the individual karst features ranged from 0.22 to 16 cubic feet per second based on measurements made between 2002 and 2007. The largest measured flow loss for all the karst features was about 50 cubic

  17. Contribution of lateral terrestrial water flows to the regional hydrological cycle: A joint soil-atmospheric moisture tagging procedure with WRF-Hydro (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Wei, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wagner, Sven; Kunstmann, Harald


    Water resources management requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior of the regional hydrological cycle components, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge and soil water storage. Atmospheric models such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provide a tool to evaluate these components. The main drawback of these atmospheric models, however, is that the terrestrial segment of the hydrological cycle is reduced to vertical infiltration, and that lateral terrestrial water flows are neglected. Recent model developments have focused on coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling systems, such as WRF-hydro, in order to take into account subsurface, overland and river flow. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of lateral terrestrial water flows to the regional hydrological cycle, with the help of a joint soil-atmospheric moisture tagging procedure. This procedure is the extended version of an existing atmospheric moisture tagging method developed in WRF and WRF-Hydro (Arnault et al. 2017). It is used to quantify the partitioning of precipitation into water stored in the soil, runoff, evapotranspiration, and potentially subsequent precipitation through regional recycling. An application to a high precipitation event on 23 June 2009 in the upper Danube river basin, Germany and Austria, is presented. Precipitating water during this day is tagged for the period 2009-2011. Its contribution to runoff and evapotranspiration decreases with time, but is still not negligible in the summer 2011. At the end of the study period, less than 5 % of the precipitating water on 23 June 2009 remains in the soil. The additionally resolved lateral terrestrial water flows in WRF-Hydro modify the partitioning between surface and underground runoff, in association with a slight increase of evapotranspiration and recycled precipitation. Reference: Arnault, J., R. Knoche, J. Wei, and H. Kunstmann (2016), Evaporation tagging and atmospheric

  18. Scenarios of Earth system change in western Canada: Conceptual understanding and process insights from the Changing Cold Regions Network (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Baltzer, J. L.; Pietroniro, A.; Marsh, P.; Carey, S.; Howard, A.; Barr, A.; Elshamy, M.


    The interior of western Canada has been experiencing rapid, widespread, and severe hydroclimatic change in recent decades, and this is projected to continue in the future. To better assess future hydrological, cryospheric and ecological states and fluxes under future climates, a regional hydroclimate project was formed under the auspices of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) project of the World Climate Research Programme; the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; aims to understand, diagnose, and predict interactions among the changing Earth system components at multiple spatial scales over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River basins of western Canada. A particular challenge is in applying land surface and hydrological models under future climates, as system changes and cold regions process interactions are not often straightforward, and model structures and parameterizations based on historical observations and understanding of contemporary system functioning may not adequately capture these complexities. To address this and provide guidance and direction to the modelling community, CCRN has drawn insights from a multi-disciplinary perspective on the process controls and system trajectories to develop a set of feasible scenarios of change for the 21st century across the region. This presentation will describe CCRN's efforts towards formalizing these insights and applying them in a large-scale modelling context. This will address what are seen as the most critical processes and key drivers affecting hydrological, cryospheric and ecological change, how these will most likely evolve in the coming decades, and how these are parameterized and incorporated as future scenarios for terrestrial ecology, hydrological functioning, permafrost state, glaciers, agriculture, and water management.

  19. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for large block testing of coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan.


    This document contains the technical basis and programmatic requirements for a scientific investigation plan that governs tests on a large block of tuff for understanding the coupled thermal- mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes. This study is part of the field testing described in Section of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain Project. The first, and most important objective is to understand the coupled TMHC processes in order to develop models that will predict the performance of a nuclear waste repository. The block and fracture properties (including hydrology and geochemistry) can be well characterized from at least five exposed surfaces, and the block can be dismantled for post-test examinations. The second objective is to provide preliminary data for development of models that will predict the quality and quantity of water in the near-field environment of a repository over the current 10,000 year regulatory period of radioactive decay. The third objective is to develop and evaluate the various measurement systems and techniques that will later be employed in the Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT)

  20. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  1. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  2. Restoration of Hydrodynamic and Hydrologic Processes in the Chinook River Estuary, Washington ? Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Kristanovich, Felix C.


    A hydrodynamic and hydrologic modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of restoring natural estuarine functions and tidal marine wetlands habitat in the Chinook River estuary, located near the mouth of the Columbia River in Washington. The reduction in salmonid populations is attributable primarily to the construction of a Highway 101 overpass across the mouth of the Chinook River in the early 1920s with a tide gate under the overpass. This construction, which was designed to eliminate tidal action in the estuary, has impeded the upstream passage of salmonids. The goal of the Chinook River Restoration Project is to restore tidal functions through the estuary, by removing the tide gate at the mouth of the river, filling drainage ditches, restoring tidal swales, and reforesting riparian areas. The hydrologic model (HEC-HMS) was used to compute Chinook River and tributary inflows for use as input to the hydrodynamic model at the project area boundary. The hydrodynamic model (RMA-10) was used to generate information on water levels, velocities, salinity, and inundation during both normal tides and 100-year storm conditions under existing conditions and under the restoration alternatives. The RMA-10 model was extended well upstream of the normal tidal flats into the watershed domain to correctly simulate flooding and drainage with tidal effects included, using the wetting and drying schemes. The major conclusion of the hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling study was that restoration of the tidal functions in the Chinook River estuary would be feasible through opening or removal of the tide gate. Implementation of the preferred alternative (removal of the tide gate, restoration of the channel under Hwy 101 to a 200-foot width, and construction of an internal levee inside the project area) would provide the required restorations benefits (inundation, habitat, velocities, and salinity penetration, etc.) and meet flood protection requirements. The

  3. A distributed water level network in ephemeral river reaches to identify hydrological processes within anthropogenic catchments (United States)

    Sarrazin, B.; Braud, I.; Lagouy, M.; Bailly, J. S.; Puech, C.; Ayroles, H.


    In order to study the impact of land use change on the water cycle, distributed hydrological models are more and more used, because they have the ability to take into account the land surface heterogeneity and its evolution due to anthropogenic pressure. These models provide continuous distributed simulations of streamflow, runoff, soil moisture, etc, which, ideally, should be evaluated against continuous distributed measurements, taken at various scales and located in nested sub-catchments. Distributed network of streamflow gauging stations are in general scarce and very expensive to maintain. Furthermore, they can hardly be installed in the upstream parts of the catchments where river beds are not well defined. In this paper, we present an alternative to these standard streamflow gauging stations network, based on self powered high resolution water level sensors using a capacitive water height data logger. One of their advantages is that they can be installed even in ephemeral reaches and from channel head locations to high order streams. Furthermore, these innovative and easily adaptable low cost sensors offer the possibility to develop in the near future, a wireless network application. Such a network, including 15 sensors has been set up on nested watersheds in small and intermittent streams of a 7 km² catchment, located in the mountainous "Mont du Lyonnais" area, close to the city of Lyon, France. The land use of this catchment is mostly pasture, crop and forest, but the catchment is significantly affected by human activities, through the existence of a dense roads and paths network and urbanized areas. The equipment provides water levels survey during precipitation events in the hydrological network with a very accurate time step (2 min). Water levels can be related to runoff production and catchment response as a function of scale. This response will depend, amongst other, on variable soil water storage capacity, physiographic data and characteristics of

  4. The Integration of Climate Science and Collaborative Processes in Building Regional Climate Resiliency in Southeast Florida (United States)

    Jurado, J.


    Southeast Florida is widely recognized as one of the most vulnerable regions in the United States to the impacts of climate change, especially sea level rise. Dense urban populations, low land elevations, flat topography, complex shorelines and a porous geology all contribute to the region's challenges. Regional and local governments have been working collaboratively to address shared climate mitigation and adaptation concerns as part of the four-county Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact (Compact). This partnership has emphasized, in part, the use of climate data and the development of advanced technical tools and visualizations to help inform decision-making, improve communications, and guide investments. Prominent work products have included regional vulnerability maps and assessments, a unified sea level rise projection for southeast Florida, the development and application of hydrologic models in scenario planning, interdisciplinary resilient redesign planning workshops, and the development of regional climate indicators. Key to the Compact's efforts has been the engagement and expertise of academic and agency partners, including a formal collaboration between the Florida Climate Institute and the Compact to improve research and project collaborations focused on southeast Florida. This presentation will focus on the collaborative processes and work products that have served to accelerate resiliency planning and investments in southeast Florida, with specific examples of how local governments are using these work products to modernize agency processes, and build support among residents and business leaders.

  5. Eco-hydrological process simulations within an integrated surface water-groundwater model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Michael; Loinaz, Maria Christina; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter


    Integrated water resources management requires tools that can quantify changes in groundwater, surface water, water quality and ecosystem health, as a result of changes in catchment management. To address these requirements we have developed an integrated eco-hydrological modelling framework...... that allows hydrologists and ecologists to represent the complex and dynamic interactions occurring between surface water, ground water, water quality and freshwater ecosystems within a catchment. We demonstrate here the practical application of this tool to two case studies where the interaction of surface...... water and ground water are important for the ecosystem. In the first, simulations are performed to understand the importance of surface water-groundwater interactions for a restored riparian wetland on the Odense River in Denmark as part of a larger investigation of water quality and nitrate retention...

  6. A Hydrologic-geophysical Method for Characterizing Flow and Transport Processes Within The Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumbaugh, David; LaBrecque, Douglas; Brainard, James; Yeh, T.C.-Jim


    The primary purpose of this project was to employ two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar, to image a controlled infiltration of a saline tracer under unsaturated flow conditions. The geophysical techniques have been correlated to other more traditional hydrologic measurements including neutron moisture measurements and induction conductivity logs. Images that resulted during two successive infiltrations indicate the development of what appear to be preferential pathways through the finer grained materials, although the results could also be produced by cationic capture of free ions in clays. In addition the site as well as the developing solute plume exhibits electrical anisotropy which is likely related to flow properties. However the geologic significance of this phenomenon is still under investigation

  7. A Hydrologic-geophysical Method for Characterizing Flow and Transport Processes Within The Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Alumbaugh; Douglas LaBrecque; James Brainard; T.C. (Jim) Yeh


    The primary purpose of this project was to employ two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar, to image a controlled infiltration of a saline tracer under unsaturated flow conditions. The geophysical techniques have been correlated to other more traditional hydrologic measurements including neutron moisture measurements and induction conductivity logs. Images that resulted during two successive infiltrations indicate the development of what appear to be preferential pathways through the finer grained materials, although the results could also be produced by cationic capture of free ions in clays. In addition the site as well as the developing solute plume exhibits electrical anisotropy which is likely related to flow properties. However the geologic significance of this phenomenon is still under investigation.

  8. Northern hydrology and water resources in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D.L.


    The role that climatic change may play in altering various components of the hydrologic cycle in Arctic regions is discussed. The hydrologic setting of these regions is first described, noting the importance of subsurface freezing and thawing on hydrologic pathways and the lack of incorporation of soil freezing and thawing into climate models. Major processes of interest in the relation between climate change and hydrology are the timing and magnitude of fluxes entering and leaving a basin: precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, and runoff. The active layer of the soil could be drastically increased by only a few degrees of surface warming. The natural hydrologic cycle has considerable yearly variation, tending to mask any hydrologic changes caused by climatic change. There are too many unknowns at present for an adequate prediction of the impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle. The biggest uncertainty is how the timing and quantity of precipitation is going to change. This quantity could be altered by any major changes in vegetation, which would be closely related to the amount of warming. In hydrologic scenarios where air temperature rises 4 degree C over 50 y, under stable, high, and low precipitation conditions, there are no significant changes in hydrologic response. 24 refs., 6 figs

  9. Watershed-scale impacts of stormwater green infrastructure on hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and combined sewer overflows in the mid-Atlantic region. (United States)

    Pennino, Michael J; McDonald, Rob I; Jaffe, Peter R


    Stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including rain gardens, detention ponds, bioswales, and green roofs, is being implemented in cities across the globe to reduce flooding, combined sewer overflows, and pollutant transport to streams and rivers. Despite the increasing use of urban SGI, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Washington, DC, Montgomery County, MD, and Baltimore County, MD, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The cumulative impact of SGI was evaluated over space and time by comparing watersheds with and without SGI, and by assessing how long-term changes in SGI impact hydrologic and water quality metrics over time. Most Mid-Atlantic municipalities have a goal of achieving 10-20% of the landscape drain runoff through SGI by 2030. Of these areas, Washington, DC currently has the greatest amount of SGI (12.7% of the landscape drained through SGI), while Baltimore County has the lowest (7.9%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI have less flashy hydrology, with 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3(-) and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in phosphorus exports or combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. When comparing individual watersheds over time, increases in SGI corresponded to non-significant reductions in hydrologic flashiness compared to watersheds with no change in SGI. While the implementation of SGI is somewhat in its infancy in some regions, cities are beginning to have a scale of SGI where there are statistically significant differences in hydrologic patterns and water quality. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  10. Assessment of TRMM Products and Their Influence on Hydrologic Models within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) (United States)

    Milewski, A.; El Kadiri, R.; Durham, M. C.


    Satellite remote sensing datasets have been increasingly employed as an ancillary source of essential hydrologic measurements used for the modeling of hydrologic fluxes. Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological forcing parameter in hydrological investigations and land surface modeling, yet it is largely unknown or misused in water budgets and hydrologic models. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite products are widely being used by the scientific community due to the general spatial and temporal paucity of precipitation data in many parts of world and particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This research utilized a two-fold approach towards understanding the accuracy of satellite-based rainfall and its application in hydrologic models First, we evaluated the uncertainty, accuracy, and precision of various rainfall satellite products (i.e. TRMM 3B42 V6, TRMM 3B42 V7, TRMM 3B42 V7a and TRMM 3B42 RT) in comparison to in situ gauge data from more than 150 rain gauges in Morocco and across the MENA region. Our analyses extend over many parts of the MENA region in order to assess the effect that different climatic regimes and topographic characteristics have on each TRMM product. Secondly, we analyzed and compared the hydrologic fluxes produced from different modeling inputs for several watersheds within the MENA region. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic models have been developed for the Oum Er Rbia (Morocco), Asyuti (Egypt), and the Sakarya (Turkey) watersheds. SWAT models produced for each watershed include, one model for each of the four satellite TRMM product (STBM-V6, STBM-V7, STBM-V7a, and STBM-RT) and one model for rain gauge based model (RGBM). Findings indicate the best correlation between field-based and satellite-based rainfall measurements is the TRMM V7a (Pearson coefficient: 0.875) product, followed by TRMM V7 (Pearson coefficient: 0.84), then TRMM V6 (Pearson coefficient: 0

  11. Hydrological mixing and geochemical processes characterization in an estuarine/mangrove system using environmental tracers in Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina, Brazil) (United States)

    Barros Grace, Virgínia; Mas-Pla, Josep; Oliveira Novais, Therezinha; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria


    The hydrologic complex of Babitonga Bay (Brazil) forms a vast environmental complex where agriculture, shellfish farming, and industries coexist with a unique natural area of Atlantic rain forest and mangrove systems. The origin of different continental hydrological components, the environmental transition between saline and freshwaters, and the influence of the seasonality on Babitonga Bay waters are evaluated using isotopes and chemistry. End-member mixing analysis is used to explore hydrological processes in the bay. We show that a mixing of waters from different origins takes place in the bay modifying its chemical characteristics. Furthermore, biogeochemical processes related to well-developed mangrove systems are responsible for an efficient bromide uptake, which limit its use as a tracer as commonly used in non-biologically active environments. Seasonal behaviours are also distinguished from our datasets. The rainy season (April) provides a homogenization of the hydrological processes that is not seen after the dry season (October), when larger spatial differences appear and when the effects of biological processes on the bay hydrochemistry are more dynamic, or can be better recognized. Moreover, Cl/Br and stable isotopes of water molecule allow a neat definition of the hydrological and biogeochemical processes that control chemical composition in coastal and transition areas.

  12. Potentially disruptive hydrologic features, events and processes at the Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, D.T.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been selected by the United States to be evaluated as a potential site for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the site is determined to be suitable for repository development and construction is authorized, the repository at the Yucca Mountain site is planned to be constructed in unsaturated tuff at a depth of about 250 meters below land surface and at a distance of about 250 meters above the water table. The intent of locating a repository in a thick unsaturated-zone geohydrologic setting, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain under the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that currently prevail in the region, is to provide a natural setting for the repository system in which little ground water will be available to contact emplaced waste or to transport radioactive material from the repository to the biosphere. In principle, an unsaturated-zone repository will be vulnerable to water entry from both above and below. Consequently, a major effort within the site-characterization program at the Yucca Mountain site is concerned with identifying and evaluating those features, events, and processes, such as increased net infiltration or water-table rise, whose presence or future occurrence could introduce water into a potential repository at the site in quantities sufficient to compromise the waste-isolation capability of the repository system

  13. An Integrative Approach to Understand the Climatic-Hydrological Process: A Case Study of Yarkand River, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Xu


    Full Text Available Taking the Yarkand River as an example, this paper conducted an integrative approach combining the Durbin-Watson statistic test (DWST, multiple linear regression (MLR, wavelet analysis (WA, coefficient of determination (CD, and Akaike information criterion (AIC to analyze the climatic-hydrological process of inland river, Northwest China from a multitime scale perspective. The main findings are as follows. (1 The hydrologic and climatic variables, that is, annual runoff (AR, annual average temperature, (AAT and annual precipitation (AP, are stochastic and, no significant autocorrelation. (2 The variation patterns of runoff, temperature, and precipitation were scale dependent in time. AR, AAT, and AP basically present linear trends at 16-year and 32-year scales, but they show nonlinear fluctuations at 2-year and 4-year scales. (3 The relationship between AR with AAT and AP was simulated by the multiple linear regression equation (MLRE based on wavelet analysis at each time scale. But the simulated effect at a larger time scale is better than that at a smaller time scale.

  14. Uncertainties in coupled thermal-hydrological processes associated with the drift scale test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumitra; Tsang, Y.W.


    Understanding thermally driven coupled hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes in unsaturated fractured tuff is essential for evaluating the performance of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Drift Scale Test (DST), intended for acquiring such an understanding of these processes, has generated a huge volume of temperature and moisture redistribution data. Sophisticated thermal hydrological (TH) conceptual models have yielded a good fit between simulation results and those measured data. However, some uncertainties in understanding the TH processes associated with the DST still exist. This paper evaluates these uncertainties and provides quantitative estimates of the range of these uncertainties. Of particular interest for the DST are the uncertainties resulting from the unmonitored loss of vapor through an open bulkhead of the test. There was concern that the outcome from the test might have been significantly altered by these losses. Using alternative conceptual models, we illustrate that predicted mean temperatures from the DST are within 1 degree C of the measured mean temperatures through the first two years of heating. The simulated spatial and temporal evolution of drying and condensation fronts is found to be qualitatively consistent with measured saturation data. Energy and mass balance computation shows that no more than 13 percent of the input energy is lost because of vapor leaving the test domain through the bulkhead. The change in average saturation in fractures is also relatively small. For a hypothetical situation in which no vapor is allowed to exit through the bulkhead, the simulated average fracture saturation is not qualitatively different enough to be discerned by measured moisture redistribution data. This leads us to conclude that the DST, despite the uncertainties associated with open field testing, has provided an excellent understanding of the TH processes

  15. Hydrology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Research carried out in the 'Hydrology Project' of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura', Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such research comprises: Amazon hydrology and Northeast hydrology. Techniques for the measurement of isotope ratios are used. (M.A.) [pt

  16. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli


    Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.

  17. Water towers of the Great Basin: climatic and hydrologic change at watershed scales in a mountainous arid region (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.


    Impacts of climate change in the Great Basin will manifest through changes in the hydrologic cycle. Downscaled climate data and projections run through the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) produce time series of hydrologic response - recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) - that directly affect water resources and vegetation. More than 50 climate projections from CMIP5 were screened using a cluster analysis of end-century (2077-2099) seasonal precipitation and annual temperature to produce a reduced subset of 12 climate futures that cover a wide range of macroclimate response. Importantly, variations among GCMs in summer precipitation produced by the SW monsoon are captured. Data were averaged within 84 HUC8 watersheds with widley varying climate, topography, and geology. Resultant time series allow for multivariate analysis of hydrologic response, especially partitioning between snowpack, recharge, runoff, and actual evapotranspiration. Because the bulk of snowpack accumulation is restricted to small areas of isolated mountain ranges, losses of snowpack can be extreme as snowline moves up the mountains with warming. Loss of snowpack also affects recharge and runoff rates, and importantly, the recharge/runoff ratio - as snowpacks fade, recharge tends to increase relative to runoff. Thresholds for regime shifts can be identified, but the unique topography and geology of each basin must be considered in assessing hydrologic response.

  18. Assessing the hydrological response from an ensemble of CMIP5 climate projections in the transition zone of the Atlantic region (Bay of Biscay) (United States)

    Meaurio, Maite; Zabaleta, Ane; Boithias, Laurie; Epelde, Ane Miren; Sauvage, Sabine; Sánchez-Pérez, Jose-Miguel; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Antiguedad, Iñaki


    The climate changes projected for the 21st century will have consequences on the hydrological response of catchments. These changes, and their consequences, are most uncertain in the transition zones. The study area, in the Bay of Biscay, is located in the transition zone of the European Atlantic region, where hydrological impact of climate change was scarcely studied. In order to address this scarcity, the hydrological impacts of climate change on river discharge were assessed. To do so, a hydrological modelling was carried out considering 16 climate scenarios that include 5 General Circulation Models (GCM) from the 5th report of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), 2 statistical downscaling methods and 2 Representative Concentration Pathways. Projections for future discharge (2011-2100) were divided into three 30-year horizons (2030s, 2060s and 2090s) and a comparison was made between these time horizons and the baseline (1961-2000). The results show that the downscaling method used resulted in a higher source of uncertainty than GCM itself. In addition, the uncertainties inherent to the methods used at all the levels do not affect the results equally along the year. In spite of those uncertainties, general trends for the 2090s predict seasonal discharge decreases by around -17% in autumn, -16% in spring, -11% in winter and -7% in summer. These results are in line with those predicted for the Atlantic region (France and the Iberian Peninsula). Trends for extreme flows were also analysed: the most significant show an increase in the duration (days) of low flows. From an environmental point of view, and considering the need to meet the objectives established by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), this will be a major challenge for the future planning on water management.

  19. Retrieval Assimilation and Modeling of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Ground- and Space-Based GPS Networks: Investigation of the Global and Regional Hydrological Cycles (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.


    Uncertainty over the response of the atmospheric hydrological cycle (particularly the distribution of water vapor and cloudiness) to anthropogenic forcing is a primary source of doubt in current estimates of global climate sensitivity, which raises severe difficulties in evaluating its likely societal impact. Fortunately, a variety of advanced techniques and sensors are beginning to shed new light on the atmospheric hydrological cycle. One of the most promising makes use of the sensitivity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to the thermodynamic state, and in particular the water vapor content, of the atmosphere through which the radio signals propagate. Our strategy to derive the maximum benefit for hydrological studies from the rapidly increasing GPS data stream will proceed in three stages: (1) systematically analyze and archive quality-controlled retrievals using state-of-the-art techniques; (2) employ both currently available and innovative assimilation procedures to incorporate these determinations into advanced regional and global atmospheric models and assess their effects; and (3) apply the results to investigate selected scientific issues of relevance to regional and global hydrological studies. An archive of GPS-based estimation of total zenith delay (TZD) data and water vapor where applicable has been established with expanded automated quality control. The accuracy of the GPS estimates is being monitored; the investigation of systematic errors is ongoing using comparisons with water vapor radiometers. Meteorological packages have been implemented. The accuracy and utilization of the TZD estimates has been improved by implementing a troposphere gradient model. GPS-based gradients have been validated as real atmospheric moisture gradients, establishing a link between the estimated gradients and the passage of weather fronts. We have developed a generalized ray tracing inversion scheme that can be used to analyze occultation data acquired from space

  20. Landscape-based discretization for modeling of hydrological processes in the semi-arid Andes Cordillera: a case study in Morales Basin (United States)

    Videla Giering, Y. A., III; McPhee, J. P.; Pomeroy, J. W.


    Improved understanding of cryosphere processes in the Subtropical Andes is essencial to secure water supply in Central Chile. An ongoing challenge is to identify the main controls on snow accumulation and ablation at multiple scales. In this study, we use the Cold Regions hydrological model (CRHM) to simulate the evolution of seasonal snow cover in the basin of the Estero Morales between the period 2000-2016. The model was forced with radiation, temperature, humidity, wind and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Era-Interim outputs. The basin was disaggregated spatially through representative hydrological processes and and geomorphological into HRU's. 22% of snow in the basin is subject to reallocation by topographic effects, while net short wave radiation would explain major changes in snowmelt. 80% of summer runoff comes from glacial melting, while temperature and soil properties are key factors controlling infiltration and contribution to the runoff at all times of the year. The model results indicate that 78.2% of precipitation corresponds to snow while 21.8% to rain. The flow rates of snowmelting are the main component in the water balance, accounting for approximately 62.8% of the total rainfall. It is important to point out that during the total period of modeling (2010-2016), it was noted that the 23.08% of the total annual flow corresponds to glacial melting, however for the period 2010 - 2015 this percentage increases to 45.3%, in spite of this were not observed variations in the volume of subsurface and groundwater flow. This suggests first: that systems such as analyzed in this article, have a great importance because they are fragile in terms of response and the ground due to its topographic features (such as slope and conductivity) is not able to store large percentages of resources until the end of the summer season; and second, to understand that mountain systems with presence of glaciers, naturally are regulated compared to sudden changes

  1. Simulating the complex output of rainfall and hydrological processes using the information contained in large data sets: the Direct Sampling approach. (United States)

    Oriani, Fabio


    The unpredictable nature of rainfall makes its estimation as much difficult as it is essential to hydrological applications. Stochastic simulation is often considered a convenient approach to asses the uncertainty of rainfall processes, but preserving their irregular behavior and variability at multiple scales is a challenge even for the most advanced techniques. In this presentation, an overview on the Direct Sampling technique [1] and its recent application to rainfall and hydrological data simulation [2, 3] is given. The algorithm, having its roots in multiple-point statistics, makes use of a training data set to simulate the outcome of a process without inferring any explicit probability measure: the data are simulated in time or space by sampling the training data set where a sufficiently similar group of neighbor data exists. This approach allows preserving complex statistical dependencies at different scales with a good approximation, while reducing the parameterization to the minimum. The straights and weaknesses of the Direct Sampling approach are shown through a series of applications to rainfall and hydrological data: from time-series simulation to spatial rainfall fields conditioned by elevation or a climate scenario. In the era of vast databases, is this data-driven approach a valid alternative to parametric simulation techniques? [1] Mariethoz G., Renard P., and Straubhaar J. (2010), The Direct Sampling method to perform multiple-point geostatistical simulations, Water. Rerous. Res., 46(11), [2] Oriani F., Straubhaar J., Renard P., and Mariethoz G. (2014), Simulation of rainfall time series from different climatic regions using the direct sampling technique, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3015-3031, [3] Oriani F., Borghi A., Straubhaar J., Mariethoz G., Renard P. (2016), Missing data simulation inside flow rate time-series using multiple-point statistics, Environ. Model

  2. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocation in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney I: Model development (United States)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant


    In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.

  3. Hydrology team (United States)

    Ragan, R.


    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  4. Regional Climate Modeling and Remote Sensing to Characterize Impacts of Civil War Driven Land Use Change on Regional Hydrology and Climate (United States)

    Maksimowicz, M.; Masarik, M. T.; Brandt, J.; Flores, A. N.


    Land use/land cover (LULC) change directly impacts the partitioning of surface mass and energy fluxes. Regional-scale weather and climate are potentially altered by LULC if the resultant changes in partitioning of surface energy fluxes are extensive enough. Dynamics of land use, particularly those related to the social dimensions of the Earth System, are often simplified or not represented in regional land-atmosphere models. This study explores the role of LULC change on a regional hydroclimate system, focusing on potential hydroclimate changes arising from an extended civil conflict in Mozambique. Civil war from 1977-1992 in Mozambique led to land use change at a regional scale as a result of the collapse of large herbivore populations due to poaching. Since the war ended, farming has increased, poaching was curtailed, and animal populations were reintroduced. In this study LULC in a region encompassing Gorongosa is classified at three instances between 1977 to 2015 using Landsat imagery. We use these derived LULC datasets to inform lower boundary conditions in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To quantify potential hydrometeorological changes arising from conflict-driven land use change, we performed a factorial-like experiment by mixing input LULC maps and atmospheric forcing data from before, during, and after the civil war. Analysis of the Landsat data shows measurable land cover change from 1977-present as tree cover encroached into grasslands. Initial tests show corresponding sensitivities to different LULC schemes within the WRF model. Preliminary results suggest that the war did indeed impact regional hydroclimate in a significant way via its direct and indirect impacts on land-atmosphere interactions. Results of this study suggest that LULC change arising from regional conflicts are a potentially understudied, yet important human process to capture in both regional reanalyses and climate change projections.

  5. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve


    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  6. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik


    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  7. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.


    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  8. Hydrological processes obtained on the plot scale under four simulated rainfall tests during the cycle of different crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol


    Full Text Available The cropping system influences the interception of water by plants, water storage in depressions on the soil surface, water infiltration into the soil and runoff. The aim of this study was to quantify some hydrological processes under no tillage cropping systems at the edge of a slope, in 2009 and 2010, in a Humic Dystrudept soil, with the following treatments: corn, soybeans, and common beans alone; and intercropped corn and common bean. Treatments consisted of four simulated rainfall tests at different times, with a planned intensity of 64 mm h-1 and 90 min duration. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing, and the others at 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. Different times of the simulated rainfall and stages of the crop cycle affected soil water content prior to the rain, and the time runoff began and its peak flow and, thus, the surface hydrological processes. The depth of the runoff and the depth of the water intercepted by the crop + soil infiltration + soil surface storage were affected by the crop systems and the rainfall applied at different times. The corn crop was the most effective treatment for controlling runoff, with a water loss ratio of 0.38, equivalent to 75 % of the water loss ratio exhibited by common bean (0.51, the least effective treatment in relation to the others. Total water loss by runoff decreased linearly with an increase in the time that runoff began, regardless of the treatment; however, soil water content on the gravimetric basis increased linearly from the beginning to the end of the rainfall.

  9. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.


    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells

  10. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Reeves, T.L.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.


    The scope of the original research program and of its continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large-scale testing sufficient to describe commercial-scale embankment behavior. The large-scale testing was accomplished by constructing five lysimeters, each 7.3x3.0x3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process (Schmalfield 1975). Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was placed in the lysimeter cells. This report discusses and summarizes results from scientific efforts conducted between October 1991 and September 1992 for Fiscal Year 1992

  11. The need of the change of the conceptualisation of hydrologic processes under extreme conditions – taking reference evapotranspiration as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu


    Full Text Available What a hydrological model displays is the relationships between the output and input in daily, monthly, yearly and other temporal scales. In the case of climate change or other environment changes, the input of the hydrological model may show a gradual or abrupt change. There have been numerous documented studies to explore the response of output of the hydrological models to the change of the input with scenario simulation. Most of the studies assumed that the conceptualisation of hydrologic processes will remain, which may be true for the gradual change of the input. However, under extreme conditions the conceptualisation of hydrologic processes may be completely changed. Taking an example of the Allen's formula to calculate crop reference evapotranspiration (ET0 as a simple hydrological model, we analyze the alternation of the extreme in ET0 from 1955 to 2012 at the Chongling Experimental Station located in Hebei Province, China. The relationships between ET0 and the meteorological factors for the average values, minimum (maximum values at daily, monthly and annual scales are revealed. It is found the extreme of the output can follow the extreme of the input better when their relationship is more linear. For non-liner relationship, the extreme of the input cannot at all be reflected from the extreme of the output. Relatively, extreme event at daily scale is harder to be shown than that at monthly scale. The result implicates that a routine model may not be able to catch the response to extreme events and it is even more so as we extrapolate models to higher temperature/CO2 conditions in the future. Some possible choices for the improvements are suggested for predicting hydrological extremes.

  12. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure on Hydrology and Nutrient Fluxes in the Mid-Atlantic Region. (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Pennino, M. J.; McDonald, R.


    Stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including rain gardens, detention ponds, bioswales, and green roofs, is being implemented in cities across the globe to help reduce flooding, decrease combined sewer overflows, and lessen pollutant transport to streams and rivers. Despite the increasing use of urban SGI, there is much uncertainty regarding the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the cumulative effects of SGI, major cities across the mid-Atlantic were selected based on availability of SGI, water quality, and stream flow data. The impact of SGI was evaluated by comparing similar watersheds, with and without SGI or by assessing how long-term changes in SGI impact hydrologic and water quality metrics over time. Most mid-Atlantic cities have a goal of achieving 10-75% SGI by 2030. Of these cites, Washington D.C. currently has the highest density of SGI (15.5%), while Philadelphia, PA and New York, NY have the lowest (0.14% and 0.28%, respectively). When comparing watersheds of similar size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with lower amounts of SGI, on average, show up to 40% greater annual total nitrogen and 75% greater total phosphorus loads and show flashier hydrology (as indicated by 35% greater average peak discharge, 26% more peak discharge events per year, and 21% higher peak-to-volume ratio) compared to watersheds with higher amounts of SGI. However, for cities with combined sewer systems (e.g. Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia, PA), there was no relationship between the level of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the amount of SGI, indicating the level of SGI may not yet be sufficient to reduce CSOs as intended. When comparing individual watersheds over time, increases in SGI show no significant effect on the long-term trends in nutrient loads or hydrologic variables, potentially being obscured by the larger effect of interannual variability.

  13. Do invasive riparian Tamarix alter hydrology of riparian areas of arid and semi-arid regions under climate change scenarios? (United States)

    Bhattarai, M. P.; Acharya, K.; Chen, L.


    Competitiveness of riparian invasive species, Tamarix, in arid and semi-arid riparian areas of the southwestern United States under climate change scenario (SRES A2) was investigated. Tamarix has been replacing native vegetation along the riparian corridors of these areas for the past several decades and is thought to alter water balance. Changes in depth to groundwater, soil moisture distribution and flood frequency are critical in survival and growth of a facultative phreatophyte such as Tamarix. In this study, a fully coupled 2d surface flow and 3d subsurface flow hydrologic model, HydroGeoSphere, was used to simulate surface-subsurface hydrology of the lower Virgin River basin (4500 sq. km), located in Nevada, Utah and Arizona. The hydrologic model results, depth to groundwater and soil saturation, were then applied to the species distribution model, Maxent, along with other bioclimatic parameters to asses future Tamarix distribution probability. Simulations were made for the climate scenarios of the end of 21st centry conditions. Depth to groundwater is found to be the most important predictor variable to the Maxent model. Future Tamarix distribution range is not uniform across the basin. It is likely to decrease at lower elevations and increase in some higher elevation areas.

  14. Advancing representation of hydrologic processes in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) through integration of the TOPographic MODEL (TOPMODEL) features (United States)

    Chen, J.; Wu, Y.


    This paper presents a study of the integration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and the TOPographic MODEL (TOPMODEL) features for enhancing the physical representation of hydrologic processes. In SWAT, four hydrologic processes, which are surface runoff, baseflow, groundwater re-evaporation and deep aquifer percolation, are modeled by using a group of empirical equations. The empirical equations usually constrain the simulation capability of relevant processes. To replace these equations and to model the influences of topography and water table variation on streamflow generation, the TOPMODEL features are integrated into SWAT, and a new model, the so-called SWAT-TOP, is developed. In the new model, the process of deep aquifer percolation is removed, the concept of groundwater re-evaporation is refined, and the processes of surface runoff and baseflow are remodeled. Consequently, three parameters in SWAT are discarded, and two new parameters to reflect the TOPMODEL features are introduced. SWAT-TOP and SWAT are applied to the East River basin in South China, and the results reveal that, compared with SWAT, the new model can provide a more reasonable simulation of the hydrologic processes of surface runoff, groundwater re-evaporation, and baseflow. This study evidences that an established hydrologic model can be further improved by integrating the features of another model, which is a possible way to enhance our understanding of the workings of catchments.

  15. Perspective on Eco-Hydrology Developing Strategy in China (United States)

    Xia, J.


    China is one of developing countries with higher eco-environmental press in the world due to large population and its socio-economic development. In China, water is not only the sources for life, but also the key for production, and the foundation for eco-system. Thus, Eco-hydrology becomes a fundamental also an applied sciences related to describe the hydrologic mechanisms that underlie ecologic patterns and processes. This paper addresses the issue of Eco-hydrology Developing Strategy in China, supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Major contents include four aspects, namely: (1) Demands and frontier of eco-hydrology in the world; (2) Major theories and approaches of Eco-hydrology; (3) Perspective of future development on Eco-hydrology; (4) Enacting and proposal for China development strategy on Eco-hydrology. Application fields involves urban, rural area, wetland, river & lake, forest and special regions in China, such as the arid and semi-arid region and so on. The goal is to promote the disciplinary development of eco-hydrology, and serve for national demands on ecological civilization construction in China.

  16. Dynamic modeling of nitrogen losses in river networks unravels the coupled effects of hydrological and biogeochemical processes (United States)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Böhlke, John Karl; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; David, Mark B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Tobias, Craig R.; Tonitto, Christina; Wollheim, Wilfred M.


    The importance of lotic systems as sinks for nitrogen inputs is well recognized. A fraction of nitrogen in streamflow is removed to the atmosphere via denitrification with the remainder exported in streamflow as nitrogen loads. At the watershed scale, there is a keen interest in understanding the factors that control the fate of nitrogen throughout the stream channel network, with particular attention to the processes that deliver large nitrogen loads to sensitive coastal ecosystems. We use a dynamic stream transport model to assess biogeochemical (nitrate loadings, concentration, temperature) and hydrological (discharge, depth, velocity) effects on reach-scale denitrification and nitrate removal in the river networks of two watersheds having widely differing levels of nitrate enrichment but nearly identical discharges. Stream denitrification is estimated by regression as a nonlinear function of nitrate concentration, streamflow, and temperature, using more than 300 published measurements from a variety of US streams. These relations are used in the stream transport model to characterize nitrate dynamics related to denitrification at a monthly time scale in the stream reaches of the two watersheds. Results indicate that the nitrate removal efficiency of streams, as measured by the percentage of the stream nitrate flux removed via denitrification per unit length of channel, is appreciably reduced during months with high discharge and nitrate flux and increases during months of low-discharge and flux. Biogeochemical factors, including land use, nitrate inputs, and stream concentrations, are a major control on reach-scale denitrification, evidenced by the disproportionately lower nitrate removal efficiency in streams of the highly nitrate-enriched watershed as compared with that in similarly sized streams in the less nitrate-enriched watershed. Sensitivity analyses reveal that these important biogeochemical factors and physical hydrological factors contribute nearly

  17. Mapping (dis)agreement in hydrologic projections (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Addor, Nans; Mizukami, Naoki; Newman, Andrew J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Clark, Martyn P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Teuling, Adriaan J.


    Hydrologic projections are of vital socio-economic importance. However, they are also prone to uncertainty. In order to establish a meaningful range of storylines to support water managers in decision making, we need to reveal the relevant sources of uncertainty. Here, we systematically and extensively investigate uncertainty in hydrologic projections for 605 basins throughout the contiguous US. We show that in the majority of the basins, the sign of change in average annual runoff and discharge timing for the period 2070-2100 compared to 1985-2008 differs among combinations of climate models, hydrologic models, and parameters. Mapping the results revealed that different sources of uncertainty dominate in different regions. Hydrologic model induced uncertainty in the sign of change in mean runoff was related to snow processes and aridity, whereas uncertainty in both mean runoff and discharge timing induced by the climate models was related to disagreement among the models regarding the change in precipitation. Overall, disagreement on the sign of change was more widespread for the mean runoff than for the discharge timing. The results demonstrate the need to define a wide range of quantitative hydrologic storylines, including parameter, hydrologic model, and climate model forcing uncertainty, to support water resource planning.

  18. Climate and Landuse Change Impacts on hydrological processes and soil erosion in a dry Mediterranean agro-forested catchment, southern Portugal (United States)

    Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Sampaio, Elsa; Moreira, Madalena; Lima, Júlio; Jacinto, Rita; Corte-Real, João


    Climate change is expected to increase aridity in the Mediterranean rim of Europe, due to decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. This could lead to impacts on soil erosion, since the lower rainfall could nevertheless become concentrated in higher intensity events during the wet season, while the more arid conditions could reduce vegetation cover, also due to climate-induced land-use changes. In consequence, there is an interest in understanding how climate change will affect the interaction between the timing of extreme rainfall events, hydrological processes, vegetation growth, soil cover and soil erosion. To study this issue, the SWAT eco-hydrological model was applied to Guadalupe, an agro-forested catchment (446 ha) located close to the city of Évora, with a Mediterranean inland climate. The landcover is a mix of dispersed cork oak forests ("montado"), annual crops, and agroforesty regions where the cork oaks are associated with crops or pasture; this land cover is representative of the dry regions of southern Portugal and Spain. The catchment has been instrumented since 2011 with a hydrometric station (water discharge and suspended sediment concentration data) and a soil moisture measurement station. There is also observed data of actual evapotranspiration, LAI and biomass production (in pasture; from 1999 and 2008) and runoff data and sediment yield measured in six 16m2 plots. Water balance, vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment yield in SWAT was calibrated with this dataset. This work will present the dataset, modeling process, results for impacts of climate and land-use change scenarios for vegetation growth, soil erosion and sediment export, considering the climate and socio-economic scenarios A1b and B1 (based on SRES storylines). Climate scenarios were created by statistical downscaling from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) for the period 2071-2100 (30 years). The reference period was 1971-2000 (30 years). The SWAT model was used to

  19. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011 (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.


    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  20. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)


    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  1. Understanding Nutrient Processing Under Similar Hydrologic Conditions Along a River Continuum (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Mortensen, J.; Van Horn, D. J.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.


    Eutrophication is one of the main causes of water impairment across the US. The fate of nutrients in streams is typically described by the dynamic coupling of physical processes and biochemical processes. However, isolating each of these processes and determining its contribution to the whole system is challenging due to the complexity of the physical, chemical and biological domains. We conducted column experiments seeking to understand nutrient processing in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (eight stream orders), in New Mexico (USA). For each stream order, we used a set of 6 columns packed with 3 different sediments, i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (> 2mm) and native sediments from each site. We incubated the sediments for three months and performed tracer experiments in the laboratory under identical flow conditions, seeking to normalize the physical processes along the river continuum. We added a short-term pulse injection of NO3, resazurin and NaCl to each column and determined metabolism and NO3 processing using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization method (TASCC). Our methods allowed us to study how changes in bacterial communities and sediment composition along the river continuum define nutrient processing.

  2. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step - human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology (United States)

    Ertsen, M. W.; Murphy, J. T.; Purdue, L. E.; Zhu, T.


    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is well-represented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as collective social structures. Both responses are problematic, as human decision-making is more complex and organizations are the result of human agency and cannot be used as explanatory forces. A way out of the dilemma of how to include human agency is to go to the largest societal and environmental clustering possible: society itself and climate, with time steps of years or decades. In the paper, another way out is developed: to face human agency squarely, and direct the modeling approach to the agency of individuals and couple this with the lowest appropriate hydrological level and time step. This approach is supported theoretically by the work of Bruno Latour, the French sociologist and philosopher. We discuss irrigation archaeology, as it is in this discipline that the issues of scale and explanatory force are well discussed. The issue is not just what scale to use: it is what scale matters. We argue that understanding the arrangements that permitted the management of irrigation over centuries requires modeling and understanding the small-scale, day-to-day operations and personal interactions upon which they were built. This effort, however, must be informed by the longer-term dynamics, as these provide the context within which human agency is acted out.

  3. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna


    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  4. Evaluating a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter snow cover data assimilation method to estimate SWE within a high-resolution hydrologic modeling framework across Western US mountainous regions (United States)

    Oaida, C. M.; Andreadis, K.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Levoe, S.


    Accurately estimating how much snow water equivalent (SWE) is stored in mountainous regions characterized by complex terrain and snowmelt-driven hydrologic cycles is not only greatly desirable, but also a big challenge. Mountain snowpack exhibits high spatial variability across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales due to a multitude of physical and climatic factors, making it difficult to observe or estimate in its entirety. Combing remotely sensed data and high resolution hydrologic modeling through data assimilation (DA) has the potential to provide a spatially and temporally continuous SWE dataset at horizontal scales that capture sub-grid snow spatial variability and are also relevant to stakeholders such as water resource managers. Here, we present the evaluation of a new snow DA approach that uses a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) in tandem with the Variable Infiltration Capacity macro-scale hydrologic model across the Western United States, at a daily temporal resolution, and a horizontal resolution of 1.75 km x 1.75 km. The LETKF is chosen for its relative simplicity, ease of implementation, and computational efficiency and scalability. The modeling/DA system assimilates daily MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) fractional snow cover over, and has been developed to efficiently calculate SWE estimates over extended periods of time and covering large regional-scale areas at relatively high spatial resolution, ultimately producing a snow reanalysis-type dataset. Here we focus on the assessment of SWE produced by the DA scheme over several basins in California's Sierra Nevada Mountain range where Airborne Snow Observatory data is available, during the last five water years (2013-2017), which include both one of the driest and one of the wettest years. Comparison against such a spatially distributed SWE observational product provides a greater understanding of the model's ability to estimate SWE and SWE spatial variability

  5. Delineating landscape-scale processes of hydrology and plant dispersal for species-rich fen conservation : the Operational Landscape Unit approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Beltman, Boudewijn; Janssen, Ron; Soons, Merel B.


    Restoration and conservation of species-rich nature reserves requires inclusion of landscape-scale connections and transport processes such as hydrologic flows and species dispersal. These are important because they provide suitable habitat conditions and an adequate species pool. This study aimed

  6. Development of a hybrid 3-D hydrological model to simulate hillslopes and the regional unconfined aquifer system in Earth system models (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Broxton, P. D.; Brunke, M.; Gochis, D.; Niu, G. Y.; Pelletier, J. D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Zeng, X.


    The terrestrial hydrological system, including surface and subsurface water, is an essential component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past few decades, land surface modelers have built one-dimensional (1D) models resolving the vertical flow of water through the soil column for use in Earth system models (ESMs). These models generally have a relatively coarse model grid size (~25-100 km) and only account for sub-grid lateral hydrological variations using simple parameterization schemes. At the same time, hydrologists have developed detailed high-resolution (~0.1-10 km grid size) three dimensional (3D) models and showed the importance of accounting for the vertical and lateral redistribution of surface and subsurface water on soil moisture, the surface energy balance and ecosystem dynamics on these smaller scales. However, computational constraints have limited the implementation of the high-resolution models for continental and global scale applications. The current work presents a hybrid-3D hydrological approach is presented, where the 1D vertical soil column model (available in many ESMs) is coupled with a high-resolution lateral flow model (h2D) to simulate subsurface flow and overland flow. H2D accounts for both local-scale hillslope and regional-scale unconfined aquifer responses (i.e. riparian zone and wetlands). This approach was shown to give comparable results as those obtained by an explicit 3D Richards model for the subsurface, but improves runtime efficiency considerably. The h3D approach is implemented for the Delaware river basin, where Noah-MP land surface model (LSM) is used to calculated vertical energy and water exchanges with the atmosphere using a 10km grid resolution. Noah-MP was coupled within the WRF-Hydro infrastructure with the lateral 1km grid resolution h2D model, for which the average depth-to-bedrock, hillslope width function and soil parameters were estimated from digital datasets. The ability of this h3D approach to simulate

  7. Biological soil crust as a bio-mediator alters hydrological processes in stabilized dune system of the Tengger Desert, China (United States)

    Li, Xinrong


    Biological soil crust (BSC) is a vital component in the stabilized sand dunes with a living cover up to more than 70% of the total, which has been considered as a bio-mediator that directly influences and regulates the sand dune ecosystem processes. However, its influences on soil hydrological processes have been long neglected in Chinese deserts. In this study, BSCs of different successional stages were chose to test their influence on the hydrological processes of stabilized dune, where the groundwater deep exceeds 30m, further to explore why occur the sand-binding vegetation replacement between shrubs and herbs. Our long-term observation (60 years) shows that cyanobacteria crust has been colonized and developed after 3 years since the sand-binding vegetation has been established and dune fixation using planted xerophytic shrubs and made sand barrier (straw-checkerboard) on shifting dune surface, lichen and moss crust occurred after 20 years, and the cover of moss dominated crust could reach 70 % after 50 years. The colonization and development of BSC altered the initial soil water balance of revegetated areas by influencing rainfall infiltration, soil evaporation and dew water entrapment. The results show that BSC obviously reduced the infiltration that occurred during most rainfall events (80%), when rainfall was greater than 5 mm or less than 20 mm. The presence of BSC reduced evaporation of topsoil after small rainfall (<5 mm) because its high proportion of finer particles slowed the evaporation rate, thus keeping the water in the soil surface longer, and crust facilitated topsoil evaporation when rainfall reached 10 mm. The amount of dew entrapment increases with the succession of BSC. Moreover, the effect of the later successional BSC to dew entrapment, rainfall infiltration and evaporation was more obvious than the early successional BSC on stabilized dunes. In general, BSC reduced the amount of rainfall water that reached deeper soil (0.4-3m), which is

  8. A progress report for the large block test of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.


    This is a progress report on the Large Block Test (LBT) project. The purpose of the LBT is to study some of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near field of a nuclear waste repository under controlled boundary conditions. To do so, a large block of Topopah Spring tuff will be heated from within for about 4 to 6 months, then cooled down for about the same duration. Instruments to measure temperature, moisture content, stress, displacement, and chemical changes will be installed in three directions in the block. Meanwhile, laboratory tests will be conducted on small blocks to investigate individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The fractures in the large block will be characterized from five exposed surfaces. The minerals on fracture surfaces will be studied before and after the test. The results from the LBT will be useful for testing and building confidence in models that will be used to predict TMHC processes in a repository. The boundary conditions to be controlled on the block include zero moisture flux and zero heat flux on the sides, constant temperature on the top, and constant stress on the outside surfaces of the block. To control these boundary conditions, a load-retaining frame is required. A 3 x 3 x 4.5 m block of Topopah Spring tuff has been isolated on the outcrop at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Pre-test model calculations indicate that a permeability of at least 10 -15 m 2 is required so that a dryout zone can be created within a practical time frame when the block is heated from within. Neutron logging was conducted in some of the vertical holes to estimate the initial moisture content of the block. It was found that about 60 to 80% of the pore volume of the block is saturated with water. Cores from the vertical holes have been used to map the fractures and to determine the properties of the rock. A current schedule is included in the report

  9. Modelling of Sub-daily Hydrological Processes Using Daily Time-Step Models: A Distribution Function Approach to Temporal Scaling (United States)

    Kandel, D. D.; Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.


    Mismatches in scale between the fundamental processes, the model and supporting data are a major limitation in hydrologic modelling. Surface runoff generation via infiltration excess and the process of soil erosion are fundamentally short time-scale phenomena and their average behaviour is mostly determined by the short time-scale peak intensities of rainfall. Ideally, these processes should be simulated using time-steps of the order of minutes to appropriately resolve the effect of rainfall intensity variations. However, sub-daily data support is often inadequate and the processes are usually simulated by calibrating daily (or even coarser) time-step models. Generally process descriptions are not modified but rather effective parameter values are used to account for the effect of temporal lumping, assuming that the effect of the scale mismatch can be counterbalanced by tuning the parameter values at the model time-step of interest. Often this results in parameter values that are difficult to interpret physically. A similar approach is often taken spatially. This is problematic as these processes generally operate or interact non-linearly. This indicates a need for better techniques to simulate sub-daily processes using daily time-step models while still using widely available daily information. A new method applicable to many rainfall-runoff-erosion models is presented. The method is based on temporal scaling using statistical distributions of rainfall intensity to represent sub-daily intensity variations in a daily time-step model. This allows the effect of short time-scale nonlinear processes to be captured while modelling at a daily time-step, which is often attractive due to the wide availability of daily forcing data. The approach relies on characterising the rainfall intensity variation within a day using a cumulative distribution function (cdf). This cdf is then modified by various linear and nonlinear processes typically represented in hydrological and

  10. The Mica Creek Experimental Watershed: An Outdoor Laboratory for the Investigation of Hydrologic Processes in a Continental/Maritime Mountainous Environment (United States)

    Link, T. E.; Gravelle, J.; Hubbart, J.; Warnsing, A.; Du, E.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Cundy, T.


    Experimental catchments have proven to be extremely useful for investigations focused on fundamental hydrologic processes and on the impacts of land cover change on hydrologic regimes and water quality. Recent studies have illustrated how watershed responses to experimental treatments vary greatly between watersheds with differing physical, ecological and hydroclimatic characteristics. Meteorological and hydrological data within catchments are needed to help identify how hydrologic mechanisms may be altered by land cover alterations, and to both constrain and develop spatially-distributed physically based models. Existing instrumentation at the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho is a fourth-order catchment that is undergoing expansion to produce a comprehensive dataset for model development and testing. The experimental catchments encompass a 28 km2 area spanning elevations from 975 to 1725 m msl. Snow processes dominate the hydrology of the catchment and climate conditions in the winter alternate between cold, dry continental and warm, moist maritime weather systems. Landcover is dominated by 80 year old second growth conifer forests, with partially cut (thinned) and clear-cut sub-catchments. Climate and precipitation data are collected at a SNOTEL site, three primary, and seven supplemental meteorological stations stratified by elevation and canopy cover. Manual snow depth measurements are recorded every 1-2 weeks during snowmelt, stratified by aspect, elevation and canopy cover. An air temperature transect spans three second-order sub-catchments to track air temperature lapse rate dynamics. Precipitation gauge arrays are installed within thinned and closed-canopy stands to track throughfall and interception loss. Nine paired and nested sub-catchments are monitored for flow, temperature, sediment, and nutrients. Hydroclimatic data are augmented by LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for determination of canopy and topographic structure

  11. Hydrological models for environmental management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolgov, Mikhail V


    .... Stochastic modelling and forecasting cannot at present adequately represent the characteristics of hydrological regimes, nor analyze the influence of water on processes that arise in biological...

  12. The Influence of Globalization, Integration and Regionalization Processes on the European States and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Bazarenko


    Full Text Available The article deals with the impact of globalization, regionalization and integration in European countries and regions. It discusses the distinctive features and factors of influence of each of these processes on the European countries and sub national entities.

  13. Isotopes as validation tools for predictions of the impact of Amazonian deforestation on climate and regional hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Chambers, S.; McGuffie, K.


    Isotopic analysis and modelling of the Amazon Basin have both been reported for about thirty years. Isotopic data have been used to explain important characteristics of Amazonian hydrologic cycling by means of simple models. To date there has been no attempt to use isotopic data to evaluate global climate models employed to predict the possible impacts of Amazonian deforestation. This paper reviews the history of isotopic analysis and simulations of deforestation in the Amazon and initiates isotopic evaluation of GCMs. It is shown that one widely reported simulation set gives seasonal transpiration and re-evaporated canopy interception budgets different from those derived from isotopic analysis. It is found that temporal changes (1965 to 1990) in wet season deuterium excess differences between Belem and Manaus are consistent with GCM results only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. We propose synergistic future interactions among the climate/hydrological modelling and isotopic analysis communities in order to improve confidence in simulations of Amazonian deforestation. (author)

  14. High frequency longitudinal profiling reveals hydrologic controls on solute sourcing, transport and processing in a karst river (United States)

    Hensley, R. T.; Cohen, M. J.; Spangler, M.; Gooseff, M. N.


    The lower Santa Fe River is a large, karst river of north Florida, fed by numerous artesian springs and also containing multiple sink-rise systems. We performed repeated longitudinal profiles collecting very high frequency measurements of multiple stream parameters including temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, dissolved organic matter, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and turbidity. This high frequency dataset provided a spatially explicit understanding of solute sources and coupled biogeochemical processing rates along the 25 km study reach. We noted marked changes in river profiles as the river transitioned from low to high flow during the onset of the wet season. The role of lateral inflow from springs as the primary solute source was greatly reduced under high flow conditions. Effects of sink-rise systems, which under low flow conditions allow the majority of flow to bypass several kilometer long sections of the main channel, virtually disappeared under high flow conditions. Impeded light transmittance at high flow reduced primary production and by extension assimilatory nutrient uptake. This study demonstrates how high frequency longitudinal profiling can be used to observe how hydrologic conditions can alter groundwater-surface water interactions and modulate the sourcing, transport and biogeochemical processing of stream solutes.

  15. The mechanism of development of integration processes in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bautin


    Full Text Available In the context of the weakening economic development of the region, it is necessary to find new ways to increase the efficiency of interaction between the economic structures of the region. One of the areas is the development of integration processes in the field of cooperation between the public and private capital to meet the goals and objectives of the effective functioning of both the participants of integration interaction, as well as the region as a whole. Factors that influence the emergence and development of integration processes, are a scarce resource; motivated by the need to diversify the business; the desire to improve the economic efficiency of business entities. Development grace-integral process is economic interaction managing subjects, followed by combining them to achieve common objectives and obtain the synergistic effect due to a number of resource solutions, organizational and administrative problems. To obtain high economic benefits of integration interaction of the participants, we have proposed a mechanism for the development of integration processes in the region, based on three levels of interaction between regional authorities, educational institutions and private organizations. It allows forming a single chain integration and process management to increase the effectiveness of their implementation in practice, and to avoid the disadvantages associated with the formation of the integrated structures. Integration cooperation of regional authorities with organizations of various spheres of activity of the region and education (research organizations is a key component of the new Russian innovation policy because, if done right, it provides broader benefits from investments in research and development, creating favorable conditions for sustainable innovation development and is a strategic factor in the economic growth of the region.

  16. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.


    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  17. A Natural Analogue for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Coupled Processes at the Proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bill Carey; Gordon Keating; Peter C. Lichtner


    Dike and sill complexes that intruded tuffaceous host rocks above the water table are suggested as natural analogues for thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scoping thermal-hydrologic calculations of temperature and saturation profiles surrounding a 30-50 m wide intrusion suggest that boiling conditions could be sustained at distances of tens of meters from the intrusion for several thousand years. This time scale for persistence of boiling is similar to that expected for the Yucca Mountain repository with moderate heat loading. By studying the hydrothermal alteration of the tuff host rocks surrounding the intrusions, insight and relevant data can be obtained that apply directly to the Yucca Mountain repository and can shed light on the extent and type of alteration that should be expected. Such data are needed to bound and constrain model parameters used in THC simulations of the effect of heat produced by the waste on the host rock and to provide a firm foundation for assessing overall repository performance. One example of a possible natural analogue for the repository is the Paiute Ridge intrusive complex located on the northeastern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The complex consists of dikes and sills intruded into a partially saturated tuffaceous host rock that has stratigraphic sequences that correlate with those found at Yucca Mountain. The intrusions were emplaced at a depth of several hundred meters below the surface, similar to the depth of the proposed repository. The tuffaceous host rock surrounding the intrusions is hydrothermally altered to varying extents depending on the distance from the intrusions. The Paiute Ridge intrusive complex thus appears to be an ideal natural analogue of THC coupled processes associated with the Yucca Mountain repository. It could provide much needed physical and chemical data for understanding the influence of heat

  18. Integration of a Three-Dimensional Process-Based Hydrological Model into the Object Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Formetta


    Full Text Available The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modeling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. This paper describes a general methodology for integrating environmental models into the Object Modeling System (OMS regardless of the model’s complexity, the programming language, and the operating system used. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the OMS version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. OMS is an environmental modeling framework that facilitates model development, calibration, evaluation, and maintenance. It provides innovative techniques in software design such as multithreading, implicit parallelism, calibration and sensitivity analysis algorithms, and cloud-services. GEOtop is a physically based, spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model that performs three-dimensional finite volume calculations of water and energy budgets. Executing GEOtop as an OMS model component allows it to: (1 interact directly with the open-source geographical information system (GIS uDig-JGrass to access geo-processing, visualization, and other modeling components; and (2 use OMS components for automatic calibration, sensitivity analysis, or meteorological data interpolation. A case study of the model in a semi-arid agricultural catchment is presented for illustration and proof-of-concept. Simulated soil water content and soil temperature results are compared with measured data, and model performance is evaluated using goodness-of-fit indices. This study serves as a template for future integration of process models into OMS.

  19. Evaluation of global continental hydrology as simulated by the Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Murray


    Full Text Available Global freshwater resources are sensitive to changes in climate, land cover and population density and distribution. The Land-surface Processes and eXchanges Dynamic Global Vegetation Model is a recent development of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model with improved representation of fire-vegetation interactions. It allows simultaneous consideration of the effects of changes in climate, CO2 concentration, natural vegetation and fire regime shifts on the continental hydrological cycle. Here the model is assessed for its ability to simulate large-scale spatial and temporal runoff patterns, in order to test its suitability for modelling future global water resources. Comparisons are made against observations of streamflow and a composite dataset of modelled and observed runoff (1986–1995 and are also evaluated against soil moisture data and the Palmer Drought Severity Index. The model captures the main features of the geographical distribution of global runoff, but tends to overestimate runoff in much of the Northern Hemisphere (where this can be somewhat accounted for by freshwater consumption and the unrealistic accumulation of the simulated winter snowpack in permafrost regions and the southern tropics. Interannual variability is represented reasonably well at the large catchment scale, as are seasonal flow timings and monthly high and low flow events. Further improvements to the simulation of intra-annual runoff might be achieved via the addition of river flow routing. Overestimates of runoff in some basins could likely be corrected by the inclusion of transmission losses and direct-channel evaporation.

  20. Hydrologic Process Parameterization of Electrical Resistivity Imaging of Solute Plumes Using POD McMC (United States)

    Awatey, M. T.; Irving, J.; Oware, E. K.


    Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) inversion frameworks are becoming increasingly popular in geophysics due to their ability to recover multiple equally plausible geologic features that honor the limited noisy measurements. Standard McMC methods, however, become computationally intractable with increasing dimensionality of the problem, for example, when working with spatially distributed geophysical parameter fields. We present a McMC approach based on a sparse proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) model parameterization that implicitly incorporates the physics of the underlying process. First, we generate training images (TIs) via Monte Carlo simulations of the target process constrained to a conceptual model. We then apply POD to construct basis vectors from the TIs. A small number of basis vectors can represent most of the variability in the TIs, leading to dimensionality reduction. A projection of the starting model into the reduced basis space generates the starting POD coefficients. At each iteration, only coefficients within a specified sampling window are resimulated assuming a Gaussian prior. The sampling window grows at a specified rate as the number of iteration progresses starting from the coefficients corresponding to the highest ranked basis to those of the least informative basis. We found this gradual increment in the sampling window to be more stable compared to resampling all the coefficients right from the first iteration. We demonstrate the performance of the algorithm with both synthetic and lab-scale electrical resistivity imaging of saline tracer experiments, employing the same set of basis vectors for all inversions. We consider two scenarios of unimodal and bimodal plumes. The unimodal plume is consistent with the hypothesis underlying the generation of the TIs whereas bimodality in plume morphology was not theorized. We show that uncertainty quantification using McMC can proceed in the reduced dimensionality space while accounting for the

  1. Structure of peat soils and implications for biogeochemical processes and hydrological flow (United States)

    Rezanezhad, F.; McCarter, C. P. R.; Gharedaghloo, B.; Kleimeier, C.; Milojevic, T.; Liu, H.; Weber, T. K. D.; Price, J. S.; Quinton, W. L.; Lenartz, B.; Van Cappellen, P.


    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon and play major roles in global water, nutrient and biogeochemical cycles. The structure of peatland soils (i.e., peat) are highly complex with unique physical and hydraulic properties; where significant, and only partially reversible, shrinkage occurs during dewatering (including water table fluctuations), compression and/or decomposition. These distinct physical and hydraulic properties controls water flow, which in turn affect reactive and non-reactive solute transport (such as, sorption or degradation) and biogeochemical functions. Additionally, peat further attenuates solute migration through molecular diffusion into the inactive pores of Sphagnum dominated peat. These slow, diffusion-limited solute exchanges between the pore regions may give rise to pore-scale chemical gradients and heterogeneous distributions of microbial habitats and activity in peat soils. Permafrost peat plateaus have the same essential subsurface characteristics as other widely organic soil-covered peatlands, where the hydraulic conductivity is related to the degree of decomposition and soil compression. Increasing levels of decomposition correspond with a reduction of effective pore diameter and consequently restrict water and solute flow (by several orders of magnitude in hydraulic conductivity between the ground surface and a depth of 50 cm). In this presentation, we present the current knowledge of key physical and hydraulic properties related to the structure of globally available peat soils and discuss their implications for water storage, flow and the migration of solutes.

  2. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa. (United States)

    Soti, Valérie; Tran, Annelise; Degenne, Pascal; Chevalier, Véronique; Lo Seen, Danny; Thiongane, Yaya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Guégan, Jean-François; Fontenille, Didier


    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes) involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003). We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends the identification of rainfall patterns favourable for RVFV amplification.

  3. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  4. A Poisson process approximation for generalized K-5 confidence regions (United States)

    Arsham, H.; Miller, D. R.


    One-sided confidence regions for continuous cumulative distribution functions are constructed using empirical cumulative distribution functions and the generalized Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance. The band width of such regions becomes narrower in the right or left tail of the distribution. To avoid tedious computation of confidence levels and critical values, an approximation based on the Poisson process is introduced. This aproximation provides a conservative confidence region; moreover, the approximation error decreases monotonically to 0 as sample size increases. Critical values necessary for implementation are given. Applications are made to the areas of risk analysis, investment modeling, reliability assessment, and analysis of fault tolerant systems.

  5. Effect of Downscaled Forcings and Soil Texture Properties on Hyperresolution Hydrologic Simulations in a Regional Basin in Northwest Mexico (United States)

    Ko, A.; Mascaro, G.; Vivoni, E. R.


    Hyper-resolution ( 10 km) scales. In this study, we address some of the challenges by applying a parallel version of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real Time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) to the Rio Sonora Basin (RSB) in northwest Mexico. The RSB is a large, semiarid watershed ( 21,000 km2) characterized by complex topography and a strong seasonality in vegetation conditions, due to the North American monsoon. We conducted simulations at an average spatial resolution of 88 m over a decadal (2004-2013) period using spatially-distributed forcings from remotely-sensed and reanalysis products. Meteorological forcings were derived from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at the original resolution of 12 km and were downscaled at 1 km with techniques accounting for terrain effects. Two grids of soil properties were created from different sources, including: (i) CONABIO (Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad) at 6 km resolution; and (ii) ISRIC (International Soil Reference Information Centre) at 250 m. Time-varying vegetation parameters were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) composite products. The model was first calibrated and validated through distributed soil moisture data from a network of 20 soil moisture stations during the monsoon season. Next, hydrologic simulations were conducted with five different combinations of coarse and downscaled forcings and soil properties. Outputs in the different configurations were then compared with independent observations of soil moisture, and with estimates of land surface temperature (1 km, daily) and evapotranspiration (1 km, monthly) from MODIS. This study is expected to support the community involved in hyper-resolution hydrologic modeling by identifying the crucial factors that, if available at higher resolution, lead to the largest improvement of the simulation prognostic capability.

  6. Hydrologic Process Regularization for Improved Geoelectrical Monitoring of a Lab-Scale Saline Tracer Experiment (United States)

    Oware, E. K.; Moysey, S. M.


    Regularization stabilizes the geophysical imaging problem resulting from sparse and noisy measurements that render solutions unstable and non-unique. Conventional regularization constraints are, however, independent of the physics of the underlying process and often produce smoothed-out tomograms with mass underestimation. Cascaded time-lapse (CTL) is a widely used reconstruction technique for monitoring wherein a tomogram obtained from the background dataset is employed as starting model for the inversion of subsequent time-lapse datasets. In contrast, a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-constrained inversion framework enforces physics-based regularization based upon prior understanding of the expected evolution of state variables. The physics-based constraints are represented in the form of POD basis vectors. The basis vectors are constructed from numerically generated training images (TIs) that mimic the desired process. The target can be reconstructed from a small number of selected basis vectors, hence, there is a reduction in the number of inversion parameters compared to the full dimensional space. The inversion involves finding the optimal combination of the selected basis vectors conditioned on the geophysical measurements. We apply the algorithm to 2-D lab-scale saline transport experiments with electrical resistivity (ER) monitoring. We consider two transport scenarios with one and two mass injection points evolving into unimodal and bimodal plume morphologies, respectively. The unimodal plume is consistent with the assumptions underlying the generation of the TIs, whereas bimodality in plume morphology was not conceptualized. We compare difference tomograms retrieved from POD with those obtained from CTL. Qualitative comparisons of the difference tomograms with images of their corresponding dye plumes suggest that POD recovered more compact plumes in contrast to those of CTL. While mass recovery generally deteriorated with increasing number of time

  7. Hydrologic controls on nitrogen cycling processes and functional gene abundance in sediments of a groundwater flow-through lake (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun; LeBlanc, Denis R.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Conaway, Christopher; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Moon, Hee Sun; Kent, Douglas B.


    The fate and transport of inorganic nitrogen (N) is a critically important issue for human and aquatic ecosystem health because discharging N-contaminated groundwater can foul drinking water and cause algal blooms. Factors controlling N-processing were examined in sediments at three sites with contrasting hydrologic regimes at a lake on Cape Cod, MA. These factors included water chemistry, seepage rates and direction of groundwater flow, and the abundance and potential rates of activity of N-cycling microbial communities. Genes coding for denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and nitrification were identified at all sites regardless of flow direction or groundwater dissolved oxygen concentrations. Flow direction was, however, a controlling factor in the potential for N-attenuation via denitrification in the sediments. Potential rates of denitrification varied from 6 to 4500 pmol N/g/h from the inflow to the outflow side of the lake, owing to fundamental differences in the supply of labile organic matter. The results of laboratory incubations suggested that when anoxia and limiting labile organic matter prevailed, the potential existed for concomitant anammox and denitrification. Where oxic lake water was downwelling, potential rates of nitrification at shallow depths were substantial (1640 pmol N/g/h). Rates of anammox, denitrification, and nitrification may be linked to rates of organic N-mineralization, serving to increase N-mobility and transport downgradient.

  8. Distributed simulation of long-term hydrological processes in a medium-sized periurban catchment under changing land use and rainwater management. (United States)

    Labbas, Mériem; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Kralisch, Sven


    Growing urbanization and related anthropogenic processes have a high potential to influence hydrological process dynamics. Typical consequences are an increase of surface imperviousness and modifications of water flow paths due to artificial channels and barriers (combined and separated system, sewer overflow device, roads, ditches, etc.). Periurban catchments, at the edge of large cities, are especially affected by fast anthropogenic modifications. They usually consist of a combination of natural areas, rural areas with dispersed settlements and urban areas mostly covered by built zones and spots of natural surfaces. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) and the Floods Directive (2007), integrated and sustainable solutions are needed to reduce flooding risks and river pollution at the scale of urban conglomerations or whole catchments. Their thorough management requires models able to assess the vulnerability of the territory and to compare the impact of different rainwater management options and planning issues. To address this question, we propose a methodology based on a multi-scale distributed hydrological modelling approach. It aims at quantifying the impact of ongoing urbanization and stormwater management on the long-term hydrological cycle in medium-sized periurban watershed. This method focuses on the understanding and formalization of dominant periurban hydrological processes from small scales (few ha to few km2) to larger scales (few hundred km2). The main objectives are to 1) simulate both urban and rural hydrological processes and 2) test the effects of different long-term land use and water management scenarios. The method relies on several tools and data: a distributed hydrological model adapted to the characteristics of periurban areas, land use and land cover maps from different dates (past, present, future) and information about rainwater management collected from local authorities. For the application of the method, the

  9. Combining hydrologic and groundwater modelling to characterize a regional aquifer system within a rift setting (Gidabo River Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift) (United States)

    Birk, Steffen; Mechal, Abraham; Wagner, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried; Mogessie, Aberra


    The development of groundwater resources within the Ethiopian Rift is complicated by the strong physiographic contrasts between the rift floor and the highland and by the manifold hydrogeological setting composed of volcanic rocks of different type and age that are intersected by numerous faults. Hydrogeochemical and isotope data from various regions within the Ethiopian Rift suggest that the aquifers within the semi-arid rift floor receive a significant contribution of groundwater flow from the humid highland. For example, the major ion composition of groundwater samples from Gidabo River Basin (3302 km²) in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift reveals a mixing trend from the highland toward the rift floor; moreover, the stable isotopes of water, deuterium and O-18, of the rift-floor samples indicate a component recharged in the highland. This work aims to assess if the hydrological and hydrogeological data available for Gidabo River Basin is consistent with these findings and to characterize the regional aquifer system within the rift setting. For this purpose, a two-step approach is employed: First, the semi-distributed hydrological model SWAT is used to obtain an estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge within the watershed; second, the numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW is employed to infer aquifer properties and groundwater flow components. The hydrological model was calibrated and validated using discharge data from three stream gauging stations within the watershed (Mechal et al., Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.ejrh.2015.09.001). The resulting recharge distribution exhibits a strong decrease from the highland, where the mean annual recharge amounts to several hundred millimetres, to the rift floor, where annual recharge largely is around 100 mm and below. Using this recharge distribution as input, a two-dimensional steady-state groundwater flow model was calibr