WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional high-resolution map

  1. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  2. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  3. High-resolution temporal and regional mapping of MAPT expression and splicing in human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Marco M; Farrell, Kurt; Kim, SoongHo; Bowles, Kathryn R; Fowkes, Mary E; Raj, Towfique; Crary, John F

    2018-01-01

    The microtubule associated protein tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies suggest that tau also plays a role in disorders of neuronal connectivity, including epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder. Animal studies have shown that the MAPT gene, which codes for the tau protein, undergoes complex pre-mRNA alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms during brain development. Human data, particularly on temporal and regional variation in tau splicing during development are however lacking. In this study, we present the first detailed examination of the temporal and regional sequence of MAPT alternative splicing in the developing human brain. We used a novel computational analysis of large transcriptomic datasets (total n = 502 patients), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting to examine tau expression and splicing in post-mortem human fetal, pediatric and adult brains. We found that MAPT exons 2 and 10 undergo abrupt shifts in expression during the perinatal period that are unique in the canonical human microtubule-associated protein family, while exon 3 showed small but significant temporal variation. Tau isoform expression may be a marker of neuronal maturation, temporally correlated with the onset of axonal growth. Immature brain regions such as the ganglionic eminence and rhombic lip had very low tau expression, but within more mature regions, there was little variation in tau expression or splicing. We thus demonstrate an abrupt, evolutionarily conserved shift in tau isoform expression during the human perinatal period that may be due to tau expression in maturing neurons. Alternative splicing of the MAPT pre-mRNA may play a vital role in normal brain development across multiple species and provides a basis for future investigations into the developmental and pathological functions of the tau protein.

  4. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  5. Geomorphology and vegetation mapping the ice-free terrains of the Western Antarctic Peninsula region using very high resolution imagery from an UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, G.; Mora, C.; Pina, P.; Bandeira, L.; Hong, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the Earth's regions with a fastest warming signal since the 1950's with an increase of over +2.5 ºC in MAAT. Significant changes have been reported for glaciers, ice-shelves, sea-ice and also for the permafrost environment. Mapping and monitoring the ice-free areas of the WAP has been until recently limited by the available aerial photo surveys, but also by the scarce high resolution satellite imagery (e.g. QuickBird, WorldView, etc.) that are seriously constrained by the high cloudiness of the region. Recent developments in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's), which have seen significant technological advances and price reduction in the last few years, allow for its systematical use for mapping and monitoring in remote environments. In the framework of projects PERMANTAR-3 (PTDC/AAG-GLO/3908/2012 - FCT) and 3DAntártida (Ciência Viva), we complement traditional terrain surveying and mapping, satellite remote sensing (SAR and optical) and D-GPS deformation monitoring, with the application of an UAV. In this communication, we present the results from the application of a Sensefly ebee UAV in mapping the vegetation and geomorphological processes (e.g. sorted circles), as well as for digital elevation model generation in a test site in Barton Pen., King George Isl.. The UAV is a lightweight (ci. 700g) aircraft, with a 96 cm wingspan, which is portable and easy to transport. It allows for up to 40 min flight time, with application of RGB or NIR cameras. We have tested the ebee successfully with winds up to 10 m/s and obtained aerial photos with a ground resolution of 4 cm/pixel. The digital orthophotomaps, high resolution DEM's together with field observations have allowed for deriving geomorphological maps with unprecedented detail and accuracy, providing new insight into the controls on the spatial distribution of geomorphological processes. The talk will focus on the first results from the field surveys of February and

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  7. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  8. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  9. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-04: Automatic Skin-Dose Mapping for An Angiographic System with a Region-Of-Interest, High-Resolution Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, S; Rana, V [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center (United States); Setlur Nagesh, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center (United States); Ionita, C [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States); Rudin, S [Department of Radiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States); Bednarek, D [Department of Radiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Our real-time skin dose tracking system (DTS) has been upgraded to monitor dose for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF), a high-resolution, small field-of-view x-ray detector. Methods: The MAF has been mounted on a changer on a clinical C-Arm gantry so it can be used interchangeably with the standard flat-panel detector (FPD) during neuro-interventional procedures when high resolution is needed in a region-of-interest. To monitor patient skin dose when using the MAF, our DTS has been modified to automatically account for the change in scatter for the very small MAF FOV and to provide separated dose distributions for each detector. The DTS is able to provide a color-coded mapping of the cumulative skin dose on a 3D graphic model of the patient. To determine the correct entrance skin exposure to be applied by the DTS, a correction factor was determined by measuring the exposure at the entrance surface of a skull phantom with an ionization chamber as a function of entrance beam size for various beam filters and kVps. Entrance exposure measurements included primary radiation, patient backscatter and table forward scatter. To allow separation of the dose from each detector, a parameter log is kept that allows a replay of the procedure exposure events and recalculation of the dose components.The graphic display can then be constructed showing the dose distribution from the MAF and FPD separately or together. Results: The DTS is able to provide separate displays of dose for the MAF and FPD with field-size specific scatter corrections. These measured corrections change from about 49% down to 10% when changing from the FPD to the MAF. Conclusion: The upgraded DTS allows identification of the patient skin dose delivered when using each detector in order to achieve improved dose management as well as to facilitate peak skin-dose reduction through dose spreading. Research supported in part by Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation and NIH Grants R43FD0158401, R44FD

  10. A gene-based high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework for genome sequence assembly of a bovine chromosome 6 region associated with QTL for growth, body composition, and milk performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. Results Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. Screening the available bovine genome sequence resources, a total of 73 loci could be assigned to sequence contigs, which were already identified as specific for BTA6. For 43 loci, corresponding sequence contigs, which were not yet placed on the bovine genome assembly, were identified. In addition, the improved potential of this high-resolution RH map for BTA6 with respect to comparative mapping was demonstrated. Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. Conclusion The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and

  11. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  12. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  13. A Tool for Creating Regionally Calibrated High-Resolution Land Cover Data Sets for the West African Sahel: Using Machine Learning to Scale Up Hand-Classified Maps in a Data-Sparse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, M.; Van Gordon, S.; Min, A.; Sullivan, J.; Weiner, Z.; Tappan, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using support vector machine (SVM) learning and high-accuracy hand-classified maps, we have developed a publicly available land cover classification tool for the West African Sahel. Our classifier produces high-resolution and regionally calibrated land cover maps for the Sahel, representing a significant contribution to the data available for this region. Global land cover products are unreliable for the Sahel, and accurate land cover data for the region are sparse. To address this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Regional Center for Agriculture, Hydrology and Meteorology (AGRHYMET) in Niger produced high-quality land cover maps for the region via hand-classification of Landsat images. This method produces highly accurate maps, but the time and labor required constrain the spatial and temporal resolution of the data products. By using these hand-classified maps alongside SVM techniques, we successfully increase the resolution of the land cover maps by 1-2 orders of magnitude, from 2km-decadal resolution to 30m-annual resolution. These high-resolution regionally calibrated land cover datasets, along with the classifier we developed to produce them, lay the foundation for major advances in studies of land surface processes in the region. These datasets will provide more accurate inputs for food security modeling, hydrologic modeling, analyses of land cover change and climate change adaptation efforts. The land cover classification tool we have developed will be publicly available for use in creating additional West Africa land cover datasets with future remote sensing data and can be adapted for use in other parts of the world.

  14. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  15. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  16. High-resolution mapping of forest carbon stocks in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Asner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution mapping of tropical forest carbon stocks can assist forest management and improve implementation of large-scale carbon retention and enhancement programs. Previous high-resolution approaches have relied on field plot and/or light detection and ranging (LiDAR samples of aboveground carbon density, which are typically upscaled to larger geographic areas using stratification maps. Such efforts often rely on detailed vegetation maps to stratify the region for sampling, but existing tropical forest maps are often too coarse and field plots too sparse for high-resolution carbon assessments. We developed a top-down approach for high-resolution carbon mapping in a 16.5 million ha region (> 40% of the Colombian Amazon – a remote landscape seldom documented. We report on three advances for large-scale carbon mapping: (i employing a universal approach to airborne LiDAR-calibration with limited field data; (ii quantifying environmental controls over carbon densities; and (iii developing stratification- and regression-based approaches for scaling up to regions outside of LiDAR coverage. We found that carbon stocks are predicted by a combination of satellite-derived elevation, fractional canopy cover and terrain ruggedness, allowing upscaling of the LiDAR samples to the full 16.5 million ha region. LiDAR-derived carbon maps have 14% uncertainty at 1 ha resolution, and the regional map based on stratification has 28% uncertainty in any given hectare. High-resolution approaches with quantifiable pixel-scale uncertainties will provide the most confidence for monitoring changes in tropical forest carbon stocks. Improved confidence will allow resource managers and decision makers to more rapidly and effectively implement actions that better conserve and utilize forests in tropical regions.

  17. The high resolution mapping of the Venice Lagoon tidal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Kruss, Aleksandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Trincardi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the direct observation of the ocean is to achieve a high resolution mapping of its seafloor morphology and benthic habitats. So far, sonars have mapped just 0.05% of the ocean floor with less than ten-meter resolution. The recent efforts of the scientific community have been devoted towards the mapping of both Deep Ocean and very shallow coastal areas. Coastal and transitional environments in particular undergo strong morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure. Nowadays, only about 5% of the seafloor of these environments † have been mapped: the shallowness of these environments has prevented the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present results and case studies of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea with a surface of about 550 km2 and with an average depth of about 1 m. In the last century, the morphological and ecological properties of the lagoon changed dramatically: the surface of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon are deepening with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. Moreover, major engineering interventions are currently ongoing at the inlets (MOSE project). These changes at the inlets could affect substantially the lagoon environment. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice, ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to collect high resolution (0.5 m) bathymetry of key study areas such as the tidal inlets and channels. Following a broad

  18. Coastal habitat mapping in the Aegean Sea using high resolution orthophoto maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Papakonstantinou, Apostolos; Doukari, Michaela; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Makri, Despina; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2017-09-01

    The significance of coastal habitat mapping lies in the need to prevent from anthropogenic interventions and other factors. Until 2015, Landsat-8 (30m) imagery were used as medium spatial resolution satellite imagery. So far, Sentinel-2 satellite imagery is very useful for more detailed regional scale mapping. However, the use of high resolution orthophoto maps, which are determined from UAV data, is expected to improve the mapping accuracy. This is due to small spatial resolution of the orthophoto maps (30 cm). This paper outlines the integration of UAS for data acquisition and Structure from Motion (SfM) pipeline for the visualization of selected coastal areas in the Aegean Sea. Additionally, the produced orthophoto maps analyzed through an object-based image analysis (OBIA) and nearest-neighbor classification for mapping the coastal habitats. Classification classes included the main general habitat types, i.e. seagrass, soft bottom, and hard bottom The developed methodology applied at the Koumbara beach (Ios Island - Greece). Results showed that UAS's data revealed the sub-bottom complexity in large shallow areas since they provide such information in the spatial resolution that permits the mapping of seagrass meadows with extreme detail. The produced habitat vectors are ideal as reference data for studies with satellite data of lower spatial resolution.

  19. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  20. Mapping mountain meadow with high resolution and polarimetric SAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bangsen; Li, Zhen; Xu, Juan; Fu, Sitao; Liu, Jiuli

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to map the large grassland in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau with the high resolution polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) imagery. When PolSAR imagery is used for land cover classification, the brightness of a SAR image is affected by topography due to varying projection between ground and image coordinates. The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) we first extend the theory of SAR terrain correction to the polarimetric case, to utilize the entire available polarimetric signature, where correction is performed explicitly based on a matrix format like covariance matrix. (2) Next, the orthoectified PolSAR is applied to classify mountain meadow and investigate the potential of PolSAR in mapping grassland. In this paper, the gamma naught radiometric correction estimates the local illuminated area at each grid point in the radar geometry. Then, each element of the coherency matrix is divided by the local area to produce a polarimetric product. Secondly, the impact of radiometric correction upon classification accuracy is investigated. A supervised classification is performed on the orthorectified Radarsat-2 PolSAR to map the spatial distribution of meadow and evaluate monitoring capabilities of mountain meadow

  1. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  2. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas.We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps.We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  3. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of 5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  4. Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Rodriguez, Marko A.; Balakireva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    Background Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantages of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science. Methodology Over the course of 2007 and 2008, we collected nearly 1 billion user interactions recorded by the scholarly web portals of some of the most significant publishers, aggregators and institutional consortia. The resulting reference data set covers a significant part of world-wide use of scholarly web portals in 2006, and provides a balanced coverage of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. A journal clickstream model, i.e. a first-order Markov chain, was extracted from the sequences of user interactions in the logs. The clickstream model was validated by comparing it to the Getty Research Institute's Architecture and Art Thesaurus. The resulting model was visualized as a journal network that outlines the relationships between various scientific domains and clarifies the connection of the social sciences and humanities to the natural sciences. Conclusions Maps of science resulting from large-scale clickstream data provide a detailed, contemporary view of scientific activity and correct the underrepresentation of the social sciences and humanities that is commonly found in citation data. PMID:19277205

  5. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Hagberg, Aric; Bettencourt, Luis; Chute, Ryan; Rodriguez, Marko A; Balakireva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantages of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science. Over the course of 2007 and 2008, we collected nearly 1 billion user interactions recorded by the scholarly web portals of some of the most significant publishers, aggregators and institutional consortia. The resulting reference data set covers a significant part of world-wide use of scholarly web portals in 2006, and provides a balanced coverage of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. A journal clickstream model, i.e. a first-order Markov chain, was extracted from the sequences of user interactions in the logs. The clickstream model was validated by comparing it to the Getty Research Institute's Architecture and Art Thesaurus. The resulting model was visualized as a journal network that outlines the relationships between various scientific domains and clarifies the connection of the social sciences and humanities to the natural sciences. Maps of science resulting from large-scale clickstream data provide a detailed, contemporary view of scientific activity and correct the underrepresentation of the social sciences and humanities that is commonly found in citation data.

  6. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Bollen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantages of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science. METHODOLOGY: Over the course of 2007 and 2008, we collected nearly 1 billion user interactions recorded by the scholarly web portals of some of the most significant publishers, aggregators and institutional consortia. The resulting reference data set covers a significant part of world-wide use of scholarly web portals in 2006, and provides a balanced coverage of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. A journal clickstream model, i.e. a first-order Markov chain, was extracted from the sequences of user interactions in the logs. The clickstream model was validated by comparing it to the Getty Research Institute's Architecture and Art Thesaurus. The resulting model was visualized as a journal network that outlines the relationships between various scientific domains and clarifies the connection of the social sciences and humanities to the natural sciences. CONCLUSIONS: Maps of science resulting from large-scale clickstream data provide a detailed, contemporary view of scientific activity and correct the underrepresentation of the social sciences and humanities that is commonly found in citation data.

  7. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Joosten, Hans; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has currently been recognized in international policy - since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes e.g. for the East African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Zambia. Furthermore, we

  8. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  9. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  10. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  11. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  12. Advanced Ecosystem Mapping Techniques for Large Arctic Study Domains Using Calibrated High-Resolution Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macander, M. J.; Frost, G. V., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Regional-scale mapping of vegetation and other ecosystem properties has traditionally relied on medium-resolution remote sensing such as Landsat (30 m) and MODIS (250 m). Yet, the burgeoning availability of high-resolution (environments has not been previously evaluated. Image segmentation, or object-based image analysis, automatically partitions high-resolution imagery into homogeneous image regions that can then be analyzed based on spectral, textural, and contextual information. We applied eCognition software to delineate waterbodies and vegetation classes, in combination with other techniques. Texture metrics were evaluated to determine the feasibility of using high-resolution imagery to algorithmically characterize periglacial surface forms (e.g., ice-wedge polygons), which are an important physical characteristic of permafrost-dominated regions but which cannot be distinguished by medium-resolution remote sensing. These advanced mapping techniques provide products which can provide essential information supporting a broad range of ecosystem science and land-use planning applications in northern Alaska and elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic.

  13. Force scanning: a rapid, high-resolution approach for spatial mechanical property mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, E M

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to co-localize mechanical properties and topographical features through property mapping techniques. The most common approach for testing biological materials at the microscale and nanoscale is force mapping, which involves taking individual force curves at discrete sites across a region of interest. The limitations of force mapping include long testing times and low resolution. While newer AFM methodologies, like modulated scanning and torsional oscillation, circumvent this problem, their adoption for biological materials has been limited. This could be due to their need for specialized software algorithms and/or hardware. The objective of this study is to develop a novel force scanning technique using AFM to rapidly capture high-resolution topographical images of soft biological materials while simultaneously quantifying their mechanical properties. Force scanning is a straightforward methodology applicable to a wide range of materials and testing environments, requiring no special modification to standard AFMs. Essentially, if a contact-mode image can be acquired, then force scanning can be used to produce a spatial modulus map. The current study first validates this technique using agarose gels, comparing results to ones achieved by the standard force mapping approach. Biologically relevant demonstrations are then presented for high-resolution modulus mapping of individual cells, cell-cell interfaces, and articular cartilage tissue.

  14. Integration of In Situ Radon Modeling with High Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing for Mapping and Quantifying Local to Regional Flow and Transport of Submarine Groundwater Discharge from Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, C. R.; Kennedy, J. J.; Dulaiova, H.; Kelly, J. L.; Lucey, P. G.; Lee, E.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a principal conduit for huge volumes of fresh groundwater loss and is a key transport mechanism for nutrient and contaminant pollution to coastal zones worldwide. However, the volumes and spatially and temporally variable nature of SGD is poorly known and requires rapid and high-resolution data acquisition at the scales in which it is commonly observed. Airborne thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing, using high-altitude manned aircraft and low-altitude remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or "Drones") are uniquely qualified for this task, and applicable wherever 0.1°C temperature contrasts exist between discharging and receiving waters. We report on the use of these technologies in combination with in situ radon model studies of SGD volume and nutrient flux from three of the largest Hawaiian Islands. High altitude manned aircraft results produce regional (~300m wide x 100s km coastline) 0.5 to 3.2 m-resolution sea-surface temperature maps accurate to 0.7°C that show point-source and diffuse flow in exquisite detail. Using UAVs offers cost-effective advantages of higher spatial and temporal resolution and instantaneous deployments that can be coordinated simultaneously with any ground-based effort. We demonstrate how TIR-mapped groundwater discharge plume areas may be linearly and highly correlated to in situ groundwater fluxes. We also illustrate how in situ nutrient data may be incorporated into infrared imagery to produce nutrient distribution maps of regional worth. These results illustrate the potential for volumetric quantification and up-scaling of small- to regional-scale SGD. These methodologies provide a tremendous advantage for identifying and differentiating spring-fed, point-sourced, and/or diffuse groundwater discharge into oceans, estuaries, and streams. The integrative techniques are also important precursors for developing best-use and cost-effective strategies for otherwise time-consuming in

  15. Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buongiorno Nardelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive equation model, with particular attention to the accuracy of the vertical velocity field as estimated through the Q vector formulation of the omega equation. The project focused on a test case, covering the region where the Gulf Stream separates from the US East Coast. This work demonstrated that innovative methods for the high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations can be used to build the next generations of operational observation-based products.

  16. High resolution skin colorimetry, strain mapping and mechanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Schreder, A; Docquier, V; Piérard, G E

    2010-08-01

    Skin colours are notoriously different between individuals. They are governed by ethnicities and phototypes, and further influenced by a variety of factors including photoexposures and sustained mechanical stress. Indeed, mechanobiology is a feature affecting the epidermal melanization. High-resolution epiluminescence colorimetry helps in deciphering the effects of forces generated by Langer's lines or relaxed skin tension lines on the melanocyte activity. The same procedure shows a prominent laddering pattern of melanization in striae distensae contrasting with the regular honeycomb pattern in the surrounding skin.

  17. High resolution mapping of urban areas using SPOT-5 images and ancillary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sertel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to propose new rule sets to be used for object based classification of SPOT-5 images to accurately create detailed urban land cover/use maps. In addition to SPOT-5 satellite images, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI maps, cadastral maps, Openstreet maps, road maps and Land Cover maps, were also integrated into classification to increase the accuracy of resulting maps. Gaziantep city, one of the highly populated cities of Turkey with different landscape patterns was selected as the study area. Different rule sets involving spectral, spatial and geometric characteristics were developed to be used for object based classification of 2.5 m resolution Spot-5 satellite images to automatically create urban map of the region. Twenty different land cover/use classes obtained from European Urban Atlas project were applied and an automatic classification approach was suggested for high resolution urban map creation and updating. Integration of different types of data into the classification decision tree increased the performance and accuracy of the suggested approach. The accuracy assessment results illustrated that with the usage of newly proposed rule set algorithms in object-based classification, urban areas represented with seventeen different sub-classes could be mapped with 94 % or higher overall accuracy.

  18. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D.; Bate, N. F.

    2014-01-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/

  19. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bate, N. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  20. Accuracy assessment of cadastral maps using high resolution aerial photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwan Imzahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadastral map is a map that shows the boundaries and ownership of land parcels. Some cadastral maps show additional details, such as survey district names, unique identifying numbers for parcels, certificate of title numbers, positions of existing structures, section or lot numbers and their respective areas, adjoining and adjacent street names, selected boundary dimensions and references to prior maps. In Iraq / Baghdad Governorate, the main problem is that the cadastral maps are georeferenced to a local geodetic datum known as Clark 1880 while the widely used reference system for navigation purpose (GPS and GNSS and uses Word Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84 as a base reference datum. The objective of this paper is to produce a cadastral map with scale 1:500 (metric scale by using aerial photographs 2009 with high ground spatial resolution 10 cm reference WGS84 system. The accuracy assessment for the cadastral maps updating approach to urban large scale cadastral maps (1:500-1:1000 was ± 0.115 meters; which complies with the American Social for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Standards (ASPRS.

  1. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. High resolution hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor maps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract presents a method for creating hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor reconstructions at centimeter scale grid resolutions with robotic vehicles. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are two common sensing modalities with complementary strengths that are well suited for data fusion. We have recently developed an automated two stage pipeline to create such maps. The steps can be broken down as navigation refinement and map construction. During navigation refinement a graph-based optimization algorithm is used to align 3D point clouds created with both the multibeam sonar and stereo cameras. The process combats the typical growth in navigation error that has a detrimental affect on map fidelity and typically introduces artifacts at small grid sizes. During this process we are able to automatically register local point clouds created by each sensor to themselves and to each other where they overlap in a survey pattern. The process also estimates the sensor offsets, such as heading, pitch and roll, that describe how each sensor is mounted to the vehicle. The end results of the navigation step is a refined vehicle trajectory that ensures the points clouds from each sensor are consistently aligned, and the individual sensor offsets. In the mapping step, grid cells in the map are selectively populated by choosing data points from each sensor in an automated manner. The selection process is designed to pick points that preserve the best characteristics of each sensor and honor some specific map quality criteria to reduce outliers and ghosting. In general, the algorithm selects dense 3D stereo points in areas of high texture and point density. In areas where the stereo vision is poor, such as in a scene with low contrast or texture, multibeam sonar points are inserted in the map. This process is automated and results in a hybrid map populated with data from both sensors. Additional cross modality checks are made to reject outliers in a robust manner. The final

  3. Estimated Depth Maps of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Derived from High Resolution IKONOS Satellite Imagery (Draft)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Estimated shallow-water, depth maps were produced using rule-based, semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery for nine locations in the...

  4. Developing a high-resolution regional atmospheric reanalysis for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher; Fox-Hughes, Paul; Su, Chun-Hsu; Jakob, Dörte; Kociuba, Greg; Eisenberg, Nathan; Steinle, Peter; Harris, Rebecca; Corney, Stuart; Love, Peter; Remenyi, Tomas; Chladil, Mark; Bally, John; Bindoff, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    A dynamically consistent, long-term atmospheric reanalysis can be used to support high-quality assessments of environmental risk and likelihood of extreme events. Most reanalyses are presently based on coarse-scale global systems that are not suitable for regional assessments in fire risk, water and natural resources, amongst others. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology is currently working to close this gap by producing a high-resolution reanalysis over the Australian and New Zealand region to construct a sequence of atmospheric conditions at sub-hourly intervals over the past 25 years from 1990. The Australia reanalysis consists of a convective-scale analysis nested within a 12 km regional-scale reanalysis, which is bounded by a coarse-scale ERA-Interim reanalysis that provides the required boundary and initial conditions. We use an unchanging atmospheric modelling suite based on the UERRA system used at the UK Met Office and the more recent version of the Bureau of Meteorology's operational numerical prediction model used in ACCESS-R (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator-Regional system). An advanced (4-dimensional variational) data assimilation scheme is used to optimally combine model physics with multiple observations from aircrafts, sondes, surface observations and satellites to create a best estimate of state of the atmosphere over a 6-hour moving window. This analysis is in turn used to drive a higher-resolution (1.5 km) downscaling model over selected subdomains within Australia, currently eastern New South Wales and Tasmania, with the capability to support this anywhere in the Australia-New Zealand domain. The temporal resolution of the gridded analysis fields for both the regional and higher-resolution subdomains are generally one hour, with many fields such as 10 m winds and 2 m temperatures available every 10 minutes. The reanalysis also produces many other variables that include wind, temperature, moisture, pressure, cloud cover

  5. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  6. High-resolution physical map for chromosome 16q12.1-q13, the Blau syndrome locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonavita Gina

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Blau syndrome (MIM 186580, an autosomal dominant granulomatous disease, was previously mapped to chromosome 16p12-q21. However, inconsistent physical maps of the region and consequently an unknown order of microsatellite markers, hampered us from further refining the genetic locus for the Blau syndrome. To address this problem, we constructed our own high-resolution physical map for the Blau susceptibility region. Results We generated a high-resolution physical map that provides more than 90% coverage of a refined Blau susceptibility region. The map consists of four contigs of sequence tagged site-based bacterial artificial chromosomes with a total of 124 bacterial artificial chromosomes, and spans approximately 7.5 Mbp; however, three gaps still exist in this map with sizes of 425, 530 and 375 kbp, respectively, estimated from radiation hybrid mapping. Conclusions Our high-resolution map will assist genetic studies of loci in the interval from D16S3080, near D16S409, and D16S408 (16q12.1 to 16q13.

  7. An atlas of high-resolution IRAS maps on nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Walter

    1993-01-01

    An atlas of far-infrared IRAS maps with near 1 arcmin angular resolution of 30 optically large galaxies is presented. The high-resolution IRAS maps were produced with the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM) image construction and enhancement technique developed at IPAC. The MCM technique, which recovers the spatial information contained in the overlapping detector data samples of the IRAS all-sky survey scans, is outlined and tests to verify the structural reliability and photometric integrity of the high-resolution maps are presented. The infrared structure revealed in individual galaxies is discussed. The atlas complements the IRAS Nearby Galaxy High-Resolution Image Atlas, the high-resolution galaxy images encoded in FITS format, which is provided to the astronomical community as an IPAC product.

  8. High-resolution hyperspectral ground mapping for robotic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Frank; Fuchs, Christian; Paulus, Dietrich

    2018-04-01

    Recently released hyperspectral cameras use large, mosaiced filter patterns to capture different ranges of the light's spectrum in each of the camera's pixels. Spectral information is sparse, as it is not fully available in each location. We propose an online method that avoids explicit demosaicing of camera images by fusing raw, unprocessed, hyperspectral camera frames inside an ego-centric ground surface map. It is represented as a multilayer heightmap data structure, whose geometry is estimated by combining a visual odometry system with either dense 3D reconstruction or 3D laser data. We use a publicly available dataset to show that our approach is capable of constructing an accurate hyperspectral representation of the surface surrounding the vehicle. We show that in many cases our approach increases spatial resolution over a demosaicing approach, while providing the same amount of spectral information.

  9. MBARI Mapping AUV: A High-Resolution Deep Ocean Seafloor Mapping Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Thomas, H.; McEwen, R.; Henthorn, R.; McGill, P.; Thompson, D.; Sibenac, M.; Jensen, S.; Shane, F.; Hamilton, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is developing an autonomous seafloor mapping capability for deep ocean science applications. The MBARI Mapping AUV is a 0.53 m (21 in) diameter, 5.1 m (16.7 ft) long, Dorado-class vehicle designed to carry four mapping sonars. The primary sensor is a 200 kHz multibeam sonar producing swath bathymetry and sidescan. In addition, the vehicle carries 100 kHz and 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonars, and a 2-16 kHz sweep chirp subbottom profiler. Navigation and attitude data are obtained from an inertial navigation system (INS) incorporating a ring laser gyro and a 300 kHz Doppler velocity log (DVL). The vehicle also includes acoustic modem, ultra-short baseline navigation, and long-baseline navigation systems. The Mapping AUV is powered by 6 kWhr of Li-polymer batteries, providing expected mission duration of 12 hours at a typical speed of 1.5 m/s. All components of the vehicle are rated to 6000 m depth, allowing MBARI to conduct high-resolution mapping of the deep-ocean seafloor. The sonar package is also be mountable on ROV Ventana, allowing surveys at altitudes less than 20 m at topographically challenging sites. The vehicle was assembled and extensively tested during 2004; this year we are commencing operations for MBARI science projects while continuing the process of testing and integrating the complete suite of sensors and systems. MBARI is beginning to use this capability to observe the changing morphology of dynamic systems such as submarine canyons and active slumps, to map deep-water benthic habitats at resolutions comparable to ROV and submersible observations, to provide basemaps for ROV dives, and to provide high resolution bathymetry and subbottom profiles as part of a variety of projects requiring knowledge of the seafloor. We will present initial results from surveys in and around Monterey Canyon, including high resolution repeat surveys of four sites along the canyon axis.

  10. Building high resolution genetic variation map for Mongolians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaosen

    the paternal or maternal transmission, or carrying out the genetic disease studies based on the data of a small number of variants or partial genomic regions. In the study plan, first, we collected the genomic DNA of a representative Mongolian male individual, performed high coverage whole genome sequencing...... the pigmentation gene OCA2 play an important role in the convergent skin lightening of East Asians during recent human evolution. However, the genomics research on Mongolians, which attract strong research interests, still remains the levels of using the data of Y chromosome or Mitochondrial genome to explore...... the individual possesses a risk allele that may cause carnitine deficiency. Y haplogroup analysis located the paternal inheritance to the clade D3a, which is the one of oldest lineage in East Asians and present the most common in Tibeto- Burman populations. Through final population genetics analyses, we roughly...

  11. TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING IN TAJIKISTAN USING HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kaczynski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available European Commission funded project entitled: "Support to the mapping and certification capacity of the Agency of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography" in Tajikistan was run by FINNMAP FM-International and Human Dynamics from Nov. 2006 to June 2011. The Agency of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography is the state agency responsible for development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of state policies on land tenure and land management, including the on-going land reform and registration of land use rights. The specific objective was to support and strengthen the professional capacity of the "Fazo" Institute in the field of satellite geodesy, digital photogrammetry, advanced digital satellite image processing of high resolution satellite data and digital cartography. Lectures and on-the-job trainings for the personnel of "Fazo" and Agency in satellite geodesy, digital photogrammetry, cartography and the use of high resolution satellite data for cadastral mapping have been organized. Standards and Quality control system for all data and products have been elaborated and implemented in the production line. Technical expertise and trainings in geodesy, photogrammetry and satellite image processing to the World Bank project "Land Registration and Cadastre System for Sustainable Agriculture" has also been completed in Tajikistan. The new map projection was chosen and the new unclassified geodetic network has been established for all of the country in which all agricultural parcel boundaries are being mapped. IKONOS, QuickBird and WorldView1 panchromatic data have been used for orthophoto generation. Average accuracy of space triangulation of non-standard (long up to 90km satellite images of QuickBird Pan and IKONOS Pan on ICPs: RMSEx = 0.5m and RMSEy = 0.5m have been achieved. Accuracy of digital orthophoto map is RMSExy = 1.0m. More then two and half thousands of digital orthophoto map sheets in the scale of 1:5000 with pixel size 0.5m

  12. High-resolution mapping of European fishing pressure on the benthic habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Bastardie, Francois; Hintzen, Niels T.

    effort. Consequently, most logbook information is not well suited for quantitative estimation of seafloor impact (swept area and impact severity) of the different gears and trips. We present a method to overcome this information deficiency of official statistics and develop high-resolution large......) and gear width estimates were assigned to individual interpolated vessel tracks based on VMS data. The outcome was European wide highresolution fishing intensity maps (total yearly swept area within grid cells of 1*1 minutes longitude and latitude) for 2010, 2011 and 2012. Finally the high-resolution...... fishing pressure maps were overlaid with existing marine habitat maps to identify areas of potential ecosystem service conflicts...

  13. Machine vision-based high-resolution weed mapping and patch-sprayer performance simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, L.; Tian, L.F.; Steward, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental machine vision-based patch-sprayer was developed. This sprayer was primarily designed to do real-time weed density estimation and variable herbicide application rate control. However, the sprayer also had the capability to do high-resolution weed mapping if proper mapping techniques

  14. A high-resolution comparative RH map of porcine chromosome (SSC) 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattink, A.P.; Faivre, M.; Jungerius, B.J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Harlizius, B.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution comparative map was constructed for porcine Chromosome (SSC) 2, where a QTL for back fat thickness (BFT) is located. A radiation hybrid (RH) map containing 33 genes and 25 microsatellite markers was constructed for this chromosome with a 3000-rad porcine RH panel. In total, 16

  15. Recent Advancements in DNA Damage-Transcription Crosstalk and High-Resolution Mapping of DNA Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Valerio; Galbiati, Alessandro; Iannelli, Fabio; Pessina, Fabio; Sharma, Sheetal; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2017-08-31

    Until recently, DNA damage arising from physiological DNA metabolism was considered a detrimental by-product for cells. However, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that DNA damage could have a positive role in transcription activation. In particular, DNA damage has been detected in transcriptional elements following different stimuli. These physiological DNA breaks are thought to be instrumental for the correct expression of genomic loci through different mechanisms. In this regard, although a plethora of methods are available to precisely map transcribed regions and transcription start sites, commonly used techniques for mapping DNA breaks lack sufficient resolution and sensitivity to draw a robust correlation between DNA damage generation and transcription. Recently, however, several methods have been developed to map DNA damage at single-nucleotide resolution, thus providing a new set of tools to correlate DNA damage and transcription. Here, we review how DNA damage can positively regulate transcription initiation, the current techniques for mapping DNA breaks at high resolution, and how these techniques can benefit future studies of DNA damage and transcription.

  16. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  17. High-resolution charge carrier mobility mapping of heterogeneous organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Steven W.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2017-08-01

    Organic electronic device performance is contingent on charge transport across a heterogeneous landscape of structural features. Methods are therefore needed to unravel the effects of local structure on overall electrical performance. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we construct high-resolution out-of-plane hole mobility maps from arrays of 5000 to 16 000 current-voltage curves. To demonstrate the efficacy of this non-invasive approach for quantifying and mapping local differences in electrical performance due to structural heterogeneities, we investigate two thin film test systems, one bearing a heterogeneous crystal structure [solvent vapor annealed 5,11-Bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene (TES-ADT)—a small molecule organic semiconductor] and one bearing a heterogeneous chemical composition [p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM—a high-performance organic photovoltaic active layer]. TES-ADT shows nearly an order of magnitude difference in hole mobility between semicrystalline and crystalline areas, along with a distinct boundary between the two regions, while p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM exhibits subtle local variations in hole mobility and a nanoscale domain structure with features below 10 nm in size. We also demonstrate mapping of the built-in potential, which plays a significant role in organic light emitting diode and organic solar cell operation.

  18. Evolution of dislocation structures following a change in loading conditions studied by in situ high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian

    or to a strain of 7% at a temperature of -196 ○C, and the samples were characterized by electron microscopy and mechanical tests. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the pre-deformation produced a characteristic dislocation cell structure consisting of regions with relatively high dislocation density...... the pre-deformation axis. In the X-ray diffraction experiments a technique was employed with which it is possible to obtain high-resolution reciprocal space maps from individual bulk grains. The high-resolution reciprocal space maps contain features related to the dislocation structure in the grains......: A spread-out ‘cloud’ of low intensity caused by diffraction from the dislocation walls and a number of sharp peaks of high intensity caused by diffraction from the individual subgrains. By acquiring reciprocal space maps at a number of different strain levels the evolution of the dislocation structures can...

  19. GENERATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION AND HIGH PRECISION ORTHORECTIFIED ROAD IMAGERY FROM MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sakamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technique to generate a high resolution and high precision Orthorectified Road Imagery (ORI by using spatial information acquired from a Mobile Mapping System (MMS is introduced. The MMS was equipped with multiple sensors such as GPS, IMU, odometer, 2-6 digital cameras and 2-4 laser scanners. In this study, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN based approach, similar to general aerial photogrammetry, was adopted to build a terrain model in order to generate ORI with high resolution and high geometric precision. Compared to aerial photogrammetry, there are several issues that are needed to be addressed. ORI is generated by merging multiple time sequence images of a short section. Hence, the influence of occlusion due to stationary objects, such as telephone poles, trees, footbridges, or moving objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians are very significant. Moreover, influences of light falloff at the edges of cameras, tone adjustment among images captured from different cameras or a round trip data acquisition of the same path, and time lag between image exposure and laser point acquisition also need to be addressed properly. The proposed method was applied to generate ORI with 1 cm resolution, from the actual MMS data sets. The ORI generated by the proposed technique was more clear, occlusion free and with higher resolution compared to the conventional orthorectified coloured point cloud imagery. Moreover, the visual interpretation of road features from the ORI was much easier. In addition, the experimental results also validated the effectiveness of proposed radiometric corrections. In occluded regions, the ORI was compensated by using other images captured from different angles. The validity of the image masking process, in the occluded regions, was also ascertained.

  20. Gaussian Multiple Instance Learning Approach for Mapping the Slums of the World Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient algo- rithm based on multiple instance learning for mapping infor- mal settlements (slums) using very high-resolution remote sensing imagery. From remote sensing perspective, infor- mal settlements share unique spatial characteristics that dis- tinguish them from other urban structures like industrial, commercial, and formal residential settlements. However, regular pattern recognition and machine learning methods, which are predominantly single-instance or per-pixel classi- fiers, often fail to accurately map the informal settlements as they do not capture the complex spatial patterns. To overcome these limitations we employed a multiple instance based machine learning approach, where groups of contigu- ous pixels (image patches) are modeled as generated by a Gaussian distribution. We have conducted several experi- ments on very high-resolution satellite imagery, represent- ing four unique geographic regions across the world. Our method showed consistent improvement in accurately iden- tifying informal settlements.

  1. High resolution digital soil mapping as a future instrument for developing sustainable landuse strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Philipp; Funke, Lisa-Marie; Baumann, Frank; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, increase in population and intensification of land use pose a great challenge for sustainable handling of soils. Intelligent landuse systems are able to minimize and/or avoid soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. A successful application of such systems requires area-wide soil information with high resolution. Containing three consecutive steps, the project INE-2-H („innovative sustainable landuse") at the University of Tuebingen is about creating high-resolution soil information using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) techniques to develop sustainable landuse strategies. Input data includes soil data from fieldwork (texture and carbon content), the official digital soil and geological map (1:50.000) as well as a wide selection of local, complex and combined terrain parameters. First, soil maps have been created using the DSM approach and Random Forest (RF). Due to high resolution (10x10 m pixels), those maps show a more detailed spatial variability of soil information compared to the official maps used. Root mean square errors (RMSE) of the modelled maps vary from 2.11 % to 6.87 % and the coefficients of determination (R²) go from 0.42 to 0.68. Second, soil erosion potentials have been estimated according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Long-term average annual soil loss ranges from 0.56 to 24.23 [t/ha/a]. Third, combining high-resolution erosion potentials with expert-knowledge of local farmers will result in a landuse system adapted to local conditions. This system will include sustainable strategies reducing soil erosion and conserving soil fertility.

  2. Mapping coastal sea level at high resolution with radar interferometry: the SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L. L.; Chao, Y.; Laignel, B.; Turki, I., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial resolution of the present constellation of radar altimeters in mapping two-dimensional sea surface height (SSH) variability is approaching 100 km (in wavelength). At scales shorter than 100 km, the eddies and fronts are responsible for the stirring and mixing of the ocean, especially important in the various coastal processes. A mission currently in development will make high-resolution measurement of the height of water over the ocean as well as on land. It is called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which is a joint mission of US NASA and French CNES, with contributions from Canada and UK. SWOT will carry a pair of interferometry radars and make 2-dimensional SSH measurements over a swath of 120 km with a nadir gap of 20 km in a 21-day repeat orbit. The synthetic aperture radar of SWOT will make SSH measurement at extremely high resolution of 10-70 m. SWOT will also carry a nadir looking conventional altimeter and make 1-dimensional SSH measurements along the nadir gap. The temporal sampling varies from 2 repeats per 21 days at the equator to more than 4 repeats at mid latitudes and more than 6 at high latitudes. This new mission will allow a continuum of fine-scale observations from the open ocean to the coasts, estuaries and rivers, allowing us to investigate a number of scientific and technical questions in the coastal and estuarine domain to assess the coastal impacts of regional sea level change, such as the interaction of sea level with river flow, estuary inundation, storm surge, coastal wetlands, salt water intrusion, etc. As examples, we will illustrate the potential impact of SWOT to the studies of the San Francisco Bay Delta, and the Seine River estuary, etc. Preliminary results suggest that the SWOT Mission will provide fundamental data to map the spatial variability of water surface elevations under different hydrodynamic conditions and at different scales (local, regional and global) to improve our knowledge of the complex

  3. A hyper-temporal remote sensing protocol for high-resolution mapping of ecological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jonathan J; Karl, Jason W

    2017-01-01

    ) spectral variability through time, 2) field sampling protocols that accurately characterize key soil properties (e.g., texture, depth) need to be adopted, and 3) additional environmental covariates (e.g. terrain attributes) need to be evaluated that may help further differentiate sites with similar spectral signals. Finally, the proposed hyper-temporal remote sensing framework may provide a standardized approach to evaluate and test our ecological site concepts through examining differences in vegetation dynamics in response to climatic variability and other drivers of land-use change. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of the hyper-temporal remote sensing approach for high resolution mapping of ecological sites, and highlights its utility in terms of reduced cost and time investment relative to traditional manual mapping approaches.

  4. High-resolution mapping reveals links of HP1 with active and inactive chromatin components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo de Wit

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 is commonly seen as a key factor of repressive heterochromatin, even though a few genes are known to require HP1-chromatin for their expression. To obtain insight into the targeting of HP1 and its interplay with other chromatin components, we have mapped HP1-binding sites on Chromosomes 2 and 4 in Drosophila Kc cells using high-density oligonucleotide arrays and the DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID technique. The resulting high-resolution maps show that HP1 forms large domains in pericentric regions, but is targeted to single genes on chromosome arms. Intriguingly, HP1 shows a striking preference for exon-dense genes on chromosome arms. Furthermore, HP1 binds along entire transcription units, except for 5' regions. Comparison with expression data shows that most of these genes are actively transcribed. HP1 target genes are also marked by the histone variant H3.3 and dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2, which are both typical of active chromatin. Interestingly, H3.3 deposition, which is usually observed along entire transcription units, is limited to the 5' ends of HP1-bound genes. Thus, H3.3 and HP1 are mutually exclusive marks on active chromatin. Additionally, we observed that HP1-chromatin and Polycomb-chromatin are nonoverlapping, but often closely juxtaposed, suggesting an interplay between both types of chromatin. These results demonstrate that HP1-chromatin is transcriptionally active and has extensive links with several other chromatin components.

  5. Automated high resolution mapping of coffee in Rwanda using an expert Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukashema, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Vrieling, A.

    2014-12-01

    African highland agro-ecosystems are dominated by small-scale agricultural fields that often contain a mix of annual and perennial crops. This makes such systems difficult to map by remote sensing. We developed an expert Bayesian network model to extract the small-scale coffee fields of Rwanda from very high resolution data. The model was subsequently applied to aerial orthophotos covering more than 99% of Rwanda and on one QuickBird image for the remaining part. The method consists of a stepwise adjustment of pixel probabilities, which incorporates expert knowledge on size of coffee trees and fields, and on their location. The initial naive Bayesian network, which is a spectral-based classification, yielded a coffee map with an overall accuracy of around 50%. This confirms that standard spectral variables alone cannot accurately identify coffee fields from high resolution images. The combination of spectral and ancillary data (DEM and a forest map) allowed mapping of coffee fields and associated uncertainties with an overall accuracy of 87%. Aggregated to district units, the mapped coffee areas demonstrated a high correlation with the coffee areas reported in the detailed national coffee census of 2009 (R2 = 0.92). Unlike the census data our map provides high spatial resolution of coffee area patterns of Rwanda. The proposed method has potential for mapping other perennial small scale cropping systems in the East African Highlands and elsewhere.

  6. High-resolution Ceres Low Altitude Mapping Orbit Atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-06-01

    The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera (FC) acquired over 31,300 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 35 m/pxl during the eleven cycles in the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phase between December 16 2015 and August 8 2016. We ortho-rectified the images from the first four cycles and produced a global, high-resolution, uncontrolled photomosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 62 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:250,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The full atlas is available to the public through the Dawn Geographical Information System (GIS) web page [http://dawngis.dlr.de/atlas] and will become available through the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) (http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/).

  7. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The recently developed synchrotron technique High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) is used to characterize the deformation structures evolving during cyclic deformation of commercially pure, polycrystalline aluminium AA1050. Insight into the structural reorganization within single grains...... is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...

  8. Comparative high-resolution mapping of the wax inhibitors Iw1 and Iw2 in hexaploid wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wu

    Full Text Available The wax (glaucousness on wheat leaves and stems is mainly controlled by two sets of genes: glaucousness loci (W1 and W2 and non-glaucousness loci (Iw1 and Iw2. The non-glaucousness (Iw loci act as inhibitors of the glaucousness loci (W. High-resolution comparative genetic linkage maps of the wax inhibitors Iw1 originating from Triticum dicoccoides, and Iw2 from Aegilops tauschii were developed by comparative genomics analyses of Brachypodium, sorghum and rice genomic sequences corresponding to the syntenic regions of the Iw loci in wheat. Eleven Iw1 and eight Iw2 linked EST markers were developed and mapped to linkage maps on the distal regions of chromosomes 2BS and 2DS, respectively. The Iw1 locus mapped within a 0.96 cM interval flanked by the BE498358 and CA499581 EST markers that are collinear with 122 kb, 202 kb, and 466 kb genomic regions in the Brachypodium 5S chromosome, the sorghum 6S chromosome and the rice 4S chromosome, respectively. The Iw2 locus was located in a 4.1 to 5.4-cM interval in chromosome 2DS that is flanked by the CJ886319 and CJ519831 EST markers, and this region is collinear with a 2.3 cM region spanning the Iw1 locus on chromosome 2BS. Both Iw1 and Iw2 co-segregated with the BF474014 and CJ876545 EST markers, indicating they are most likely orthologs on 2BS and 2DS. These high-resolution maps can serve as a framework for chromosome landing, physical mapping and map-based cloning of the wax inhibitors in wheat.

  9. A high resolution radiation hybrid map of bovine chromosome 14 identifies scaffold rearrangement in the latest bovine assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiquan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation hybrid (RH maps are considered to be a tool of choice for fine mapping closely linked loci, considering that the resolution of linkage maps is determined by the number of informative meiosis and recombination events which may require very large mapping populations. Accurately defining the marker order on chromosomes is crucial for correct identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL, haplotype map construction and refinement of candidate gene searches. Results A 12 k Radiation hybrid map of bovine chromosome 14 was constructed using 843 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The resulting map was aligned with the latest version of the bovine assembly (Btau_3.1 as well as other previously published RH maps. The resulting map identified distinct regions on Bovine chromosome 14 where discrepancies between this RH map and the bovine assembly occur. A major region of discrepancy was found near the centromere involving the arrangement and order of the scaffolds from the assembly. The map further confirms previously published conserved synteny blocks with human chromosome 8. As well, it identifies an extra breakpoint and conserved synteny block previously undetected due to lower marker density. This conserved synteny block is in a region where markers between the RH map presented here and the latest sequence assembly are in very good agreement. Conclusion The increase of publicly available markers shifts the rate limiting step from marker discovery to the correct identification of their order for further use by the research community. This high resolution map of bovine chromosome 14 will facilitate identification of regions in the sequence assembly where additional information is required to resolve marker ordering.

  10. High resolution critical habitat mapping and classification of tidal freshwater wetlands in the ACE Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Melissa Anne

    In collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve (ACE Basin NERR), the tidal freshwater ecosystems along the South Edisto River in the ACE Basin are being accurately mapped and classified using a LIDAR-Remote Sensing Fusion technique that integrates LAS LIDAR data into texture images and then merges the elevation textures and multispectral imagery for very high resolution mapping. This project discusses the development and refinement of an ArcGIS Toolbox capable of automating protocols and procedures for marsh delineation and microhabitat identification. The result is a high resolution habitat and land use map used for the identification of threatened habitat. Tidal freshwater wetlands are also a critical habitat for colonial wading birds and an accurate assessment of community diversity and acreage of this habitat type in the ACE Basin will support SCDNR's conservation and protection efforts. The maps developed by this study will be used to better monitor the freshwater/saltwater interface and establish a baseline for an ACE NERR monitoring program to track the rates and extent of alterations due to projected environmental stressors. Preliminary ground-truthing in the field will provide information about the accuracy of the mapping tool.

  11. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  12. High-resolution linkage map in the proximity of the host resistance locus Cmv1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depatie, C.; Muise, E.; Gros, P. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1997-01-15

    The mouse chromosome 6 locus Cmv1 controls replication of mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) in the spleen of the infected host. In our effort to clone Cmv1, we have constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in the proximity of the gene. For this, a total of 45 DNA markers corresponding to either cloned genes or microsatellites were mapped within a 7.9-cM interval overlapping the Cmv1 region. We have followed the cosegregation of these markers with respect to Cmv1 in a total of 2248 backcross mice from a preexisting interspecific backcross panel of 281 (Mus spretus X C57BL/6J)F1 X C57BL/6J and 2 novel panels of 989 (A/J X C57BL6)F1 X A/J and 978 (BALB/c X C57BL/6J)F1 X BALB/c segregating Cmv1. Combined pedigree analysis allowed us to determine the following gene order and intergene distances (in cM) on the distal region of mouse chromosome 6: D6Mit216-(1.9)-D6Mit336-(2.2)-D6Mit218-(1.0)-D6Mit52-(0.5)-D6Mit194-(0.2)-Nkrp1/D6Mit61/135/257/289/338-(0.4)-Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370-(0.3)-Prp/Kap/D6Mit13/111/219-(0.3)-Tel/D6Mit374/290/220/196/195/110-(1.1)-D6Mit25. Therefore, the minimal genetic interval for Cmv1 of 0.7 cM is defined by 13 tightly linked markers including 2 markers, Ly49A and D6Mit370, that did not show recombination with Cmv1 in 1967 meioses analyzed; the proximal limit of the Cmv1 domain was defined by 8 crossovers between Nkrp1/D6Mit61/135/257/289/338 and Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370, and the distal limit was defined by 5 crossovers between Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370 and Prp/Kap/D6Mit13/111/219. This work demonstrates tight linkage between Cmv1 and genes from the natural killer complex (NKC), such as Nkrp1 and Ly49A suggesting that Cmv1 may represent an NK cell recognition structure encoded in the NKC region. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Wild boar mapping using population-density statistics: From polygons to high resolution raster maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Khomenko, Sergei; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit. In this paper, a four-step geostatistical downscaling approach is presented and used to disaggregate wild boar population density statistics from administrative units of different shape and size (polygons) to 5 km resolution raster maps by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. 1) First a stratification method was used to define homogeneous bioclimatic regions for the analysis; 2) Under a geostatistical framework, the wild boar densities at administrative units, i.e. subnational areas, were decomposed into trend and residual components for each bioclimatic region. Quantitative relationships between wild boar data and environmental variables were estimated through multiple regression and used to derive trend components at 5 km spatial resolution. Next, the residual components (i.e., the differences between the trend components and the original wild boar data at administrative units) were downscaled at 5 km resolution using area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components obtained at 5 km resolution were finally added to generate fine scale wild boar estimates for each bioclimatic region. 3) These maps were then mosaicked to produce a final output map of predicted wild boar densities across most of Eurasia. 4) Model accuracy was assessed at each different step using input as well as independent data. We discuss advantages and limits of the method and its

  14. A novel intra-operative, high-resolution atrial mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaksh, Ameeta; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Oei, Frans B S; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; Allessie, Maurits A; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2015-12-01

    A new technique is demonstrated for extensive high-resolution intra-operative atrial mapping that will facilitate the localization of atrial fibrillation (AF) sources and identification of the substrate perpetuating AF. Prior to the start of extra-corporal circulation, a 8 × 24-electrode array (2-mm inter-electrode distance) is placed subsequently on all the right and left epicardial atrial sites, including Bachmann's bundle, for recording of unipolar electrograms during sinus rhythm and (induced) AF. AF is induced by high-frequency pacing at the right atrial free wall. A pacemaker wire stitched to the right atrium serves as a reference signal. The indifferent pole is connected to a steal wire fixed to subcutaneous tissue. Electrograms are recorded by a computerized mapping system and, after amplification (gain 1000), filtering (bandwidth 0.5-400 Hz), sampling (1 kHz) and analogue to digital conversion (16 bits), automatically stored on hard disk. During the mapping procedure, real-time visualization secures electrogram quality. Analysis will be performed offline. This technique was performed in 168 patients of 18 years and older, with coronary and/or structural heart disease, with or without AF, electively scheduled for cardiac surgery and a ventricular ejection fraction above 40 %. The mean duration of the entire mapping procedure including preparation time was 9 ± 2 min. Complications related to the mapping procedure during or after cardiac surgery were not observed. We introduce the first epicardial atrial mapping approach with a high resolution of ≥1728 recording sites which can be performed in a procedure time of only 9±2 mins. This mapping technique can potentially identify areas responsible for initiation and persistence of AF and hopefully can individualize both diagnosis and therapy of AF.

  15. Time-efficient, high-resolution, whole brain three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnykh, Vasily L

    2016-05-01

    Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping is a quantitative MRI method that reconstructs parametric maps of a relative amount of macromolecular protons causing the magnetization transfer (MT) effect and provides a biomarker of myelination in neural tissues. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution whole brain MPF mapping technique using a minimal number of source images for scan time reduction. The described technique was based on replacement of an actually acquired reference image without MT saturation by a synthetic one reconstructed from R1 and proton density maps, thus requiring only three source images. This approach enabled whole brain three-dimensional MPF mapping with isotropic 1.25 × 1.25 × 1.25 mm(3) voxel size and a scan time of 20 min. The synthetic reference method was validated against standard MPF mapping with acquired reference images based on data from eight healthy subjects. Mean MPF values in segmented white and gray matter appeared in close agreement with no significant bias and small within-subject coefficients of variation (maps demonstrated sharp white-gray matter contrast and clear visualization of anatomical details, including gray matter structures with high iron content. The proposed synthetic reference method improves resolution of MPF mapping and combines accurate MPF measurements with unique neuroanatomical contrast features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High-resolution YAC-cosmid-STS map of human chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayanis, E; Russo, J J; Kalachikov, S; Ye, X; Park, S H; Sunjevaric, I; Bonaldo, M F; Lawton, L; Venkatraj, V S; Schon, E; Soares, M B; Rothstein, R; Warburton, D; Edelman, I S; Zhang, P; Efstratiadis, A; Fischer, S G

    1998-01-01

    We have assembled a high-resolution physical map of human chromosome 13 DNA (approximately 114 Mb) from hybridization, PCR, and FISH mapping data using a specifically designed set of computer programs. Although the mapping of 13p is limited, 13q (approximately 98 Mb) is covered by an almost continuous contig of 736 YACs aligned to 597 contigs of cosmids. Of a total of 10,789 cosmids initially selected from a chromosome 13-specific cosmid library (16,896 colonies) using inter-Alu PCR probes from the YACs and probes for markers mapped to chromosome 13, 511 were assembled in contigs that were established from cross-hybridization relationships between the cosmids. The 13q YAC-cosmid map was annotated with 655 sequence tagged sites (STSs) with an average spacing of 1 STS per 150 kb. This set of STSs, each identified by a D number and cytogenetic location, includes database markers (198), expressed sequence tags (93), and STSs generated by sequencing of the ends of cosmid inserts (364). Additional annotation has been provided by positioning 197 cosmids mapped by FISH on 13q. The final (comprehensive) map, a list of STS primers, and raw data used in map assembly are available at our Web site (genome1.ccc.columbia.edu/ approximately genome/) and can serve as a resource to facilitate accurate localization of additional markers, provide substrates for sequencing, and assist in the discovery of chromosome 13 genes associated with hereditary diseases.

  17. High-resolution mapping and ablation of recurrent left lateral accessory pathway conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Solimene, MD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper localization of the anatomical target during ablation of the accessory pathways (AP and the ability to detect clear AP potentials on the ablation catheter are crucial for successful AP ablation. We report a case of recurring AP conduction that was finally eliminated using a novel ablation catheter equipped with high-resolution mini-electrodes. Smaller and closer electrodes result in high mapping resolution with less signal averaging and cancellation effects. Owing to improved sensitivity, the new catheter seems effective in detecting fragmented and high frequency signals, thus allowing more effective radiofrequency application and improving ablation success.

  18. A system and method for online high-resolution mapping of gastric slow-wave activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon H; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping employs multielectrode arrays to achieve spatially detailed analyses of propagating bioelectrical events. A major current limitation is that spatial analyses must currently be performed "off-line" (after experiments), compromising timely recording feedback and restricting experimental interventions. These problems motivated development of a system and method for "online" HR mapping. HR gastric recordings were acquired and streamed to a novel software client. Algorithms were devised to filter data, identify slow-wave events, eliminate corrupt channels, and cluster activation events. A graphical user interface animated data and plotted electrograms and maps. Results were compared against off-line methods. The online system analyzed 256-channel serosal recordings with no unexpected system terminations with a mean delay 18 s. Activation time marking sensitivity was 0.92; positive predictive value was 0.93. Abnormal slow-wave patterns including conduction blocks, ectopic pacemaking, and colliding wave fronts were reliably identified. Compared to traditional analysis methods, online mapping had comparable results with equivalent coverage of 90% of electrodes, average RMS errors of less than 1 s, and CC of activation maps of 0.99. Accurate slow-wave mapping was achieved in near real-time, enabling monitoring of recording quality and experimental interventions targeted to dysrhythmic onset. This work also advances the translation of HR mapping toward real-time clinical application.

  19. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, B.; Rehman, A.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2017-04-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µm are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  20. High-resolution spatiotemporal strain mapping reveals non-uniform deformation in micropatterned elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksoy, B; Alaca, B E; Rehman, A; Bayraktar, H

    2017-01-01

    Micropatterns are generated on a vast selection of polymeric substrates for various applications ranging from stretchable electronics to cellular mechanobiological systems. When these patterned substrates are exposed to external loading, strain field is primarily affected by the presence of microfabricated structures and similarly by fabrication-related defects. The capturing of such nonhomogeneous strain fields is of utmost importance in cases where study of the mechanical behavior with a high spatial resolution is necessary. Image-based non-contact strain measurement techniques are favorable and have recently been extended to scanning tunneling microscope and scanning electron microscope images for the characterization of mechanical properties of metallic materials, e.g. steel and aluminum, at the microscale. A similar real-time analysis of strain heterogeneity in elastomers is yet to be achieved during the entire loading sequence. The available measurement methods for polymeric materials mostly depend on cross-head displacement or precalibrated strain values. Thus, they suffer either from the lack of any real-time analysis, spatiotemporal distribution or high resolution in addition to a combination of these factors. In this work, these challenges are addressed by integrating a tensile stretcher with an inverted optical microscope and developing a subpixel particle tracking algorithm. As a proof of concept, the patterns with a critical dimension of 200 µ m are generated on polydimethylsiloxane substrates and strain distribution in the vicinity of the patterns is captured with a high spatiotemporal resolution. In the field of strain measurement, there is always a tradeoff between minimum measurable strain value and spatial resolution. Current noncontact techniques on elastomers can deliver a strain resolution of 0.001% over a minimum length of 5 cm. More importantly, inhomogeneities within this quite large region cannot be captured. The proposed technique can

  1. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  2. Benthic Habitat Mapping Using Multispectral High-Resolution Imagery: Evaluation of Shallow Water Atmospheric Correction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eugenio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote multispectral data can provide valuable information for monitoring coastal water ecosystems. Specifically, high-resolution satellite-based imaging systems, as WorldView-2 (WV-2, can generate information at spatial scales needed to implement conservation actions for protected littoral zones. However, coastal water-leaving radiance arriving at the space-based sensor is often small as compared to reflected radiance. In this work, complex approaches, which usually use an accurate radiative transfer code to correct the atmospheric effects, such as FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S, have been implemented for high-resolution imagery. They have been assessed in real scenarios using field spectroradiometer data. In this context, the three approaches have achieved excellent results and a slightly superior performance of 6S model-based algorithm has been observed. Finally, for the mapping of benthic habitats in shallow-waters marine protected environments, a relevant application of the proposed atmospheric correction combined with an automatic deglinting procedure is presented. This approach is based on the integration of a linear mixing model of benthic classes within the radiative transfer model of the water. The complete methodology has been applied to selected ecosystems in the Canary Islands (Spain but the obtained results allow the robust mapping of the spatial distribution and density of seagrass in coastal waters and the analysis of multitemporal variations related to the human activity and climate change in littoral zones.

  3. Mapping Mangroves Extents on the Red Sea Coastline in Egypt using Polarimetric SAR and High Resolution Optical Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abdel-Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves ecosystems dominate the coastal wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. They are among the most productive forest ecosystems. They provide various ecological and economic ecosystem services. Despite of their economic and ecological importance, mangroves experience high yearly loss rates. There is a growing demand for mapping and assessing changes in mangroves extents especially in the context of climate change, land use change, and related threats to coastal ecosystems. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for mapping of mangroves extents on the Red Sea coastline in Egypt, through the integration of both L-band SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR, and high resolution optical data of RapidEye. This was achieved via using object-based image analysis method, through applying different machine learning algorithms, and evaluating various features such as spectral properties, texture features, and SAR derived parameters for discrimination of mangroves ecosystem classes. Three non-parametric machine learning algorithms were tested for mangroves mapping; random forest (RF, support vector machine (SVM, and classification and regression trees (CART. As an input for the classifiers, we tested various features including vegetation indices (VIs and texture analysis using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. The object-based analysis method allowed clearly discriminating the different land cover classes within mangroves ecosystem. The highest overall accuracy (92.15% was achieved by the integrated SAR and optical data. Among all classifiers tested, RF performed better than other classifiers. Using L-band SAR data integrated with high resolution optical data was beneficial for mapping and characterization of mangroves growing in small patches. The maps produced represents an important updated reference suitable for developing a regional action plan for conservation and management of mangroves resources along

  4. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  5. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.-C.; Charlet, J.M.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  6. Functional physiology of the human terminal antrum defined by high-resolution electrical mapping and computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Rachel; Miyagawa, Taimei; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Du, Peng; Angeli, Timothy R; Trew, Mark L; Windsor, John A; Imai, Yohsuke; O'Grady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K

    2016-11-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping has been used to study gastric slow-wave activation; however, the specific characteristics of antral electrophysiology remain poorly defined. This study applied HR mapping and computational modeling to define functional human antral physiology. HR mapping was performed in 10 subjects using flexible electrode arrays (128-192 electrodes; 16-24 cm 2 ) arranged from the pylorus to mid-corpus. Anatomical registration was by photographs and anatomical landmarks. Slow-wave parameters were computed, and resultant data were incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of gastric flow to calculate impact on gastric mixing. In all subjects, extracellular mapping demonstrated normal aboral slow-wave propagation and a region of increased amplitude and velocity in the prepyloric antrum. On average, the high-velocity region commenced 28 mm proximal to the pylorus, and activation ceased 6 mm from the pylorus. Within this region, velocity increased 0.2 mm/s per mm of tissue, from the mean 3.3 ± 0.1 mm/s to 7.5 ± 0.6 mm/s (P human terminal antral contraction is controlled by a short region of rapid high-amplitude slow-wave activity. Distal antral wave acceleration plays a major role in antral flow and mixing, increasing particle strain and trituration. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  8. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  9. Quantification of the Arrhythmogenic Effects of Spontaneous Atrial Extrasystole Using High-Resolution Epicardial Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuwen, Christophe P; Kik, Charles; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Lanters, Eva A H; Knops, Paul; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-01-01

    Atrial extrasystoles (AES) can initiate atrial fibrillation. However, the impact of spontaneous AES on intra-atrial conduction is unknown. The aims of this study were to examine conduction disorders provoked by AES and to correlate these conduction differences with patient characteristics, mapping locations, and type of AES. High-resolution epicardial mapping (electrodes N=128 or N=192; interelectrode distance, 2 mm) of the entire atrial surface was performed in patients (N=164; 69.5% male; age 67.2±10.5 years) undergoing open-chest cardiac surgery. AES were classified as premature, aberrant, or prematurely aberrant. Conduction delay and conduction block were quantified during sinus rhythm and AES and subsequently compared. Median incidence of conduction delay and conduction block during sinus rhythm was 1.2% (interquartile, 0%-2.3%) and 0.4% (interquartile, 0%-2.1%). In comparison, the median incidence of conduction delay and conduction block during 339 AES was respectively 2.8% (interquartile, 1.3%-4.6%) and 2.2% (interquartile, 0.3%-5.1%) and differed between the types of AES (prematurely aberrant>aberrant>premature). The degree of prematurity was not associated with a higher incidence of conduction disorders ( P >0.05). In contrast, a higher degree of aberrancy was associated with a higher incidence of conduction disorders; AES emerging as epicardial breakthrough provoked most conduction disorders ( P ≥0.002). AES caused most conduction disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus and left atrial dilatation ( P <0.05). Intraoperative high-resolution epicardial mapping showed that conduction disorders are mainly provoked by prematurely aberrant AES, particularly in patients with left atrial dilation and diabetes mellitus or emerging as epicardial breakthrough. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Comparison of Two Grid Refinement Approaches for High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling: MPAS vs WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L.; Hagos, S. M.; Rauscher, S.; Ringler, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study compares two grid refinement approaches using global variable resolution model and nesting for high-resolution regional climate modeling. The global variable resolution model, Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), and the limited area model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are compared in an idealized aqua-planet context with a focus on the spatial and temporal characteristics of tropical precipitation simulated by the models using the same physics package from the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4). For MPAS, simulations have been performed with a quasi-uniform resolution global domain at coarse (1 degree) and high (0.25 degree) resolution, and a variable resolution domain with a high-resolution region at 0.25 degree configured inside a coarse resolution global domain at 1 degree resolution. Similarly, WRF has been configured to run on a coarse (1 degree) and high (0.25 degree) resolution tropical channel domain as well as a nested domain with a high-resolution region at 0.25 degree nested two-way inside the coarse resolution (1 degree) tropical channel. The variable resolution or nested simulations are compared against the high-resolution simulations that serve as virtual reality. Both MPAS and WRF simulate 20-day Kelvin waves propagating through the high-resolution domains fairly unaffected by the change in resolution. In addition, both models respond to increased resolution with enhanced precipitation. Grid refinement induces zonal asymmetry in precipitation (heating), accompanied by zonal anomalous Walker like circulations and standing Rossby wave signals. However, there are important differences between the anomalous patterns in MPAS and WRF due to differences in the grid refinement approaches and sensitivity of model physics to grid resolution. This study highlights the need for "scale aware" parameterizations in variable resolution and nested regional models.

  11. Cerebral gray matter volume losses in essential tremor: A case-control study using high resolution tissue probability maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eric; Dyke, Jonathan P; Hernandez, Nora; Louis, Elan D; Dydak, Ulrike

    2018-03-10

    Essential tremor (ET) is increasingly recognized as a multi-dimensional disorder with both motor and non-motor features. For this reason, imaging studies are more broadly examining regions outside the cerebellar motor loop. Reliable detection of cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy requires optimized processing, adapted to high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated cerebral GM volume loss in ET cases using automated segmentation of MRI T1-weighted images. MRI was acquired on 47 ET cases and 36 controls. Automated segmentation and voxel-wise comparisons of volume were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software. To improve upon standard protocols, the high-resolution International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) 2009a atlas and tissue probability maps were used to process each subject image. Group comparisons were performed: all ET vs. Controls, ET with head tremor (ETH) vs. Controls, and severe ET vs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed between ET with and without head tremor and controls. Age, sex, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score were regressed out from each comparison. We were able to consistently identify regions of cerebral GM volume loss in ET and in ET subgroups in the posterior insula, superior temporal gyri, cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyri and other occipital and parietal regions. There were no significant increases in GM volume in ET in any comparisons with controls. This study, which uses improved methodologies, provides evidence that GM volume loss in ET is present beyond the cerebellum, and in fact, is widespread throughout the cerebrum as well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Downscaling GRACE Remote Sensing Datasets to High-Resolution Groundwater Storage Change Maps of California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Miro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE has already proven to be a powerful data source for regional groundwater assessments in many areas around the world. However, the applicability of GRACE data products to more localized studies and their utility to water management authorities have been constrained by their limited spatial resolution (~200,000 km2. Researchers have begun to address these shortcomings with data assimilation approaches that integrate GRACE-derived total water storage estimates into complex regional models, producing higher-resolution estimates of hydrologic variables (~2500 km2. Here we take those approaches one step further by developing an empirically based model capable of downscaling GRACE data to a high-resolution (~16 km2 dataset of groundwater storage changes over a portion of California’s Central Valley. The model utilizes an artificial neural network to generate a series of high-resolution maps of groundwater storage change from 2002 to 2010 using GRACE estimates of variations in total water storage and a series of widely available hydrologic variables (PRISM precipitation and temperature data, digital elevation model (DEM-derived slope, and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS soil type. The neural network downscaling model is able to accurately reproduce local groundwater behavior, with acceptable Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE values for calibration and validation (ranging from 0.2445 to 0.9577 and 0.0391 to 0.7511, respectively. Ultimately, the model generates maps of local groundwater storage change at a 100-fold higher resolution than GRACE gridded data products without the use of computationally intensive physical models. The model’s simulated maps have the potential for application to local groundwater management initiatives in the region.

  13. Large-Area, High-Resolution Tree Cover Mapping with Multi-Temporal SPOT5 Imagery, New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fisher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree cover maps are used for many purposes, such as vegetation mapping, habitat connectivity and fragmentation studies. Small remnant patches of native vegetation are recognised as ecologically important, yet they are underestimated in remote sensing products derived from Landsat. High spatial resolution sensors are capable of mapping small patches of trees, but their use in large-area mapping has been limited. In this study, multi-temporal Satellite pour l’Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 High Resolution Geometrical data was pan-sharpened to 5 m resolution and used to map tree cover for the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, an area of over 800,000 km2. Complete coverages of SPOT5 panchromatic and multispectral data over NSW were acquired during four consecutive summers (2008–2011 for a total of 1256 images. After pre-processing, the imagery was used to model foliage projective cover (FPC, a measure of tree canopy density commonly used in Australia. The multi-temporal imagery, FPC models and 26,579 training pixels were used in a binomial logistic regression model to estimate the probability of each pixel containing trees. The probability images were classified into a binary map of tree cover using local thresholds, and then visually edited to reduce errors. The final tree map was then attributed with the mean FPC value from the multi-temporal imagery. Validation of the binary map based on visually assessed high resolution reference imagery revealed an overall accuracy of 88% (±0.51% standard error, while comparison against airborne lidar derived data also resulted in an overall accuracy of 88%. A preliminary assessment of the FPC map by comparing against 76 field measurements showed a very good agreement (r2 = 0.90 with a root mean square error of 8.57%, although this may not be representative due to the opportunistic sampling design. The map represents a regionally consistent and locally relevant record of tree cover for NSW, and

  14. Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Data for High-Resolution Mapping of Vegetated Wetlands in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clewley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest natural source of methane, wetlands play an important role in the carbon cycle. High-resolution maps of wetland type and extent are required to quantify wetland responses to climate change. Mapping northern wetlands is particularly important because of a disproportionate increase in temperatures at higher latitudes. Synthetic aperture radar data from a spaceborne platform can be used to map wetland types and dynamics over large areas. Following from earlier work by Whitcomb et al. (2009 using Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1 data, we applied the “random forests” classification algorithm to variables from L-band ALOS PALSAR data for 2007, topographic data (e.g., slope, elevation and locational information (latitude, longitude to derive a map of vegetated wetlands in Alaska, with a spatial resolution of 50 m. We used the National Wetlands Inventory and National Land Cover Database (for upland areas to select training and validation data and further validated classification results with an independent dataset that we created. A number of improvements were made to the method of Whitcomb et al. (2009: (1 more consistent training data in upland areas; (2 better distribution of training data across all classes by taking a stratified random sample of all available training pixels; and (3 a more efficient implementation, which allowed classification of the entire state as a single entity (rather than in separate tiles, which eliminated discontinuities at tile boundaries. The overall accuracy for discriminating wetland from upland was 95%, and the accuracy at the level of wetland classes was 85%. The total area of wetlands mapped was 0.59 million km2, or 36% of the total land area of the state of Alaska. The map will be made available to download from NASA’s wetland monitoring website.

  15. High-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes using ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Rockberg, Johan; Forsström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies empower numerous important scientific, clinical, diagnostic, and industrial applications. Ideally, the epitope(s) targeted by an antibody should be identified and characterized, thereby establishing antibody reactivity, highlighting possible cross-reactivities, and perhaps even warning...... against unwanted (e.g. autoimmune) reactivities. Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. The latter are typically probed with peptides, but the cost of peptide screening programs tends to prohibit comprehensive specificity analysis. To perform high-throughput, high......-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against...

  16. High-resolution Self-Organizing Maps for advanced visualization and dimension reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Ayu; Nguyen, Van Tuc; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Tsoi, Ah Chung

    2018-05-04

    Kohonen's Self Organizing feature Map (SOM) provides an effective way to project high dimensional input features onto a low dimensional display space while preserving the topological relationships among the input features. Recent advances in algorithms that take advantages of modern computing hardware introduced the concept of high resolution SOMs (HRSOMs). This paper investigates the capabilities and applicability of the HRSOM as a visualization tool for cluster analysis and its suitabilities to serve as a pre-processor in ensemble learning models. The evaluation is conducted on a number of established benchmarks and real-world learning problems, namely, the policeman benchmark, two web spam detection problems, a network intrusion detection problem, and a malware detection problem. It is found that the visualization resulted from an HRSOM provides new insights concerning these learning problems. It is furthermore shown empirically that broad benefits from the use of HRSOMs in both clustering and classification problems can be expected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of a weak meddy-like anomaly from high-resolution satellite SST maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Emelianov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable impact of meddies on climate through the long-distance transport of properties, a consistent observation of meddy generation and propagation in the ocean is rather elusive. Meddies propagate at about 1000 m below the ocean surface, so satellite sensors are not able to detect them directly and finding them in the open ocean is more fortuitous than intentional. However, a consistent census of meddies and their paths is required in order to gain knowledge about their role in transporting properties such as heat and salt. In this paper we propose a new methodology for processing high-resolution sea surface temperature maps in order to detect meddy-like anomalies in the open ocean on a near-real-time basis. We present an example of detection, involving an atypical meddy-like anomaly that was confirmed as such by in situ measurements.

  18. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  19. High-resolution comparative mapping among man, cattle and mouse suggests a role for repeat sequences in mammalian genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe François

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping provides new insights into the evolutionary history of genomes. In particular, recent studies in mammals have suggested a role for segmental duplication in genome evolution. In some species such as Drosophila or maize, transposable elements (TEs have been shown to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements. In this work, we have explored the presence of interspersed repeats in regions of chromosomal rearrangements, using an updated high-resolution integrated comparative map among cattle, man and mouse. Results The bovine, human and mouse comparative autosomal map has been constructed using data from bovine genetic and physical maps and from FISH-mapping studies. We confirm most previous results but also reveal some discrepancies. A total of 211 conserved segments have been identified between cattle and man, of which 33 are new segments and 72 correspond to extended, previously known segments. The resulting map covers 91% and 90% of the human and bovine genomes, respectively. Analysis of breakpoint regions revealed a high density of species-specific interspersed repeats in the human and mouse genomes. Conclusion Analysis of the breakpoint regions has revealed specific repeat density patterns, suggesting that TEs may have played a significant role in chromosome evolution and genome plasticity. However, we cannot rule out that repeats and breakpoints accumulate independently in the few same regions where modifications are better tolerated. Likewise, we cannot ascertain whether increased TE density is the cause or the consequence of chromosome rearrangements. Nevertheless, the identification of high density repeat clusters combined with a well-documented repeat phylogeny should highlight probable breakpoints, and permit their precise dating. Combining new statistical models taking the present information into account should help reconstruct ancestral karyotypes.

  20. High resolution orientation mapping of secondary phases in ATI 718Plus® alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline superalloy ATI 718Plus ® (hereafter 718Plus has been developed to replace the established alloy Inconel 718 by offering higher temperature capability for applications in gas turbines. The alloy exhibits two secondary phases in the austenitic matrix; it is strengthened by the γ′-phase with η-phase discontinuously precipitated at the grain boundaries. It can be utilized to control grain growth during forging. Generally, hexagonal η phase has been reported to possess a defined crystallographic orientation with the matrix. However, the material studied here exhibits blocky η-phase that has been precipitated and grown during thermo-mechanical processing. Therefore a measurable change in orientation relationship is expected. The standard technique for orientation mapping is electron back-scattered diffraction with spatial resolution of 100 nm. That is insufficient for studying η-phase in 718Plus. By applying high resolution orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope (Philips CM 300 FEGTEM equipped with a Nanomegas ASTARTM system a resolution of 3 nm was achieved. The indexed diffraction data was analysed using the Matlab Toolbox Mtex. The analysis included grain reconstruction and exclusion of low confidence measurements. The data set allows generating phase boundary maps indicating interfaces characteristics. Quantitative assessment shows that only 19% of the γ-η-interfaces fulfil the orientation relationship.

  1. Clinical high-resolution mapping of the proteoglycan-bound water fraction in articular cartilage of the human knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhrara, Mustapha; Reiter, David A; Sexton, Kyle W; Bergeron, Christopher M; Zukley, Linda M; Spencer, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    We applied our recently introduced Bayesian analytic method to achieve clinically-feasible in-vivo mapping of the proteoglycan water fraction (PgWF) of human knee cartilage with improved spatial resolution and stability as compared to existing methods. Multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T 1 and T 2 (mcDESPOT) datasets were acquired from the knees of two healthy young subjects and one older subject with previous knee injury. Each dataset was processed using Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis incorporating a two-component tissue model. We assessed the performance and reproducibility of BMC and of the conventional analysis of stochastic region contraction (SRC) in the estimation of PgWF. Stability of the BMC analysis of PgWF was tested by comparing independent high-resolution (HR) datasets from each of the two young subjects. Unlike SRC, the BMC-derived maps from the two HR datasets were essentially identical. Furthermore, SRC maps showed substantial random variation in estimated PgWF, and mean values that differed from those obtained using BMC. In addition, PgWF maps derived from conventional low-resolution (LR) datasets exhibited partial volume and magnetic susceptibility effects. These artifacts were absent in HR PgWF images. Finally, our analysis showed regional variation in PgWF estimates, and substantially higher values in the younger subjects as compared to the older subject. BMC-mcDESPOT permits HR in-vivo mapping of PgWF in human knee cartilage in a clinically-feasible acquisition time. HR mapping reduces the impact of partial volume and magnetic susceptibility artifacts compared to LR mapping. Finally, BMC-mcDESPOT demonstrated excellent reproducibility in the determination of PgWF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for the European CORDEX region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmeyer, Christoph; Keller, Jan; Ohlwein, Christian; Wahl, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Weather Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations, renewable energy applications). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on two regional reanalyses for Europe and Germany. The European reanalysis COSMO-REA6 matches the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). Nested into COSMO-REA6 is COSMO-REA2, a convective-scale reanalysis with 2km resolution for Germany. COSMO-REA6 comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-Interim data. COSMO-REA2 also uses the nudging scheme complemented by a latent heat nudging of radar information. The reanalysis data set currently covers 17 years (1997-2013) for COSMO-REA6 and 4 years (2010-2013) for COSMO-REA2 with a very large set of output variables and a high temporal output step of hourly 3D-fields and quarter-hourly 2D-fields. The evaluation

  3. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  4. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road.

  5. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road

  6. Mapping of Geographically Isolated Wetlands of Western Siberia Using High Resolution Space Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N.; Dyukarev, A.; Lane, C.; Autrey, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Using the remote sensing data for integrated study of natural objects is actual for investigation of difficult to access areas of West Siberia. The research of this study focuses on determining the extent and spectral signatures of isolated wetlands within Ob-Tom Interfluve area using Landsat and Quickbird space images. High-resolution space images were carefully examined and wetlands were manually delineated. Wetlands have clear visible signs at the high resolution space images. 567 wetlands were recognized as isolated wetlands with the area about 10 000 ha (of 2.5% of the study area). Isolated wetlands with area less 2 ha are the most frequent. Half of the total amount of wetlands has area less than 6.4 ha. The largest isolated wetland occupies 797 ha, and only 5% have area more than 50 ha. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for analysis of vegetation structure and spectral characteristics of wetlands. The masked isolated wetlands image was classified into 12 land cover classes using ISODATA unsupervised classification. The attribution of unsupervised classification results allowed us to clearly recognize 7 types of wetlands: tall, low and sparse ryams (Pine-Shrub-Sphagnum community), open wetlands with shrub, moss or sedge cover, and open water objects. Analysis of spectral profiles for all classes has shown that Landsat spectral bands 4 and 5 have higher variability. These bands allow to separate wetland classed definitely. Accuracy assessment of isolated wetland map shows a good agreement with expert field data. The work was supported by grants ISTC № 4079.

  7. Mapping turbidity in the Charles River, Boston using a high-resolution satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweger, Ferdi L; Miller, Will; Oshodi, Kehinde Sarat

    2007-09-01

    The usability of high-resolution satellite imagery for estimating spatial water quality patterns in urban water bodies is evaluated using turbidity in the lower Charles River, Boston as a case study. Water turbidity was surveyed using a boat-mounted optical sensor (YSI) at 5 m spatial resolution, resulting in about 4,000 data points. The ground data were collected coincidently with a satellite imagery acquisition (IKONOS), which consists of multispectral (R, G, B) reflectance at 1 m resolution. The original correlation between the raw ground and satellite data was poor (R2 = 0.05). Ground data were processed by removing points affected by contamination (e.g., sensor encounters a particle floc), which were identified visually. Also, the ground data were corrected for the memory effect introduced by the sensor's protective casing using an analytical model. Satellite data were processed to remove pixels affected by permanent non-water features (e.g., shoreline). In addition, water pixels within a certain buffer distance from permanent non-water features were removed due to contamination by the adjacency effect. To determine the appropriate buffer distance, a procedure that explicitly considers the distance of pixels to the permanent non-water features was applied. Two automatic methods for removing the effect of temporary non-water features (e.g., boats) were investigated, including (1) creating a water-only mask based on an unsupervised classification and (2) removing (filling) all local maxima in reflectance. After the various processing steps, the correlation between the ground and satellite data was significantly better (R2 = 0.70). The correlation was applied to the satellite image to develop a map of turbidity in the lower Charles River, which reveals large-scale patterns in water clarity. However, the adjacency effect prevented the application of this method to near-shore areas, where high-resolution patterns were expected (e.g., outfall plumes).

  8. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  9. New approaches to high-resolution mapping of marine vertical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Georgiopoulou, Aggeliki; Jones, Daniel O B; Marsh, Leigh; D O Carter, Gareth; Chaumillon, Leo

    2017-08-21

    Vertical walls in marine environments can harbour high biodiversity and provide natural protection from bottom-trawling activities. However, traditional mapping techniques are usually restricted to down-looking approaches which cannot adequately replicate their 3D structure. We combined sideways-looking multibeam echosounder (MBES) data from an AUV, forward-looking MBES data from ROVs and ROV-acquired videos to examine walls from Rockall Bank and Whittard Canyon, Northeast Atlantic. High-resolution 3D point clouds were extracted from each sonar dataset and structure from motion photogrammetry (SfM) was applied to recreate 3D representations of video transects along the walls. With these reconstructions, it was possible to interact with extensive sections of video footage and precisely position individuals. Terrain variables were derived on scales comparable to those experienced by megabenthic individuals. These were used to show differences in environmental conditions between observed and background locations as well as explain spatial patterns in ecological characteristics. In addition, since the SfM 3D reconstructions retained colours, they were employed to separate and quantify live coral colonies versus dead framework. The combination of these new technologies allows us, for the first time, to map the physical 3D structure of previously inaccessible habitats and demonstrates the complexity and importance of vertical structures.

  10. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty due to internal variability using high-resolution regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, E. D.; Ikeda, K.; Deser, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainty in future climate predictions is as large or larger than the mean climate change signal. As such, any predictions of future climate need to incorporate and quantify the sources of this uncertainty. One of the largest sources comes from the internal, chaotic, variability within the climate system itself. This variability has been approximated using the 30 ensemble members of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble. Here we examine the wet and dry end members of this ensemble for cool-season precipitation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains with a set of high-resolution regional climate model simulations. We have used the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to simulate the periods 1990-2000, 2025-2035, and 2070-2080 on a 4km grid. These simulations show that the broad patterns of change depicted in CESM are inherited by the high-resolution simulations; however, the differences in the height and location of the mountains in the WRF simulation, relative to the CESM simulation, means that the location and magnitude of the precipitation changes are very different. We further show that high-resolution simulations with the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) predict a similar spatial pattern in the change signal as WRF for these ensemble members. We then use ICAR to examine the rest of the CESM Large Ensemble as well as the uncertainty in the regional climate model due to the choice of physics parameterizations.

  12. Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia-present climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole B.; Christensen, Jens H.; Machenhauer, Bennert

    1998-01-01

    realistically simulated. It is found in particular that in mountainous regions the high-resolution simulation shows improvements in the simulation of hydrologically relevant fields such as runoff and snow cover. Also, the distribution of precipitation on different intensity classes is most realistically...... on a high-density station network for the Scandinavian countries compiled for the present study. The simulated runoff is compared with observed data from Sweden extracted from a Swedish climatological atlas. These runoff data indicate that the precipitation analyses are underestimating the true...... simulated in the high-resolution simulation. It does, however, inherit certain large-scale systematic errors from the driving GCM. In many cases these errors increase with increasing resolution. Model verification of near-surface temperature and precipitation is made using a new gridded climatology based...

  13. Radiation hybrid mapping as one of the main methods of the creation of high resolution maps of human and animal genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulimova, G.E.; Kompanijtsev, A.A.; Mojsyak, E.V.; Rakhmanaliev, Eh.R.; Klimov, E.A.; Udina, I.G.; Zakharov, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation hybrid mapping (RH mapping) is considered as one of the main method of constructing physical maps of mammalian genomes. In introduction, theoretical prerequisites of developing of the RH mapping and statistical methods of data analysis are discussed. Comparative characteristics of universal commercial panels of the radiation hybrid somatic cells (RH panels) are shown. In experimental part of the work, RH mapping is used to localize nucleotide sequences adjacent to Not I sites of human chromosome 3 with the aim to integrate contig map of Nor I clones to comprehensive maps of human genome. Five nucleotide sequences adjacent to the sites of integration of papilloma virus in human genome and expressed in the cells of cervical cancer involved localized. It is demonstrated that the region 13q14.3-q21.1 was enriched with nucleotide sequences involved in the processes of carcinogenesis. RH mapping can be considered as one of the most perspective applications of modern radiation biology in the field of molecular genetics, that is, in constructing physical maps of mammalian genomes with high resolution level [ru

  14. Exploiting High Resolution Multi-Seasonal Textural Measures and Spectral Information for Reedbed Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Okiemute Onojeghuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reedbeds across the UK are amongst the most important habitats for rare and endangered birds, wildlife and organisms. However, over the past century, this valued wetland habitat has experienced a drastic reduction in quality and spatial coverage due to pressures from human related activities. To this end, conservation organisations across the UK have been charged with the task of conserving and expanding this threatened habitat. With this backdrop, the study aimed to develop a methodology for accurate reedbed mapping through the combined use of multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information contained in high resolution QuickBird satellite imagery. The key objectives were to determine the most effective single-date (autumn or summer and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery suitable for reedbed mapping over the study area; to evaluate the effectiveness of combining multi-seasonal texture measures and spectral information for reedbed mapping using a variety of combinations; and to evaluate the most suitable classification technique for reedbed mapping from three selected classification techniques, namely maximum likelihood classifier, spectral angular mapper and artificial neural network. Using two selected grey-level co-occurrence textural measures (entropy and angular second moment, a series of experiments were conducted using varied combinations of single-date and multi-seasonal QuickBird imagery. Overall, the results indicate the multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral bands (eight layers combined with all eight grey level co-occurrence matrix texture measures (entropy and angular second moment computed using windows 3 × 3 and 7 × 7 produced the optimal reedbed (76.5% and overall classification (78.1% accuracies using the maximum likelihood classifier technique. Using the optimal 16 layer multi-seasonal pansharpened multispectral and texture combined image dataset, a total reedbed area of 9.8 hectares was successfully mapped over the

  15. High-resolution bent-crystal spectrometer for the ultra-soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Walling, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 /angstrom/. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (λ/Δλ ∼ 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is Δλ/λ 0 = 8/angstrom/. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic. 43 refs., 23 figs

  16. Automated Segmentation of High-Resolution Photospheric Images of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Tian, Yu; Rao, Changhui

    2018-02-01

    Due to the development of ground-based, large-aperture solar telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) resulting in increasing resolving ability, more accurate sunspot identifications and characterizations are required. In this article, we have developed a set of automated segmentation methods for high-resolution solar photospheric images. Firstly, a local-intensity-clustering level-set method is applied to roughly separate solar granulation and sunspots. Then reinitialization-free level-set evolution is adopted to adjust the boundaries of the photospheric patch; an adaptive intensity threshold is used to discriminate between umbra and penumbra; light bridges are selected according to their regional properties from candidates produced by morphological operations. The proposed method is applied to the solar high-resolution TiO 705.7-nm images taken by the 151-element AO system and Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics prototype system at the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of the Yunnan Observatory. Experimental results show that the method achieves satisfactory robustness and efficiency with low computational cost on high-resolution images. The method could also be applied to full-disk images, and the calculated sunspot areas correlate well with the data given by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  17. High-Resolution Mapping of Urban Surface Water Using ZY-3 Multi-Spectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of urban surface water is important for assessing the role it plays in urban ecosystem services under the content of urbanization and climate change. However, high-resolution monitoring of urban water bodies using remote sensing remains a challenge because of the limitation of previous water indices and the dark building shadow effect. To address this problem, we proposed an automated urban water extraction method (UWEM which combines a new water index, together with a building shadow detection method. Firstly, we trained the parameters of UWEM using ZY-3 imagery of Qingdao, China. Then we verified the algorithm using five other sub-scenes (Aksu, Fuzhou, Hanyang, Huangpo and Huainan ZY-3 imagery. The performance was compared with that of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. Results indicated that UWEM performed significantly better at the sub-scenes with kappa coefficients improved by 7.87%, 32.35%, 12.64%, 29.72%, 14.29%, respectively, and total omission and commission error reduced by 61.53%, 65.74%, 83.51%, 82.44%, and 74.40%, respectively. Furthermore, UWEM has more stable performances than NDWI’s in a range of thresholds near zero. It reduces the over- and under-estimation issues which often accompany previous water indices when mapping urban surface water under complex environmental conditions.

  18. Expressway deformation mapping using high-resolution TerraSAR-X images

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xuguo

    2014-01-27

    Monitoring deformation of linear infrastructures such as expressway and railway caused by natural processes or anthropogenic activities is a vital task to ensure the safety of human lives and properties. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been widely recognized as an effective technology to carry out large-area surface deformation mapping. However, its application in linear infrastructure deformation monitoring has not been intensively studied till now. In this article, a modified Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) method is proposed to retrieve the deformation patterns of the expressway. In our method, only the point-like targets identified on the expressway were kept in our analysis, and two complementary subsets of interferograms were formed to better separate the signals of height error and deformation from inteferometric phase observations. We successfully applied this method with multitemporal high-resolution TerraSAR-X images to retrieve the spatialoral pattern of surface deformation along the Beian-Heihe expressway that is located in island-permafrost areas and threatened by geohazards. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  19. Expressway deformation mapping using high-resolution TerraSAR-X images

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xuguo; Liao, Mingsheng; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Lu; Shan, Wei; Wang, Chunjiao

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring deformation of linear infrastructures such as expressway and railway caused by natural processes or anthropogenic activities is a vital task to ensure the safety of human lives and properties. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has been widely recognized as an effective technology to carry out large-area surface deformation mapping. However, its application in linear infrastructure deformation monitoring has not been intensively studied till now. In this article, a modified Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) method is proposed to retrieve the deformation patterns of the expressway. In our method, only the point-like targets identified on the expressway were kept in our analysis, and two complementary subsets of interferograms were formed to better separate the signals of height error and deformation from inteferometric phase observations. We successfully applied this method with multitemporal high-resolution TerraSAR-X images to retrieve the spatialoral pattern of surface deformation along the Beian-Heihe expressway that is located in island-permafrost areas and threatened by geohazards. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  20. High-resolution and large dynamic range nanomechanical mapping in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ozgur; Erina, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    High spatial resolution imaging of material properties is an important task for the continued development of nanomaterials and studies of biological systems. Time-varying interaction forces between the vibrating tip and the sample in a tapping-mode atomic force microscope contain detailed information about the elastic, adhesive, and dissipative response of the sample. We report real-time measurement and analysis of the time-varying tip-sample interaction forces with recently introduced torsional harmonic cantilevers. With these measurements, high-resolution maps of elastic modulus, adhesion force, energy dissipation, and topography are generated simultaneously in a single scan. With peak tapping forces as low as 0.6 nN, we demonstrate measurements on blended polymers and self-assembled molecular architectures with feature sizes at 1, 10, and 500 nm. We also observed an elastic modulus measurement range of four orders of magnitude (1 MPa to 10 GPa) for a single cantilever under identical feedback conditions, which can be particularly useful for analyzing heterogeneous samples with largely different material components.

  1. Arctide2017, a high-resolution regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancet, M.; Andersen, O. B.; Lyard, F.

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modelling. The accuracy of the global tidal models decreases by several centimeters in the Polar Regions, which has a large impact on the quality of the satellite altimeter sea surface heights and the altimetry-derived products. NOVELTIS, DTU Space...... and LEGOS have developed Arctide2017, a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of an extension of the CryoSat Plus for Ocean (CP4O) ESA STSE (Support to Science Element) project. In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite...... assimilation and validation. This paper presents the implementation methodology and the performance of this new regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean, compared to the existing global and regional tidal models....

  2. High-resolution linkage map of mouse chromosome 13 in the vicinity of the host resistance locus Lgn1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckers, M.C.; Ernst, E.; Diez, E. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Natural resistance of inbred mouse strains to infection with Legionella pneumophila is controlled by the expression of a single dominant gene on chromosome 13, designated Lgn1. The genetic difference at Lgn1 is phenotypically expressed as the presence or absence of intracellular replication of L. pneumophila in host macrophages. In our effort to identify the Lgn1 gene by positional cloning, we have generated a high-resolution linkage map of the Lgn1 chromosomal region. For this, we have carried out extensive segregation analysis in a total of 1270 (A/J x C57BL/6J) X A/J informative backcross mice segregating the resistance allele of C57BL/6J and the susceptibility allele of A/J. Additional segregation analyses were carried out in three preexisting panels of C57BL/6J X Mus spretus interspecific backcross mice. A total of 39 DNA markers were mapped within an interval of approximately 30 cM overlapping the Lgn1 region. Combined pedigree analyses for the 5.4-cM segment overlapping Lgn1 indicated the locus order and the interlocus distances (in cM): D13Mit128-(1.4)-D13Mit194-(0.1)-D13Mit147-(0.9)-Dl3Mit36-(0.9)-D13Mit146-(0.2)-Lgn1/D 13Mit37-(1.0)-D13Mit70. Additional genetic linkage studies of markers not informative in the A/J X C57BL/6J cross positioned D13Mit30, -72, -195, and -203, D13Gor4, D13Hun35, and Mtap5 in the immediate vicinity of the Lgn1 locus. The marker density and resolution of this genetic linkage map should allow the construction of a physical map of the region and the isolation of YAC clones overlapping the gene. 60 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cold-seep habitat mapping: High-resolution spatial characterization of the Blake Ridge Diapir seep field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jamie K. S.; McEntee, Molly H.; Brothers, Laura L.; German, Christopher R.; Kaiser, Carl L.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2013-08-01

    Relationships among seep community biomass, diversity, and physiographic controls such as underlying geology are not well understood. Previous efforts to constrain these relationships at the Blake Ridge Diapir were limited to observations from piloted deep-submergence vehicles. In August 2012, the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Sentry collected geophysical and photographic data over a 0.131 km2 area at the Blake Ridge Diapir seeps. A nested survey approach was used that began with a regional or reconnaissance-style survey using sub-bottom mapping systems to locate and identify seeps and underlying conduits. This survey was followed by AUV-mounted sidescan sonar and multibeam echosounder systems mapping on a mesoscale to characterize the seabed physiography. At the most detailed survey level, digital photographic imaging was used to resolve sub-meter characteristics of the biology. Four pockmarks (25-70 m diameter) were documented, each supporting chemosynthetic communities. Concentric zonation of mussels and clams suggests the influence of chemical gradients on megafaunal distribution. Data collection and analytical techniques used here yield high-resolution habitat maps that can serve as baselines to constrain temporal evolution of seafloor seeps, and to inform ecological niche modeling and resource management.

  4. High resolution radio observations of nuclear and circumnuclear regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA, CSIC), PO Box 3004, 18080-Granada (Spain); Colina, L [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia - IEM, CSIC, C, Serrano 115, 28005 Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, J M [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE, CSIC) and IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: antxon@iaa.es, E-mail: torres@iaa.es, E-mail: colina@damir.iem.csic.es, E-mail: torrelle@ieec.fcr.es

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution radio observations of the nuclear region of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) have shown that its radio structure consists of a compact high surface-brightness central radio source immersed in a diffuse low brightness circumnuclear halo. While the central component could be associated with an AGN or compact star-forming regions where radio supernovae are exploding, it is well known that the circumnuclear regions host bursts of star-formation. The studies of radio supernovae can provide essential information about stellar evolution and CSM/ISM properties in regions hidden by dust at optical and IR wavelengths. In this contribution, we show results from radio interferometric observations from NGC 7469, IRAS 18293-3413 and IRAS 17138-1017 where three extremely bright radio supernovae have been found. High-resolution radio observations of these and other LIRGs would allow us to determine the core-collapse supernova rate in them as well as their star-formation rate.

  5. High-resolution genetic mapping at the Bph15 locus for brown planthopper resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyuan; You, Aiqing; Yang, Zhifan; Zhang, Futie; He, Ruifeng; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2004-12-01

    Resistance to the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal, a devastating sucking insect pest of rice, is an important breeding objective in rice improvement programs. Bph15, one of the 17 major BPH resistance genes so far identified in both cultivated and wild rice, has been identified in an introgression line, B5, and mapped on chromosome 4 flanked by restriction fragment length polymorphism markers C820 and S11182. In order to pave the way for positional cloning of this gene, we have developed a high-resolution genetic map of Bph15 by positioning 21 DNA markers in the target chromosomal region. Mapping was based on a PCR-based screening of 9,472 F(2) individuals derived from a cross between RI93, a selected recombinant inbred line of B5 bearing the resistance gene Bph15, and a susceptible variety, Taichung Native 1, in order to identify recombinant plants within the Bph15 region. Recombinant F(2) individuals with the Bph15 genotype were determined by phenotype evaluation. Analysis of recombination events in the Bph15 region delimited the gene locus to an interval between markers RG1 and RG2 that co-segregated with the M1 marker. A genomic library of B5 was screened using these markers, and bacterial artificial chromosome clones spanning the Bph15 chromosome region were obtained. An assay of the recombinants using the sub-clones of these clones in combination with sequence analysis delimited the Bph15 gene to a genomic segment of approximately 47 kb. This result should serve as the basis for eventual isolation of the Bph15 resistance gene.

  6. High-resolution mapping of wetland vegetation biomass and distribution with L-band radar in southeastern coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. M.; Simard, M.; Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Castaneda, E.; Twilley, R.; Bevington, A. E.; Christensen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands account for approximately one third (37%) of the estuarine wetland vegetation in the conterminous United States, yet the spatial distribution of their extent and aboveground biomass (AGB) is not well defined. This knowledge is critical for the accurate completion of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. We generated high-resolution baselines maps of wetland vegetation extent and biomass at the Atchafalaya and Terrebonne basins in coastal Louisiana using a multi-sensor approach. Optical satellite data was used within an object-oriented machine learning approach to classify the structure of wetland vegetation types, offering increased detail over currently available land cover maps that do not distinguish between wetland vegetation types nor account for non-permanent seasonal changes in extent. We mapped 1871 km2 of wetlands during a period of peak biomass in September 2015 comprised of flooded forested wetlands and leaf, grass and emergent herbaceous marshes. The distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) was mapped using JPL L-band Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). Relationships between time-series radar imagery and field data collected in May 2015 and September 2016 were derived to estimate AGB at the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya deltas. Differences in seasonal biomass estimates reflect the increased AGB in September over May, concurrent with periods of peak biomass and the onset of the vegetation growing season, respectively. This method provides a tractable means of mapping and monitoring biomass of wetland vegetation types with L-band radar, in a region threatened with wetland loss under projections of increasing sea-level rise and terrestrial subsidence. Through this, we demonstrate a method that is able to satisfy the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement requirement for Tier 2/Tier 3 reporting of coastal wetland GHG inventories.

  7. GlobalSoilMap France: High-resolution spatial modelling the soils of France up to two meter depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V L; Lacoste, M; Richer-de-Forges, A C; Arrouays, D

    2016-12-15

    This work presents the first GlobalSoilMap (GSM) products for France. We developed an automatic procedure for mapping the primary soil properties (clay, silt, sand, coarse elements, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil depth). The procedure employed a data-mining technique and a straightforward method for estimating the 90% confidence intervals (CIs). The most accurate models were obtained for pH, sand and silt. Next, CEC, clay and SOC were found reasonably accurate predicted. Coarse elements and soil depth were the least accurate of all models. Overall, all models were considered robust; important indicators for this were 1) the small difference in model diagnostics between the calibration and cross-validation set, 2) the unbiased mean predictions, 3) the smaller spatial structure of the prediction residuals in comparison to the observations and 4) the similar performance compared to other developed GlobalSoilMap products. Nevertheless, the confidence intervals (CIs) were rather wide for all soil properties. The median predictions became less reliable with increasing depth, as indicated by the increase of CIs with depth. In addition, model accuracy and the corresponding CIs varied depending on the soil variable of interest, soil depth and geographic location. These findings indicated that the CIs are as informative as the model diagnostics. In conclusion, the presented method resulted in reasonably accurate predictions for the majority of the soil properties. End users can employ the products for different purposes, as was demonstrated with some practical examples. The mapping routine is flexible for cloud-computing and provides ample opportunity to be further developed when desired by its users. This allows regional and international GSM partners with fewer resources to develop their own products or, otherwise, to improve the current routine and work together towards a robust high-resolution digital soil map of the world

  8. Structure and Evolution of Hawaii's Loihi Seamount from High-resolution Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Moyer, C. L.; Glazer, B. T.; Caress, D. W.; Yoerger, D.; Kaiser, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Loihi Seamount has been mapped repeatedly using shipboard multibeam sonars with improving resolution over time. Simrad EM302 data with 25m resolution at the 950m summit and 90m at the 5000m base of the volcano were collected from Schmidt Ocean Institute's R/V Falkor in 2014. A contracted multibeam survey in 1997 employing a deep-towed vehicle has 7m resolution for the summit and upper north and south rift zones, but suffered from poor navigation. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's AUV Sentry surveyed most of the summit and low-T hydrothermal vents on the base of the south rift in 2013 and 2014. The 2m resolution of most data is more precise than the navigation. The 6 summit surveys were reprocessed using MB-System to remove abundant bad bottom picks and adjust the navigation to produce a spatially accurate map. The 3 summit pits, including Pele's Pit that formed in 1996, are complex collapse structures and nested inside a larger caldera that was modified by large landslides on the east and west summit flanks. The pits cut low shields that once formed a complex of overlapping summit shields, similar to Kilauea before the current caldera formed 1500 to 1790 CE. An 11m section of ash deposits crops out on the east rim of the summit along a caldera-bounding fault and is analogous to Kilauea where the caldera-bounding faults expose ash erupted as the present caldera formed. Most of the Loihi ash section is 3300 to 5880 yr BP, indicating that the larger caldera structure at Loihi is younger than 3300 yr BP. The landslides on the east and west edges of the summit are therefore younger 3300 yr BP. The uppermost south rift has several small pit craters between cones and pillow ridges, also analogous to Kilauea. Two cones near the deep low-T vents are steep pillow mounds with slopes of talus. High-resolution mapping reveals, for the first time, the many similarities between the structure and evolution of submarine Loihi Seamount and subaerial Kilauea Volcano.

  9. aMAP is a validated pipeline for registration and segmentation of high-resolution mouse brain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedworok, Christian J.; Brown, Alexander P. Y.; Jorge Cardoso, M.; Osten, Pavel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Modat, Marc; Margrie, Troy W.

    2016-01-01

    The validation of automated image registration and segmentation is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping of brain connectivity and function in three-dimensional (3D) data sets. While validation standards are necessarily high and routinely met in the clinical arena, they have to date been lacking for high-resolution microscopy data sets obtained from the rodent brain. Here we present a tool for optimized automated mouse atlas propagation (aMAP) based on clinical registration software (NiftyReg) for anatomical segmentation of high-resolution 3D fluorescence images of the adult mouse brain. We empirically evaluate aMAP as a method for registration and subsequent segmentation by validating it against the performance of expert human raters. This study therefore establishes a benchmark standard for mapping the molecular function and cellular connectivity of the rodent brain. PMID:27384127

  10. National Hydrography Dataset Plus High Resolution (NHDPlus HR) - USGS National Map Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The High Resolution National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus HR) is an integrated set of geospatial data layers, including the best available National Hydrography...

  11. A new Concept for High Resolution Benthic Mapping and Data Aquisition: MANSIO-VIATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flögel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental conditions within sensitive seafloor ecosystems such as cold-seep provinces or cold-water coral reef communities vary temporally and spatially over a wide range of scales. Some of these are regularly monitored via short periods of intense shipborne activity or low resolution, fixed location studies by benthic lander systems. Long term measurements of larger areas and volumes are ususally coupled to costly infrastructure investments such as cabled observatories. In space exploration, a combination of fixed and mobile systems working together are commonly used, e.g. lander systems coupled to rovers, to tackle observational needs that are very similar to deep-sea data aquisition. The analogies between space and deep-sea research motivated the German Helmholtz Association to setup the joint research program ROBEX (Robotic Exploration under extreme conditions). The program objectives are to identify, develop and verify technological synergies between the robotic exploration of e.g. the moon and the deep-sea. Within ROBEX, the mobility of robots is a vital element for research missions due to valuable scientifice return potential from different sites as opposed to static landers. Within this context, we developed a new mobile crawler system (VIATOR, latin for traveller) and a fixed lander component for energy and data transfer (MANSIO, latin for housing/shelter). This innovative MANSIO-VIATOR system has been developed during the past 2.5 years. The caterpillar driven component is developed to conduct high resolution opitcal mapping and repeated monitoring of physical and biogeochemical parameters along transects. The system operates fully autonomously including navigational components such as camera and laser scanners, as well as marker based near-field navigation used in space technology. This new concept of data aquisition by a submarine crawler in combination with a fixed lander further opens up marine exploration possibilities.

  12. High-resolution mapping of yield curve shape and evolution for high porosity sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J. D.; Faulkner, D.; Wheeler, J.; Leclere, H.

    2017-12-01

    The onset of permanent inelastic deformation for porous rock is typically defined by a yield curve plotted in P-Q space, where P is the effective mean stress and Q is the differential stress. Sandstones usually have broadly elliptical shaped yield curves, with the low pressure side of the ellipse associated with localized brittle faulting (dilation) and the high pressure side with distributed ductile deformation (compaction). However recent works have shown that these curves might not be perfectly elliptical and that significant evolution in shape occurs with continued deformation. We therefore use a novel stress-probing methodology to map in high-resolution the yield curve shape for Boise and Idaho Gray sandstones (36-38% porosity) and also investigate curve evolution with increasing deformation. The data reveal yield curves with a much flatter geometry than previously recorded for porous sandstone and that the compactive side of the curve is partly comprised of a near vertical limb. The yield curve evolution is found to be strongly dependent on the nature of inelastic strain. Samples that were compacted under a deviatoric load, with a component of inelastic shear strain, were found to have yield curves with peaks that are approximately 50% higher than similar porosity samples that were hydrostatically compacted (i.e. purely volumetric strain). The difference in yield curve evolution along the different loading paths is attributed to mechanical anisotropy that develops during deviatoric loading by the closure of preferentially orientated fractures. Increased shear strain also leads to the formation of a plateau at the peak of the yield curve as samples deform along the deviatoric loading path. These results have important implications for understanding how the strength of porous rock evolves along different stress paths, including during fluid extraction from hydrocarbon reservoirs where the stress state is rarely isotropic.

  13. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. X. High-resolution Maps and Mass Constraints for SMBHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Lo, K. Y.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.; Pesce, D. W.; Greene, J. E.; Gao, F.; Kuo, C. Y.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution (submas) Very Long Baseline Interferometry maps of nuclear H2O megamasers for seven galaxies. In UGC 6093, the well-aligned systemic masers and high-velocity masers originate in an edge-on, flat disk and we determine the mass of the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) to be M SMBH = 2.58 × 107 M ⊙ (±7%). For J1346+5228, the distribution of masers is consistent with a disk, but the faint high-velocity masers are only marginally detected, and we constrain the mass of the SMBH to be in the range (1.5–2.0) × 107 M ⊙. The origin of the masers in Mrk 1210 is less clear, as the systemic and high-velocity masers are misaligned and show a disorganized velocity structure. We present one possible model in which the masers originate in a tilted, warped disk, but we do not rule out the possibility of other explanations including outflow masers. In NGC 6926, we detect a set of redshifted masers, clustered within a parsec of each other, and a single blueshifted maser about 4.4 pc away, an offset that would be unusually large for a maser disk system. Nevertheless, if it is a disk system, we estimate the enclosed mass to be M SMBH < 4.8 × 107 M ⊙. For NGC 5793, we detect redshifted masers spaced about 1.4 pc from a clustered set of blueshifted features. The orientation of the structure supports a disk scenario as suggested by Hagiwara et al. We estimate the enclosed mass to be M SMBH < 1.3 × 107 M ⊙. For NGC 2824 and J0350‑0127, the masers may be associated with parsec- or subparsec-scale jets or outflows.

  14. High-Resolution Melting (HRM) of Hypervariable Mitochondrial DNA Regions for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rocha, Alípio; de Amorim, Isis Salviano Soares; Simão, Tatiana de Almeida; da Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza; Garrido, Rodrigo Grazinoli; Mencalha, Andre Luiz

    2018-03-01

    Forensic strategies commonly are proceeding by analysis of short tandem repeats (STRs); however, new additional strategies have been proposed for forensic science. Thus, this article standardized the high-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA for forensic analyzes. For HRM, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from eight individuals were extracted from mucosa swabs by DNAzol reagent, samples were amplified by PCR and submitted to HRM analysis to identify differences in hypervariable (HV) regions I and II. To confirm HRM, all PCR products were DNA sequencing. The data suggest that is possible discriminate DNA from different samples by HRM curves. Also, uncommon dual-dissociation was identified in a single PCR product, increasing HRM analyzes by evaluation of melting peaks. Thus, HRM is accurate and useful to screening small differences in HVI and HVII regions from mtDNA and increase the efficiency of laboratory routines based on forensic genetics. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, Andrea E; Stevens, Forrest R; Linard, Catherine; Jia, Peng; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution) population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org.

  16. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Gaughan

    Full Text Available Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org.

  17. An investigation of tropical Atlantic bias in a high-resolution coupled regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Saravanan, R.; Hsieh, Jen-Shan [Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Li, Mingkui; Xu, Zhao [Texas A and M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX (United States); Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography of Ministry of Education, Qingdao (China); Chang, Ping [Texas A and M University, Department of Oceanography, College Station, TX (United States); Ocean University of China, Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography of Ministry of Education, Qingdao (China); Second Institute of Oceanography, State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2012-11-15

    Coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) commonly fail to simulate the eastern equatorial Atlantic boreal summer cold tongue and produce a westerly equatorial trade wind bias. This tropical Atlantic bias problem is investigated with a high-resolution (27-km atmosphere represented by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, 9-km ocean represented by the Regional Ocean Modeling System) coupled regional climate model. Uncoupled atmospheric simulations test climate sensitivity to cumulus, land-surface, planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and radiation parameterizations and reveal that the radiation scheme has a pronounced impact in the tropical Atlantic. The CAM radiation simulates a dry precipitation (up to -90%) and cold land-surface temperature (up to -8 K) bias over the Amazon related to an over-representation of low-level clouds and almost basin-wide westerly trade wind bias. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model and Goddard radiation simulates doubled Amazon and Congo Basin precipitation rates and a weak eastern Atlantic trade wind bias. Season-long high-resolution coupled regional model experiments indicate that the initiation of the warm eastern equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) bias is more sensitive to the local rather than basin-wide trade wind bias and to a wet Congo Basin instead of dry Amazon - which differs from AOGCM simulations. Comparisons between coupled and uncoupled simulations suggest a regional Bjerknes feedback confined to the eastern equatorial Atlantic amplifies the initial SST, wind, and deepened thermocline bias, while barrier layer feedbacks are relatively unimportant. The SST bias in some CRCM simulations resembles the typical AOGCM bias indicating that increasing resolution is unlikely a simple solution to this problem. (orig.)

  18. High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis in China: Evaluation of 1 Year Period Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Yinong; Wang, Shuyu; Xu, Jianjun; Tang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Globally, reanalysis data sets are widely used in assessing climate change, validating numerical models, and understanding the interactions between the components of a climate system. However, due to the relatively coarse resolution, most global reanalysis data sets are not suitable to apply at the local and regional scales directly with the inadequate descriptions of mesoscale systems and climatic extreme incidents such as mesoscale convective systems, squall lines, tropical cyclones, regional droughts, and heat waves. In this study, by using a data assimilation system of Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation, and a mesoscale atmospheric model of Weather Research and Forecast model, we build a regional reanalysis system. This is preliminary and the first experimental attempt to construct a high-resolution reanalysis for China main land. Four regional test bed data sets are generated for year 2013 via three widely used methods (classical dynamical downscaling, spectral nudging, and data assimilation) and a hybrid method with data assimilation coupled with spectral nudging. Temperature at 2 m, precipitation, and upper level atmospheric variables are evaluated by comparing against observations for one-year-long tests. It can be concluded that the regional reanalysis with assimilation and nudging methods can better produce the atmospheric variables from surface to upper levels, and regional extreme events such as heat waves, than the classical dynamical downscaling. Compared to the ERA-Interim global reanalysis, the hybrid nudging method performs slightly better in reproducing upper level temperature and low-level moisture over China, which improves regional reanalysis data quality.

  19. Mapping Sub-Antarctic Cushion Plants Using Random Forests to Combine Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Terrain Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricher, Phillippa K.; Lucieer, Arko; Shaw, Justine; Terauds, Aleks; Bergstrom, Dana M.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in the distribution and density of plant species often requires accurate and high-resolution baseline maps of those species. Detecting such change at the landscape scale is often problematic, particularly in remote areas. We examine a new technique to improve accuracy and objectivity in mapping vegetation, combining species distribution modelling and satellite image classification on a remote sub-Antarctic island. In this study, we combine spectral data from very high resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery and terrain variables from a high resolution digital elevation model to improve mapping accuracy, in both pixel- and object-based classifications. Random forest classification was used to explore the effectiveness of these approaches on mapping the distribution of the critically endangered cushion plant Azorella macquariensis Orchard (Apiaceae) on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Both pixel- and object-based classifications of the distribution of Azorella achieved very high overall validation accuracies (91.6–96.3%, κ = 0.849–0.924). Both two-class and three-class classifications were able to accurately and consistently identify the areas where Azorella was absent, indicating that these maps provide a suitable baseline for monitoring expected change in the distribution of the cushion plants. Detecting such change is critical given the threats this species is currently facing under altering environmental conditions. The method presented here has applications to monitoring a range of species, particularly in remote and isolated environments. PMID:23940805

  20. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  1. High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and

  2. Typical disturbances of the daytime equatorial F region observed with a high-resolution HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blanc

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available HF radar measurements were performed near the magnetic equator in Africa (Korhogo 9°24'63''N–5°37'38''W during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (1993–1994. The HF radar is a high-resolution zenithal radar. It gives ionograms, Doppler spectra and echo parameters at several frequencies simultaneously. This paper presents a comparative study of the daytime ionospheric structures observed during 3 days selected as representative of different magnetic conditions, given by magnetometer measurements. Broad Doppler spectra, large echo width, and amplitude fluctuations revealed small-scale instability processes up to the F-region peak. The height variations measured at different altitudes showed gravity waves and larger-scale disturbances related to solar daytime influence and equatorial electric fields. The possibility of retrieving the ionospheric electric fields from these Doppler or height variation measurements in the presence of the other possible equatorial ionospheric disturbances is discussed.

  3. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  4. Internet-Enabled High-Resolution Brain Mapping and Virtual Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mikula, Shawn; Trotts, Issac; Stone, James M.; Jones, Edward G.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual microscopy involves the conversion of histological sections mounted on glass microscope slides to high resolution digital images. Virtual microscopy offers several advantages over traditional microscopy, including remote viewing and data-sharing, annotation, and various forms of data-mining.

  5. High resolution coherence domain depth-resolved nailfold capillaroscopy based on correlation mapping optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; O'Gorman, Sean; Neuhaus, Kai; Leahy, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel application of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cm-OCT) for volumetric nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC). NFC is a widely used non-invasive diagnostic method to analyze capillary morphology and microvascular abnormalities of nailfold area for a range of disease conditions. However, the conventional NFC is incapable of providing volumetric imaging, when volumetric quantitative microangiopathic parameters such as plexus morphology, capillary density, and morphologic anomalies of the end row loops most critical. cm-OCT is a recently developed well established coherence domain magnitude based angiographic modality, which takes advantage of the time-varying speckle effect, which is normally dominant in the vicinity of vascular regions compared to static tissue region. It utilizes the correlation coefficient as a direct measurement of decorrelation between two adjacent B-frames to enhance the visibility of depth-resolved microcirculation.

  6. [Characteristic study on village landscape patterns in Sichuan Basin hilly region based on high resolution IKONOS remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoucheng; Liu, Wenquan; Cheng, Xu; Ellis, Erle C

    2005-10-01

    To realize the landscape programming of agro-ecosystem management, landscape-stratification can provide us the best understanding of landscape ecosystem at very detailed scales. For this purpose, the village landscapes in densely populated Jintang and Jianyang Counties of Sichuan Basin hilly region were mapped from high resolution (1 m) IKONOS satellite imagery by using a standardized 4 level ecological landscape classification and mapping system in a regionally-representative sample of five 500 x 500 m2 landscape quadrats (sample plots). Based on these maps, the spatial patterns were analyzed by landscape indicators, which demonstrated a large variety of landscape types or ecotopes across the village landscape of this region, with diversity indexes ranging from 1.08 to 2.26 at different levels of the landscape classification system. The richness indices ranged from 42.2% to 58.6 %, except that for the landcover at 85 %. About 12.5 % of the ecotopes were distributed in the same way in each landscape sample, and the remaining 87.5% were distributed differently. The landscape fragmentation indices varied from 2.93 to 4.27 across sample plots, and from 2.86 to 5.63 across classification levels. The population density and the road and hamlet areas had strong linear correlations with some landscape indicators, and especially, the correlation coefficients of hamlet areas with fractal indexes and fragmental dimensions were 0.957* and 0.991**, respectively. The differences in most landscape pattern indices across sample plots and landscape classes were statistically significant, indicating that cross-scale mapping and classification of village landscapes could provide more detailed information on landscape patterns than those from a single level of classification.

  7. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  8. High resolution mapping of modafinil induced changes in glutamate level in rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haris

    Full Text Available Modafinil is marketed in the United States for the treatment of narcolepsy and daytime somnolence due to shift-work or sleep apnea. Investigations of this drug in the treatment of cocaine and nicotine dependence in addition to disorders of executive function are also underway. Modafinil has been known to increase glutamate levels in rat brain models. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS has been commonly used to detect the glutamate (Glu changes in vivo. In this study, we used a recently described glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST imaging technique to measure Modafinil induced regional Glu changes in rat brain and compared the results with Glu concentration measured by single voxel 1HMRS. No increases in either GluCEST maps or 1HMRS were observed after Modafinil injection over a period of 5 hours. However, a significant increase in GluCEST (19 ± 4.4% was observed 24 hours post Modafinil administration, which is consistent with results from previous biochemical studies. This change was not consistently seen with 1HMRS. GluCEST mapping allows regional cerebral Glu changes to be measured and may provide a useful clinical biomarker of Modafinil effects for the management of patients with sleep disorders and addiction.

  9. High-resolution 2-deoxyglucose mapping of functional cortical columns in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCasland, J S; Woolsey, T A

    1988-12-22

    Cortical columns associated with barrels in layer IV of the somatosensory cortex were characterized by high-resolution 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) autoradiography in freely behaving mice. The method demonstrates a more exact match between columnar labeling and cytoarchitectonic barrel boundaries than previously reported. The pattern of cortical activation seen with stimulation of a single whisker (third whisker in the middle row of large hairs--C3) was compared with the patterns from two control conditions--normal animals with all whiskers present ("positive control")--and with all large whiskers clipped ("negative control"). Two types of measurements were made from 2DG autoradiograms of tangential cortical sections: 1) labeled cells were identified by eye and tabulated with a computer, and 2) grain densities were obtained automatically with a computer-controlled microscope and image processor. We studied the fine-grained patterns of 2DG labeling in a nine-barrel grid with the C3 barrel in the center. From the analysis we draw five major conclusions. 1. Approximately 30-40% of the total number of neurons in the C3 barrel column are activated when only the C3 whisker is stimulated. This is about twice the number of neurons labeled in the C3 column when all whiskers are stimulated and about ten times the number of neurons labeled when all large whiskers are clipped. 2. There is evidence for a vertical functional organization within a barrel-related whisker column which has smaller dimensions in the tangential direction than a barrel. There are densely labeled patches within a barrel which are unique to an individual cortex. The same patchy pattern is found in the appropriate regions of sections above and below the barrels through the full thickness of the cortex. This functional arrangement could be considered to be a "minicolumn" or more likely a group of "minicolumns" (Mountcastle: In G.M. Edelman and U.B. Mountcastle (eds): The Material Brain: Cortical Organization

  10. High-resolution inventory of NO emissions from agricultural soils over the Ile-de-France region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, M.-N. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Gabrielle, B., E-mail: Benoit.Gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Laville, P.; Cellier, P. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Beekmann, M. [Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques - CNRS, Universites Paris-Est and Paris 7, F-94 010 Creteil (France); Gilliot, J.-M.; Michelin, J.; Hadjar, D. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Curci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica - CETEMPS, Universita' degli Studi dell' Aquila, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Arable soils are a significant source of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, and thereby contribute to ozone pollution. However, their actual impact on ozone formation is strongly related to their spatial and temporal emission patterns, which warrant high-resolution estimates. Here, we combined an agro-ecosystem model and geo-referenced databases to map these sources over the 12 000 km{sup 2} administrative region surrounding Paris, France, with a kilometric level resolution. The six most frequent arable crop species were simulated, with emission rates ranging from 1.4 kg N-NO ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to 11.1 kg N-NO ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The overall emission factor for fertilizer-derived NO emissions was 1.7%, while background emissions contributed half of the total NO efflux. Emissions were strongly seasonal, being highest in spring due to fertilizer inputs. They were mostly sensitive to soil type, crops' growing season and fertilizer N rates. - The use of an agro-ecosystem model at regional scale makes it possible to map the emissions of nitric oxide from arable soils at a resolution compatible with tropospheric ozone models.

  11. Deciphering Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Kansas Based on High-resolution Stress Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Haffener, J.; Trugman, D. T.; Carpenter, B.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Induced seismicity in Oklahoma and Kansas delineates clear fault trends. It is assumed that fluid injection reactivates faults which are optimally oriented relative to the regional tectonic stress field. We utilized recently improved earthquake locations and more complete focal mechanism catalogs to quantitatively analyze the stress state of seismogenic faults with high-resolution stress maps. The steps of analysis are: (1) Mapping the faults by clustering seismicity using a nearest-neighbor approach, manually picking the fault in each cluster and calculating the fault geometry using principal component analysis. (2) Running a stress inversion with 0.2° grid spacing to produce an in-situ stress map. (3) The fault stress state is determined from fault geometry and a 3D Mohr circle. The parameter `understress' is calculated to quantify the criticalness of these faults. If it approaches 0, the fault is critically stressed; while understress=1 means there is no shear stress on the fault. Our results indicate that most of the active faults have a planar shape (planarity>0.8), and dip steeply (dip>70°). The fault trends are distributed mainly in conjugate set ranges of [50°,70°] and [100°,120°]. More importantly, these conjugate trends are consistent with mapped basement fractures in southern Oklahoma, suggesting similar basement features from regional tectonics. The fault length data shows a loglinear relationship with the maximum earthquake magnitude with an expected maximum magnitude range from 3.2 to 4.4 for most seismogenic faults. Based on 3D local Mohr circle, we find that 61% of the faults have low understress (0.5) are located within highest-rate injection zones and therefore are likely to be influenced by high pore pressure. The faults that hosted the largest earthquakes, M5.7 Prague and M5.8 Pawnee are critically stressed (understress 0.2). These differences may help in understanding earthquake sequences, for example, the predominantly aftershock

  12. High resolution global flood hazard map from physically-based hydrologic and hydraulic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnudelli, L.; Kaheil, Y.; McCollum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global flood map published online at http://www.fmglobal.com/research-and-resources/global-flood-map at 90m resolution is being used worldwide to understand flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual risk financially through flood insurance programs. The modeling system is based on a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D shallow-water hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model can be applied to large-scale flood hazard mapping thanks to several solutions that maximize its efficiency and the use of parallel computing. The hydrologic component of the modeling system is the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) hydrologic model. HRR simulates hydrological processes using a Green-Ampt parameterization, and is calibrated against observed discharge data from several publicly-available datasets. For inundation mapping, we use a 2D Finite-Volume Shallow-Water model with wetting/drying. We introduce here a grid Up-Scaling Technique (UST) for hydraulic modeling to perform simulations at higher resolution at global scale with relatively short computational times. A 30m SRTM is now available worldwide along with higher accuracy and/or resolution local Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in many countries and regions. UST consists of aggregating computational cells, thus forming a coarser grid, while retaining the topographic information from the original full-resolution mesh. The full-resolution topography is used for building relationships between volume and free surface elevation inside cells and computing inter-cell fluxes. This approach almost achieves computational speed typical of the coarse grids while preserving, to a significant extent, the accuracy offered by the much higher resolution available DEM. The simulations are carried out along each river of the network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs generated by HRR. Hydrographs are scaled so that the peak

  13. A high-resolution genetic linkage map and QTL fine mapping for growth-related traits and sex in the Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Fu, Beide; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Tong, Jingou

    2018-04-02

    A high-density genetic linkage map is essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genome analysis, identification of candidate genes and marker-assisted selection for economic traits in aquaculture species. The Yangtze River common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) is one of the most important aquacultured strains in China. However, quite limited genetics and genomics resources have been developed for genetic improvement of economic traits in such strain. A high-resolution genetic linkage map was constructed by using 7820 2b-RAD (2b-restriction site-associated DNA) and 295 microsatellite markers in a F2 family of the Yangtze River common carp (C. c. haematopterus). The length of the map was 4586.56 cM with an average marker interval of 0.57 cM. Comparative genome mapping revealed that a high proportion (70%) of markers with disagreed chromosome location was observed between C. c. haematopterus and another common carp strain (subspecies) C. c. carpio. A clear 2:1 relationship was observed between C. c. haematopterus linkage groups (LGs) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) chromosomes. Based on the genetic map, 21 QTLs for growth-related traits were detected on 12 LGs, and contributed values of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) ranging from 16.3 to 38.6%, with LOD scores ranging from 4.02 to 11.13. A genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 10.83) and three chromosome-wide significant QTLs (mean LOD = 4.84) for sex were mapped on LG50 and LG24, respectively. A 1.4 cM confidence interval of QTL for all growth-related traits showed conserved synteny with a 2.06 M segment on chromosome 14 of D. rerio. Five potential candidate genes were identified by blast search in this genomic region, including a well-studied multi-functional growth related gene, Apelin. We mapped a set of suggestive and significant QTLs for growth-related traits and sex based on a high-density genetic linkage map using SNP and microsatellite markers for Yangtze River common carp. Several

  14. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Michael D.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Hoffman, Chad; Cheng, Antony S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP) imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2) having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability of an OBIA

  15. High resolution mapping of development in the wildland-urban interface using object based image extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Caggiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The wildland-urban interface (WUI, the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations. Although fine-scale maps of the WUI have been developed, they are often limited in their spatial extent, have unknown accuracies and biases, and are costly to update over time. In this paper we assess a semi-automated Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA approach that utilizes 4-band multispectral National Aerial Image Program (NAIP imagery for the detection of individual buildings within the WUI. We evaluate this approach by comparing the accuracy and overall quality of extracted buildings to a building footprint control dataset. In addition, we assessed the effects of buffer distance, topographic conditions, and building characteristics on the accuracy and quality of building extraction. The overall accuracy and quality of our approach was positively related to buffer distance, with accuracies ranging from 50 to 95% for buffer distances from 0 to 100 m. Our results also indicate that building detection was sensitive to building size, with smaller outbuildings (footprints less than 75 m2 having detection rates below 80% and larger residential buildings having detection rates above 90%. These findings demonstrate that this approach can successfully identify buildings in the WUI in diverse landscapes while achieving high accuracies at buffer distances appropriate for most fire management applications while overcoming cost and time constraints associated with traditional approaches. This study is unique in that it evaluates the ability

  16. A high-resolution computational localization method for transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonuma, Shinta; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Takakura, Tomokazu; Tamura, Manabu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2018-05-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used for the mapping of brain motor functions. The complexity of the brain deters determining the exact localization of the stimulation site using simplified methods (e.g., the region below the center of the TMS coil) or conventional computational approaches. This study aimed to present a high-precision localization method for a specific motor area by synthesizing computed non-uniform current distributions in the brain for multiple sessions of TMS. Peritumoral mapping by TMS was conducted on patients who had intra-axial brain neoplasms located within or close to the motor speech area. The electric field induced by TMS was computed using realistic head models constructed from magnetic resonance images of patients. A post-processing method was implemented to determine a TMS hotspot by combining the computed electric fields for the coil orientations and positions that delivered high motor-evoked potentials during peritumoral mapping. The method was compared to the stimulation site localized via intraoperative direct brain stimulation and navigated TMS. Four main results were obtained: 1) the dependence of the computed hotspot area on the number of peritumoral measurements was evaluated; 2) the estimated localization of the hand motor area in eight non-affected hemispheres was in good agreement with the position of a so-called "hand-knob"; 3) the estimated hotspot areas were not sensitive to variations in tissue conductivity; and 4) the hand motor areas estimated by this proposal and direct electric stimulation (DES) were in good agreement in the ipsilateral hemisphere of four glioma patients. The TMS localization method was validated by well-known positions of the "hand-knob" in brains for the non-affected hemisphere, and by a hotspot localized via DES during awake craniotomy for the tumor-containing hemisphere. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nationwide high-resolution mapping of hazards in the Philippines (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2015-04-01

    The Philippines being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Situated in a region where severe weather and geophysical unrest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. Recently, the Philippines put in place a responsive program called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (NOAH) for disaster prevention and mitigation. The efforts of Project NOAH are an offshoot of lessons learned from previous disasters that have inflicted massive loss of lives and costly damage to property. Several components of the NOAH program focus on mapping of landslide, riverine flood and storm surge inundation hazards. By simulating hazards phenomena over IFSAR- and LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs) using high-performance computers, multi-hazards maps of 1:10,000 scale, have been produced and disseminated to local government units through a variety of platforms. These detailed village-level (barangay-level) maps are useful to identify safe evacuation sites, planning emergency access routes and prepositioning of search and rescue and relief supplies during times of crises. They are also essential for long-term development planning of communities. In the past two years, NOAH was instrumental in providing timely, site-specific, and understandable hazards information to the public, considered as best practice in disaster risk reduction management (DRR). The use of advanced science and technology in the country's disaster prevention efforts is imperative to successfully mitigate the adverse impacts of natural hazards and should be a continuous quest - to find the best products, put forth in the forefront of battle against

  18. High-resolution recombination patterns in a region of human chromosome 21 measured by sperm typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Tiemann-Boege

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, classical crossover studies and linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis of genomic regions suggested that human meiotic crossovers may not be randomly distributed along chromosomes but are focused instead in "hot spots." Recent sperm typing studies provided data at very high resolution and accuracy that defined the physical limits of a number of hot spots. The data were also used to test whether patterns of LD can predict hot spot locations. These sperm typing studies focused on several small regions of the genome already known or suspected of containing a hot spot based on the presence of LD breakdown or previous experimental evidence of hot spot activity. Comparable data on target regions not specifically chosen using these two criteria is lacking but is needed to make an unbiased test of whether LD data alone can accurately predict active hot spots. We used sperm typing to estimate recombination in 17 almost contiguous ~5 kb intervals spanning 103 kb of human Chromosome 21. We found two intervals that contained new hot spots. The comparison of our data with recombination rates predicted by statistical analyses of LD showed that, overall, the two datasets corresponded well, except for one predicted hot spot that showed little crossing over. This study doubles the experimental data on recombination in men at the highest resolution and accuracy and supports the emerging genome-wide picture that recombination is localized in small regions separated by cold areas. Detailed study of one of the new hot spots revealed a sperm donor with a decrease in recombination intensity at the canonical recombination site but an increase in crossover activity nearby. This unique finding suggests that the position and intensity of hot spots may evolve by means of a concerted mechanism that maintains the overall recombination intensity in the region.

  19. A characteristics of East Asian climate using high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Reanalysis is one approach to obtaining long term homogeneous analysis of needed variables. However, the horizontal resolution of global reanalysis is of the order of 100 to 200 km, too coarse for many application studies. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. In this study, we will provide accurately downscaled regional climate over East Asia using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. A mixed layer model is embedded within the GRIMs in order to improve air-sea interaction. A detailed description of the characteristics of the East Asian summer and winter climate will be presented through the high-resolution numerical simulations. The increase in horizontal resolution is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

  20. A high-resolution land-use map; Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gil Anaya, Claudia Z.; Diaz Arcos, Israel; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    The cities of Nogales, Sonora, and Nogales, Arizona, are located in the Ambos Nogales Watershed, a topographically irregular bowl-shaped area with a northward gradient. Throughout history, residents in both cities have been affected by flooding. Currently, the primary method for regulating this runoff is to build a series of detention basins in Nogales, Sonora. Additionally, the municipality also is considering land-use planning to help mitigate flooding. This paper describes the production of a 10-meter resolution land-use map, derived from 2008 aerial photos of the Nogales, Sonora Watershed for modeling impacts of the detention basin construction and in support of an ?Early Warning Hazard System? for the region.

  1. High-resolution mapping and genetic characterization of the Lazy-2 gravitropic mutant of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Mutation of the Lazy-2 (Lz-2) gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) produces a phytochrome-dependent reversal of shoot gravitropism, providing a unique genetic resource for investigating how signals from light modulate gravitropism. We mapped the Lz-2 gene using RFLPs and a PCR-based technique to assess the feasibility of positional cloning. Analysis of a 1338 plant backcross population between L. esculentum and L. pennellii placed Lz-2 within a 1.2 cM interval on chromosome 5, 0.4 cM from TG504-CT201A interval. The inabililty to resolve these markers indicates that Lz-2 resides in a centromeric region in which recombination is highly suppressed. Lazy-2 is tightly linked to but does not encode the gene for ACC4, an enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We also observed that Lz-2 is partially dominant under certain conditions and stages of development.

  2. Spatio Temporal Detection and Virtual Mapping of Landslide Using High-Resolution Airborne Laser Altimetry (lidar) in Densely Vegetated Areas of Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, T.; Azahari Razak, K.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Latif, A.

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are an inescapable natural disaster, resulting in massive social, environmental and economic impacts all over the world. The tropical, mountainous landscape in generally all over Malaysia especially in eastern peninsula (Borneo) is highly susceptible to landslides because of heavy rainfall and tectonic disturbances. The purpose of the Landslide hazard mapping is to identify the hazardous regions for the execution of mitigation plans which can reduce the loss of life and property from future landslide incidences. Currently, the Malaysian research bodies e.g. academic institutions and government agencies are trying to develop a landslide hazard and risk database for susceptible areas to backing the prevention, mitigation, and evacuation plan. However, there is a lack of devotion towards landslide inventory mapping as an elementary input of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk mapping. The developing techniques based on remote sensing technologies (satellite, terrestrial and airborne) are promising techniques to accelerate the production of landslide maps, shrinking the time and resources essential for their compilation and orderly updates. The aim of the study is to provide a better perception regarding the use of virtual mapping of landslides with the help of LiDAR technology. The focus of the study is spatio temporal detection and virtual mapping of landslide inventory via visualization and interpretation of very high-resolution data (VHR) in forested terrain of Mesilau river, Kundasang. However, to cope with the challenges of virtual inventory mapping on in forested terrain high resolution LiDAR derivatives are used. This study specifies that the airborne LiDAR technology can be an effective tool for mapping landslide inventories in a complex climatic and geological conditions, and a quick way of mapping regional hazards in the tropics.

  3. High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; He, Min; Shen, Xingling; Yin, Shasha; Yuan, Zibing

    2012-11-01

    A high-resolution regional black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventory for the year 2009 was developed for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based on the collected activity data and the latest emission factors. PM(2.5), BC and OC emissions were estimated to be 303 kt, 39 kt and 31 kt, respectively. Industrial processes were major contributing sources to PM(2.5) emissions. BC emissions were mainly from mobile sources, accounting for 65.0%, while 34.1% of OC emissions were from residential combustion. The primary OC/BC ratios for individual cities in the PRD region were dependent on the levels of economic development due to differences in source characteristics, with high ratios in the less developed cities and low ratios in the central and southern developed areas. The preliminary temporal profiles were established, showing the highest OC emissions in winter and relatively constant BC emissions throughout the year. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km. Large amounts of BC emissions were distributed over the central-southern PRD city clusters, while OC emissions exhibited a relatively even spatial distribution due to the significant biomass burning emissions from the outlying area of the PRD region. Uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions were usually higher than in other primary pollutants like SO(2), NO(x), and PM(10). One of the key uncertainty sources was the emission factor, due to the absence of direct measurements of BC and OC emission rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The WASCAL high-resolution regional climate simulation ensemble for West Africa: concept, dissemination and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Olusegun, Christiana; Klein, Cornelia; Hamann, Ilse; Salack, Seyni; Bliefernicht, Jan; Kunstmann, Harald

    2018-04-01

    Climate change and constant population growth pose severe challenges to 21st century rural Africa. Within the framework of the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate change scenarios for the greater West African region is provided to support the development of effective adaptation and mitigation measures. This contribution presents the overall concept of the WASCAL regional climate simulations, as well as detailed information on the experimental design, and provides information on the format and dissemination of the available data. All data are made available to the public at the CERA long-term archive of the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) with a subset available at the PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science portal (https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.880512" target="_blank">https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.880512). A brief assessment of the data are presented to provide guidance for future users. Regional climate projections are generated at high (12 km) and intermediate (60 km) resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The simulations cover the validation period 1980-2010 and the two future periods 2020-2050 and 2070-2100. A brief comparison to observations and two climate change scenarios from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) initiative is presented to provide guidance on the data set to future users and to assess their climate change signal. Under the RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) scenario, the results suggest an increase in temperature by 1.5 °C at the coast of Guinea and by up to 3 °C in the northern Sahel by the end of the 21st century, in line with existing climate projections for the region. They also project an increase in precipitation by up to 300 mm per year along the coast of Guinea, by up to 150 mm per year in the Soudano region adjacent in the north and

  5. Potential of high resolution protein mapping as a method of monitoring the human immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.L.; Anderson, N.G

    1980-01-01

    Immunology traditionally deals with complex cellular systems and heterogeneous mixtures of effector molecules (primarily antibodies). Some sense has emerged from this chaos through the use of functional assays. Such an approach however naturally leaves a great deal undiscovered since the assays are simple and the assayed objects are complex. In this chapter some experimental approaches to immunological problems are described using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis, a method that can resolve thousands of proteins and can thus begin to treat immunological entities at their appropriate level of complexity. In addition, the possible application of this work to the problem of monitoring events in the individual human immune system are discussed

  6. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    crustal structure or sediment thickness across much of the Iranian plateau. The lone exception is the region between the central Zagros and the Lut block...L11303, 2007. Meunier, P., N. Hovius, and J. A. Haines, Topographic site effects and the location of earthquake induced landslides, Earth Planet . Sci

  7. High Resolution Mapping of Drought Impacts on Small Waterbodies using Sentinel 1 SAR and Landsat Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in semi-arid areas can have substantial impact on ephemeral and small water bodies, which provide critical ecological habitat and have important socio-economic value. This is particularly true in the pastoral areas of East Africa, where these ecosystems provide local communities with water for human and animal consumption and pasture for livestock. However, monitoring the impact of drought on ephemeral and small water bodies in East Africa is challenging because of sparse in situ observational systems. Satellite remote sensing observations have been shown to be a viable option for monitoring surface water change in data-poor regions. Landsat data is widely used to detect open water, but the use of Landsat data in small waterbody studies is limited by its 30-meter spatial resolution. New remote sensing-based tools are necessary to better understand the vulnerability of ephemeral and small waterbodies in semi-arid areas to drought and to monitor drought impacts. This study combines Landsat and Sentinel 1 SAR observations to create a series of monthly waterbody maps over the Awash River basin in Ethiopia depicting the change in surface water from October 2014 to March 2017. The study time period corresponds with a major drought event in the area. Waterbody maps were generated using a 10-meter resolution and utilized to monitor drought impacts on ephemeral and small waterbodies in the Awash River basin over the course of the drought event. Initial results show that surface waterbodies in the lower catchments of the Awash basin were more severely impacted by the drought event than the upper catchments. It is anticipated that the new information provided by this tool will inform decisions affecting the water, energy, agriculture and other sectors in East Africa reliant on water resources, enabling water authorities to better manage future drought events.

  8. The simulation of medicanes in a high-resolution regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavicchia, Leone [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Geesthacht (Germany); Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy); Storch, Hans von [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Geesthacht (Germany); University of Hamburg, Meteorological Institute, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Medicanes, strong mesoscale cyclones with tropical-like features, develop occasionally over the Mediterranean Sea. Due to the scarcity of observations over sea and the coarse resolution of the long-term reanalysis datasets, it is difficult to study systematically the multidecadal statistics of sub-synoptic medicanes. Our goal is to assess the long-term variability and trends of medicanes, obtaining a long-term climatology through dynamical downscaling of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. In this paper, we examine the robustness of this method and investigate the value added for the study of medicanes. To do so, we performed several climate mode simulations with a high resolution regional atmospheric model (CCLM) for a number of test cases described in the literature. We find that the medicanes are formed in the simulations, with deeper pressures and stronger winds than in the driving global NCEP reanalysis. The tracks are adequately reproduced. We conclude that our methodology is suitable for constructing multi-decadal statistics and scenarios of current and possible future medicane activities. (orig.)

  9. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFaden, Sean W.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Royar, Anna R.; Lu, Jacqueline W. T.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban tree canopy is widely believed to have myriad environmental, social, and human-health benefits, but a lack of precise canopy estimates has hindered quantification of these benefits in many municipalities. This problem was addressed for New York City using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to develop a comprehensive land-cover map, including tree canopy to the scale of individual trees. Mapping was performed using a rule-based expert system that relied primarily on high-resolution LIDAR, specifically its capacity for evaluating the height and texture of aboveground features. Multispectral imagery was also used, but shadowing and varying temporal conditions limited its utility. Contextual analysis was a key part of classification, distinguishing trees according to their physical and spectral properties as well as their relationships to adjacent, nonvegetated features. The automated product was extensively reviewed and edited via manual interpretation, and overall per-pixel accuracy of the final map was 96%. Although manual editing had only a marginal effect on accuracy despite requiring a majority of project effort, it maximized aesthetic quality and ensured the capture of small, isolated trees. Converting high-resolution LIDAR and imagery into usable information is a nontrivial exercise, requiring significant processing time and labor, but an expert system-based combination of OBIA and manual review was an effective method for fine-scale canopy mapping in a complex urban environment.

  10. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sugumaran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  11. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds. PMID:27873800

  12. A New Advanced Backcross Tomato Population Enables High Resolution Leaf QTL Mapping and Gene Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fulop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii. This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping.

  13. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  14. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  15. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  17. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  18. Mapping groundwater dynamics using multiple sources of exhaustive high resolution data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finke, P.A.; Brus, D.J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Hoogland, T.; Knotters, M.; Vries, de F.

    2004-01-01

    Existing groundwater table (GWT) class maps, available at full coverage for the Netherlands at 1:50,000 scale, no longer satisfy user demands. Groundwater levels have changed due to strong human impact, so the maps are partially outdated. Furthermore, a more dynamic description of groundwater table

  19. Generation and Assessment of Urban Land Cover Maps Using High-Resolution Multispectral Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim; Höhle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    a unique method for the automatic generation of urban land cover maps. In the present paper, imagery of a new medium-format aerial camera and advanced geoprocessing software are applied to derive normalized digital surface models and vegetation maps. These two intermediate products then become input...... to a tree structured classifier, which automatically derives land cover maps in 2D or 3D. We investigate the thematic accuracy of the produced land cover map by a class-wise stratified design and provide a method for deriving necessary sample sizes. Corresponding survey adjusted accuracy measures...... and their associated confidence intervals are used to adequately reflect uncertainty in the assessment based on the chosen sample size. Proof of concept for the method is given for an urban area in Switzerland. Here, the produced land cover map with six classes (building, wall and carport, road and parking lot, hedge...

  20. Regional and local meteorology influences high-resolution tropospheric ozone concentration in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzoukis, S.; Jenerette, D.; Chandler, M.; Wang, J.; Ge, C.; Ripplinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban air quality and climate directly affect resident health. The Los Angeles (LA) Basin is a highly populated metropolitan area, with widespread point sources of ozone (O3) precursors (NOx , Volatile Organic Compounds, CO) from fossil fuel combustion. The LA basin exists on a coast-to-mountain gradient, with increasing temperatures towards the Transverse Ranges, which rise to 1700m. Frequently not compliant with 8-hour O3 standards, the LA and South Coast Air Basins are designated as severe and extreme non-attainment areas. Summer weather in the LA basin is characterized by a persistent high pressure system, creating an inversion that traps air pollutants, including O3 precursors, coupled with physical geography that blocks prevailing upper atmosphere air flow. These interactions make neighborhood-level O3 levels more variable than common regional models. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated the importance of local meteorology, wind patterns and air temperature, in transporting and mixing ozone precursors from point sources along the coast-to-mountain gradient. We deployed a network of six EPA federal equivalent method ozone and meteorological sensors in three campaigns in the LA basin along the coast-to-mountain transect. Each campaign, we collaborated with citizen scientists to deploy three sensor stations in two, 4 km2 quadrats, for a total of six high-resolution 4 km2 pixels. O3 concentrations vary greatly along the transect. At the coastal sites, daily O3 ranges from 0ppm to 60ppm and the range increases at the inland sites, to 100ppm. At all sites, there was a positive relationship between wind speed, air temperature, and O3 concentration, with increasing correlation inland. The Pearson correlation coefficient between wind speed and O3 concentration doubles from the coast to inland, and triples between air temperature and O3. The site-specific relationships between O3 and wind direction and temperature vary, suggesting neighborhood-effects from local

  1. ‘‘Blind'' mapping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms in Lolium perenne L. by high resolution melting curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Jensen, Louise Bach; Fiil, Alice

    2009-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) measures dissociation of double stranded DNA of a PCR product amplified in the presence of a saturating fluorescence dye. Recently, HRM proved successful to genotype DNA sequence polymorphisms such as SSRs and SNPs based on the shape of the melting...... curves. In this study, HRM was used for simultaneous screening and genotyping of genic DNA sequence polymorphisms identified in the Lolium perenne F2 mapping population VrnA. Melting profiles of PCR products amplified from previously published gene loci and from a novel gene putatively involved...

  2. A High Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 4A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcárková, Barbora; Frenkel, Z.; Škopová, Monika; Abrouk, Michael; Kumar, A.; Chao, S.; Kianian, S. F.; Akhunov, E.; Korol, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JAN 10 (2017), č. článku 2063. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * bread wheat * high-density * agronomic traits * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * polyploid wheat * genetic maps * genomes * recombination * endosperm radiation hybrid panel * radiation hybrid map * wheat chromosome 4A * chromosome deletion bin map * Triticum aestivum * SNP iSelect array Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  3. Creating a high resolution social vulnerability map in support of national decision makers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The core objective of this study was to create a social vulnerability map based on generally accepted variables that are indicative of drivers of social vulnerability, capturing the unique attributes of South African communities. The paper explains...

  4. Spatiotemporal High-Resolution Cloud Mapping with a Ground-Based IR Scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, Benjamin; Thies, Boris; Bendix, Jörg; Feister, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The high spatiotemporal variability of clouds requires automated monitoring systems. This study presents a retrieval algorithm that evaluates observations of a hemispherically scanning thermal infrared radiometer, the NubiScope, to produce georeferenced, spatially explicit cloud maps. The algorithm

  5. SAETTA: high resolution 3D mapping of the lightning activity around Corsica Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the French atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica), a total lightning activity detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) has been deployed in Corsica Island in order to strengthen the potential of observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods in the West Mediterranean basin. SAETTA is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array) developed by New Mexico Tech (USA). The instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal (80 µs) and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 350 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and batteries). Initially deployed in May 2014, SAETTA operated from July 13 to October 20 in 2014 and from April 19 to December 1st in 2015. It is now in permanent operation since 16 April 2016. Many high quality observations have been performed so far that provide an accurate location in space and time of the convective events. They also bring interesting dynamical and microphysical features of those events. For example the intensity of the convective surges, the transport of charged ice particles in the stratiform area of the thunderclouds can be deduced from SAETTA observations. Specific events have also been detected as well: bolts-from-the-blue, inter cloud discharges, high level discharges in convective but also in stratiform areas, inverted dipoles. The specific lightning patterns of 2015 illustrate the complex influence of the relief, probably via slope and valley winds over Corsica and via induced lee-side convergences over the sea. SAETTA is expected to operate for at least a decade over Corsica so it will participate to the calibration/validation of upcoming lightning detectors from space such as MTG-LI. It will also be a key instrument during the field

  6. A high-resolution map of the H1 locus harbouring resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Erin; Achenbach, Ute; Bakker, Jeroen; van Vliet, Joke; Peleman, Johan; Segers, Bart; van der Heijden, Stefan; van der Linde, Piet; Graveland, Robert; Hutten, Ronald; van Eck, Herman; Coppoolse, Eric; van der Vossen, Edwin; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2004-06-01

    The resistance gene H1 confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and is located at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome V of potato. For marker enrichment of the H1 locus, a bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was carried out using 704 AFLP primer combinations. A second source of markers tightly linked to H1 is the ultra-high-density (UHD) genetic map of the potato cross SH x RH. This map has been produced with 387 AFLP primer combinations and consists of 10,365 AFLP markers in 1,118 bins (http://www.dpw.wageningen-ur.nl/uhd/). Comparing these two methods revealed that BSA resulted in one marker/cM and the UHD map in four markers/cM in the H1 interval. Subsequently, a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus has been developed using a segregating F(1) SH x RH population consisting of 1,209 genotypes. Two PCR-based markers were designed at either side of the H1 gene to screen the 1,209 genotypes for recombination events. In the high-resolution genetic map, two of the four co-segregating AFLP markers could be separated from the H1 gene. Marker EM1 is located at a distance of 0.2 cM, and marker EM14 is located at a distance of 0.8 cM. The other two co-segregating markers CM1 (in coupling) and EM15 (in repulsion) could not be separated from the H1 gene.

  7. Very high resolution UV and x-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W.A.; Haisch, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the x-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical x-ray observations using this new technique

  8. Generation of Land Cover Maps Using High-Resolution Multispectral Aerial Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    . The classification had an overall accuracy of 79%. Suggestions for the improvements in the applied methodology are made. The potential of land cover maps lies in updating of topographic databases, quality control of maps, studies of town development, and other geo-spatial domain applications. The automatic...... for classification of land cover. A high degree of automation can be achieved. The obtained results of a practical example are checked with reference values derived from ortho-images in natural colour and from colour images using stereo-vision. An error matrix is applied in the evaluation of the results...

  9. Application of Low-Cost UASs and Digital Photogrammetry for High-Resolution Snow Depth Mapping in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Cimoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The repeat acquisition of high-resolution snow depth measurements has important research and civil applications in the Arctic. Currently the surveying methods for capturing the high spatial and temporal variability of the snowpack are expensive, in particular for small areal extents. An alternative methodology based on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs and digital photogrammetry was tested over varying surveying conditions in the Arctic employing two diverse and low-cost UAS-camera combinations (500 and 1700 USD, respectively. Six areas, two in Svalbard and four in Greenland, were mapped covering from 1386 to 38,410 m2. The sites presented diverse snow surface types, underlying topography and light conditions in order to test the method under potentially limiting conditions. The resulting snow depth maps achieved spatial resolutions between 0.06 and 0.09 m. The average difference between UAS-estimated and measured snow depth, checked with conventional snow probing, ranged from 0.015 to 0.16 m. The impact of image pre-processing was explored, improving point cloud density and accuracy for different image qualities and snow/light conditions. Our UAS photogrammetry results are expected to be scalable to larger areal extents. While further validation is needed, with the inclusion of extra validation points, the study showcases the potential of this cost-effective methodology for high-resolution monitoring of snow dynamics in the Arctic and beyond.

  10. Mapping of odor-related neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancet, D.; Greer, C.A.; Kauer, J.S.; Shepherd, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that glomeruli, which are synaptic complexes containing the first synaptic relay, tend to be uniformly active or inactive during odor exposure. Differential 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in the somata of projection neurons (mitral cells) and interneurons (periglomerular and granule cells). This confirms and extends our previous studies in which odor-specific laminar and focal uptake patterns were revealed by the conventional x-ray film 2-deoxyglucose method due to Sokoloff and colleagues [Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O. and Shinohara, M. (1977) J. Neurochem. 28, 897-916]. Based on results obtained by the two methods, it is suggested that the glomerulus as a whole serves as a functional unit of activity. The high-resolution results are interpreted in terms of the well-characterized synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb and also serve to illustrate the capability of the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to map metabolic activity in single neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system

  11. High-resolution copy-number variation map reflects human olfactory receptor diversity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehudit Hasin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs, which are involved in odorant recognition, form the largest mammalian protein superfamily. The genomic content of OR genes is considerably reduced in humans, as reflected by the relatively small repertoire size and the high fraction ( approximately 55% of human pseudogenes. Since several recent low-resolution surveys suggested that OR genomic loci are frequently affected by copy-number variants (CNVs, we hypothesized that CNVs may play an important role in the evolution of the human olfactory repertoire. We used high-resolution oligonucleotide tiling microarrays to detect CNVs across 851 OR gene and pseudogene loci. Examining genomic DNA from 25 individuals with ancestry from three populations, we identified 93 OR gene loci and 151 pseudogene loci affected by CNVs, generating a mosaic of OR dosages across persons. Our data suggest that approximately 50% of the CNVs involve more than one OR, with the largest CNV spanning 11 loci. In contrast to earlier reports, we observe that CNVs are more frequent among OR pseudogenes than among intact genes, presumably due to both selective constraints and CNV formation biases. Furthermore, our results show an enrichment of CNVs among ORs with a close human paralog or lacking a one-to-one ortholog in chimpanzee. Interestingly, among the latter we observed an enrichment in CNV losses over gains, a finding potentially related to the known diminution of the human OR repertoire. Quantitative PCR experiments performed for 122 sampled ORs agreed well with the microarray results and uncovered 23 additional CNVs. Importantly, these experiments allowed us to uncover nine common deletion alleles that affect 15 OR genes and five pseudogenes. Comparison to the chimpanzee reference genome revealed that all of the deletion alleles are human derived, therefore indicating a profound effect of human-specific deletions on the individual OR gene content. Furthermore, these deletion alleles may be used

  12. Mapping tropical forest trees using high-resolution aerial digital photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Bohlman, S.A.; Olff, H.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of tree species is a key aspect of community ecology. Because tree species in tropical forests occur at low densities, it is logistically challenging to measure distributions across large areas. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of canopy tree crown maps, derived

  13. Mapping Entomological Dengue Risk Levels in Martinique Using High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Environmental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Machault

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling dengue virus transmission mainly involves integrated vector management. Risk maps at appropriate scales can provide valuable information for assessing entomological risk levels. Here, results from a spatio-temporal model of dwellings potentially harboring Aedes aegypti larvae from 2009 to 2011 in Tartane (Martinique, French Antilles using high spatial resolution remote-sensing environmental data and field entomological and meteorological information are presented. This tele-epidemiology methodology allows monitoring the dynamics of diseases closely related to weather/climate and environment variability. A Geoeye-1 image was processed to extract landscape elements that could surrogate societal or biological information related to the life cycle of Aedes vectors. These elements were subsequently included into statistical models with random effect. Various environmental and meteorological conditions have indeed been identified as risk/protective factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti immature stages in dwellings at a given date. These conditions were used to produce dynamic high spatio-temporal resolution maps from the presence of most containers harboring larvae. The produced risk maps are examples of modeled entomological maps at the housing level with daily temporal resolution. This finding is an important contribution to the development of targeted operational control systems for dengue and other vector-borne diseases, such as chikungunya, which is also present in Martinique.

  14. New geospatial approaches for efficiently mapping forest biomass logistics at high resolution over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hogland; Nathaniel Anderson; Woodam Chung

    2018-01-01

    Adequate biomass feedstock supply is an important factor in evaluating the financial feasibility of alternative site locations for bioenergy facilities and for maintaining profitability once a facility is built. We used newly developed spatial analysis and logistics software to model the variables influencing feedstock supply and to estimate and map two components of...

  15. 4 Vesta in Color: High Resolution Mapping from Dawn Framing Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.; LeCorre, L.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Hoffmann, M.; Schroeder, S. E.; Vincent, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.; Denevi, B. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Rotational surface variations on asteroid 4 Vesta have been known from ground-based and HST observations, and they have been interpreted as evidence of compositional diversity. NASA s Dawn mission entered orbit around Vesta on July 16, 2011 for a year-long global characterization. The framing cameras (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft will image the asteroid in one clear (broad) and seven narrow band filters covering the wavelength range between 0.4-1.0 microns. We present color mapping results from the Dawn FC observations of Vesta obtained during Survey orbit (approx.3000 km) and High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) (approx.950 km). Our aim is to create global color maps of Vesta using multi spectral FC images to identify the spatial extent of compositional units and link them with other available data sets to extract the basic mineralogy. While the VIR spectrometer onboard Dawn has higher spectral resolution (864 channels) allowing precise mineralogical assessment of Vesta s surface, the FC has three times higher spatial resolution in any given orbital phase. In an effort to extract maximum information from FC data we have developed algorithms using laboratory spectra of pyroxenes and HED meteorites to derive parameters associated with the 1-micron absorption band wing. These parameters will help map the global distribution of compositionally related units on Vesta s surface. Interpretation of these units will involve the integration of FC and VIR data.

  16. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THE ATLBS REGIONS: THE RADIO SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, K.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Saripalli, L.; Ekers, R. D., E-mail: kshitij@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2013-01-01

    The Australia Telescope Low-brightness Survey (ATLBS) regions have been mosaic imaged at a radio frequency of 1.4 GHz with 6'' angular resolution and 72 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise. The images (centered at R.A. 00{sup h}35{sup m}00{sup s}, decl. -67 Degree-Sign 00'00'' and R.A. 00{sup h}59{sup m}17{sup s}, decl. -67 Degree-Sign 00'00'', J2000 epoch) cover 8.42 deg{sup 2} sky area and have no artifacts or imaging errors above the image thermal noise. Multi-resolution radio and optical r-band images (made using the 4 m CTIO Blanco telescope) were used to recognize multi-component sources and prepare a source list; the detection threshold was 0.38 mJy in a low-resolution radio image made with beam FWHM of 50''. Radio source counts in the flux density range 0.4-8.7 mJy are estimated, with corrections applied for noise bias, effective area correction, and resolution bias. The resolution bias is mitigated using low-resolution radio images, while effects of source confusion are removed by using high-resolution images for identifying blended sources. Below 1 mJy the ATLBS counts are systematically lower than the previous estimates. Showing no evidence for an upturn down to 0.4 mJy, they do not require any changes in the radio source population down to the limit of the survey. The work suggests that automated image analysis for counts may be dependent on the ability of the imaging to reproduce connecting emission with low surface brightness and on the ability of the algorithm to recognize sources, which may require that source finding algorithms effectively work with multi-resolution and multi-wavelength data. The work underscores the importance of using source lists-as opposed to component lists-and correcting for the noise bias in order to precisely estimate counts close to the image noise and determine the upturn at sub-mJy flux density.

  17. High-resolution AUV mapping of the 2015 flows at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Clague, D. A.; Le Saout, M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Yoerger, D.

    2016-12-01

    Lava flows erupted in April 2015 at Axial Seamount were mapped at 1-m resolution with the AUV Sentry in August 2015 and the MBARI Mapping AUVs in July 2016 and observed and sampled with ROVs on those same expeditions. Thirty percent of terrain covered by new flows had been mapped by the MBARI AUVs prior to the eruption. Differencing of before and after maps (using ship-collected bathymetry where the AUV had not mapped before) allows calculation of extents and volumes of flows and shows new fissures. The maps reveal unexpected fissure patterns and shifts in the style of flow emplacement through a single eruption. There were 11 separate flows totaling 1.48 x 108 m3 of lava erupted from numerous en echelon fissures over 19 km on the NE caldera floor, on the NE flank, and down the N rift zone. Flows in and around the caldera have maximum thicknesses of 5-19 m. Most erupted as sheet flows and spread along intricate channels that terminated in thin margins. Some utilized pre-existing fissures. Some flows erupted from short fissures, while at least two longer new fissures produced little or no lava. A flow on the upper N rift has a spectacular lava channel flanked by narrow lava pillars supporting a thin roof left after the flow drained. A shatter ring still emanating warm fluid is visible in the map as a 15-m wide low cone. Hundreds of exploded pillows were observed but are not discernable in the bathymetry. The northern-most three flows deep on the N rift are similar in area to the others but comprise the bulk of the eruption volume. Differencing of ship-based bathymetry shows only these flows. Near the eruptive fissures they are sheet flows, but as they flowed downslope they built complexes of coalesced pillow mounds up to 67-128 m thick. Changes in flow morphology occurred through the course of the eruption. Large pillow mounds had molten cores that deformed as the eruption progressed. One flow began as a thin, effusive sheet flow but as the eruption rate decreased, a

  18. Detailed Maps Depicting the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Derived from High Resolution IKONOS Satellite Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Detailed, shallow-water coral reef ecosystem maps were generated by rule-based, semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery for nine locations...

  19. Detailed Maps Depicting the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Derived from High Resolution IKONOS Satellite Imagery (Draft)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Detailed, shallow-water coral reef ecosystem maps were generated by rule-based, semi-automated image analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery for nine locations...

  20. An Efficient Method for Mapping High-Resolution Global River Discharge Based on the Algorithms of Drainage Network Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaye Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available River discharge, which represents the accumulation of surface water flowing into rivers and ultimately into the ocean or other water bodies, may have great impacts on water quality and the living organisms in rivers. However, the global knowledge of river discharge is still poor and worth exploring. This study proposes an efficient method for mapping high-resolution global river discharge based on the algorithms of drainage network extraction. Using the existing global runoff map and digital elevation model (DEM data as inputs, this method consists of three steps. First, the pixels of the runoff map and the DEM data are resampled into the same resolution (i.e., 0.01-degree. Second, the flow direction of each pixel of the DEM data (identified by the optimal flow path method used in drainage network extraction is determined and then applied to the corresponding pixel of the runoff map. Third, the river discharge of each pixel of the runoff map is calculated by summing the runoffs of all the pixels in the upstream of this pixel, similar to the upslope area accumulation step in drainage network extraction. Finally, a 0.01-degree global map of the mean annual river discharge is obtained. Moreover, a 0.5-degree global map of the mean annual river discharge is produced to display the results with a more intuitive perception. Compared against the existing global river discharge databases, the 0.01-degree map is of a generally high accuracy for the selected river basins, especially for the Amazon River basin with the lowest relative error (RE of 0.3% and the Yangtze River basin within the RE range of ±6.0%. However, it is noted that the results of the Congo and Zambezi River basins are not satisfactory, with RE values over 90%, and it is inferred that there may be some accuracy problems with the runoff map in these river basins.

  1. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  2. High-resolution three-dimensional mapping of semiconductor dopant potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twitchett, AC; Yates, TJV; Newcomb, SB

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how a combin......Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how...... a combination of electron holography and electron tomography can be used to determine quantitatively the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in an electrically biased semiconductor device with nanometer spatial resolution....

  3. DNA template strand sequencing of single-cells maps genomic rearrangements at high resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Naumann, Ulrike; Poon, Steven S. S.; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Sanders, Ashley D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    DNA rearrangements such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are sensitive indicators of genomic stress and instability, but they are typically masked by single-cell sequencing techniques. We developed Strand-seq to independently sequence parental DNA template strands from single cells, making it possible to map SCEs at orders-of-magnitude greater resolution than was previously possible. On average, murine embryonic stem (mES) cells exhibit eight SCEs, which are detected at a resolution of up...

  4. Spatiotemporal High-Resolution Cloud Mapping with a Ground-Based IR Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brede

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high spatiotemporal variability of clouds requires automated monitoring systems. This study presents a retrieval algorithm that evaluates observations of a hemispherically scanning thermal infrared radiometer, the NubiScope, to produce georeferenced, spatially explicit cloud maps. The algorithm uses atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles and an atmospheric radiative transfer code to differentiate between cloudy and cloudless measurements. In case of a cloud, it estimates its position by using the temperature profile and viewing geometry. The proposed algorithm was tested with 25 cloud maps generated by the Fmask algorithm from Landsat 7 images. The overall cloud detection rate was ranging from 0.607 for zenith angles of 0 to 10° to 0.298 for 50–60° on a pixel basis. The overall detection of cloudless pixels was 0.987 for zenith angles of 30–40° and much more stable over the whole range of zenith angles compared to cloud detection. This proves the algorithm’s capability in detecting clouds, but even better cloudless areas. Cloud-base height was best estimated up to a height of 4000 m compared to ceilometer base heights but showed large deviation above that level. This study shows the potential of the NubiScope system to produce high spatial and temporal resolution cloud maps. Future development is needed for a more accurate determination of cloud height with thermal infrared measurements.

  5. Hurricanes Harvey and Irma - High-Resolution Flood Mapping and Monitoring from Sentinel SAR with the Depolarization Reduction Algorithm for Global Observations of InundatioN (DRAGON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Nguyen, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey inflicted historical catastrophic flooding across extensive regions around Houston and southeast Texas after making landfall on 25 August 2017. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requested urgent supports for flood mapping and monitoring in an emergency response to the extreme flood situation. An innovative satellite remote sensing method, called the Depolarization Reduction Algorithm for Global Observations of inundatioN (DRAGON), has been developed and implemented for use with Sentinel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data at a resolution of 10 meters to identify, map, and monitor inundation including pre-existing water bodies and newly flooded areas. Results from this new method are hydrologically consistent and have been verified with known surface waters (e.g., coastal ocean, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc.), with clear-sky high-resolution WorldView images (where waves can be seen on surface water in inundated areas within a small spatial coverage), and with other flood maps from the consortium of Global Flood Partnership derived from multiple satellite datasets (including clear-sky Landsat and MODIS at lower resolutions). Figure 1 is a high-resolution (4K UHD) image of a composite inundation map for the region around Rosharon (in Brazoria County, south of Houston, Texas). This composite inundation map reveals extensive flooding on 29 August 2017 (four days after Hurricane Harvey made landfall), and the inundation was still persistent in most of the west and south of Rosharon one week later (5 September 2017) while flooding was reduced in the east of Rosharon. Hurricane Irma brought flooding to a number of areas in Florida. As of 10 September 2017, Sentinel SAR flood maps reveal inundation in the Florida Panhandle and over lowland surfaces on several islands in the Florida Keys. However, Sentinel SAR results indicate that flooding along the Florida coast was not extreme despite Irma was a Category-5 hurricane that might

  6. Estimating Hydraulic Resistance for Floodplain Mapping and Hydraulic Studies from High-Resolution Topography: Physical and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    One of the primary unknown variables in hydraulic analyses is hydraulic resistance, values for which are typically set using broad assumptions or calibration, with very few methods available for independent and robust determination. A better understanding of hydraulic resistance would be highly useful for understanding floodplain processes, forecasting floods, advancing sediment transport and hydraulic coupling, and improving higher dimensional flood modeling (2D+), as well as correctly calculating flood discharges for floods that are not directly measured. The relationship of observed features to hydraulic resistance is difficult to objectively quantify in the field, partially because resistance occurs at a variety of scales (i.e. grain, unit and reach) and because individual resistance elements, such as trees, grass and sediment grains, are inherently difficult to measure. Similar to photogrammetric techniques, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS, also known as Ground-based LiDAR) has shown great ability to rapidly collect high-resolution topographic datasets for geomorphic and hydrodynamic studies and could be used to objectively quantify the features that collectively create hydraulic resistance in the field. Because of its speed in data collection and remote sensing ability, TLS can be used both for pre-flood and post-flood studies that require relatively quick response in relatively dangerous settings. Using datasets collected from experimental flume runs and numerical simulations, as well as field studies of several rivers in California and post-flood rivers in Colorado, this study evaluates the use of high-resolution topography to estimate hydraulic resistance, particularly from grain-scale elements. Contrary to conventional practice, experimental laboratory runs with bed grain size held constant but with varying grain-scale protusion create a nearly twenty-fold variation in measured hydraulic resistance. The ideal application of this high-resolution topography

  7. Very High Resolution Tree Cover Mapping for Continental United States using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Kalia, Subodh; Li, Shuang; Michaelis, Andrew; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Saatchi, Sassan A

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainties in input land cover estimates contribute to a significant bias in modeled above ground biomass (AGB) and carbon estimates from satellite-derived data. The resolution of most currently used passive remote sensing products is not sufficient to capture tree canopy cover of less than ca. 10-20 percent, limiting their utility to estimate canopy cover and AGB for trees outside of forest land. In our study, we created a first of its kind Continental United States (CONUS) tree cover map at a spatial resolution of 1-m for the 2010-2012 epoch using the USDA NAIP imagery to address the present uncertainties in AGB estimates. The process involves different tasks including data acquisition ingestion to pre-processing and running a state-of-art encoder-decoder based deep convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm for automatically generating a tree non-tree map for almost a quarter million scenes. The entire processing chain including generation of the largest open source existing aerial satellite image training database was performed at the NEX supercomputing and storage facility. We believe the resulting forest cover product will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon and ecological monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in derived products.

  8. Very High Resolution Tree Cover Mapping for Continental United States using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Kalia, S.; Li, S.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Saatchi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainties in input land cover estimates contribute to a significant bias in modeled above gound biomass (AGB) and carbon estimates from satellite-derived data. The resolution of most currently used passive remote sensing products is not sufficient to capture tree canopy cover of less than ca. 10-20 percent, limiting their utility to estimate canopy cover and AGB for trees outside of forest land. In our study, we created a first of its kind Continental United States (CONUS) tree cover map at a spatial resolution of 1-m for the 2010-2012 epoch using the USDA NAIP imagery to address the present uncertainties in AGB estimates. The process involves different tasks including data acquisition/ingestion to pre-processing and running a state-of-art encoder-decoder based deep convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm for automatically generating a tree/non-tree map for almost a quarter million scenes. The entire processing chain including generation of the largest open source existing aerial/satellite image training database was performed at the NEX supercomputing and storage facility. We believe the resulting forest cover product will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon and ecological monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in derived products.

  9. New Geospatial Approaches for Efficiently Mapping Forest Biomass Logistics at High Resolution over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hogland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate biomass feedstock supply is an important factor in evaluating the financial feasibility of alternative site locations for bioenergy facilities and for maintaining profitability once a facility is built. We used newly developed spatial analysis and logistics software to model the variables influencing feedstock supply and to estimate and map two components of the supply chain for a bioenergy facility: (1 the total biomass stocks available within an economically efficient transportation distance; (2 the cost of logistics to move the required stocks from the forest to the facility. Both biomass stocks and flows have important spatiotemporal dynamics that affect procurement costs and project viability. Though seemingly straightforward, these two components can be difficult to quantify and map accurately in a useful and spatially explicit manner. For an 8 million hectare study area, we used raster-based methods and tools to quantify and visualize these supply metrics at 10 m2 spatial resolution. The methodology and software leverage a novel raster-based least-cost path modeling algorithm that quantifies off-road and on-road transportation and other logistics costs. The results of the case study highlight the efficiency, flexibility, fine resolution, and spatial complexity of model outputs developed for facility siting and procurement planning.

  10. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  11. Application of Low-Cost UASs and Digital Photogrammetry for High-Resolution Snow Depth Mapping in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Emiliano; Marcer, Marco; Vandecrux, Baptiste Robert Marcel

    2017-01-01

    The repeat acquisition of high-resolution snow depth measurements has important research and civil applications in the Arctic. Currently the surveying methods for capturing the high spatial and temporal variability of the snowpack are expensive, in particular for small areal extents. An alternati...... areal extents. While further validation is needed, with the inclusion of extra validation points, the study showcases the potential of this cost-effective methodology for high-resolution monitoring of snow dynamics in the Arctic and beyond....... methodology based on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) and digital photogrammetry was tested over varying surveying conditions in the Arctic employing two diverse and low-cost UAS-camera combinations (500 and 1700 USD, respectively). Six areas, two in Svalbard and four in Greenland, were mapped covering from......-estimated and measured snow depth, checked with conventional snow probing, ranged from 0.015 to 0.16 m. The impact of image pre-processing was explored, improving point cloud density and accuracy for different image qualities and snow/light conditions. Our UAS photogrammetry results are expected to be scalable to larger...

  12. High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M C; Potapov, P V; Moore, R; Hancher, M; Turubanova, S A; Tyukavina, A; Thau, D; Stehman, S V; Goetz, S J; Loveland, T R; Kommareddy, A; Egorov, A; Chini, L; Justice, C O; Townshend, J R G

    2013-11-15

    Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.

  13. High-Resolution 3-D Mapping of Soil Texture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Bou Kheir, Rania; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2013-01-01

    Soil texture which is spatially variable in nature, is an important soil physical property that governs most physical, chemical, biological, and hydrological processes in soils. Detailed information on soil texture variability both in vertical and lateral dimensions is crucial for proper crop...... and land management and environmental studies, especially in Denmark where mechanized agriculture covers two thirds of the land area. We modeled the continuous depth function of texture distribution from 1958 Danish soil profiles (up to a 2-m depth) using equal-area quadratic splines and predicted clay......, silt, fine sand, and coarse sand content at six standard soil depths of GlobalSoilMap project (0–5, 5–15, 15–30, 30–60, 60–100, and 100–200 cm) via regression rules using the Cubist data mining tool. Seventeen environmental variables were used as predictors and their strength of prediction was also...

  14. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

    2000-04-27

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.

  15. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey over the Yucatan Peninsula - Implications for Chicxulub Impact, Secondary Craters and Regional Crustal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present the initial results of a low-altitude high-resolution aeromagnetic study over the Yucatan peninsula. Area surveyed extends from 86W to 91W and 18N to 21N, covering the peninsula and adjacent continental margin of Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Aeromagnetic surveys are integrated into a regional map, and regional and residual anomalies are separated using spectral and least-squares methods. For the study, aeromagnetic field was reduced to the pole and several data filtering techniques were used, including first and second vertical derivatives, analytical signal, and upward and downward analytical continuations. The region is characterized by large amplitude broad elongated magnetic anomalies oriented north-south in the northern sector of the continental shelf, and northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest over the western and eastern sides of the peninsula, respectively. Major regional anomalies extend from the continental shelf into the peninsula, whereas other anomaly trends in the central northern sector, at northeast limit of Chicxulub crater, are restricted to the shelf. Largest anomaly on the east extends over the Holbox fracture zone. At its southern end, south of Chetumal a parallel trend extends over the Rio Hondo fault zone between Quintana Roo and Belize. On the western peninsula the anomaly is characterized by two parallel trends offset between Yucatan and Campeche. The central zone of Chicxulub is characterized by a semi-circular anomaly pattern, surrounded by long wavelength small amplitude anomalies extending to the east on the peninsula and shelf, isolated from the regional broad anomalies. To the south of Chicxulub anomaly, there is an elongated low with a central high extending southward from the terrace zone inside the crater rim. The elongated magnetic anomaly correlates with a broad gravity low, which is apparent south of the concentric zone of anomalies. To the north of Chicxulub anomaly, a magnetic high inside the crater is

  16. High resolution far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, B.; Fazio, G.G.; Jaffe, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    M16 is an evolved, extremely density bounded H II region, which now consists only of a series of ionization fronts at molecular cloud boundaries. The source of ionization is the OB star cluster (NGC 6611) which is about 5 x 10 6 years old. We used the CFA/UA 102 cm balloon-borne telescope to map this region and detected three far-infrared (far-IR) sources embedded in an extended ridge of emission. Source I is an unresolved far-IR source embedded in a molecular cloud near a sharp ionization front. An H 2 O maser is associated with this source, but no radio continuum emission has been observed. The other two far-IR sources (II and III) are associated with ionized gas-molecular cloud interfaces, with the far-IR radiation arising from dust at the boundary heated by the OB cluster. Source II is located at the southern prominent neutral intrusion with its associated bright rims and dark ''elephant trunk'' globules that delineate the current progress of the ionization front into the neutral material, and Source III arises at the interface of the northern molecular cloud fragment

  17. Surface Circulation in the Iroise Sea (W. Brittany) from High Resolution HF Radar Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    oceanographic conditions in many coastal regions (e.g. Bassin et al., 2005; Breivik and Sætra, 2001; Haus et al., 2000; Kaplan et al., 2005; Kovacevic et...Oceanol. Acta 22–2, 153–166. Breivik , O., Sætra, O., 2001. Real time assimilation of HF radar currents into a coastal ocean model. J. Mar. Syst. 28

  18. Analysis of regional vegetation changes with medium and high resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello, J.; Eugenio, F.; Medina, A.

    2012-09-01

    The singular characteristics of the Canarian archipelago (Spain) and, in particular, of the Gran Canaria island have allowed the development of a unique biological richness. Almost half of its territory is protected to preserve the natural environment and, in consequence, the monitoring of vegetated regions plays an important role for regional administrations which aim to develop the corresponding policies for the conservation of such ecosystems. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a common index applied for vegetation studies. It is important to emphasize that NDVI is sensor-dependent, and changes are affected by soil background, irradiance, solar position, atmospheric attenuation, season, hydric situation and climate of the area. So, a fixed threshold cannot be set, even for the same sensor or season, to properly segment vegetated areas. In this context, a robust methodology has been applied to ensure a reliable estimation of changes using the same sensor in multiple dates or different sensors. To that respect, a supervised procedure is presented consisting on the selection of different regions within each image to precisely map each cover with its associated NDVI values and, in consequence, obtain for each individual image the optimal threshold to properly segment vegetation without the need to perform the complex preprocessing required to estimate the ground reflectivity. On the other hand, fires are an important aspect of an ecosystem and their study, a fundamental task to perform a complete assessment of the environmental and economic damage. In our work we have also analyzed in detail the fire occurring during 2007 and precisely assessed the results.

  19. A high-resolution map of the three-dimensional chromatin interactome in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fulai; Li, Yan; Dixon, Jesse R; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ye, Zhen; Lee, Ah Young; Yen, Chia-An; Schmitt, Anthony D; Espinoza, Celso A; Ren, Bing

    2013-11-14

    A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to permit a whole-genome, unbiased view of chromatin interactions. Here we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in human fibroblasts using a genome-wide 3C analysis method (Hi-C). We determined over one million long-range chromatin interactions at 5-10-kb resolution, and uncovered general principles of chromatin organization at different types of genomic features. We also characterized the dynamics of promoter-enhancer contacts after TNF-α signalling in these cells. Unexpectedly, we found that TNF-α-responsive enhancers are already in contact with their target promoters before signalling. Such pre-existing chromatin looping, which also exists in other cell types with different extracellular signalling, is a strong predictor of gene induction. Our observations suggest that the three-dimensional chromatin landscape, once established in a particular cell type, is relatively stable and could influence the selection or activation of target genes by a ubiquitous transcription activator in a cell-specific manner.

  20. Mid-IR DIAL for high-resolution mapping of explosive precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, V.; Babichenko, S.; Bennes, J.; Borelli, R.; Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.; Fiorani, L.; Hespel, L.; Huet, T.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, A.; Rebane, O.; Sobolev, I.

    2013-10-01

    A DIAL instrument on a moving platform is seen as a valuable remote sensing component in a sensor network for area monitoring, targeting sites involved in unauthorised explosive manufacturing. Such instrument will perform the area mapping of the vapour concentration of key substances, known to be used as precursors in explosive fabrication, such as acetone and nitromethane. The IR spectra of acetone and nitromethane vapours have been defined from available spectroscopy databases and from laboratory measurements as showing optimal spectral band for the DIAL operation in the spectral range of 3.0 μm - 3.5 μm. The DIAL operation has been numerically simulated, with inputs based on the HITRAN database, the U.S. Standard Atmosphere and aerosol simulation software package OPAC. A combination of OPO and OPA has been chosen as a transmitter, where the idler wavelength is used for probing, with wavelength tuning in sequence. A scanner mounted on top of the coaxially aligned laser and receiver, is capable of covering almost 360 degrees horizontally and +/-30 degrees vertically. The detection is performed by a photovoltaic photodiode with 4-stage cooling, with a signal digitalisation having 14 bit amplitude resolution and 125 Ms/s sampling rate. Here we present the development and the first test of the DIAL instrument.

  1. Earth elevation map production and high resolution sensing camera imaging analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiubin; Jin, Guang; Jiang, Li; Dai, Lu; Xu, Kai

    2010-11-01

    The Earth's digital elevation which impacts space camera imaging has prepared and imaging has analysed. Based on matching error that TDI CCD integral series request of the speed of image motion, statistical experimental methods-Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the distribution histogram of Earth's elevation in image motion compensated model which includes satellite attitude changes, orbital angular rate changes, latitude, longitude and the orbital inclination changes. And then, elevation information of the earth's surface from SRTM is read. Earth elevation map which produced for aerospace electronic cameras is compressed and spliced. It can get elevation data from flash according to the shooting point of latitude and longitude. If elevation data between two data, the ways of searching data uses linear interpolation. Linear interpolation can better meet the rugged mountains and hills changing requests. At last, the deviant framework and camera controller are used to test the character of deviant angle errors, TDI CCD camera simulation system with the material point corresponding to imaging point model is used to analyze the imaging's MTF and mutual correlation similarity measure, simulation system use adding cumulation which TDI CCD imaging exceeded the corresponding pixel horizontal and vertical offset to simulate camera imaging when stability of satellite attitude changes. This process is practicality. It can effectively control the camera memory space, and meet a very good precision TDI CCD camera in the request matches the speed of image motion and imaging.

  2. 3-Dimentional Mapping Coastal Zone using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imageries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Zhonghua; Liu, Fengling; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The metropolitan coastal zone mapping is critical for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal sustainable development and planning. The results of geometric processing of a Shanghai coastal zone from 0.7-m-resolution QuickBird Geo stereo images are presented firstly. The geo-positioning accuracy of ground point determination with vendor-provided rigorous physical model (RPM) parameters is evaluated and systematic errors are found when compared with ground control points surveyed by GPS real-time kinematic (GPS-RTK) with 5cm accuracy. A bias-compensation process in image space that applies a RPM bundle adjustment to the RPM-calculated 3D ground points to correct the systematic errors is used to improve the geo-positioning accuracy. And then, a area-based matching (ABM) method is used to generated the densely corresponding points of left and right QuickBird images. With the densely matching points, the 3-dimentinal coordinates of ground points can be calculated by using the refined geometric relationship between image and ground points. At last step, digital surface model (DSM) can be achieved automatically using interpolation method. Accuracies of the DSM as assessed from independent checkpoints (ICPs) are approximately 1.2 m in height

  3. High-Resolution Air Pollution Mapping with Google Street View Cars: Exploiting Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Joshua S; Messier, Kyle P; Gani, Shahzad; Brauer, Michael; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Lunden, Melissa M; Marshall, Julian D; Portier, Christopher J; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hamburg, Steven P

    2017-06-20

    Air pollution affects billions of people worldwide, yet ambient pollution measurements are limited for much of the world. Urban air pollution concentrations vary sharply over short distances (≪1 km) owing to unevenly distributed emission sources, dilution, and physicochemical transformations. Accordingly, even where present, conventional fixed-site pollution monitoring methods lack the spatial resolution needed to characterize heterogeneous human exposures and localized pollution hotspots. Here, we demonstrate a measurement approach to reveal urban air pollution patterns at 4-5 orders of magnitude greater spatial precision than possible with current central-site ambient monitoring. We equipped Google Street View vehicles with a fast-response pollution measurement platform and repeatedly sampled every street in a 30-km 2 area of Oakland, CA, developing the largest urban air quality data set of its type. Resulting maps of annual daytime NO, NO 2 , and black carbon at 30 m-scale reveal stable, persistent pollution patterns with surprisingly sharp small-scale variability attributable to local sources, up to 5-8× within individual city blocks. Since local variation in air quality profoundly impacts public health and environmental equity, our results have important implications for how air pollution is measured and managed. If validated elsewhere, this readily scalable measurement approach could address major air quality data gaps worldwide.

  4. High resolution micro-XRF maps of iron oxides inside sensory dendrites of putative avian magnetoreceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G; Fleissner, G E; Fleissner, G U E; Schuchardt, K; Kuehbacher, M; Chalmin, E; Janssens, K

    2009-01-01

    Iron mineral containing sensory dendrites in the inner lining of the upper beak of homing pigeons and various bird species are the first candidate structures for an avian magnetic field receptor. A new concept of magnetoreception is based on detailed ultra-structural optical and electron microscopy analyses in combination with synchrotron radiation microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis (micro-XRF) and microscopic X-ray absorption near edge structures (micro-XANES). Several behavioral experiments and first mathematical simulations affirm our avian magnetoreceptor model. The iron minerals inside the dendrites are housed in three different subcellular compartments (bullets, platelets, vesicles), which could be clearly resolved and identified by electron microscopy on ultrathin sections. Micro-XRF and micro-XANES data obtained at HASYLAB beamline L added information about the elemental distribution and Fe speciation, but are averaged over the complete dendrite due to limited spatial resolution. Here we present recently performed micro-XRF maps with sub-micrometer resolution (ESRF ID21), which reveal for the first time subcellular structural information from almost bulk-like dendrite sample material. Due to the thickness of 30 μm the microarchitecture of the dendrites can be considered as undisturbed and artefacts introduced by sectioning might be widely reduced.

  5. APPLICABILITY OF VARIOUS INTERPOLATION APPROACHES FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SPATIAL MAPPING OF CLIMATE DATA IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to create a new dataset of spatially interpolated monthly climate data for South Korea at high spatial resolution (approximately 30m by performing various spatio-statistical interpolation and comparing with forecast LDAPS gridded climate data provided from Korea Meterological Administration (KMA. Automatic Weather System (AWS and Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS data in 2017 obtained from KMA were included for the spatial mapping of temperature and rainfall; instantaneous temperature and 1-hour accumulated precipitation at 09:00 am on 31th March, 21th June, 23th September, and 24th December. Among observation data, 80 percent of the total point (478 and remaining 120 points were used for interpolations and for quantification, respectively. With the training data and digital elevation model (DEM with 30 m resolution, inverse distance weighting (IDW, co-kriging, and kriging were performed by using ArcGIS10.3.1 software and Python 3.6.4. Bias and root mean square were computed to compare prediction performance quantitatively. When statistical analysis was performed for each cluster using 20 % validation data, co kriging was more suitable for spatialization of instantaneous temperature than other interpolation method. On the other hand, IDW technique was appropriate for spatialization of precipitation.

  6. High-resolution gene maps of horse chromosomes 14 and 21: additional insights into evolution and rearrangements of HSA5 homologs in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Glenda; Raudsepp, Terje; Durkin, Keith; Wagner, Michelle L; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Agarwala, Richa; Tozaki, Teruaki; Mickelson, James R; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution physically ordered gene maps for equine homologs of human chromosome 5 (HSA5), viz., horse chromosomes 14 and 21 (ECA14 and ECA21), were generated by adding 179 new loci (131 gene-specific and 48 microsatellites) to the existing maps of the two chromosomes. The loci were mapped primarily by genotyping on a 5000-rad horse x hamster radiation hybrid panel, of which 28 were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The approximately fivefold increase in the number of mapped markers on the two chromosomes improves the average resolution of the map to 1 marker/0.9 Mb. The improved resolution is vital for rapid chromosomal localization of traits of interest on these chromosomes and for facilitating candidate gene searches. The comparative gene mapping data on ECA14 and ECA21 finely align the chromosomes to sequence/gene maps of a range of evolutionarily distantly related species. It also demonstrates that compared to ECA14, the ECA21 segment corresponding to HSA5 is a more conserved region because of preserved gene order in a larger number of and more diverse species. Further, comparison of ECA14 and the distal three-quarters region of ECA21 with corresponding chromosomal segments in 50 species belonging to 11 mammalian orders provides a broad overview of the evolution of these segments in individual orders from the putative ancestral chromosomal configuration. Of particular interest is the identification and precise demarcation of equid/Perissodactyl-specific features that for the first time clearly distinguish the origins of ECA14 and ECA21 from similar-looking status in the Cetartiodactyls.

  7. Mapping of Agricultural Crops from Single High-Resolution Multispectral Images—Data-Driven Smoothing vs. Parcel-Based Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Ozdarici-Ok

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mapping agricultural crops is an important application of remote sensing. However, in many cases it is based either on hyperspectral imagery or on multitemporal coverage, both of which are difficult to scale up to large-scale deployment at high spatial resolution. In the present paper, we evaluate the possibility of crop classification based on single images from very high-resolution (VHR satellite sensors. The main objective of this work is to expose performance difference between state-of-the-art parcel-based smoothing and purely data-driven conditional random field (CRF smoothing, which is yet unknown. To fulfill this objective, we perform extensive tests with four different classification methods (Support Vector Machines, Random Forest, Gaussian Mixtures, and Maximum Likelihood to compute the pixel-wise data term; and we also test two different definitions of the pairwise smoothness term. We have performed a detailed evaluation on different multispectral VHR images (Ikonos, QuickBird, Kompsat-2. The main finding of this study is that pairwise CRF smoothing comes close to the state-of-the-art parcel-based method that requires parcel boundaries (average difference ≈ 2.5%. Our results indicate that a single multispectral (R, G, B, NIR image is enough to reach satisfactory classification accuracy for six crop classes (corn, pasture, rice, sugar beet, wheat, and tomato in Mediterranean climate. Overall, it appears that crop mapping using only one-shot VHR imagery taken at the right time may be a viable alternative, especially since high-resolution multitemporal or hyperspectral coverage as well as parcel boundaries are in practice often not available.

  8. High-Resolution Urban Greenery Mapping for Micro-Climate Modelling Based on 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofierka, J.; Gallay, M.; Kaňuk, J.; Šupinský, J.; Šašak, J.

    2017-10-01

    Urban greenery has various positive micro-climate effects including mitigation of heat islands. The primary root of heat islands in cities is in absorption of solar radiation by the mass of building structures, roads and other solid materials. The absorbed heat is subsequently re-radiated into the surroundings and increases ambient temperatures. The vegetation can stop and absorb most of incoming solar radiation mostly via the photosynthesis and evapotranspiration process. However, vegetation in mild climate of Europe manifests considerable annual seasonality which can also contribute to the seasonal change in the cooling effect of the vegetation on the urban climate. Modern methods of high-resolution mapping and new generations of sensors have brought opportunity to record the dynamics of urban greenery in a high resolution in spatial, spectral, and temporal domains. In this paper, we use the case study of the city of Košice in Eastern Slovakia to demonstrate the methodology of 3D mapping and modelling the urban greenery during one vegetation season in 2016. The purpose of this monitoring is to capture 3D effects of urban greenery on spatial distribution of solar radiation in urban environment. Terrestrial laser scanning was conducted on four selected sites within Košice in ultra-high spatial resolution. The entire study area, which included these four smaller sites, comprised 4 km2 of the central part of the city was flown within a single airborne lidar and photogrammetric mission to capture the upper parts of buildings and vegetation. The acquired airborne data were used to generate a 3D city model and the time series of terrestrial lidar data were integrated with the 3D city model. The results show that the terrestrial and airborne laser scanning techniques can be effectively used to monitor seasonal changes in foliage of trees in order to assess the transmissivity of the canopy for microclimate modelling.

  9. A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Garber, Manuel; Zuk, Or; Lin, Michael F; Parker, Brian J; Washietl, Stefan; Kheradpour, Pouya; Ernst, Jason; Jordan, Gregory; Mauceli, Evan; Ward, Lucas D; Lowe, Craig B; Holloway, Alisha K; Clamp, Michele; Gnerre, Sante; Alföldi, Jessica; Beal, Kathryn; Chang, Jean; Clawson, Hiram; Cuff, James; Di Palma, Federica; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Flicek, Paul; Guttman, Mitchell; Hubisz, Melissa J; Jaffe, David B; Jungreis, Irwin; Kent, W James; Kostka, Dennis; Lara, Marcia; Martins, Andre L; Massingham, Tim; Moltke, Ida; Raney, Brian J; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Robinson, Jim; Stark, Alexander; Vilella, Albert J; Wen, Jiayu; Xie, Xiaohui; Zody, Michael C; Baldwin, Jen; Bloom, Toby; Chin, Chee Whye; Heiman, Dave; Nicol, Robert; Nusbaum, Chad; Young, Sarah; Wilkinson, Jane; Worley, Kim C; Kovar, Christie L; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Cree, Andrew; Dihn, Huyen H; Fowler, Gerald; Jhangiani, Shalili; Joshi, Vandita; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Nazareth, Lynne V; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Santibanez, Jireh; Warren, Wesley C; Mardis, Elaine R; Weinstock, George M; Wilson, Richard K; Delehaunty, Kim; Dooling, David; Fronik, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick; Sodergren, Erica; Birney, Ewan; Margulies, Elliott H; Herrero, Javier; Green, Eric D; Haussler, David; Siepel, Adam; Goldman, Nick; Pollard, Katherine S; Pedersen, Jakob S; Lander, Eric S; Kellis, Manolis

    2011-10-12

    The comparison of related genomes has emerged as a powerful lens for genome interpretation. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of 29 eutherian genomes. We confirm that at least 5.5% of the human genome has undergone purifying selection, and locate constrained elements covering ∼4.2% of the genome. We use evolutionary signatures and comparisons with experimental data sets to suggest candidate functions for ∼60% of constrained bases. These elements reveal a small number of new coding exons, candidate stop codon readthrough events and over 10,000 regions of overlapping synonymous constraint within protein-coding exons. We find 220 candidate RNA structural families, and nearly a million elements overlapping potential promoter, enhancer and insulator regions. We report specific amino acid residues that have undergone positive selection, 280,000 non-coding elements exapted from mobile elements and more than 1,000 primate- and human-accelerated elements. Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease.

  10. High-Resolution Mapping of Anthropogenic Heat in China from 1992 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangming Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic heat generated by human activity contributes to urban and regional climate warming. Due to the resolution and accuracy of existing anthropogenic heat data, it is difficult to analyze and simulate the corresponding effects. This study exploited a new method to estimate high spatial and temporal resolutions of anthropogenic heat based on long-term data of energy consumption and the US Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS data from 1992 to 2010 across China. Our results showed that, throughout the entire study period, there are apparent increasing trends in anthropogenic heat in three major metropoli, i.e., the Beijing-Tianjin region, the Yangzi River delta and the Pearl River delta. The annual mean anthropogenic heat fluxes for Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2010 were 17 Wm−2, 19 and 7.8 Wm−2, respectively. Comparisons with previous studies indicate that DMSP-OLS data could provide a better spatial proxy for estimating anthropogenic heat than population density and our analysis shows better performance at large scales for estimation of anthropogenic heat.

  11. HIGH RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE PIPE NEBULA. I. A DEEP INFRARED EXTINCTION MAP OF BARNARD 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Alves, Joao F.; Lada, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    We present our analysis of a fully sampled, high resolution dust extinction map of the Barnard 59 complex in the Pipe Nebula. The map was constructed with the infrared color excess technique applied to a photometric catalog that combines data from both ground and space based observations. The map resolves for the first time the high density center of the main core in the complex, which is associated with the formation of a small cluster of stars. We found that the central core in Barnard 59 shows an unexpected lack of significant substructure consisting of only two significant fragments. Overall, the material appears to be consistent with being a single, large core with a density profile that can be well fit by a King model. A series of NH 3 pointed observations toward the high column density center of the core appear to show that the core is still thermally dominated, with subsonic non-thermal motions. The stars in the cluster could be providing feedback to support the core against collapse, but the relatively narrow radio lines suggest that an additional source of support, for example, a magnetic field, may be required to stabilize the core. Outside the central core our observations reveal the structure of peripheral cores and resolve an extended filament into a handful of significant substructures whose spacing and masses appear to be consistent with Jeans fragmentation.

  12. JOINT PROCESSING OF UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM DATA FOR VERY HIGH RESOLUTION CITY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gruen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Both unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technology and Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS are important techniques for surveying and mapping. In recent years, the UAV technology has seen tremendous interest, both in the mapping community and in many other fields of application. Carrying off-the shelf digital cameras, the UAV can collect high quality aerial optical images for city modeling using photogrammetric techniques. In addition, a MMS can acquire high density point clouds of ground objects along the roads. The UAV, if operated in an aerial mode, has difficulties in acquiring information of ground objects under the trees and along façades of buildings. On the contrary, the MMS collects accurate point clouds of objects from the ground, together with stereo images, but it suffers from system errors due to loss of GPS signals, and also lacks the information of the roofs. Therefore, both technologies are complementary. This paper focuses on the integration of UAV images, MMS point cloud data and terrestrial images to build very high resolution 3D city models. The work we will show is a practical modeling project of the National University of Singapore (NUS campus, which includes buildings, some of them very high, roads and other man-made objects, dense tropical vegetation and DTM. This is an intermediate report. We present work in progress.

  13. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Umesh K; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan R; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-09-15

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. Copyright © 2014 Reddy et al.

  14. Using DNase Hi-C techniques to map global and local three-dimensional genome architecture at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, ZhiJun

    2018-06-01

    The folding and three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus critically impacts genome function. The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in genomic tools for delineating 3D genome architecture. Among them, chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods such as Hi-C are the most widely used techniques for mapping chromatin interactions. However, traditional Hi-C protocols rely on restriction enzymes (REs) to fragment chromatin and are therefore limited in resolution. We recently developed DNase Hi-C for mapping 3D genome organization, which uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation. DNase Hi-C overcomes RE-related limitations associated with traditional Hi-C methods, leading to improved methodological resolution. Furthermore, combining this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach (targeted DNase Hi-C) that allows for mapping fine-scale chromatin architecture at exceptionally high resolution. Hence, targeted DNase Hi-C will be valuable for delineating the physical landscapes of cis-regulatory networks that control gene expression and for characterizing phenotype-associated chromatin 3D signatures. Here, we provide a detailed description of method design and step-by-step working protocols for these two methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High Resolution Mineral Mapping of the Oman Drilling Project Cores with Imaging Spectroscopy: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, R. N.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Manning, C. E.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.

    2017-12-01

    mm-thick dolomite or calcite veins among dense sets of magnesite veins in the listvenite, indicating cross-cutting relationships that reflect changing alteration conditions with time. It also highlights key zones for sampling and additional analyses. Further data processing will provide mineralogical maps of the full 1.5 km of core.

  16. Visualizing the interior architecture of focal adhesions with high-resolution traction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimatsu, Masatoshi; Mekhdjian, Armen H; Chang, Alice C; Tan, Steven J; Dunn, Alexander R

    2015-04-08

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are micron-sized protein assemblies that coordinate cell adhesion, migration, and mechanotransduction. How the many proteins within FAs are organized into force sensing and transmitting structures is poorly understood. We combined fluorescent molecular tension sensors with super-resolution light microscopy to visualize traction forces within FAs with <100 nm spatial resolution. We find that αvβ3 integrin selectively localizes to high force regions. Paxillin, which is not generally considered to play a direct role in force transmission, shows a higher degree of spatial correlation with force than vinculin, talin, or α-actinin, proteins with hypothesized roles as force transducers. These observations suggest that αvβ3 integrin and paxillin may play important roles in mechanotransduction.

  17. High Resolution Urban Land Cover Mapping Using NAIP Aerial Photography and Image Processing for the USEPA National Atlas of Sustainability and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.

  18. Mapping Sub-Saharan African Agriculture in High-Resolution Satellite Imagery with Computer Vision & Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, Stephanie Renee

    Smallholder farms dominate in many parts of the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. These systems are characterized by small, heterogeneous, and often indistinct field patterns, requiring a specialized methodology to map agricultural landcover. In this thesis, we developed a benchmark labeled data set of high-resolution satellite imagery of agricultural fields in South Africa. We presented a new approach to mapping agricultural fields, based on efficient extraction of a vast set of simple, highly correlated, and interdependent features, followed by a random forest classifier. The algorithm achieved similar high performance across agricultural types, including spectrally indistinct smallholder fields, and demonstrated the ability to generalize across large geographic areas. In sensitivity analyses, we determined multi-temporal images provided greater performance gains than the addition of multi-spectral bands. We also demonstrated how active learning can be incorporated in the algorithm to create smaller, more efficient training data sets, which reduced computational resources, minimized the need for humans to hand-label data, and boosted performance. We designed a patch-based uncertainty metric to drive the active learning framework, based on the regular grid of a crowdsourcing platform, and demonstrated how subject matter experts can be replaced with fleets of crowdsourcing workers. Our active learning algorithm achieved similar performance as an algorithm trained with randomly selected data, but with 62% less data samples. This thesis furthers the goal of providing accurate agricultural landcover maps, at a scale that is relevant for the dominant smallholder class. Accurate maps are crucial for monitoring and promoting agricultural production. Furthermore, improved agricultural landcover maps will aid a host of other applications, including landcover change assessments, cadastral surveys to strengthen smallholder land rights, and constraints for crop modeling

  19. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  20. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC end sequences and ESTs, but comparative genome analysis and maps of quantitative trait loci (QTL) are still limited. Results We have constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) panel for the Nile tilapia and genotyped 1358 markers consisting of 850 genes, 82 markers corresponding to BAC end sequences, 154 microsatellites and 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). From these, 1296 markers could be associated in 81 RH groups, while 62 were not linked. The total size of the RH map is 34,084 cR3500 and 937,310 kb. It covers 88% of the entire genome with an estimated inter-marker distance of 742 Kb. Mapping of microsatellites enabled integration to the genetic map. We have merged LG8 and LG24 into a single linkage group, and confirmed that LG16-LG21 are also merged. The orientation and association of RH groups to each chromosome and LG was confirmed by chromosomal in situ hybridizations (FISH) of 55 BACs. Fifty RH groups were localized on the 22 chromosomes while 31 remained small orphan groups. Synteny relationships were determined between Nile tilapia, stickleback, medaka and pufferfish. Conclusion The RH map and associated FISH map provide a valuable gene-ordered resource for gene mapping and QTL studies. All genetic linkage groups with their corresponding RH groups now have a corresponding chromosome which can be identified in the karyotype. Placement of conserved segments indicated that multiple inter-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred between Nile tilapia

  1. Updated vegetation information in high resolution regional climate simulations using WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    Climate studies show that the frequency of heat wave events and above-average high temperatures during the summer months over Europe will increase in the coming decades. Such climatic changes and long-term meteorological conditions will impact the seasonal development of vegetation and ultimately...... modify the energy distribution at the land surface. In weather and climate models it is important to represent the vegetation variability accurately to obtain reliable results. The weather research and forecasting (WRF) model uses a green vegetation fraction (GVF) climatology to represent the seasonal...... or changes in management practice since it is derived more than twenty years ago. In this study, a new high resolution, high quality GVF product is applied in a WRF climate simulation over Denmark during the 2006 heat wave year. The new GVF product reflects the year 2006 and it was previously tested...

  2. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. (Medical Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. (Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)) (and others)

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    service potential" which is the ability of the local ecosystem to deliver various functions (water retention, carbon storage etc.), but can't quantify how much of these are actually used by humans or what the estimated monetary value is. Due to its ability to measure both terrain relief and vegetation structure in high resolution, airborne LIDAR supports direct quantification of the properties of an ecosystem that lead to it delivering a given service (such as biomass, water retention, micro-climate regulation or habitat diversity). In addition, its high resolution allows direct calibration with field measurements: routine harvesting-based ecological measurements, local biodiversity indicator surveys or microclimate recordings all take place at the human scale and can be directly linked to the local value of LIDAR-based indicators at meter resolution. Therefore, if some field measurements with standard ecological methods are performed on site, the accuracy of LIDAR-based ecosystem service indicators can be rigorously validated. With this conceptual and technical approach high resolution ecosystem service assessments can be made with well established credibility. These would consolidate the concept of ecosystem services and support both scientific research and evidence-based environmental policy at local and - as data coverage is continually increasing - continental scale.

  4. RelocaTE2: a high resolution transposable element insertion site mapping tool for population resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Transposable element (TE polymorphisms are important components of population genetic variation. The functional impacts of TEs in gene regulation and generating genetic diversity have been observed in multiple species, but the frequency and magnitude of TE variation is under appreciated. Inexpensive and deep sequencing technology has made it affordable to apply population genetic methods to whole genomes with methods that identify single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms. However, identifying TE polymorphisms, particularly transposition events or non-reference insertion sites can be challenging due to the repetitive nature of these sequences, which hamper both the sensitivity and specificity of analysis tools. Methods We have developed the tool RelocaTE2 for identification of TE insertion sites at high sensitivity and specificity. RelocaTE2 searches for known TE sequences in whole genome sequencing reads from second generation sequencing platforms such as Illumina. These sequence reads are used as seeds to pinpoint chromosome locations where TEs have transposed. RelocaTE2 detects target site duplication (TSD of TE insertions allowing it to report TE polymorphism loci with single base pair precision. Results and Discussion The performance of RelocaTE2 is evaluated using both simulated and real sequence data. RelocaTE2 demonstrate high level of sensitivity and specificity, particularly when the sequence coverage is not shallow. In comparison to other tools tested, RelocaTE2 achieves the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. In particular, RelocaTE2 performs best in prediction of TSDs for TE insertions. Even in highly repetitive regions, such as those tested on rice chromosome 4, RelocaTE2 is able to report up to 95% of simulated TE insertions with less than 0.1% false positive rate using 10-fold genome coverage resequencing data. RelocaTE2 provides a robust solution to identify TE insertion sites and can be

  5. A high-resolution comparative map between pig chromosome 17 and human chromosomes 4, 8, and 20: Identification of synteny breakpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahbib-Mansais, Yvette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Mompart, Florence

    2005-01-01

    We report on the construction of a high-resolution comparative map of porcine chromosome 17 (SSC17) focusing on evolutionary breakpoints with human chromosomes. The comparative map shows high homology with human chromosome 20 but suggests more limited homologies with other human chromosomes. SSC1...

  6. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately, the resulting fine resolution UTC map will be compared with previously created UTC maps of the same area but for earlier dates, producing a canopy change map corresponding to the Worcester area tree removal and replanting effort.

  7. Three very high resolution optical images for land use mapping of a suburban catchment: input to distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueminet, Christine; Kermadi, Saïda; Michel, Kristell; Jankowfsky, Sonja; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Beal, David; Gagnage, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Keywords : land cover mapping, very high resolution, remote sensing processing techniques, object oriented approach, distributed hydrological model, peri-urban area Urbanization and other modifications of land use affect the hydrological cycle of suburban catchments. In order to quantify these impacts, the AVuPUR project (Assessing the Vulnerability of Peri-Urban Rivers) is currently developing a distributed hydrological model that includes anthropogenic features. The case study is the Yzeron catchment (150 km²), located close to Lyon city, France. This catchment experiences a growing of urbanization and a modification of traditional land use since the middle of the 20th century, resulting in an increase of flooding, water pollution and river banks erosion. This contribution discusses the potentials of automated data processing techniques on three different VHR images, in order to produce appropriate and detailed land cover data for the models. Of particular interest is the identification of impermeable surfaces (buildings, roads, and parking places) and permeable surfaces (forest areas, agricultural fields, gardens, trees…) within the catchment, because their infiltration capacity and their impact on runoff generation are different. Three aerial and spatial images were acquired: (1) BD Ortho IGN aerial images, 0.50 m resolution, visible bands, may 5th 2008; (2) QuickBird satellite image, 2.44 m resolution, visible and near-infrared bands, august 29th 2008; (3) Spot satellite image, 2.50 m resolution, visible and near-infrared bands, September 22nd 2008. From these images, we developed three image processing methods: (1) a pixel-based method associated to a segmentation using Matlab®, (2) a pixel-based method using ENVI®, (3) an object-based classification using Definiens®. We extracted six land cover types from the BD Ortho IGN (visible bands) and height classes from the satellite images (visible and near infrared bands). The three classified images are

  8. The Challenge of High-resolution Mapping of Very Shallow Coastal Areas: Case Study of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, F.; Foglini, F.; Kruss, A.; Bajo, M.; Campiani, E.; Ferrarin, C.; Fogarin, S.; Grande, V.; Janowski, L.; Keppel, E.; Leidi, E.; Lorenzetti, G.; Maicu, F.; Maselli, V.; Montereale Gavazzi, G.; Pellegrini, C.; Petrizzo, A.; Prampolini, M.; Remia, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Rovere, M.; Sarretta, A.; Sigovini, M.; Toso, C.; Zaggia, L.; Trincardi, F.

    2017-12-01

    Very shallow coastal environments are often highly urbanized with half of the world's population and 13 of the largest mega-cities located close to the coast. These environments undergo rapid morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure that will likely be enhanced in the near future by mean sea-level rise. Therefore, there is a strong need for high resolution seafloor mapping to monitor and protect shallow coastal areas. To date, only about 5% of their seafloor has been mapped: their shallowness has prevented so far the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features; their turbidity often hindered the efficient use of LIDAR technology, particularly in lagoons and estuaries. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present the results of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea (surface area of about 550 km2, average depth of about 1 m) and it is a UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage site together with the historical city of Venice which is currently endangered by relative sea-level rise. Major engineering works are ongoing at the lagoon inlets (MOSE project) to protect Venice from flood events. In the last century, the morphology and ecology of the lagoon changed dramatically: the extent of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon deepened by more than 1 m with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice in view of the inlet modifications and mean sea-level rise, CNR-ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to

  9. High resolution mapping of riffle-pool dynamics based on ADCP and close-range remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Jouni; Kasvi, Elina; Alho, Petteri

    2017-04-01

    Present development of mobile laser scanning (MLS) and close-range photogrammetry with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) enable us to create seamless digital elevation models (DEMs) of the riverine environment. Remote-controlled flow measurement platforms have also improved spatio-temporal resolution of the flow field data. In this study, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) attached to remote-controlled mini-boat, UAV-based bathymetry and MLS techniques were utilized to create the high-resolution DEMs of the river channel. These high-resolution measurements can be used in many fluvial applications such as computational fluid dynamics, channel change detection, habitat mapping or hydro-electric power plant planning. In this study we aim: 1) to analyze morphological changes of river channel especially riffle and pool formations based on fine-scale DEMs and ADCP measurements, 2) to analyze flow fields and their effect on morphological changes. The interest was mainly focused on reach-scale riffle-pool dynamics within two-year period of 2013 and 2014. The study was performed in sub-arctic meandering Pulmankijoki River located in Northern Finland. The river itself has shallow and clear water and sandy bed sediment. Discharge remains typically below 10 m3s-1 most of the year but during snow melt period in spring the discharge may exceed 70 m3s-1. We compared DEMs and ADCP measurements to understand both magnitude and spatio-temporal change of the river bed. Models were accurate enough to study bed form changes and locations and persistence of riffles and pools. We analyzed their locations with relation to flow during the peak and low discharge. Our demonstrated method has improved significantly spatio-temporal resolution of riverine DEMs compared to other cross-sectional and photogrammetry based models. Together with flow field measurements we gained better understanding of riverbed-water interaction

  10. Rapid simultaneous high-resolution mapping of myelin water fraction and relaxation times in human brain using BMC-mcDESPOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhrara, Mustapha; Spencer, Richard G

    2017-02-15

    A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T 1 , and transverse, T 2 , relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T 1 and T 2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T 1 and T 2 , with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time. Unfortunately, previous studies have indicated the limited performance of mcDESPOT in the setting of the modest signal-to-noise range of high-resolution mapping, required for the depiction of small structures and to reduce partial volume effects. Recently, we showed that a new Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis substantially improved determination of MWF from mcDESPOT imaging data. However, our previous study was limited in that it did not discuss determination of relaxation times. Here, we extend the BMC analysis to the simultaneous determination of whole-brain MWF and relaxation times using the two-component mcDESPOT signal model. Simulation analyses and in-vivo human brain studies indicate the overall greater performance of this approach compared to the stochastic region contraction (SRC) algorithm, conventionally used to derive parameter estimates from mcDESPOT data. SRC estimates of the transverse relaxation time of the long T 2 fraction, T 2,l , and the longitudinal relaxation time of the short T 1 fraction, T 1,s , clustered towards the lower and upper parameter search space limits, respectively, indicating failure of the fitting procedure. We demonstrate that this effect is absent in the BMC analysis. Our results also showed improved parameter estimation for BMC as compared to SRC for high-resolution mapping. Overall we find that the combination of BMC analysis

  11. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  12. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiran, N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach ''multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms'' was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier A rtificial Neural Network (ANN) . Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm

  13. A high-resolution whole-genome map of key chromatin modifications in the adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Sweeney, Sarah; Raha, Debasish; Snyder, Michael; Lin, Haifan

    2011-12-01

    Epigenetic research has been focused on cell-type-specific regulation; less is known about common features of epigenetic programming shared by diverse cell types within an organism. Here, we report a modified method for chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and its use to construct a high-resolution map of the Drosophila melanogaster key histone marks, heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and RNA polymerase II (polII). These factors are mapped at 50-bp resolution genome-wide and at 5-bp resolution for regulatory sequences of genes, which reveals fundamental features of chromatin modification landscape shared by major adult Drosophila cell types: the enrichment of both heterochromatic and euchromatic marks in transposons and repetitive sequences, the accumulation of HP1a at transcription start sites with stalled polII, the signatures of histone code and polII level/position around the transcriptional start sites that predict both the mRNA level and functionality of genes, and the enrichment of elongating polII within exons at splicing junctions. These features, likely conserved among diverse epigenomes, reveal general strategies for chromatin modifications.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE 3 μ m REGION: ROLE OF PERIPHERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Buma, Wybren Jan [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huang, Xinchuan [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Lee, Timothy J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035-1000 (United States); Oomens, Jos, E-mail: w.j.buma@uva.nl [Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μ m absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950–3150 cm{sup −1} range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μ m region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μ m band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μ m emission plateau.

  15. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  16. An Approach for High-Resolution Mapping of Hawaiian Metrosideros Forest Mortality Using Laser-Guided Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Vaughn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid ‘Ōhi‘a Death (ROD is a disease aggressively killing large numbers of Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a, a native keystone tree species on Hawaii Island. This loss threatens to deeply alter the biological make-up of this unique island ecosystem. Spatially explicit information about the present and past advancement of the disease is essential for its containment; yet, currently such data are severely lacking. To this end, we used the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to collect Laser-Guided Imaging Spectroscopy data and high-resolution digital imagery across >500,000 ha of Hawaii Island in June–July 2017. We then developed a method to map individual tree crowns matching the symptoms of both active (brown; desiccated ‘ōhi‘a crowns and past (leafless tree crowns ROD infection using an ensemble of two distinct machine learning approaches. Employing a very conservative classification scheme for minimizing false-positives, model sensitivity rates were 86.9 and 82.5, and precision rates were 97.4 and 95.3 for browning and leafless crowns, respectively. Across the island of Hawaii, we found 43,134 individual crowns suspected of exhibiting the active (browning stage of ROD infection. Hotspots of potential ROD infection are apparent in the maps. The peninsula on the eastern side of Hawaii known as the Puna district, where the ROD outbreak likely originated, contained a particularly high density of brown crown detections. In comparison, leafless crown detections were much more numerous (547,666 detected leafless crowns in total and more dispersed across the island. Mapped hotspots of likely ROD incidence across the island will enable scientists, administrators, and land managers to better understand both where and how ROD spreads and how to apply limited resources to limiting this spread.

  17. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  19. Assessment of the Suitability of High Resolution Numerical Weather Model Outputs for Hydrological Modelling in Mountainous Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Hayashi, M.; Fang, X.; Gutmann, E. D.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrology of mountainous cold regions has a large spatial variability that is driven both by climate variability and near-surface process variability associated with complex terrain and patterns of vegetation, soils, and hydrogeology. There is a need to downscale large-scale atmospheric circulations towards the fine scales that cold regions hydrological processes operate at to assess their spatial variability in complex terrain and quantify uncertainties by comparison to field observations. In this research, three high resolution numerical weather prediction models, namely, the Intermediate Complexity Atmosphere Research (ICAR), Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), and Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) models are used to represent spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric conditions appropriate for hydrological modelling. An area covering high mountains and foothills of the Canadian Rockies was selected to assess and compare high resolution ICAR (1 km × 1 km), WRF (4 km × 4 km), and GEM (2.5 km × 2.5 km) model outputs with station-based meteorological measurements. ICAR with very low computational cost was run with different initial and boundary conditions and with finer spatial resolution, which allowed an assessment of modelling uncertainty and scaling that was difficult with WRF. Results show that ICAR, when compared with WRF and GEM, performs very well in precipitation and air temperature modelling in the Canadian Rockies, while all three models show a fair performance in simulating wind and humidity fields. Representation of local-scale atmospheric dynamics leading to realistic fields of temperature and precipitation by ICAR, WRF, and GEM makes these models suitable for high resolution cold regions hydrological predictions in complex terrain, which is a key factor in estimating water security in western Canada.

  20. Typhoon Doksuri Flooding in 2017 - High-Resolution Inundation Mapping and Monitoring from Sentinel Satellite SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Nguyen, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    In 2017, typhoons and hurricanes have inflicted catastrophic flooding across extensive regions in many countries on several continents, including Asia and North America. The U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requested urgent support for flood mapping and monitoring in an emergency response to the devastating flood situation. An innovative satellite remote sensing method, called the Depolarization Reduction Algorithm for Global Observations of inundatioN (DRAGON), has been developed and implemented for use with Sentinel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data at a resolution of 10 meters to identify, map, and monitor inundation including pre-existing water bodies and newly flooded areas. Because Sentinel SAR operates at C-band microwave frequency, it can be used for flood mapping regardless of could cover conditions typically associated with storms, and thus can provide immediate results without the need to wait for the clouds to clear out. In Southeast Asia, Typhoon Doksuri caused significant flooding across extensive regions in Vietnam and other countries in September 2017. Figure 1 presents the flood mapping result over a region around Hà Tĩnh (north central coast of Vietnam) showing flood inundated areas (in yellow) on 16 September 2017 together with pre-existing surface water (in blue) on 4 September 2017. This is just one example selected from a larger flood map covering an extensive region of about 250 km x 680 km all along the central coast of Vietnam.

  1. High-resolution Mapping of Permafrost and Soil Freeze/thaw Dynamics in the Tibetan Plateau Based on Multi-sensor Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Yi, Y.; Yang, K.; Kimball, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is underlain by the world's largest extent of alpine permafrost ( 2.5×106 km2), dominated by sporadic and discontinuous permafrost with strong sensitivity to climate warming. Detailed permafrost distributions and patterns in most of the TP region are still unknown due to extremely sparse in-situ observations in this region characterized by heterogeneous land cover and large temporal dynamics in surface soil moisture conditions. Therefore, satellite-based temperature and moisture observations are essential for high-resolution mapping of permafrost distribution and soil active layer changes in the TP region. In this study, we quantify the TP regional permafrost distribution at 1-km resolution using a detailed satellite data-driven soil thermal process model (GIPL2). The soil thermal model is calibrated and validated using in-situ soil temperature/moisture observations from the CAMP/Tibet field campaign (9 sites: 0-300 cm soil depth sampling from 1997-2007), a multi-scale soil moisture and temperature monitoring network in the central TP (CTP-SMTMN, 57 sites: 5-40 cm, 2010-2014) and across the whole plateau (China Meteorology Administration, 98 sites: 0-320 cm, 2000-2015). Our preliminary results using the CAMP/Tibet and CTP-SMTMN network observations indicate strong controls of surface thermal and soil moisture conditions on soil freeze/thaw dynamics, which vary greatly with underlying topography, soil texture and vegetation cover. For regional mapping of soil freeze/thaw and permafrost dynamics, we use the most recent soil moisture retrievals from the NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) sensor to account for the effects of temporal soil moisture dynamics on soil thermal heat transfer, with surface thermal conditions defined by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land surface temperature records. Our study provides the first 1-km map of spatial patterns and recent changes of permafrost conditions in the TP.

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  4. New High-Resolution Multibeam Mapping and Seismic Reflection Imaging of Mudflows on the Mississippi River Delta Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, J. D.; Baldwin, W. E.; Danforth, W. W.; Bentley, S. J.; Miner, M. D.; Damour, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mudflows (channelized and unconfined debris flows) on the Mississippi River Delta Front (MRDF) are a recognized hazard to oil and gas infrastructure in the shallow Gulf of Mexico. Preconditioning of the seafloor for failure results from high sedimentation rates coupled with slope over-steepening, under-consolidation, and abundant biogenic gas production. Cyclical loading of the seafloor by waves from passing major storms appears to be a primary trigger, but the role of smaller (more frequent) storms and background oceanographic processes are largely unconstrained. A pilot high-resolution seafloor mapping and seismic imaging study was carried out across portions of the MRDF aboard the R/V Point Sur from May 19-26, 2017, as part of a multi-agency/university effort to characterize mudflow hazards in the area. The primary objective of the cruise was to assess the suitability of seafloor mapping and shallow sub-surface imaging tools in the challenging environmental conditions found across delta fronts (e.g., variably-distributed water column stratification and wide-spread biogenic gas in the shallow sub-surface). More than 600 km of multibeam bathymetry/backscatter/water column data, 425 km of towed chirp data, and > 500 km of multi-channel seismic data (boomer/mini-sparker sources, 32-channel streamer) were collected. Varied mudflow (gully, lobe), pro-delta morphologies, and structural features, some of which have been surveyed more than once, were imaged in selected survey areas from Pass a Loutre to Southwest Pass. The present location of the SS Virginia, which has been moving with one of the mudflow lobes since it was sunk in 1942, was determined and found to be 60 m SW of its 2006 position, suggesting movement not linked to hurricane-induced wave triggering of mudflows. Preliminary versions these data were used to identify sediment sampling sites visited on a cruise in early June 2017 led by scientists from LSU and other university/agency partners.

  5. Nested High Resolution Modeling of the Impact of Urbanization on Regional Climate in Three Vast Urban Agglomerations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the non-urban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1? and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban area mainly in summer and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

  6. Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

  7. Exploring New Challenges of High-Resolution SWOT Satellite Altimetry with a Regional Model of the Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, P.; Verron, J. A.; Djath, B.; Duran, M.; Gaultier, L.; Gourdeau, L.; Melet, A.; Molines, J. M.; Ubelmann, C.

    2014-12-01

    The upcoming high-resolution SWOT altimetry satellite will provide an unprecedented description of the ocean dynamic topography for studying sub- and meso-scale processes in the ocean. But there is still much uncertainty on the signal that will be observed. There are many scientific questions that are unresolved about the observability of altimetry at vhigh resolution and on the dynamical role of the ocean meso- and submesoscales. In addition, SWOT data will raise specific problems due to the size of the data flows. These issues will probably impact the data assimilation approaches for future scientific or operational oceanography applications. In this work, we propose to use a high-resolution numerical model of the Western Pacific Solomon Sea as a regional laboratory to explore such observability and dynamical issues, as well as new data assimilation challenges raised by SWOT. The Solomon Sea connects subtropical water masses to the equatorial ones through the low latitude western boundary currents and could potentially modulate the tropical Pacific climate. In the South Western Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits very intense eddy kinetic energy levels, while relatively little is known about the mesoscale and submesoscale activities in this region. The complex bathymetry of the region, complicated by the presence of narrow straits and numerous islands, raises specific challenges. So far, a Solomon sea model configuration has been set up at 1/36° resolution. Numerical simulations have been performed to explore the meso- and submesoscales dynamics. The numerical solutions which have been validated against available in situ data, show the development of small scale features, eddies, fronts and filaments. Spectral analysis reveals a behavior that is consistent with the SQG theory. There is a clear evidence of energy cascade from the small scales including the submesoscales, although those submesoscales are only partially resolved by the model. In parallel

  8. Rainfall Characteristics and Regionalization in Peninsular Malaysia Based on a High Resolution Gridded Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Loong Wong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily gridded rainfall data over Peninsular Malaysia are delineated using an objective clustering algorithm, with the objective of classifying rainfall grids into groups of homogeneous regions based on the similarity of the rainfall annual cycles. It has been demonstrated that Peninsular Malaysia can be statistically delineated into eight distinct rainfall regions. This delineation is closely associated with the topographic and geographic characteristics. The variation of rainfall over the Peninsula is generally characterized by bimodal variations with two peaks, i.e., a primary peak occurring during the autumn transitional period and a secondary peak during the spring transitional period. The east coast zones, however, showed a single peak during the northeast monsoon (NEM. The influence of NEM is stronger compared to the southwest monsoon (SWM. Significantly increasing rainfall trends at 95% confidence level are not observed in all regions during the NEM, with exception of northwest zone (R1 and coastal band of west coast interior region (R3. During SWM, most areas have become drier over the last three decades. The study identifies higher variation of mean monthly rainfall over the east coast regions, but spatially, the rainfall is uniformly distributed. For the southwestern coast and west coast regions, a larger range of coefficients of variation is mostly obtained during the NEM, and to a smaller extent during the SWM. The inland region received least rainfall in February, but showed the largest spatial variation. The relationship between rainfall and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO was examined based on the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Although the concurrent relationships between rainfall in the different regions and ENSO are generally weak with negative correlations, the rainfall shows stronger positive correlation with preceding ENSO signals with a time lag of four to eight months.

  9. Mapping of Polar Areas Based on High-Resolution Satellite Images: The Example of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczyński, Zdzisław; Różycki, Sebastian; Bylina, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    To produce orthophotomaps or digital elevation models, the most commonly used method is photogrammetric measurement. However, the use of aerial images is not easy in polar regions for logistical reasons. In these areas, remote sensing data acquired from satellite systems is much more useful. This paper presents the basic technical requirements of different products which can be obtain (in particular orthoimages and digital elevation model (DEM)) using Very-High-Resolution Satellite (VHRS) images. The study area was situated in the vicinity of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on the Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Western Antarctic. Image processing was applied on two triplets of images acquired by the Pléiades 1A and 1B in March 2013. The results of the generation of orthoimages from the Pléiades systems without control points showed that the proposed method can achieve Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 3-9 m. The presented Pléiades images are useful for thematic remote sensing analysis and processing of measurements. Using satellite images to produce remote sensing products for polar regions is highly beneficial and reliable and compares well with more expensive airborne photographs or field surveys.

  10. Region & Gateway Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Derik

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art robot mapping approaches are capable of acquiring impressively accurate 2D and 3D models of their environments. To the best of our knowledge, few of them represent structure or acquire models of task-relevant objects. In this work, a new approach to mapping of indoor environments is presented, in which the environment structure in terms of regions and gateways is automatically extracted, while the robot explores. Objects, both in 2D and 3D, are modeled explicitly in those map...

  11. A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huabei, located between 32° N and 42° N, is part of eastern China and includes administratively the Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC.

    Our estimates are based on data from the statistical yearbooks of the state, provinces and local districts, including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2, 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC.

    For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2, 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and

  12. Very high resolution regional climate model simulations over Greenland: Identifying added value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas-Picher, P.; Wulff-Nielsen, M.; Christensen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    models. However, the bias between the simulations and the few available observations does not reduce with higher resolution. This is partly explained by the lack of observations in regions where the higher resolution is expected to improve the simulated climate. The RCM simulations show......This study presents two simulations of the climate over Greenland with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM5 at 0.05° and 0.25° resolution driven at the lateral boundaries by the ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1989–2009. These simulations are validated against observations from...... that the temperature has increased the most in the northern part of Greenland and at lower elevations over the period 1989–2009. Higher resolution increases the relief variability in the model topography and causes the simulated precipitation to be larger on the coast and smaller over the main ice sheet compared...

  13. High-resolution computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses, pharynx and related regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maatman, G.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the study was to facilitate the identification of anatomic structures and the interpretation of pathologic changes in CT-images of paranasal sinuses, pharynx and related regions. Secondly the impact of CT on diagnosis and patient management was analyzed. 134 patients were examined with pathological processes of paranasal sinuses, and pharynx, nasal or oral cavity. The results of this examination are discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Using object-based image analysis to conduct high-resolution conifer extraction at regional spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Roth, Cali L.; Chenaille, Michael P.; Ricca, Mark A.; Mauch, Kimberly; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis J.; Perry, William M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-08-10

    The distribution and abundance of pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma, J. occidentalis) trees (hereinafter, "pinyon-juniper") in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems of the Great Basin in the Western United States has increased substantially since the late 1800s. Distributional expansion and infill of pinyon-juniper into sagebrush ecosystems threatens the ecological function and economic viability of these ecosystems within the Great Basin, and is now a major contemporary challenge facing land and wildlife managers. Particularly, pinyon-juniper encroachment into intact sagebrush ecosystems has been identified as a primary threat facing populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse"), which is a sagebrush obligate species. Even seemingly innocuous scatterings of isolated pinyon-juniper in an otherwise intact sagebrush landscape can negatively affect survival and reproduction of sage-grouse. Therefore, accurate and high-resolution maps of pinyon-juniper distribution and abundance (indexed by canopy cover) across broad geographic extents would help guide land management decisions that better target areas for pinyon-juniper removal projects (for example, fuel reduction, habitat improvement for sage-grouse, and other sagebrush species) and facilitate science that further quantifies ecological effects of pinyon-juniper encroachment on sage-grouse populations and sagebrush ecosystem processes. Hence, we mapped pinyon-juniper (referred to as conifers for actual mapping) at a 1 × 1-meter (m) high resolution across the entire range of previously mapped sage-grouse habitat in Nevada and northeastern California.We used digital orthophoto quad tiles from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2010, 2013) as base imagery, and then classified conifers using automated feature extraction methodology with the program Feature Analyst™. This method relies on machine learning algorithms that extract features from

  15. High Resolution Topography of Polar Regions from Commercial Satellite Imagery, Petascale Computing and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Paul; Porter, Claire; Cloutier, Michael; Howat, Ian; Noh, Myoung-Jong; Willis, Michael; Kramer, WIlliam; Bauer, Greg; Bates, Brian; Williamson, Cathleen

    2017-04-01

    Surface topography is among the most fundamental data sets for geosciences, essential for disciplines ranging from glaciology to geodynamics. Two new projects are using sub-meter, commercial imagery licensed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and open source photogrammetry software to produce a time-tagged 2m posting elevation model of the Arctic and an 8m posting reference elevation model for the Antarctic. When complete, this publically available data will be at higher resolution than any elevation models that cover the entirety of the Western United States. These two polar projects are made possible due to three equally important factors: 1) open-source photogrammetry software, 2) petascale computing, and 3) sub-meter imagery licensed to the United States Government. Our talk will detail the technical challenges of using automated photogrammetry software; the rapid workflow evolution to allow DEM production; the task of deploying the workflow on one of the world's largest supercomputers; the trials of moving massive amounts of data, and the management strategies the team needed to solve in order to meet deadlines. Finally, we will discuss the implications of this type of collaboration for future multi-team use of leadership-class systems such as Blue Waters, and for further elevation mapping.

  16. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Atmosphere, PK-6530, Succ. Centre-ville, B.P. 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Elia, Ramon [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Ouranos Consortium, Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions. (orig.)

  17. Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Steven P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations. Results B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria. Conclusion The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were

  18. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  19. Regional interdependency of precipitation indices across Denmark in two ensembles of high-resolution RCMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2013-01-01

    all these methods is that the climate models are independent. This study addresses the validity of this assumption for two ensembles of regional climate models (RCMs) from the Ensemble-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts (ENSEMBLES) project based on the land cells covering Denmark....... Daily precipitation indices from an ensemble of RCMs driven by the 40-yrECMWFRe-Analysis (ERA-40) and an ensemble of the same RCMs driven by different general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed. Two different methods are used to estimate the amount of independent information in the ensembles....... These are based on different statistical properties of a measure of climate model error. Additionally, a hierarchical cluster analysis is carried out. Regardless of the method used, the effective number of RCMs is smaller than the total number of RCMs. The estimated effective number of RCMs varies depending...

  20. High-resolution backscatter power observations of 440-MHz E region coherent echoes at Millstone Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Tetenbaum, D.

    1991-01-01

    A 40-μs pulse length has been used to provide 10-s temporal and 6-km range resolution observations of E region coherent backscatter from the premidnight eastward electrojet region to the north of Millstone Hill. The observations can be divided into two categories: strong events in which the backscattered amplitude nears saturation and weak events in which spatial structure and large-amplitude variations are common. Calibrated observations find a typical volume scattering coefficient of ∼10 -11 m -1 at 440 MHz during strong events with a maximum level of 9 x 10 -10 m -1 observed for brief intervals. During less intense events the radar backscatter is modulated by ∼30dB in amplitude at Pc 5 frequencies (150-500 s) by waves with spatial wavelength 50-100 km. The observations support the premise that the weak irregularities grow linearly with electric field strength and reach a saturation amplitude beyond which the oscillating electric field of the Pc pulsation has little effect. The observed variation of backscattered power with range is interpreted using a geometrical model which accounts for the detailed antenna beam pattern, a magnetic aspect angle sensitivity of -10 dB per degree, and a thin layer of irregularities centered at 110 km altitude. For strongly driven conditions a comparison of the range variation of backscattered power with the thin layer model suggests that the signal power becomes increasingly dominated by strong scatters confined to a narrower altitude range. The apparent altitude extent of the strongest irregularities decreases by a factor of 2 as the amplitude of the backscattered signal increases by a factor of 10

  1. In-season wheat sown area mapping for Afghanistan using high resolution optical and RADAR images in cloud platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M. A.; Tiwari, V. K.; Qamer, F. M.; Yadav, N. K.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Bajracharya, B.; Vadrevu, K.; Rushi, B. R.; Stanikzai, N.; Yusafi, W.; Rahmani, H.

    2017-12-01

    Afghanistan has only 11% of arable land while wheat is the major crop with 80% of total cereal planted area. The production of wheat is therefore highly critical to the food security of the country with population of 35 million among which 30% are food insecure. The lack of timely availability of data on crop sown area and production hinders decision on regular grain import policies as well as log term planning for self-sustainability. The objective of this study is to develop an operational in-season wheat area mapping system to support the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) for annual food security planning. In this study, we used 10m resolution sentinel - 2 optical images in combination with sentinel - 1 SAR data to classify wheat area. The available provincial crop calendar and field data collected by MAIL was used for classification and validation. Since the internet and computing infrastructure in Afghanistan is very limited thus cloud computing platform of Google Earth Engine (GEE) is used to accomplish this work. During the assessment it is observed that the smaller size of wheat plots and mixing of wheat with other crops makes it difficult to achieve expected accuracy of wheat area particularly in rain fed areas. The cloud cover during the wheat growing season limits the availability of valid optical satellite data. In the first phase of assessment important learnings points were captured. In an extremely challenging security situation field data collection require use of innovative approaches for stratification of sampling sites as well as use of robust mobile app with adequate training of field staff. Currently, GEE assets only contain Sentinel-2 Level 1C product which limits the classification accuracy. In representative areas, where Level 2A product was developed and applied a significant improvement in accuracy is observed. Development of high resolution agro-climatic zones map, will enable extrapolating crop growth calendars

  2. Permafrost Distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor, China Using High-Resolution Statistical Mapping and Modeling Integrated with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Niu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost distribution in the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor (QTEC is of growing interest due to the increase in infrastructure development in this remote area. Empirical models of mountain permafrost distribution have been established based on field sampled data, as a tool for regional-scale assessments of its distribution. This kind of model approach has never been applied for a large portion of this engineering corridor. In the present study, this methodology is applied to map permafrost distribution throughout the QTEC. After spatial modelling of the mean annual air temperature distribution from MODIS-LST and DEM, using high-resolution satellite image to interpret land surface type, a permafrost probability index was obtained. The evaluation results indicate that the model has an acceptable performance. Conditions highly favorable to permafrost presence (≥70% are predicted for 60.3% of the study area, declaring a discontinuous permafrost distribution in the QTEC. This map is useful for the infrastructure development along the QTEC. In the future, local ground-truth observations will be required to confirm permafrost presence in favorable areas and to monitor permafrost evolution under the influence of climate change.

  3. Development of ALARO-Climate regional climate model for a very high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Petr; Farda, Ales; Brozkova, Radmila; Masek, Jan

    2014-05-01

    ALARO-Climate is a new regional climate model (RCM) derived from the ALADIN LAM model family. It is based on the numerical weather prediction model ALARO and developed at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The model is expected to able to work in the so called "grey zone" physics (horizontal resolution of 4 - 7 km) and at the same time retain its ability to be operated in resolutions in between 20 and 50 km, which are typical for contemporary generation of regional climate models. Here we present the main results of the RCM ALARO-Climate model simulations in 25 and 6.25 km resolutions on the longer time-scale (1961-1990). The model was driven by the ERA-40 re-analyses and run on the integration domain of ~ 2500 x 2500 km size covering the central Europe. The simulated model climate was compared with the gridded observation of air temperature (mean, maximum, minimum) and precipitation from the E-OBS version dataset 8. Other simulated parameters (e.g., cloudiness, radiation or components of water cycle) were compared to the ERA-40 re-analyses. The validation of the first ERA-40 simulation in both, 25 km and 6.25 km resolutions, revealed significant cold biases in all seasons and overestimation of precipitation in the selected Central Europe target area (0° - 30° eastern longitude ; 40° - 60° northern latitude). The differences between these simulations were small and thus revealed a robustness of the model's physical parameterization on the resolution change. The series of 25 km resolution simulations with several model adaptations was carried out to study their effect on the simulated properties of climate variables and thus possibly identify a source of major errors in the simulated climate. The current investigation suggests the main reason for biases is related to the model physic. Acknowledgements: This study was performed within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation) and CzechGlobe Centre (CZ.1

  4. Regional Scale High Resolution δ18O Prediction in Precipitation Using MODIS EVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Shou-De; Lo, Yi-Chen; Huang, Bo-Wen; Hatch, Kent A.; Shiu, Hau-Jie; You, Cheng-Feng; Chang, Yuan-Mou; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The natural variation in stable water isotope ratio data, also known as water isoscape, is a spatiotemporal fingerprint and a powerful natural tracer that has been widely applied in disciplines as diverse as hydrology, paleoclimatology, ecology and forensic investigation. Although much effort has been devoted to developing a predictive water isoscape model, it remains a central challenge for scientists to generate high accuracy, fine scale spatiotemporal water isoscape prediction. Here we develop a novel approach of using the MODIS-EVI (the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer-Enhanced Vegetation Index), to predict δ18O in precipitation at the regional scale. Using a structural equation model, we show that the EVI and precipitated δ18O are highly correlated and thus the EVI is a good predictor of precipitated δ18O. We then test the predictability of our EVI-δ18O model and demonstrate that our approach can provide high accuracy with fine spatial (250×250 m) and temporal (16 days) scale δ18O predictions (annual and monthly predictabilities [r] are 0.96 and 0.80, respectively). We conclude the merging of the EVI and δ18O in precipitation can greatly extend the spatial and temporal data availability and thus enhance the applicability for both the EVI and water isoscape. PMID:23029053

  5. Evaluation of a high-resolution regional climate simulation over Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebre, Filip [Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vito - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Integral Environmental Studies, Mol (Belgium); Fettweis, Xavier; Ypersele, Jean-Pascal van; Marbaix, Philippe [Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gallee, Hubert [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Geophysique de l' Environnement, Grenoble (France); Greuell, Wouter [Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Calanca, Pierluigi [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    A simulation of the 1991 summer has been performed over south Greenland with a coupled atmosphere-snow regional climate model (RCM) forced by the ECMWF re-analysis. The simulation is evaluated with in-situ coastal and ice-sheet atmospheric and glaciological observations. Modelled air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed and radiative fluxes are in good agreement with the available observations, although uncertainties in the radiative transfer scheme need further investigation to improve the model's performance. In the sub-surface snow-ice model, surface albedo is calculated from the simulated snow grain shape and size, snow depth, meltwater accumulation, cloudiness and ice albedo. The use of snow metamorphism processes allows a realistic modelling of the temporal variations in the surface albedo during both melting periods and accumulation events. Concerning the surface albedo, the main finding is that an accurate albedo simulation during the melting season strongly depends on a proper initialization of the surface conditions which mainly result from winter accumulation processes. Furthermore, in a sensitivity experiment with a constant 0.8 albedo over the whole ice sheet, the average amount of melt decreased by more than 60%, which highlights the importance of a correctly simulated surface albedo. The use of this coupled atmosphere-snow RCM offers new perspectives in the study of the Greenland surface mass balance due to the represented feedback between the surface climate and the surface albedo, which is the most sensitive parameter in energy-balance-based ablation calculations. (orig.)

  6. Production of high-resolution digital terrain models in mountain regions to support risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Forlani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-accuracy digital terrain models (DTMs in the Alpine region has been steadily increasing in recent years in valleys as well as high mountains. In the former, the determination of the geo-mechanical parameters of rock masses is the main objective; global warming, which causes the retreat of glaciers and the reduction of permafrost, is the main drive of the latter. The consequence is the instability of rock masses in high mountains: new cost-effective monitoring techniques are required to deal with the peculiar characteristics of such environment, delivering results at short notice. After discussing the design and execution of photogrammetric surveys in such areas, with particular reference to block orientation and block control, the paper describes the production of DTMs of rock faces and glacier fronts with light instrumentation and data acquisition techniques, allowing highly automated data processing. To this aim, the PhotoGPS technique and structure from motion algorithms are used to speed up the orientation process, while dense matching area-based correlation techniques are used to generate the DTMs.

  7. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  8. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  9. The 2006 Pingtung Earthquake Doublet Triggered Seafloor Liquefaction: Revisiting the Evidence with Ultra-High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. C.; Chen, T. T.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Chen, Y. H.; Lundsten, E. M.; Caress, D. W.; Hsu, H. H.; Liu, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Since Heezen and Ewing's (1952) classic work on the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake, the damage of submarine cables have provided critical information on the nature of seafloor mass movements or sediment density flows. However, the understanding of the local conditions that lead to particular seafloor failures earthquakes trigger is still unclear. The Decemeber 26, 2006 Pingtung earthquake doublet which occurred offshore of Fangliao Township, southwestern Taiwan damaged 14 submarine cables between Gaoping slope to the northern terminus of the Manila Trench. Local fisherman reported disturbed waters at the head of the Fangliao submarine canyon, which lead to conjectures that eruptions of mud volcanoes which are common off the southwestern Taiwan. Geophysical survey were conducted to evaluate this area which revealed a series of faults, liquefied strata, pockmarks and acoustically transparent sediments with doming structures which may relate to the submarine groundwater discharge. Moreover, shipboard multi-beam bathymetric survey which was conducted at the east of Fangliao submarine canyon head shows over 10 km2 area with maximum depth around 40 m of seafloor subsidence after Pingtung earthquake. The north end of the subsidence is connected to the Fangliao submarine canyon where the first cable failed after Pingtung earthquake. The evidences suggests the earthquake triggered widespeard liquefaction and generated debris flows within Fangliao submarine canyon. In May 2017, an IONTU-MBARI Joint Survey Cruise (OR1-1163) was conducted on using MBARI Mapping AUV and miniROV to revisit the area where the cable damaged after Pingtung earthquake. From newly collected ultra-high-resolution (1-m lateral resolution) bathymetry data, the stair-stepped morphology is observed at the edge of canyon. The comet-shaped depressions are located along the main headwall of the seafloor failure. The new detailed bathymetry reveal details which suggest Fangliao submarine canyon head is

  10. Using texture analysis to improve per-pixel classification of very high resolution images for mapping plastic greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Francisco; Aguilar, Fernando J.; Aguilar, Manuel A.

    The area occupied by plastic-covered greenhouses has undergone rapid growth in recent years, currently exceeding 500,000 ha worldwide. Due to the vast amount of input (water, fertilisers, fuel, etc.) required, and output of different agricultural wastes (vegetable, plastic, chemical, etc.), the environmental impact of this type of production system can be serious if not accompanied by sound and sustainable territorial planning. For this, the new generation of satellites which provide very high resolution imagery, such as QuickBird and IKONOS can be useful. In this study, one QuickBird and one IKONOS satellite image have been used to cover the same area under similar circumstances. The aim of this work was an exhaustive comparison of QuickBird vs. IKONOS images in land-cover detection. In terms of plastic greenhouse mapping, comparative tests were designed and implemented, each with separate objectives. Firstly, the Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) was applied using five different approaches combining R, G, B, NIR, and panchromatic bands. The combinations of the bands used, significantly influenced some of the indexes used to classify quality in this work. Furthermore, the quality classification of the QuickBird image was higher in all cases than that of the IKONOS image. Secondly, texture features derived from the panchromatic images at different window sizes and with different grey levels were added as a fifth band to the R, G, B, NIR images to carry out the MLC. The inclusion of texture information in the classification did not improve the classification quality. For classifications with texture information, the best accuracies were found in both images for mean and angular second moment texture parameters. The optimum window size in these texture parameters was 3×3 for IK images, while for QB images it depended on the quality index studied, but the optimum window size was around 15×15. With regard to the grey level, the optimum was 128. Thus, the

  11. High-resolution AUV mapping and sampling of a deep hydrocarbon plume in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Thomas, H.; Rienecker, E.; Nelson, R.; Cummings, S.

    2010-12-01

    During NOAA cruise GU-10-02 on the Ship Gordon Gunter, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Dorado was deployed to map and sample a deep (900-1200 m) volume centered approximately seven nautical miles southwest of the Deepwater Horizon wellhead. Dorado was equipped to detect optical and chemical signals of hydrocarbons and to acquire targeted samples. The primary sensor reading used for hydrocarbon detection was colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence (CF). On June 2 and 3, ship cast and subsequent AUV surveys detected elevated CF in a layer between 1100 and 1200 m depth. While the deep volume was mapped in a series of parallel vertical sections, the AUV ran a peak-capture algorithm to target sample acquisition at layer signal peaks. Samples returned by ship CTD/CF rosette sampling and by AUV were preliminarily examined at sea, and they exhibited odor and fluorometric signal consistent with oil. More definitive and detailed results on these samples are forthcoming from shore-based laboratory analyses. During post-cruise analysis, all of the CF data were analyzed to objectively define and map the deep plume feature. Specifically, the maximum expected background CF over the depth range 1000-1200 m was extrapolated from a linear relationship between depth and maximum CF over the depth range 200 to 1000 m. Values exceeding the maximum expected background in the depth range 1000-1200 m were interpreted as signal from a hydrocarbon-enriched plume. Using this definition we examine relationships between CF and other AUV measurements within the plume, illustrate the three-dimensional structure of the plume boundary region that was mapped, describe small-scale layering on isopycnals, and examine short-term variations in plume depth, intensity and hydrographic relationships. Three-dimensional representation of part of a deep hydrocarbon plume mapped and sampled by AUV on June 2-3, 2010.

  12. Efficient random access high resolution region-of-interest (ROI) image retrieval using backward coding of wavelet trees (BCWT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Enrique; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda; Guo, Jiangling; Karp, Tanja

    2008-03-01

    Efficient retrieval of high quality Regions-Of-Interest (ROI) from high resolution medical images is essential for reliable interpretation and accurate diagnosis. Random access to high quality ROI from codestreams is becoming an essential feature in many still image compression applications, particularly in viewing diseased areas from large medical images. This feature is easier to implement in block based codecs because of the inherent spatial independency of the code blocks. This independency implies that the decoding order of the blocks is unimportant as long as the position for each is properly identified. In contrast, wavelet-tree based codecs naturally use some interdependency that exploits the decaying spectrum model of the wavelet coefficients. Thus one must keep track of the decoding order from level to level with such codecs. We have developed an innovative multi-rate image subband coding scheme using "Backward Coding of Wavelet Trees (BCWT)" which is fast, memory efficient, and resolution scalable. It offers far less complexity than many other existing codecs including both, wavelet-tree, and block based algorithms. The ROI feature in BCWT is implemented through a transcoder stage that generates a new BCWT codestream containing only the information associated with the user-defined ROI. This paper presents an efficient technique that locates a particular ROI within the BCWT coded domain, and decodes it back to the spatial domain. This technique allows better access and proper identification of pathologies in high resolution images since only a small fraction of the codestream is required to be transmitted and analyzed.

  13. High resolution mapping of soil organic carbon stocks using remote sensing variables in the semi-arid rangelands of eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Cathy; Orgill, Susan; Gray, Jonathan; Cowie, Annette; Clark, Anthony; Liu, De Li

    2018-07-15

    Efficient and effective modelling methods to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) stock are central in understanding the global carbon cycle and informing related land management decisions. However, mapping SOC stocks in semi-arid rangelands is challenging due to the lack of data and poor spatial coverage. The use of remote sensing data to provide an indirect measurement of SOC to inform digital soil mapping has the potential to provide more reliable and cost-effective estimates of SOC compared with field-based, direct measurement. Despite this potential, the role of remote sensing data in improving the knowledge of soil information in semi-arid rangelands has not been fully explored. This study firstly investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (seasonal fractional cover data; SFC) together with elevation, lithology, climatic data and observed soil data to map the spatial distribution of SOC at two soil depths (0-5cm and 0-30cm) in semi-arid rangelands of eastern Australia. Overall, model performance statistics showed that random forest (RF) and boosted regression trees (BRT) models performed better than support vector machine (SVM). The models obtained moderate results with R 2 of 0.32 for SOC stock at 0-5cm and 0.44 at 0-30cm, RMSE of 3.51MgCha -1 at 0-5cm and 9.16MgCha -1 at 0-30cm without considering SFC covariates. In contrast, by including SFC, the model accuracy for predicting SOC stock improved by 7.4-12.7% at 0-5cm, and by 2.8-5.9% at 0-30cm, highlighting the importance of including SFC to enhance the performance of the three modelling techniques. Furthermore, our models produced a more accurate and higher resolution digital SOC stock map compared with other available mapping products for the region. The data and high-resolution maps from this study can be used for future soil carbon assessment and monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-resolution digital movies of emerging flux and horizontal flows in active regions on the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Ferguson, S.; Frank, Z.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution observations of active regions in many wavelength bands obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope of NSO/Sunspot (Sacramento Peak) are presented. The SOUP tunable filter, HRSO 1024 x 1024 CCD camera, and a sunspot tracker for image stabilization were used. Subarrays of 512 x 512 pixels were processed digitally and recorded on videodisk in movie format. The movies with 0.5 to 1 arcsecond resolution of the following simultaneous observations were shown: green continuum, longitudinal magnetogram, Doppler velocity, Fe I 5576 A line center, H alpha wings, and H alpha line center. The best set of movies show a 90 x 90 arcsecond field-of-view of an active region at S29, W11. When viewed at speeds of a few thousand times real-time, the photospheric movies clearly show the active region fields being distorted by a remarkable combination of systematic flows and small eruptions of new flux. Flux emergence is most easily discovered in line center movies: an elongated dark feature appears first, followed soon after by bright points at one or both ends. A brief, strong upflow is seen when the dark feature first appears; downflow in the bright points persists much longer. The magnetic flux appears to increase gradually over this extended period. Some of the flux emergence events were studied in detail, with measurements of horizontal and vertical velocities and magnetic flux versus time within one footpoint of the loop.

  15. High-resolution digital movies of emerging flux and horizontal flows in active regions on the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Ferguson, S.; Frank, Z.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution observations of active regions in many wavelength bands obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope of NSO/Sunspot (Sacramento Peak) are presented. The SOUP tunable filter, HRSO 1024 x 1024 CCD camera, and a sunspot tracker for image stabilization were used. Subarrays of 512 x 512 pixels were processed digitally and recorded on videodisk in movie format. The movies with 0.5 to 1 arcsecond resolution of the following simultaneous observations were shown: green continuum, longitudinal magnetogram, Doppler velocity, Fe I 5576 A line center, H alpha wings, and H alpha line center. The best set of movies show a 90 x 90 arcsecond field-of-view of an active region at S29, W11. When viewed at speeds of a few thousand times real-time, the photospheric movies clearly show the active region fields being distorted by a remarkable combination of systematic flows and small eruptions of new flux. Flux emergence is most easily discovered in line center movies: an elongated dark feature appears first, followed soon after by bright points at one or both ends. A brief, strong upflow is seen when the dark feature first appears; downflow in the bright points persists much longer. The magnetic flux appears to increase gradually over this extended period. Some of the flux emergence events were studied in detail, with measurements of horizontal and vertical velocities and magnetic flux versus time within one footpoint of the loop

  16. High-resolution digital movies of emerging flux and horizontal flows in active regions on the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Ferguson, S.; Frank, Z.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.

    1988-11-01

    High-resolution observations of active regions in many wavelength bands obtained at the Vacuum Tower Telescope of NSO/Sunspot (Sacramento Peak) are presented. The SOUP tunable filter, HRSO 1024 x 1024 CCD camera, and a sunspot tracker for image stabilization were used. Subarrays of 512 x 512 pixels were processed digitally and recorded on videodisk in movie format. The movies with 0.5 to 1 arcsecond resolution of the following simultaneous observations were shown: green continuum, longitudinal magnetogram, Doppler velocity, Fe I 5576 A line center, H alpha wings, and H alpha line center. The best set of movies show a 90 x 90 arcsecond field-of-view of an active region at S29, W11. When viewed at speeds of a few thousand times real-time, the photospheric movies clearly show the active region fields being distorted by a remarkable combination of systematic flows and small eruptions of new flux. Flux emergence is most easily discovered in line center movies: an elongated dark feature appears first, followed soon after by bright points at one or both ends. A brief, strong upflow is seen when the dark feature first appears; downflow in the bright points persists much longer. The magnetic flux appears to increase gradually over this extended period. Some of the flux emergence events were studied in detail, with measurements of horizontal and vertical velocities and magnetic flux versus time within one footpoint of the loop.

  17. High-resolution mapping of the S-locus in Turnera leads to the discovery of three genes tightly associated with the S-alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Jonathan J D; Goultiaeva, Alina; Shore, Joel S

    2009-06-01

    While the breeding system known as distyly has been used as a model system in genetics, and evolutionary biology for over a century, the genes determining this system remain unknown. To positionally clone genes determining distyly, a high-resolution map of the S-locus region of Turnera has been constructed using segregation data from 2,013 backcross progeny. We discovered three putative genes tightly linked with the S-locus. An N-acetyltransferase (TkNACE) flanks the S-locus at 0.35 cM while a sulfotransferase (TkST1) and a non-LTR retroelement (TsRETRO) show complete linkage to the S-locus. An assay of population samples of six species revealed that TsRETRO, initially discovered in diploid Turnera subulata, is also associated with the S-allele in tetraploid T. subulata and diploid Turnera scabra. The sulfotransferase gene shows some level of differential expression in long versus short styles, indicating it might be involved in some aspect of distyly. The complete linkage of TkST1 and TsRETRO to the S-locus suggests that both genes may reside within, or in the immediate vicinity of the S-locus. Chromosome walking has been initiated using one of the genes discovered in the present study to identify the genes determining distyly.

  18. Development and evaluation of high-resolution regional emission inventory: A case study for Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Mao, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Improved emission inventories are crucial for better understanding atmospheric chemistry with air quality simulation at regional or local scales. Using the bottom-up approach, a high-resolution emission inventory was developed for Jiangsu China. Key parameters for over 6000 industrial sources were investigated, compiled and revised at plant level based on various data sources and on-site survey. Totally 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in 9 chemical plants and analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate, and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Improvement of this provincial inventory was evaluated through comparisons with other inventories at larger spatial scales, using satellite observation and air quality modeling. Three inventories (national, regional, and provincial by this work) were applied in the Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system to evaluate the model performances with different emission inputs. The best agreement between available ground observation and simulation was found when the provincial inventory was applied, indicated by the smallest normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean errors (NME) for all the concerned species SO2, NO2, O3 and PM2.5. The result thus implied the advantage of improved emission inventory at local scale for high resolution air quality modeling. Under the unfavorable meteorology in which horizontal and vertical movement of atmosphere was limited, the simulated SO2 concentrations at downtown Nanjing (the capital city of Jiangsu) using the regional or national inventories were much higher than observation, implying overestimated urban emissions when economy or population densities were applied to downscale or allocate the emissions. With more accurate spatial distribution

  19. Changes in snow cover over China in the 21st century as simulated by a high resolution regional climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ying; Gao Xuejie; Wu Jia; Giorgi, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the climate change simulations conducted using a high resolution regional climate model, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Regional Climate Model, RegCM3, at 25 km grid spacing, future changes in snow cover over China are analyzed. The simulations are carried out for the period of 1951–2100 following the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. The results suggest good performances of the model in simulating the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, as well as the starting and ending dates of snow cover to the present day (1981–2000). Their spatial distributions and amounts show fair consistency between the simulation and observation, although with some discrepancies. In general, decreases in the number of snow cover days and the snow cover depth, together with postponed snow starting dates and advanced snow ending dates, are simulated for the future, except in some places where the opposite appears. The most dramatic changes are found over the Tibetan Plateau among the three major snow cover areas of Northeast, Northwest and the Tibetan Plateau in China.

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION HELIOSEISMIC IMAGING OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES AND FLOWS OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION OBSERVED BY HINODE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Junwei; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Sekii, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a solar active region observed by the Hinode Ca II H line using the time-distance helioseismology technique, and infer wave-speed perturbation structures and flow fields beneath the active region with a high spatial resolution. The general subsurface wave-speed structure is similar to the previous results obtained from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager observations. The general subsurface flow structure is also similar, and the downward flows beneath the sunspot and the mass circulations around the sunspot are clearly resolved. Below the sunspot, some organized divergent flow cells are observed, and these structures may indicate the existence of mesoscale convective motions. Near the light bridge inside the sunspot, hotter plasma is found beneath, and flows divergent from this area are observed. The Hinode data also allow us to investigate potential uncertainties caused by the use of phase-speed filter for short travel distances. Comparing the measurements with and without the phase-speed filtering, we find out that inside the sunspot, mean acoustic travel times are in basic agreement, but the values are underestimated by a factor of 20%-40% inside the sunspot umbra for measurements with the filtering. The initial acoustic tomography results from Hinode show a great potential of using high-resolution observations for probing the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.

  1. Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Montenegro A., C.

    2010-12-01

    The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the Lansat satellite have been used to characterize the geothermal field in the region of the Puchuldiza geysers, Colchane, Region of Tarapaca, North of Chile, located at the altitude of 4000 m. Structure of lineaments associated to the geothermal field have been extracted from the images using the lineament detection technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament analysis is a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  2. Analysis of a high-resolution regional climate simulation for Alpine temperature. Validation and influence of the NAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proemmel, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    To determine whether the increase in resolution of climate models improves the representation of climate is a crucial topic in regional climate modelling. An improvement over coarser-scale models is expected especially in areas with complex orography or along coastlines. However, some studies have shown no clear added value for regional climate models. In this study a high-resolution regional climate model simulation performed with REMO over the period 1958-1998 is analysed for 2m temperature over the orographically complex European Alps and their surroundings called the Greater Alpine Region (GAR). The model setup is in hindcast mode meaning that the simulation is driven with perfect boundary conditions by the ERA40 reanalysis through prescribing the values at the lateral boundaries and spectral nudging of the large-scale wind field inside the model domain. The added value is analysed between the regional climate simulation with a resolution of 1/6 and the driving reanalysis with a resolution of 1.125 . Before analysing the added value both the REMO simulation and the ERA40 reanalysis are validated against different station datasets of monthly and daily mean 2m temperature. The largest dataset is the dense, homogenised and quality controlled HISTALP dataset covering the whole GAR, which gave the opportunity for the validation undertaken in this study. The temporal variability of temperature, as quantified by correlation, is well represented by both REMO and ERA40. However, both show considerable biases. The REMO bias reaches 3 K in summer in regions known to experience a problem with summer drying in a number of regional models. In winter the bias is strongly influenced by the choice of the temperature lapse rate, which is applied to compare grid box and station data at different altitudes, and has the strongest influence on inner Alpine subregions where the altitude differences are largest. By applying a constant lapse rate the REMO bias in winter in the high

  3. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  4. High-resolution characterisation of the aging brain using simultaneous quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* measurements at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew J; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Nestor, Peter J; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has recently emerged as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to detect non-haem iron deposition, calcifications, demyelination and vascular lesions in the brain. It has been suggested that QSM is more sensitive than the more conventional quantifiable MRI measure, namely the transverse relaxation rate, R2*. Here, we conducted the first high-resolution, whole-brain, simultaneously acquired, comparative study of the two techniques using 7Tesla MRI. We asked which of the two techniques would be more sensitive to explore global differences in tissue composition in elderly adults relative to young subjects. Both QSM and R2* revealed strong age-related differences in subcortical regions, hippocampus and cortical grey matter, particularly in superior frontal regions, motor/premotor cortices, insula and cerebellar regions. Within the basal ganglia system-but also hippocampus and cerebellar dentate nucleus-, QSM was largely in agreement with R2* with the exception of the globus pallidus. QSM, however, provided superior anatomical contrast and revealed age-related differences in the thalamus and in white matter, which were otherwise largely undetected by R2* measurements. In contrast, in occipital cortex, age-related differences were much greater with R2* compared to QSM. The present study, therefore, demonstrated that in vivo QSM using ultra-high field MRI provides a novel means to characterise age-related differences in the human brain, but also combining QSM and R2* using multi-gradient recalled echo imaging can potentially provide a more complete picture of mineralisation, demyelination and/or vascular alterations in aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The WASCAL high-resolution regional climate simulation ensemble for West Africa: concept, dissemination and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinzeller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and constant population growth pose severe challenges to 21st century rural Africa. Within the framework of the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL, an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate change scenarios for the greater West African region is provided to support the development of effective adaptation and mitigation measures. This contribution presents the overall concept of the WASCAL regional climate simulations, as well as detailed information on the experimental design, and provides information on the format and dissemination of the available data. All data are made available to the public at the CERA long-term archive of the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ with a subset available at the PANGAEA Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science portal (https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.880512. A brief assessment of the data are presented to provide guidance for future users. Regional climate projections are generated at high (12 km and intermediate (60 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF. The simulations cover the validation period 1980–2010 and the two future periods 2020–2050 and 2070–2100. A brief comparison to observations and two climate change scenarios from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX initiative is presented to provide guidance on the data set to future users and to assess their climate change signal. Under the RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 scenario, the results suggest an increase in temperature by 1.5 °C at the coast of Guinea and by up to 3 °C in the northern Sahel by the end of the 21st century, in line with existing climate projections for the region. They also project an increase in precipitation by up to 300 mm per year along the coast of Guinea, by up to 150 mm per year in the Soudano region adjacent in the north and almost no change in

  6. High resolution spectroscopic mapping imaging applied in situ to multilayer structures for stratigraphic identification of painted art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Georgios Th.

    2016-04-01

    The development of non-destructive techniques is a reality in the field of conservation science. These techniques are usually not so accurate, as the analytical micro-sampling techniques, however, the proper development of soft-computing techniques can improve their accuracy. In this work, we propose a real-time fast acquisition spectroscopic mapping imaging system that operates from the ultraviolet to mid infrared (UV/Vis/nIR/mIR) area of the electromagnetic spectrum and it is supported by a set of soft-computing methods to identify the materials that exist in a stratigraphic structure of paint layers. Particularly, the system acquires spectra in diffuse-reflectance mode, scanning in a Region-Of-Interest (ROI), and having wavelength range from 200 up to 5000 nm. Also, a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, i.e., the particular soft-computing algorithm, produces the mapping images. The evaluation of the method was tested on a byzantine painted icon.

  7. Source data supported high resolution carbon emissions inventory for urban areas of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Spatial patterns, decomposition and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bofeng; Li, Wanxin; Dhakal, Shobhakar; Wang, Jianghao

    2018-01-15

    This paper developed internationally compatible methods for delineating boundaries of urban areas in China. By integrating emission source data with existing official statistics as well as using rescaling methodology of data mapping for 1 km grid, the authors constructed high resolution emission gridded data in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region in China for 2012. Comparisons between urban and non-urban areas of carbon emissions from industry, agriculture, household and transport exhibited regional disparities as well as sectoral differences. Except for the Hebei province, per capita total direct carbon emissions from urban extents in Beijing and Tianjin were both lower than provincial averages, indicating the climate benefit of urbanization, comparable to results from developed countries. Urban extents in the Hebei province were mainly industrial centers while those in Beijing and Tianjin were more service oriented. Further decomposition analysis revealed population to be a common major driver for increased carbon emissions but climate implications of urban design, economic productivity of land use, and carbon intensity of GDP were both cluster- and sector-specific. This study disapproves the one-size-fits-all solution for carbon mitigation but calls for down-scaled analysis of carbon emissions and formulation of localized carbon reduction strategies in the Jing-Jin-Ji as well as other regions in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Resolution Measurement of the 4He(γ,n) Reaction in the Giant Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Bjoern

    2003-03-01

    A comprehensive near-threshold 4 He(gamma,n) absolute cross section measurement has been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 20 4 He target, and knocked-out neutrons were detected in a pair of 60 cm x 60 cm vetoed NE213A liquid scintillator arrays. The intense and varying charge-neutral experimental backgrounds were carefully quantified and removed from the data using a precision fitting procedure. Eight average laboratory angles (30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 deg) were investigated for eight photon energy bins (25, 27, 29, 31, 35, 36, 39, and 41 MeV), resulting in 64 differential cross sections. These angular distributions were integrated to produce total cross sections as a function of photon energy. The resulting cross sections peak at 1.9 mb at a photon energy of 27 MeV, and fall off to a near-constant value of 1.1 mb by 36 MeV. Further, they are in excellent agreement with those measured by Sims et al. using tagged photons in the Quasi-Deuteron energy region. Overall, the results favor modern theoretical models which are based upon a charge-symmetric nucleon-nucleon force, in marked contrast to the recommendations made by Calarco et al. in 1983 based on the sparse 4 He(gamma,n) data available at the time

  9. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  10. STAMMEX high resolution gridded daily precipitation dataset over Germany: a new potential for regional precipitation climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolina, Olga; Simmer, Clemens; Kapala, Alice; Mächel, Hermann; Gulev, Sergey; Groisman, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    We present new high resolution precipitation daily grids developed at Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn and German Weather Service (DWD) under the STAMMEX project (Spatial and Temporal Scales and Mechanisms of Extreme Precipitation Events over Central Europe). Daily precipitation grids have been developed from the daily-observing precipitation network of DWD, which runs one of the World's densest rain gauge networks comprising more than 7500 stations. Several quality-controlled daily gridded products with homogenized sampling were developed covering the periods 1931-onwards (with 0.5 degree resolution), 1951-onwards (0.25 degree and 0.5 degree), and 1971-2000 (0.1 degree). Different methods were tested to select the best gridding methodology that minimizes errors of integral grid estimates over hilly terrain. Besides daily precipitation values with uncertainty estimates (which include standard estimates of the kriging uncertainty as well as error estimates derived by a bootstrapping algorithm), the STAMMEX data sets include a variety of statistics that characterize temporal and spatial dynamics of the precipitation distribution (quantiles, extremes, wet/dry spells, etc.). Comparisons with existing continental-scale daily precipitation grids (e.g., CRU, ECA E-OBS, GCOS) which include considerably less observations compared to those used in STAMMEX, demonstrate the added value of high-resolution grids for extreme rainfall analyses. These data exhibit spatial variability pattern and trends in precipitation extremes, which are missed or incorrectly reproduced over Central Europe from coarser resolution grids based on sparser networks. The STAMMEX dataset can be used for high-quality climate diagnostics of precipitation variability, as a reference for reanalyses and remotely-sensed precipitation products (including the upcoming Global Precipitation Mission products), and for input into regional climate and operational weather forecast models. We will present

  11. High-resolution mapping based on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture paleoseismic offsets along the Altyn-Tagh fault, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxing; Xu, Xiwei; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Tapponnier, Paul

    2017-08-15

    The recent dramatic increase in millimeter- to centimeter- resolution topographic datasets obtained via multi-view photogrammetry raises the possibility of mapping detailed offset geomorphology and constraining the spatial characteristics of active faults. Here, for the first time, we applied this new method to acquire high-resolution imagery and generate topographic data along the Altyn Tagh fault, which is located in a remote high elevation area and shows preserved ancient earthquake surface ruptures. A digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 0.065 m and an orthophoto with a resolution of 0.016 m were generated from these images. We identified piercing markers and reconstructed offsets based on both the orthoimage and the topography. The high-resolution UAV data were used to accurately measure the recent seismic offset. We obtained the recent offset of 7 ± 1 m. Combined with the high resolution satellite image, we measured cumulative offsets of 15 ± 2 m, 20 ± 2 m, 30 ± 2 m, which may be due to multiple paleo-earthquakes. Therefore, UAV mapping can provide fine-scale data for the assessment of the seismic hazards.

  12. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-01-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene...

  13. High-resolution mapping of genes involved in plant stage-specific partial resistance of barley to leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, F.K.S.; Bouchon, R.; Kuijken, R.; Loriaux, A.; Boyd, C.; Niks, R.E.; Marcel, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Partial resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Rphq11 and rphq16 against Puccinia hordei isolate 1.2.1 were previously mapped in seedlings of the mapping populations Steptoe/Morex and Oregon Wolfe Barleys, respectively. In this study, QTL mapping was performed at adult plant stage for the two

  14. High-Resolution Measurement of the {sup 4}He({gamma},n) Reaction in the Giant Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Bjoern

    2003-03-01

    A comprehensive near-threshold {sup 4}He(gamma,n) absolute cross section measurement has been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 20 < Eg < 45 MeV tagged photons (covering the Giant Dipole Resonance energy region) were directed towards a liquid {sup 4}He target, and knocked-out neutrons were detected in a pair of 60 cm x 60 cm vetoed NE213A liquid scintillator arrays. The intense and varying charge-neutral experimental backgrounds were carefully quantified and removed from the data using a precision fitting procedure. Eight average laboratory angles (30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 deg) were investigated for eight photon energy bins (25, 27, 29, 31, 35, 36, 39, and 41 MeV), resulting in 64 differential cross sections. These angular distributions were integrated to produce total cross sections as a function of photon energy. The resulting cross sections peak at 1.9 mb at a photon energy of 27 MeV, and fall off to a near-constant value of 1.1 mb by 36 MeV. Further, they are in excellent agreement with those measured by Sims et al. using tagged photons in the Quasi-Deuteron energy region. Overall, the results favor modern theoretical models which are based upon a charge-symmetric nucleon-nucleon force, in marked contrast to the recommendations made by Calarco et al. in 1983 based on the sparse {sup 4}He(gamma,n) data available at the time.

  15. New Possibilities for High-Resolution, Large-Scale Ecosystem Assessment of the World's Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, J. A.; Goldblatt, R.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding drivers of land use change - and in particular, levels of ecosystem degradation - in semi-arid regions is of critical importance because these agroecosystems (1) are home to the world's poorest populations, almost all of whom depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, (2) play a critical role in the global carbon and climate cycles, and (3) have in many cases seen dramatic changes in temperature and precipitation, relative to global averages, over the past several decades. However, assessing ecosystem health (or, conversely, degradation) presents a difficult measurement problem. Established methods are very labor intensive and rest on detailed questionnaires and field assessments. High-resolution satellite imagery has a unique role semi-arid ecosystem assessment in that it can be used for rapid (or repeated) and very simple measurements of tree and shrub density, an excellent overall indicator for dryland ecosystem health. Because trees and large shrubs are more sparse in semi-arid regions, sub-meter resolution imagery in conjunction with automated image analysis can be used to assess density differences at high spatial resolution without expensive and time-consuming ground-truthing. This could be used down to the farm level, for example, to better assess the larger-scale ecosystem impacts of different management practices, to assess compliance with REDD+ carbon offset protocols, or to evaluate implementation of conservation goals. Here we present results comparing spatial and spectral remote sensing methods for semi-arid ecosystem assessment across new data sources, using the Brazilian Sertão as an example, and the implications for large-scale use in semi-arid ecosystem science.

  16. High-resolution meiotic and physical mapping of the Best`s vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2) locus to pericentromeric chromosome 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, B.H.F.; Vogt, G. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Walker, D. [UBC, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Vitelliform macular dystrophy, also known as Best`s disease, is a juvenile-onset macular degeneration with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by well-demarcated accumulation of lipofuscin-like material within and beneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and classically results in an egg yolk-like appearance of the macula. Typically, carriers of the disease gene show a specific electrophysiological sign which can be detected by electrooculography (EOG). The EOG measures a standing potential between the cornea and the retina which is primarily generated by the RPE. The histopathological findings as well as the EOG abnormalities suggest that Best`s disease is a generalized disorder of the RPE. The basic biochemical defect is still unknown. As a first step in the positional cloning of the defective gene, the Best`s disease locus was mapped to chromosome 11 between markers at D11S871 and INT2. Subsequently, his region was refined to a 3.7 cM interval flanked by loci D11S903 and PYGM. To further narrow the D11S903-PYGM interval and to obtain an estimate of the physical size of the minimal candidate region, we used a combination of high-resolution PCR hybrid mapping and analysis of recombinant Best`s disease chromosomes. We identified six markers from within the D11S903-PYGM interval that show no recombination with the defective gene in three multigeneration Best`s disease pedigrees. Our hybrid panel localizes these markers on either side of the centromere on chromosome 11. The closest markers flanking the disease gene are at D11S986 in band p12-11.22 and at D11S480 in band q13.2-13.3. Our study demonstrates that the physical size of the Best`s disease region is exceedingly larger than was previously estimated from the genetic data due to the proximity of the defective gene to the centromere of chromosome 11.

  17. Combining pixel and object based image analysis of ultra-high resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter for habitat mapping in shallow marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Kennedy, David; Monk, Jacquomo; Gaylard, Grace; Young, Mary; Diesing, Markus; Rattray, Alex

    2018-06-01

    Habitat mapping data are increasingly being recognised for their importance in underpinning marine spatial planning. The ability to collect ultra-high resolution (cm) multibeam echosounder (MBES) data in shallow waters has facilitated understanding of the fine-scale distribution of benthic habitats in these areas that are often prone to human disturbance. Developing quantitative and objective approaches to integrate MBES data with ground observations for predictive modelling is essential for ensuring repeatability and providing confidence measures for habitat mapping products. Whilst supervised classification approaches are becoming more common, users are often faced with a decision whether to implement a pixel based (PB) or an object based (OB) image analysis approach, with often limited understanding of the potential influence of that decision on final map products and relative importance of data inputs to patterns observed. In this study, we apply an ensemble learning approach capable of integrating PB and OB Image Analysis from ultra-high resolution MBES bathymetry and backscatter data for mapping benthic habitats in Refuge Cove, a temperate coastal embayment in south-east Australia. We demonstrate the relative importance of PB and OB seafloor derivatives for the five broad benthic habitats that dominate the site. We found that OB and PB approaches performed well with differences in classification accuracy but not discernible statistically. However, a model incorporating elements of both approaches proved to be significantly more accurate than OB or PB methods alone and demonstrate the benefits of using MBES bathymetry and backscatter combined for class discrimination.

  18. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  19. Detailed spatiotemporal brain mapping of chromatic vision combining high-resolution VEP with fMRI and retinotopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Strappini, Francesca; Bultrini, Alessandro; Di Russo, Francesco

    2018-03-13

    Neuroimaging studies have identified so far, several color-sensitive visual areas in the human brain, and the temporal dynamics of these activities have been separately investigated using the visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). In the present study, we combined electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods to determine a detailed spatiotemporal profile of chromatic VEP and to localize its neural generators. The accuracy of the present co-registration study was obtained by combining standard fMRI data with retinotopic and motion mapping data at the individual level. We found a sequence of occipito activities more complex than that typically reported for chromatic VEPs, including feed-forward and reentrant feedback. Results showed that chromatic human perception arises by the combined activity of at the least five parieto-occipital areas including V1, LOC, V8/VO, and the motion-sensitive dorsal region MT+. However, the contribution of V1 and V8/VO seems dominant because the re-entrant activity in these areas was present more than once (twice in V8/VO and thrice in V1). This feedforward and feedback chromatic processing appears delayed compared with the luminance processing. Associating VEPs and neuroimaging measures, we showed for the first time a complex spatiotemporal pattern of activity, confirming that chromatic stimuli produce intricate interactions of many different brain dorsal and ventral areas. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tests of high-resolution simulations over a region of complex terrain in Southeast coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sin Chan; Luís Gomes, Jorge; Ristic, Ivan; Mesinger, Fedor; Sueiro, Gustavo; Andrade, Diego; Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The Eta Model is used operationally by INPE at the Centre for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies (CPTEC) to produce weather forecasts over South America since 1997. The model has gone through upgrades along these years. In order to prepare the model for operational higher resolution forecasts, the model is configured and tested over a region of complex topography located near the coast of Southeast Brazil. The model domain includes the two Brazilians cities, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, urban areas, preserved tropical forest, pasture fields, and complex terrain where it can rise from sea level up to about 1000 m. Accurate near-surface wind direction and magnitude are needed for the power plant emergency plan. Besides, the region suffers from frequent events of floods and landslides, therefore accurate local forecasts are required for disaster warnings. The objective of this work is to carry out a series of numerical experiments to test and evaluate high resolution simulations in this complex area. Verification of model runs uses observations taken from the nuclear power plant and higher resolution reanalyses data. The runs were tested in a period when flow was predominately forced by local conditions and in a period forced by frontal passage. The Eta Model was configured initially with 2-km horizontal resolution and 50 layers. The Eta-2km is a second nesting, it is driven by Eta-15km, which in its turn is driven by Era-Interim reanalyses. The series of experiments consists of replacing surface layer stability function, adjusting cloud microphysics scheme parameters, further increasing vertical and horizontal resolutions. By replacing the stability function for the stable conditions substantially increased the katabatic winds and verified better against the tower wind data. Precipitation produced by the model was excessive in the region. Increasing vertical resolution to 60 layers caused a further increase in precipitation production. This excessive

  1. A high-resolution air pollutants emission inventory in 2013 for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zheng, Bo; Li, Meng; Yu, Fang; Chen, Chuchu; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Xiafei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-12-01

    We developed a high-resolution Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) regional air pollutants emission inventory for the year 2013. The inventory was established using a bottom-up approach based on facility-level activity data obtained from multiple data sources. The estimates from the BTH 2013 emission inventory show that the total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, and OC were 2,305, 2,686, 1,090, 1,494, 20,567, 2,207, 623, 160, and 254 Gg, respectively. The industry sector is the largest emissions source for SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NMVOC in the BTH region, contributing 72.6%, 43.7%, 59.6%, 64.7%, 60.3%, and 70.4% of the total emissions, respectively. Power plants contributed 11.8% and 23.3% of the total SO2 and NOX emissions, respectively. The transportation sector contributed 28.9% of the total NOX emissions. Emissions from the residential sector accounted for 31.3%, 21.5%, 46.6% and 71.7% of the total PM2.5, NMVOC, BC and OC emissions, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of the total NH3 emissions originate from the agriculture sector, with 44.2% from fertilizer use and 47.7% from livestock. The spatial distribution results illustrate that air pollutant emissions are mainly distributed over the eastern and southern BTH regions. Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Tangshan and Handan are the major contributors of air pollutants. The major NMVOC species in the BTH region are ethylene, acetylene, ethane and toluene. Ethylene is the biggest contributor in Tianjin and Hebei. The largest contributor in Beijing is toluene. There is relatively low uncertainty in SO2 and NOX emission estimates, medium uncertainty in PM2.5, PM10 and CO emission estimates, and high uncertainties in VOC, NH3, BC and OC emission estimates. The proposed policy recommendations, based on the BTH 2013 emission inventory, would be helpful to develop strategies for air pollution control.

  2. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of Mars Express and its approach to science analysis and mapping for Mars and its satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, K.; Jaumann, R.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Heipke, C.; Oberst, J.; Neukum, G.; Ansan, V.; Bostelmann, J.; Dumke, A.; Elgner, S.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoekzema, N. M.; Kersten, E.; Loizeau, D.; Matz, K.-D.; McGuire, P. C.; Mertens, V.; Michael, G.; Pasewaldt, A.; Pinet, P.; Preusker, F.; Reiss, D.; Roatsch, T.; Schmidt, R.; Scholten, F.; Spiegel, M.; Stesky, R.; Tirsch, D.; van Gasselt, S.; Walter, S.; Wählisch, M.; Willner, K.

    2016-07-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars. The camera, in particular its Super Resolution Channel (SRC), also obtains images of Phobos and Deimos on a regular basis. As HRSC is a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of 3D points derived from stereo analysis allows producing DTMs with grid size of up to 50 m and height accuracy on the order of one image ground pixel and better, as well as corresponding orthoimages. Such data products have been produced systematically for approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far, while global shape models and a near-global orthoimage mosaic could be produced for Phobos. HRSC is also unique because it bridges between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of non-stereo datasets. This paper, in addition to an overview of the status and evolution of the experiment, provides a review of relevant methods applied for 3D reconstruction and mapping, and respective achievements. We will also review the methodology of specific approaches to science analysis based on joint analysis of DTM and orthoimage information, or benefitting from high accuracy of co-registration between multiple datasets, such as studies using multi-temporal or multi-angular observations, from the fields of geomorphology, structural geology, compositional mapping, and atmospheric science. Related exemplary results from analysis of HRSC data will be discussed. After 10 years of operation, HRSC covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 97% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, we also

  3. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  4. High-Resolution Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping Identifies Susceptibility Loci for BMI in the Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Dong Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Li, Shuxia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic loci affecting the commonly used BMI have been intensively investigated using linkage approaches in multiple populations. This study aims at performing the first genome-wide linkage scan on BMI in the Chinese population in mainland China with hypothesis that heterogeneity in genetic...... linkage could exist in different ethnic populations. BMI was measured from 126 dizygotic twins in Qingdao municipality who were genotyped using high-resolution Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP arrays containing about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Nonparametric linkage analysis...... in western countries. Multiple loci showing suggestive linkage were found on chromosome 1 (lod score 2.38 at 242 cM), chromosome 8 (2.48 at 95 cM), and chromosome 14 (2.2 at 89.4 cM). The strong linkage identified in the Chinese subjects that is consistent with that found in populations of European origin...

  5. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-04-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene-derived markers. For the first time we report on the development and mapping of 83 Petunia microsatellites. The two maps retain the same marker order, but display significant differences of recombination frequencies at orthologous mapping intervals. A complex pattern of genomic rearrangements was detected with the related genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicating that synteny between Petunia and other Solanaceae crops has been considerably disrupted. The newly developed markers will facilitate the genetic characterization of mutants and ecological studies on genetic diversity and speciation within the genus Petunia. The maps will provide a powerful tool to link genetic and genomic information and will be useful to support sequence assembly of the Petunia genome.

  7. Using High-Resolution Swath Mapping Data and Other Underway Geophysical Measurements Collected during Transit Cruises of RV Isabu to Map Deep Sea Floor of the Pacific and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, G. H.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Detail images of the seafloor are often the first collection of clues that set one towards a path that leads to a new discovery. The mapping of unchartered seafloor is like exploring the surface of an unknown planet for the first time. The launch of new global-ocean-class RV Isabu operated by Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) in November 2016 has reinvigorated the ongoing open ocean research in Korea. The location of the KIOST research vessels can be found at http://www.kiost.net/. Here we present a new collaborative research and education program which utilizes onboard measurements taken during the transit cruises. The measurements include high-resolution swath mapping bathymetric data, underway geophysical measurements (3.5 kHz subbottom profile, sea surface gravity and magnetic field) which are gathered semi-automatically during a scientific operation. The acquisition of data alone is not sufficient for meaningful scientific knowledge as the initial measurements must be cleaned and processed during or after the cruise. As in any scientific endeavor, planning is important. Prior to the cruise, preliminary study will be carried out by carefully examining the previously collected data from various global databases. Whenever possible, a small offset will be made of the ship track lines crossing the region so that important new measurements can be obtained systematically over the years. We anticipate that the program will not only contribute to fill the gap in the high-resolution bathymetry in some part of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. The processed and analyzed data will be available to other scientific communities for further understanding via download from KIOST website.

  8. High Resolution Typing by Whole Genome Mapping Enables Discrimination of LA-MRSA (CC398) Strains and Identification of Transmission Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; Verkade, Erwin; van Luit, Martijn; Pot, Bruno; Vauterin, Paul; Burggrave, Ronald; Savelkoul, Paul; Kluytmans, Jan; Schouls, Leo

    2013-01-01

    After its emergence in 2003, a livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA clade (CC398) has caused an impressive increase in the number of isolates submitted for the Dutch national MRSA surveillance and now comprises 40% of all isolates. The currently used molecular typing techniques have limited discriminatory power for this MRSA clade, which hampers studies on the origin and transmission routes. Recently, a new molecular analysis technique named whole genome mapping was introduced. This method creates high-resolution, ordered whole genome restriction maps that may have potential for strain typing. In this study, we assessed and validated the capability of whole genome mapping to differentiate LA-MRSA isolates. Multiple validation experiments showed that whole genome mapping produced highly reproducible results. Assessment of the technique on two well-documented MRSA outbreaks showed that whole genome mapping was able to confirm one outbreak, but revealed major differences between the maps of a second, indicating that not all isolates belonged to this outbreak. Whole genome mapping of LA-MRSA isolates that were epidemiologically unlinked provided a much higher discriminatory power than spa-typing or MLVA. In contrast, maps created from LA-MRSA isolates obtained during a proven LA-MRSA outbreak were nearly indistinguishable showing that transmission of LA-MRSA can be detected by whole genome mapping. Finally, whole genome maps of LA-MRSA isolates originating from two unrelated veterinarians and their household members showed that veterinarians may carry and transmit different LA-MRSA strains at the same time. No such conclusions could be drawn based spa-typing and MLVA. Although PFGE seems to be suitable for molecular typing of LA-MRSA, WGM provides a much higher discriminatory power. Furthermore, whole genome mapping can provide a comparison with other maps within 2 days after the bacterial culture is received, making it suitable to investigate transmission events and

  9. Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Benthic Cover Monitoring and Mapping Using Towed Underwater Video Camera and High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic habitat monitoring is essential for many applications involving biodiversity, marine resource management, and the estimation of variations over temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, both automatic and semi-automatic analytical methods for deriving ecologically significant information from towed camera images are still limited. This study proposes a methodology that enables a high-resolution towed camera with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to adaptively monitor and map benthic habitats. First, the towed camera finishes a pre-programmed initial survey to collect benthic habitat videos, which can then be converted to geo-located benthic habitat images. Second, an expert labels a number of benthic habitat images to class habitats manually. Third, attributes for categorizing these images are extracted automatically using the Bag of Features (BOF algorithm. Fourth, benthic cover categories are detected automatically using Weighted Majority Voting (WMV ensembles for Support Vector Machines (SVM, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN, and Bagging (BAG classifiers. Fifth, WMV-trained ensembles can be used for categorizing more benthic cover images automatically. Finally, correctly categorized geo-located images can provide ground truth samples for benthic cover mapping using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed methodology was tested over Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan, a heterogeneous coastal area. The WMV ensemble exhibited 89% overall accuracy for categorizing corals, sediments, seagrass, and algae species. Furthermore, the same WMV ensemble produced a benthic cover map using a Quickbird satellite image with 92.7% overall accuracy.

  10. Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzner, Todd [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The future of the US economy, our national security, and our environmental quality all depend on decreasing our reliance on foreign oil and on fossil fuels. An essential component of decreasing this reliance is the development of alternative energy sources. Wind power is among the most important alternative energy sources currently available, and the mid-Atlantic region is a primary focus for wind power development. In addition to being important to the development of wind power, the mid-Atlantic region holds a special responsibility for the conservation of the eastern North America's golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This small population breeds in northeastern Canada, winters in the southern Appalachians, and nearly all of these birds pass through the mid-Atlantic region twice each year. Movement of these birds is not random and, particularly during spring and autumn, migrating golden eagles concentrate in a narrow 30-50 mile wide corridor in central Pennsylvania. Thus, because the fate of these rare birds may depend on responsible management of the habitat they use it is critical to use research to identify ways to mitigate prospective impacts on this and similar raptor species. The goal of this project was to develop high-resolution spatial risk maps showing migration corridors of and habitat use by eastern golden eagles in regions of high potential for wind development. To accomplish this, we first expanded existing models of raptor migration for the eastern USA to identify broad-scale migration patterns. We then used data from novel high-resolution tracking devices to discover routes of passage and detailed flight behavior of individual golden eagles throughout the eastern USA. Finally, we integrated these data and models to predict population-level migration patterns and individual eagle flight behavior on migration. We then used this information to build spatially explicit, probabilistic maps showing relative risk to birds from wind development. This

  11. Mean and extreme temperatures in a warming climate: EURO CORDEX and WRF regional climate high-resolution projections for Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Large temperature spatio-temporal gradients are a common feature of Mediterranean climates. The Portuguese complex topography and coastlines enhances such features, and in a small region large temperature gradients with high interannual variability is detected. In this study, the EURO-CORDEX high-resolution regional climate simulations (0.11° and 0.44° resolutions) are used to investigate the maximum and minimum temperature projections across the twenty-first century according to RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. An additional WRF simulation with even higher resolution (9 km) for RCP8.5 scenario is also examined. All simulations for the historical period (1971-2000) are evaluated against the available station observations and the EURO-CORDEX model results are ranked in order to build multi-model ensembles. In present climate models are able to reproduce the main topography/coast related temperature gradients. Although there are discernible differences between models, most present a cold bias. The multi-model ensembles improve the overall representation of the temperature. The ensembles project a significant increase of the maximum and minimum temperatures in all seasons and scenarios. Maximum increments of 8 °C in summer and autumn and between 2 and 4 °C in winter and spring are projected in RCP8.5. The temperature distributions for all models show a significant increase in the upper tails of the PDFs. In RCP8.5 more than half of the extended summer (MJJAS) has maximum temperatures exceeding the historical 90th percentile and, on average, 60 tropical nights are projected for the end of the century, whilst there are only 7 tropical nights in the historical period. Conversely, the number of cold days almost disappears. The yearly average number of heat waves increases by seven to ninefold by 2100 and the most frequent length rises from 5 to 22 days throughout the twenty-first century. 5% of the longest events will last for more than one month. The amplitude is overwhelming

  12. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen for all students to follow or students may work individually on computers. Working individually will allow students to set their own…

  13. High-resolution Land Cover Datasets, Composite Curve Numbers, and Storm Water Retention in the Tampa Bay, FL region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policy makers need to understand how land cover change alters storm water regimes, yet existing methods do not fully utilize newly available datasets to quantify storm water changes at a landscape-scale. Here, we use high-resolution, remotely-sensed land cover, imperviousness, an...

  14. : Signal Decomposition of High Resolution Time Series River data to Separate Local and Regional Components of Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal processing techniques were applied to high-resolution time series data obtained from conductivity loggers placed upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment facility along a river. Data was collected over 14-60 days, and several seasons. The power spectral densit...

  15. Signal Decomposition of High Resolution Time Series River Data to Separate Local and Regional Components of Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal processing techniques were applied to high-resolution time series data obtained from conductivity loggers placed upstream and downstream of an oil and gas wastewater treatment facility along a river. Data was collected over 14-60 days. The power spectral density was us...

  16. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C...

  17. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  18. Scalable, incremental learning with MapReduce parallelization for cell detection in high-resolution 3D microscopy data

    KAUST Repository

    Sung, Chul; Woo, Jongwook; Goodman, Matthew; Huffman, Todd; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal count and distribution is central to the understanding of the organization and layout of cortical maps in the brain, and changes in the cell population induced by brain disorders. High-throughput 3D microscopy

  19. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. VIII. A WIDE-AREA, HIGH-RESOLUTION MAP OF DUST EXTINCTION IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Pl #424, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Lang, Dustin [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Gordon, Karl D.; Gilbert, Karoline M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sandstrom, Karin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dong, Hui; Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We map the distribution of dust in M31 at 25 pc resolution using stellar photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey. The map is derived with a new technique that models the near-infrared color–magnitude diagram (CMD) of red giant branch (RGB) stars. The model CMDs combine an unreddened foreground of RGB stars with a reddened background population viewed through a log-normal column density distribution of dust. Fits to the model constrain the median extinction, the width of the extinction distribution, and the fraction of reddened stars in each 25 pc cell. The resulting extinction map has a factor of ≳4 times better resolution than maps of dust emission, while providing a more direct measurement of the dust column. There is superb morphological agreement between the new map and maps of the extinction inferred from dust emission by Draine et al. However, the widely used Draine and Li dust models overpredict the observed extinction by a factor of ∼2.5, suggesting that M31's true dust mass is lower and that dust grains are significantly more emissive than assumed in Draine et al. The observed factor of ∼2.5 discrepancy is consistent with similar findings in the Milky Way by the Plank Collaboration et al., but we find a more complex dependence on parameters from the Draine and Li dust models. We also show that the the discrepancy with the Draine et al. map is lowest where the current interstellar radiation field has a harder spectrum than average. We discuss possible improvements to the CMD dust mapping technique, and explore further applications in both M31 and other galaxies.

  20. Fusion Approaches for Land Cover Map Production Using High Resolution Image Time Series without Reference Data of the Corresponding Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tardy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensor time series images allow one to produce land cover maps at a large scale. The supervised classification algorithms have been shown to be the best to produce maps automatically with good accuracy. The main drawback of these methods is the need for reference data, the collection of which can introduce important production delays. Therefore, the maps are often available too late for some applications. Domain adaptation methods seem to be efficient for using past data for land cover map production. According to this idea, the main goal of this study is to propose several simple past data fusion schemes to override the current land cover map production delays. A single classifier approach and three voting rules are considered to produce maps without reference data of the corresponding period. These four approaches reach an overall accuracy of around 80% with a 17-class nomenclature using Formosat-2 image time series. A study of the impact of the number of past periods used is also done. It shows that the overall accuracy increases with the number of periods used. The proposed methods require at least two or three previous years to be used.

  1. Impact of Ischemic and Valvular Heart Disease on Atrial Excitation:A High-Resolution Epicardial Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Yaksh, Ameeta; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-03-08

    The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients with ischemic and/or valvular heart disease with or without AF. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (N=128/192 electrodes, interelectrode distances: 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle (BB), left atrioventricular groove, and pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 253 patients (186 male [74%], age 66±11 years) with ischemic heart disease (N=132, 52%) or ischemic valvular heart disease (N=121, 48%). As expected, SR origin was located at the superior intercaval region of the right atrium in 232 patients (92%). BB activation occurred via 1 wavefront from right-to-left (N=163, 64%), from the central part (N=18, 7%), or via multiple wavefronts (N=72, 28%). Left atrioventricular groove activation occurred via (1) BB: N=108, 43%; (2) pulmonary vein area: N=9, 3%; or (3) BB and pulmonary vein area: N=136, 54%; depending on which route had the shortest interatrial conduction time ( P <0.001). Ischemic valvular heart disease patients more often had central BB activation and left atrioventricular groove activation via pulmonary vein area compared with ischemic heart disease patients (N=16 [13%] versus N=2 [2%]; P =0.009 and N=86 [71%] versus N=59 [45%]; P <0.001, respectively). Total activation times were longer in patients with AF (AF: 136±20 [92-186] ms; no AF: 114±17 [74-156] ms; P <0.001), because of prolongation of right atrium ( P =0.018) and BB conduction times ( P <0.001). Atrial excitation during SR is affected by underlying heart disease and AF, resulting in alternative routes for BB and left atrioventricular groove activation and prolongation of total activation times. Knowledge of atrial excitation patterns during SR and its electropathological variations, as demonstrated in

  2. Object-Based Classification of Grasslands from High Resolution Satellite Image Time Series Using Gaussian Mean Map Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailys Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the classification of grasslands using high resolution satellite image time series. Grasslands considered in this work are semi-natural elements in fragmented landscapes, i.e., they are heterogeneous and small elements. The first contribution of this study is to account for grassland heterogeneity while working at the object level by modeling its pixels distributions by a Gaussian distribution. To measure the similarity between two grasslands, a new kernel is proposed as a second contribution: the α -Gaussian mean kernel. It allows one to weight the influence of the covariance matrix when comparing two Gaussian distributions. This kernel is introduced in support vector machines for the supervised classification of grasslands from southwest France. A dense intra-annual multispectral time series of the Formosat-2 satellite is used for the classification of grasslands’ management practices, while an inter-annual NDVI time series of Formosat-2 is used for old and young grasslands’ discrimination. Results are compared to other existing pixel- and object-based approaches in terms of classification accuracy and processing time. The proposed method is shown to be a good compromise between processing speed and classification accuracy. It can adapt to the classification constraints, and it encompasses several similarity measures known in the literature. It is appropriate for the classification of small and heterogeneous objects such as grasslands.

  3. Variability of wet troposphere delays over inland reservoirs as simulated by a high-resolution regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite radar altimetry is widely used for measuring global sea level variations and, increasingly, water height variations of inland water bodies. Existing satellite radar altimeters measure water surfaces directly below the spacecraft (approximately at nadir). Over the ocean, most of these satellites use radiometry to measure the delay of radar signals caused by water vapor in the atmosphere (also known as the wet troposphere delay (WTD)). However, radiometry can only be used to estimate this delay over the largest inland water bodies, such as the Great Lakes, due to spatial resolution issues. As a result, atmospheric models are typically used to simulate and correct for the WTD at the time of observations. The resolutions of these models are quite coarse, at best about 5000 km2 at 30˚N. The upcoming NASA- and CNES-led Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, on the other hand, will use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques to measure a 120-km-wide swath of the Earth's surface. SWOT is expected to make useful measurements of water surface elevation and extent (and storage change) for inland water bodies at spatial scales as small as 250 m, which is much smaller than current altimetry targets and several orders of magnitude smaller than the models used for wet troposphere corrections. Here, we calculate WTD from very high-resolution (4/3-km to 4-km) simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model, and use the results to evaluate spatial variations in WTD. We focus on six U.S. reservoirs: Lake Elwell (MT), Lake Pend Oreille (ID), Upper Klamath Lake (OR), Elephant Butte (NM), Ray Hubbard (TX), and Sam Rayburn (TX). The reservoirs vary in climate, shape, use, and size. Because evaporation from open water impacts local water vapor content, we compare time series of WTD over land and water in the vicinity of each reservoir. To account for resolution effects, we examine the difference in WRF

  4. Design of a High Resolution Open Access Global Snow Cover Web Map Service Using Ground and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Ames, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the presented work is creating a freely accessible, dynamic and re-usable snow cover map of the world by combining snow extent and snow depth datasets from multiple sources. The examined data sources are: remote sensing datasets (MODIS, CryoLand), weather forecasting model outputs (OpenWeatherMap, forecast.io), ground observation networks (CUAHSI HIS, GSOD, GHCN, and selected national networks), and user-contributed snow reports on social networks (cross-country and backcountry skiing trip reports). For adding each type of dataset, an interface and an adapter is created. Each adapter supports queries by area, time range, or combination of area and time range. The combined dataset is published as an online snow cover mapping service. This web service lowers the learning curve that is required to view, access, and analyze snow depth maps and snow time-series. All data published by this service are licensed as open data; encouraging the re-use of the data in customized applications in climatology, hydrology, sports and other disciplines. The initial version of the interactive snow map is on the website snow.hydrodata.org. This website supports the view by time and view by site. In view by time, the spatial distribution of snow for a selected area and time period is shown. In view by site, the time-series charts of snow depth at a selected location is displayed. All snow extent and snow depth map layers and time series are accessible and discoverable through internationally approved protocols including WMS, WFS, WCS, WaterOneFlow and WaterML. Therefore they can also be easily added to GIS software or 3rd-party web map applications. The central hypothesis driving this research is that the integration of user contributed data and/or social-network derived snow data together with other open access data sources will result in more accurate and higher resolution - and hence more useful snow cover maps than satellite data or government agency produced data by

  5. High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping at A Deep-Sea Methane Seep Field with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarke, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    A growing body of research indicates that points of seafloor gas emission, known as cold-seeps, are a common feature along many continental margins. Results from recent exploration efforts show that benthic environments at cold-seeps are characterized by extensive authigenic carbonate crusts and complex chemosynthetic communities. The seafloor morphology and geophysical properties of these locations are heterogeneous and relatively complex due to the three-dimensional structure created by carbonate buildups and dense bivalve beds. Seeps are often found clustered and the spatial extent of associated seafloor crusts and beds can reach multiple square kilometers. Here, the results of a 1.25 km2 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) survey of a deep-sea methane seep field with 13 vents, at a nominal depth of 1400 m, located near Veatch Canyon on the US Atlantic margin are presented. Multibeam sonar, sidescan sonar, and a sub bottom profiler on the AUV were used to make high-resolution observations of seafloor bathymetry (resolution 1m2) as well as water column, seafloor, and subsurface acoustic backscatter intensity. Additionally, a downward oriented camera was used to collect seafloor imagery coincident with acoustic observations at select locations. Acoustic results indicated the location of discrete gas plumes as well as a continuous area of elevated seafloor roughness and backscatter intensity consistent with the presence of large scale authigenic rock outcrops and extensive mussel beds, which were visually confirmed with camera imagery. Additionally, a linear area of particularly elevated seafloor roughness and acoustic backscatter intensity that lies sub-parallel to an adjacent ridge was interpreted to be controlled by underlying geologic processes such as soft sediment faulting. Automated analysis of camera imagery and coincident acoustic backscatter and bathymetry data as well as derivative metrics (e.g. slope and rugosity) was used to segment and classify bed

  6. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düring Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography and invasive techniques (histology and micro-dissection to construct the annotated high-resolution three-dimensional dataset, or morphome, of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata syrinx. We identified and annotated syringeal cartilage, bone and musculature in situ in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological constraints on song production. The present refinement of muscle organization and identity elucidates how apposed muscles actuate different syringeal elements. Our dataset allows for more precise predictions about muscle co-activation and synergies and has important implications for muscle activity and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency and amplitude control, which permits a novel explanation of the evolutionary success of songbirds.

  7. High-Resolution Mapping of Chromatin Conformation in Cardiac Myocytes Reveals Structural Remodeling of the Epigenome in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Garrido, Manuel; Chapski, Douglas J; Schmitt, Anthony D; Kimball, Todd H; Karbassi, Elaheh; Monte, Emma; Balderas, Enrique; Pellegrini, Matteo; Shih, Tsai-Ting; Soehalim, Elizabeth; Liem, David; Ping, Peipei; Galjart, Niels J; Ren, Shuxun; Wang, Yibin; Ren, Bing; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2017-10-24

    Cardiovascular disease is associated with epigenomic changes in the heart; however, the endogenous structure of cardiac myocyte chromatin has never been determined. To investigate the mechanisms of epigenomic function in the heart, genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and DNA sequencing were performed in adult cardiac myocytes following development of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac-specific deletion of CTCF (a ubiquitous chromatin structural protein) were generated to explore the role of this protein in chromatin structure and cardiac phenotype. Transcriptome analyses by RNA-seq were conducted as a functional readout of the epigenomic structural changes. Depletion of CTCF was sufficient to induce heart failure in mice, and human patients with heart failure receiving mechanical unloading via left ventricular assist devices show increased CTCF abundance. Chromatin structural analyses revealed interactions within the cardiac myocyte genome at 5-kb resolution, enabling examination of intra- and interchromosomal events, and providing a resource for future cardiac epigenomic investigations. Pressure overload or CTCF depletion selectively altered boundary strength between topologically associating domains and A/B compartmentalization, measurements of genome accessibility. Heart failure involved decreased stability of chromatin interactions around disease-causing genes. In addition, pressure overload or CTCF depletion remodeled long-range interactions of cardiac enhancers, resulting in a significant decrease in local chromatin interactions around these functional elements. These findings provide a high-resolution chromatin architecture resource for cardiac epigenomic investigations and demonstrate that global structural remodeling of chromatin underpins heart failure. The newly identified principles of endogenous chromatin structure have key implications for epigenetic therapy. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. High-resolution precipitation mapping in a mountainous watershed: ground truth for evaluating uncertainty in a national precipitation dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Daly; Melissa E. Slater; Joshua A. Roberti; Stephanie H. Laseter; Lloyd W. Swift

    2017-01-01

    A 69-station, densely spaced rain gauge network was maintained over the period 1951–1958 in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in the southern Appalachians in western North Carolina, USA. This unique dataset was used to develop the first digital seasonal and annual precipitation maps for the Coweeta basin, using elevation regression functions and...

  9. Construction of high resolution genetic linkage maps to improve the soybean genome sequence assembly Glyma1.01

    Science.gov (United States)

    A landmark in soybean research, Glyma1.01, the first whole genome sequence of variety Williams 82 (Glycine max L. Merr.) was completed in 2010 and is widely used. However, because the assembly was primarily built based on the linkage maps constructed with a limited number of markers and recombinant...

  10. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Matthias B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m). A high-resolution (1 m) land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0-150 cm) is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m-2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0-100 cm) to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m-2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions > 30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of SOC across all landscape compartments in post-permafrost landscapes.

  11. High-resolution digital mapping of soil organic carbon in permafrost terrain using machine learning: a case study in a sub-Arctic peatland environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Siewert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC stored in northern peatlands and permafrost-affected soils are key components in the global carbon cycle. This article quantifies SOC stocks in a sub-Arctic mountainous peatland environment in the discontinuous permafrost zone in Abisko, northern Sweden. Four machine-learning techniques are evaluated for SOC quantification: multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, support vector machine and random forest. The random forest model performed best and was used to predict SOC for several depth increments at a spatial resolution of 1 m (1×1 m. A high-resolution (1 m land cover classification generated for this study is the most relevant predictive variable. The landscape mean SOC storage (0–150 cm is estimated to be 8.3 ± 8.0 kg C m−2 and the SOC stored in the top meter (0–100 cm to be 7.7 ± 6.2 kg C m−2. The predictive modeling highlights the relative importance of wetland areas and in particular peat plateaus for the landscape's SOC storage. The total SOC was also predicted at reduced spatial resolutions of 2, 10, 30, 100, 250 and 1000 m and shows a significant drop in land cover class detail and a tendency to underestimate the SOC at resolutions  >  30 m. This is associated with the occurrence of many small-scale wetlands forming local hot-spots of SOC storage that are omitted at coarse resolutions. Sharp transitions in SOC storage associated with land cover and permafrost distribution are the most challenging methodological aspect. However, in this study, at local, regional and circum-Arctic scales, the main factor limiting robust SOC mapping efforts is the scarcity of soil pedon data from across the entire environmental space. For the Abisko region, past SOC and permafrost dynamics indicate that most of the SOC is barely 2000 years old and very dynamic. Future research needs to investigate the geomorphic response of permafrost degradation and the fate of

  12. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 μmol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be

  13. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence of oyster beds

  14. High resolution and high sensitivity methods for oligosaccharide mapping and characterization by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography following derivatization with highly fluorescent anthranilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, K R; Dhume, S T

    1998-07-01

    Facile labeling of oligosaccharides (acidic and neutral) in a nonselective manner was achieved with highly fluorescent anthranilic acid (AA, 2-aminobenzoic acid) (more than twice the intensity of 2-aminobenzamide, AB) for specific detection at very high sensitivity. Quantitative labeling in acetate-borate buffered methanol (approximately pH 5.0) at 80 degreesC for 60 min resulted in negligible or no desialylation of the oligosaccharides. A high resolution high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative oligosaccharide mapping on a polymeric-NH2bonded (Astec) column operating under normal phase and anion exchange (NP-HPAEC) conditions. For isolation of oligosaccharides from the map by simple evaporation, the chromatographic conditions developed use volatile acetic acid-triethylamine buffer (approximately pH 4.0) systems. The mapping and characterization technology was developed using well characterized standard glycoproteins. The fluorescent oligosaccharide maps were similar to the maps obtained by the high pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), except that the fluorescent maps contained more defined peaks. In the map, the oligosaccharides separated into groups based on charge, size, linkage, and overall structure in a manner similar to HPAEC-PAD with contribution of -COOH function from the label, anthranilic acid. However, selectivity of the column for sialic acid linkages was different. A second dimension normal phase HPLC (NP-HPLC) method was developed on an amide column (TSK Gel amide-80) for separation of the AA labeled neutral complex type and isomeric structures of high mannose type oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides labeled with AA are compatible with biochemical and biophysical techniques, and use of matrix assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry for rapid determination of oligosaccharide mass map of glycoproteins is demonstrated. High resolution of NP-HPAEC and NP-HPLC methods

  15. Modeling Photo-Bleaching Kinetics to Create High Resolution Maps of Rod Rhodopsin in the Human Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    Full Text Available We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina over a 30-degree field. Our approach is based on analyzing the brightening of detected lipofuscin autofluorescence within small pixel clusters in registered imaging sequences taken with a commercial 488nm confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO over a 1 minute period. We modeled the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching by applying variational optimization techniques from applied mathematics. The physical model and the numerical analysis with its implementation are outlined in detail. This new technique enables the creation of spatial maps of the retinal rhodopsin and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE bisretinoid distribution with an ≈ 50μm resolution.

  16. Modeling Photo-Bleaching Kinetics to Create High Resolution Maps of Rod Rhodopsin in the Human Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Martin; Dobrosotskaya, Julia; Cunningham, Denise; Wong, Wai T.; Chew, Emily Y.; Czaja, Wojtek; Bonner, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina over a 30-degree field. Our approach is based on analyzing the brightening of detected lipofuscin autofluorescence within small pixel clusters in registered imaging sequences taken with a commercial 488nm confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) over a 1 minute period. We modeled the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching by applying variational optimization techniques from applied mathematics. The physical model and the numerical analysis with its implementation are outlined in detail. This new technique enables the creation of spatial maps of the retinal rhodopsin and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) bisretinoid distribution with an ≈ 50μm resolution. PMID:26196397

  17. Scalable, incremental learning with MapReduce parallelization for cell detection in high-resolution 3D microscopy data

    KAUST Repository

    Sung, Chul

    2013-08-01

    Accurate estimation of neuronal count and distribution is central to the understanding of the organization and layout of cortical maps in the brain, and changes in the cell population induced by brain disorders. High-throughput 3D microscopy techniques such as Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy (KESM) are enabling whole-brain survey of neuronal distributions. Data from such techniques pose serious challenges to quantitative analysis due to the massive, growing, and sparsely labeled nature of the data. In this paper, we present a scalable, incremental learning algorithm for cell body detection that can address these issues. Our algorithm is computationally efficient (linear mapping, non-iterative) and does not require retraining (unlike gradient-based approaches) or retention of old raw data (unlike instance-based learning). We tested our algorithm on our rat brain Nissl data set, showing superior performance compared to an artificial neural network-based benchmark, and also demonstrated robust performance in a scenario where the data set is rapidly growing in size. Our algorithm is also highly parallelizable due to its incremental nature, and we demonstrated this empirically using a MapReduce-based implementation of the algorithm. We expect our scalable, incremental learning approach to be widely applicable to medical imaging domains where there is a constant flux of new data. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Constraining controls on carbonate sequences with high-resolution chronostratigraphy: Upper Miocene, Cabo de Gata region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P.; Farr, M.R.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been developed for Miocene shallow-water carbonate strata in the Cabo de Gata region of SE Spain for evaluation of local, regional and global factors that controlled platform architecture prior to and during the Messinian salinity crisis. Paleomagnetic data were collected from strata at three localities. Mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) ranges between 1.53 ?? 10-8 and 5.2 ?? 10-3 Am2/kg. Incremental thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolated the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Rock magnetic studies show that the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, but mixtures of magnetite and hematite occur. A composite chronostratigraphy was derived from five stratigraphic sections. Regional stratigraphic data, biostratigraphic data, and an 40Ar/39Ar date of 8.5 ?? 0.1 Ma, for an interbedded volcanic flow, place the strata in geomagnetic polarity Chrons C4r to C3r. Sequence-stratigraphic and diagenetic evidence indicate a major unconformity at the base of depositional sequence (DS)3 that contains a prograding reef complex, suggesting that approximately 250 000 yr of record (Subchrons C3Br.2r to 3Br.1r) are missing near the Messinian-Tortonian boundary. Correlation to the GPTS shows that the studied strata represent five third- to fourth-order DSs. Basal units are temperate to subtropical ramps (DS1A, DS1B, DS2); these are overlain by subtropical to tropical reefal platforms (DS3), which are capped by subtropical to tropical cyclic carbonates (Terminal Carbonate Complex, TCC). Correlation of the Cabo de Gata record to the Melilla area of Morocco, and the Sorbas basin of Spain indicate that early - Late Tortonian ramp strata from these areas are partially time-equivalent. Similar strata are extensively developed in the Western Mediterranean and likely were influenced by a cool climate or influx of nutrients during an overall rise in global sea-level. After ramp deposition, a sequence boundary (SB3) in

  19. Air Quality Modeling for the Urban Jackson, Mississippi Region Using a High Resolution WRF/Chem Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton J. Swanier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to simulate the air quality with reference to ozone over the Jackson (Mississippi region using an online WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting–Chemistry model. The WRF/Chem model has the advantages of the integration of the meteorological and chemistry modules with the same computational grid and same physical parameterizations and includes the feedback between the atmospheric chemistry and physical processes. The model was designed to have three nested domains with the inner-most domain covering the study region with a resolution of 1 km. The model was integrated for 48 hours continuously starting from 0000 UTC of 6 June 2006 and the evolution of surface ozone and other precursor pollutants were analyzed. The model simulated atmospheric flow fields and distributions of NO2 and O3 were evaluated for each of the three different time periods. The GIS based spatial distribution maps for ozone, its precursors NO, NO2, CO and HONO and the back trajectories indicate that all the mobile sources in Jackson, Ridgeland and Madison contributing significantly for their formation. The present study demonstrates the applicability of WRF/Chem model to generate quantitative information at high spatial and temporal resolution for the development of decision support systems for air quality regulatory agencies and health administrators.

  20. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 4 /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F 2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 4 /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F 2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 4 /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 4 /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  1. Genome-wide high-resolution mapping of UV-induced mitotic recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs. Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH. In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells stimulate crossovers more than 1000-fold in wild-type cells. In addition, UV stimulates recombination in G1-synchronized cells about 10-fold more efficiently than in G2-synchronized cells. Importantly, at high doses of UV, most conversion events reflect the repair of two sister chromatids that are broken at approximately the same position whereas at low doses, most conversion events reflect the repair of a single broken chromatid. Genome-wide mapping of about 380 unselected crossovers, break-induced replication (BIR events, and gene conversions shows that UV-induced recombination events occur throughout the genome without pronounced hotspots, although the ribosomal RNA gene cluster has a significantly lower frequency of crossovers.

  2. High resolution Slovak Bouguer gravity anomaly map and its enhanced derivative transformations: new possibilities for interpretation of anomalous gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pašteka, Roman; Zahorec, Pavol; Kušnirák, David; Bošanský, Marián; Papčo, Juraj; Szalaiová, Viktória; Krajňák, Martin; Ivan, Marušiak; Mikuška, Ján; Bielik, Miroslav

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with the revision and enrichment of the present gravimetric database of the Slovak Republic. The output of this process is a new version of the complete Bouguer anomaly (CBA) field on our territory. Thanks to the taking into account of more accurate terrain corrections, this field has significantly higher quality and higher resolution capabilities. The excellent features of this map will allow us to re-evaluate and improve the qualitative interpretation of the gravity field when researching the structural and tectonic geology of the Western Carpathian lithosphere. In the contribution we also analyse the field of the new CBA based on the properties of various transformed fields - in particular the horizontal gradient, which by its local maximums defines important density boundaries in the lateral direction. All original and new transformed maps make a significant contribution to improving the geological interpretation of the CBA field. Except for the horizontal gradient field, we are also interested in a new special transformation of TDXAS, which excellently separates various detected anomalies of gravity field and improves their lateral delimitation.

  3. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  4. High-resolution topography along surface rupture of the 16 October 1999 Hector Mine, California (Mw 7.1) from airborne laser swath mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnutt, K.W.; Borsa, A.; Glennie, C.; Minster, J.-B.

    2002-01-01

    In order to document surface rupture associated with the Hector Mine earthquake, in particular, the area of maximum slip and the deformed surface of Lavic Lake playa, we acquired high-resolution data using relatively new topographic-mapping methods. We performed a raster-laser scan of the main surface breaks along the entire rupture zone, as well as along an unruptured portion of the Bullion fault. The image of the ground surface produced by this method is highly detailed, comparable to that obtained when geologists make particularly detailed site maps for geomorphic or paleoseismic studies. In this case, however, for the first time after a surface-rupturing earthquake, the detailed mapping is along the entire fault zone rather than being confined to selected sites. These data are geodetically referenced, using the Global Positioning System, thus enabling more accurate mapping of the rupture traces. In addition, digital photographs taken along the same flight lines can be overlaid onto the precise topographic data, improving terrain visualization. We demonstrate the potential of these techniques for measuring fault-slip vectors.

  5. Predicting carbon benefits from climate-smart agriculture: High-resolution carbon mapping and uncertainty assessment in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Coops, Nicholas C; Chan, Kai M A; Fonte, Steven J; Siles, Pablo; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-11-01

    Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e.g., watersheds, communities, municipalities, etc.). In this study we use a 100-km 2 agricultural area in El Salvador to demonstrate how high-spatial resolution optical satellite imagery can be used to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) C at the landscape scale with very low uncertainty (95% probability of a deviation of less than 1%). Uncertainty of AGWB-C estimates remained low (agricultural lands in the study area, and that utilizing AGWB-C maps to target denuded areas could increase C gains per unit area by 46%. The potential value of C credits under a plausible adoption scenario would range from $38,270 to $354,000 yr -1 for the study area, or about $13 to $124 ha -1  yr -1 , depending on C prices. Considering farm sizes in smallholder landscapes rarely exceed 1-2 ha, relying solely on direct C payments to farmers may not lead to widespread CSA adoption, especially if farm-scale monitoring is required. Instead, landscape-scale approaches to C contracting, supported by satellite-based monitoring methods such as ours, could be a key strategy to reduce costs and uncertainty of C monitoring in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes, thereby incentivizing more widespread CSA adoption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. High-resolution modeling of thermal thresholds and environmental influences on coral bleaching for local and regional reef management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Naoki H; Yamano, Hiroya

    2018-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the world's most threatened ecosystems, with global and local stressors contributing to their decline. Excessive sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) can cause coral bleaching, resulting in coral death and decreases in coral cover. A SST threshold of 1 °C over the climatological maximum is widely used to predict coral bleaching. In this study, we refined thermal indices predicting coral bleaching at high-spatial resolution (1 km) by statistically optimizing thermal thresholds, as well as considering other environmental influences on bleaching such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, water turbidity, and cooling effects. We used a coral bleaching dataset derived from the web-based monitoring system Sango Map Project, at scales appropriate for the local and regional conservation of Japanese coral reefs. We recorded coral bleaching events in the years 2004-2016 in Japan. We revealed the influence of multiple factors on the ability to predict coral bleaching, including selection of thermal indices, statistical optimization of thermal thresholds, quantification of multiple environmental influences, and use of multiple modeling methods (generalized linear models and random forests). After optimization, differences in predictive ability among thermal indices were negligible. Thermal index, UV radiation, water turbidity, and cooling effects were important predictors of the occurrence of coral bleaching. Predictions based on the best model revealed that coral reefs in Japan have experienced recent and widespread bleaching. A practical method to reduce bleaching frequency by screening UV radiation was also demonstrated in this paper.

  7. High-resolution mapping of 1D and 2D dose distributions using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbun, N.; Lund, E.; Adolfsson, E.; Gustafsson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) was performed to visualise 2D dose distributions of homogeneously irradiated potassium dithionate tablets and to demonstrate determination of 1D dose profiles along the height of the tablets. Mathematical correction was applied for each relative dose profile in order to take into account the inhomogeneous response of the resonator using X-band EPRI. The dose profiles are presented with the spatial resolution of 0.6 mm from the acquired 2D images; this value is limited by pixel size, and 1D dose profiles from 1D imaging with spatial resolution of 0.3 mm limited by the intrinsic line-width of potassium dithionate. In this paper, dose profiles from 2D reconstructed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images using the Xepr software package by Bruker are focussed. The conclusion is that using potassium dithionate, the resolution 0.3 mm is sufficient for mapping steep dose gradients if the dosemeters are covering only ±2 mm around the centre of the resonator. (authors)

  8. Acquisition and Processing of High Resolution Hyperspectral Imageries for the 3d Mapping of Urban Heat Islands and Microparticles of Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, R.; Baudouin, Y.; Cavayas, F.

    2017-10-01

    Ville de Montreal wanted to develop a system to identify heat islands and microparticles at the urban scale and to study their formation. UQAM and UdeM universities have joined their expertise under the framework "Observatoire Spatial Urbain" to create a representative geospatial database of thermal and atmospheric parameters collected during the summer months. They innovated in the development of a methodology for processing high resolution hyperspectral images (1-2 m). In partnership with Ville de Montreal, they integrated 3D geospatial data (topography, transportation and meteorology) in the process. The 3D mapping of intraurban heat islands as well as air micro-particles makes it possible, initially, to identify the problematic situations for future civil protection interventions during extreme heat. Moreover, it will be used as a reference for the Ville de Montreal to establish a strategy for public domain tree planting and in the analysis of urban development projects.

  9. The Impact Snow Albedo Feedback over Mountain Regions as Examined through High-Resolution Regional Climate Change Experiments over the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    As the climate warms, the snow albedo feedback (SAF) will play a substantial role in shaping the climate response of mid-latitude mountain regions with transient snow cover. One such region is the Rocky Mountains of the western United States where large snow packs accumulate during the winter and persist throughout the spring. In this dissertation, the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) configured as a regional climate model is used to investigate the role of the SAF in determining the regional climate response to forced anthropogenic climate change. The regional effects of climate change are investigated by using the pseudo global warming (PGW) framework, which is an experimental configuration in a which a mean climate perturbation is added to the boundary forcing of a regional model, thus preserving the large-scale circulation entering the region through the model boundaries and isolating the mesoscale climate response. Using this framework, the impact of the SAF on the regional energetics and atmospheric dynamics is examined and quantified. Linear feedback analysis is used to quantify the strength of the SAF over the Headwaters region of the Colorado Rockies for a series of high-resolution PGW experiments. This technique is used to test sensitivity of the feedback strength to model resolution and land surface model. Over the Colorado Rockies, and integrated over the entire spring season, the SAF strength is largely insensitive to model resolution, however there are more substantial differences on the sub-seasonal (monthly) timescale. In contrast, the SAF strength over this region is very sensitive to choice of land surface model. These simulations are also used to investigate how spatial and diurnal variability in warming caused by the SAF influences the dynamics of thermally driven mountain-breeze circulations. It is shown that, the SAF causes stronger daytime mountain-breeze circulations by increasing the warming on the mountains slopes thus enhancing

  10. Undergraduates Conducting Research Using High-Resolution Multibeam and Sidescan Sonar to Map and Characterize the Seabed: the BEAMS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. S.; Sautter, L.

    2017-12-01

    The College of Charleston's BEnthic Acoustic Mapping and Survey (BEAMS) Program has just completed its 10th year of operation, and has proven to be remarkably effective at activating and maintaining undergraduate student interest in conducting research using sophisticated software, state-of-the-art instrumentation, enormous datasets, and significant experiential time. BEAMS students conduct research as part of a minimum 3-course sequence of marine geology-based content, marine geospatial software, and seafloor research courses. Over 140 students have completed the program, 56% of the graduated students remain active in the marine geospatial workforce or academic arenas. Forty-eight percent (48%) of those students are female. As undergraduates, students not only conduct independent research projects, but present their work at national conferences each year. Additionally, over 90 % of all "BEAMers" have been provided a 2-3 day at-sea experience on a dedicated BEAMS Program multibeam survey research cruise, and many students also volunteer as survey technicians aboard NOAA research vessels. Critical partnerships have developed with private industry to provide numerous collaborative opportunities and an employment/employer pipeline, as well as provision of software and hardware at many fiscal levels. Ongoing collaboration with the Marine Institute of Ireland and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens has also provided valuable field opportunities and collaborative experiences. This talk will summarize the program while highlighting some of the key areas and topics investigated by students, including detailed geomorphologic studies of continental margins, submarine canyons, tectonic features and seamounts. Students also work with NOAA investigators to aid in the characterization of fish and deep coral habitats, and with BOEM researchers to study offshore windfield suitability and submerged cultural landscapes. Our sister program at the University of

  11. A novel typing method for Listeria monocytogenes using high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of tandem repeat regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Iwakawa, Ai; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2017-07-17

    Listeria monocytogenes, which is responsible for causing food poisoning known as listeriosis, infects humans and animals. Widely distributed in the environment, this bacterium is known to contaminate food products after being transmitted to factories via raw materials. To minimize the contamination of products by food pathogens, it is critical to identify and eliminate factory entry routes and pathways for the causative bacteria. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a method that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequences and PCR product lengths that are reflected by the disassociation temperature. Through our research, we have developed a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) using HRMA as a simple and rapid method to differentiate L. monocytogenes isolates. While evaluating our developed method, the ability of MLVA-HRMA, MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was compared for their ability to discriminate between strains. The MLVA-HRMA method displayed greater discriminatory ability than MLST and MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, suggesting that the variation in the number of repeat units, along with mutations within the DNA sequence, was accurately reflected by the melting curve of HRMA. Rather than relying on DNA sequence analysis or high-resolution electrophoresis, the MLVA-HRMA method employs the same process as PCR until the analysis step, suggesting a combination of speed and simplicity. The result of MLVA-HRMA method is able to be shared between different laboratories. There are high expectations that this method will be adopted for regular inspections at food processing facilities in the near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. It's all in the pixels: high resolution remote sensing data and the mapping and analysis of the archaeological and historical landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Meylemans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Flanders (Belgium a large amount of remote-sensing data has been acquired and processed over the past few years, including high-resolution lidar and multi/hyperspectral aerial photography. These new data are contributing to the detection of archaeological sites and the characterisation of the cultural/historical landscape. Of particular use in historically stable areas under forest and pasture, lidar demonstrates the presence of a large number of previously unknown features and sites. The analysis and modelling of these data, combined with other landscape data such as soil maps, augering data, geological and historical maps, and aerial photographs, also provide possible new instruments for the characterisation and evaluation of prehistoric and historic landscapes. This vast amount of new remote-sensing data, plus the information it delivers, however, presents not only obvious opportunities but also a number of challenges. A centralised online system was developed by the 'GIS-Flanders agency', storing both processed and raw data from multispectral recordings, airborne lidar, mobile mapping images etc., and presenting several download and visualisation possibilities and tools. A new system has also been set up to handle specific archaeological and cultural historical data (historical images and aerial photographs, archaeological field data. Dialogue is needed so that the preservation and management needs of the archaeological heritage are also included.

  13. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Francesca; Rose, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  14. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Francesca [The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source and Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  15. Quadrupole magnetic mapping of the high resolution spectrometers of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, Hall A. (Q.M.M. project: Quadrupole Magnetic Measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Gilles

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the magnetic measurements that have been performed on the superconducting quadrupoles of the High Resolution Spectrometers of TJNAF, Hall A (USA), which are designed to measure particle momentum up to 4 GeV.c -1 with a σp/p = 10 -4 resolution. The mapping method is based on rotating coil technique, the originality being a segmentation of the probe along the quad axis. Together with an accurate magnet modelling, the measurement of the flux variations through the set of rotating coils allows to determine the magnetic field at each point. We use the 3D field formalism, i.e., the Fourier-Bessel expansion of the field obtained by solving the Laplace equation. We describe the QMM method and then the apparatus consisting in two probes of length 1.6 m and 3.2 m built to map the three quadrupoles Q1, Q2, Q3. Data processing uses Fourier analysis. The mapping of the Electron Arm took place in situ in 1996. A first set of results concerns integral measurements including the properties of excitation cycle of the magnets (saturation and hysteresis). Second set of results in terms of local field yields the 3D field maps of the quadrupoles. After having applied corrections to the data we obtain a local field accuracy of 5 Gauss on each component, i.e. an uncertainty of 5.10 -4 relative to the quadrupole central field. We use SNAKE ray-tracing code with the implementation of QMM field maps and obtain preliminary results on HRS optics. (author)

  16. Creating a Methodology for Coordinating High-resolution Air Quality Improvement Map and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies in Pittsburgh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Klima, K.; Blackhurst, M.

    2016-12-01

    In order to tradeoff global impacts of greenhouse gases with highly local impacts of conventional air pollution, researchers require a method to compare global and regional impacts. Unfortunately, we are not aware of a method that allows these to be compared, "apples-to-apples". In this research we propose a three-step model to compare possible city-wide actions to reduce greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants. We focus on Pittsburgh, PA, a city with consistently poor air quality that is interested in reducing both greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants. First, we use the 2013 Pittsburgh Greenhouse Gas Inventory to update the Blackhurst et al. model and conduct a greenhouse gas abatement potentials and implementation costs of proposed greenhouse gas reduction efforts. Second, we use field tests for PM2.5, NOx, SOx, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) data to inform a Land-use Regression Model for local air pollution at a 100m x 100m spatial level, which combined with a social cost of air pollution model (EASIUR) allows us to calculate economic social damages. Third, we combine these two models into a three-dimensional greenhouse gas cost abatement curve to understand the implementation costs and social benefits in terms of air quality improvement and greenhouse gas abatement for each potential intervention. We anticipated such results could provide policy-maker insights in green city development.

  17. Mapping and monitoring of sediment budgets and river change by means of UAS multi-scale, high-resolution imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Tseng, Chih-Ming

    2017-04-01

    the dataset been verified firstly. The migration of the debris is well defined from DEMs and been calculated. The sediment budgets are thus been evaluated. The riverbed migration is affect both by natural sediment deposition and by human activities. The profile of the riverbed is blocked mainly in the midstream area. One-half of the debris still rested on the mid- to upstream, and in the up-slope. To the end, the UAS and the methodology used in this study is been adjusted and is capable to apply to other region for hazard monitoring, mitigation and planning.

  18. High resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of carbonate cementation in Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-L. Eocene) from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Omer, Dilshad; Zebari, Bahroz Gh.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of high resolution cathodoluminsecnce-spectroscopy (HRS-CL) with spatial electron microprobe analysis and optical microscopy is used to determine paragenesis and history of cementation in the limestones and dolostones of Khurmala Formation which is exposed in many parts of Northern Iraq. Khurmala Formation was subjected to different diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, dissolution, neomorphism, pyritization and cementation that occurred during marine to shallow burial stages and culminated during intermediate to deep burial later stages. Five dolomite textures are recognized and classified according to crystal size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity that pre-and postdates dissolution and corrosion; meanwhile such porosity was not noticed in the associated limestones. Microprobe analysis revealed three types of cement, calcite, dolomite and ankerite which range in their luminescence from dull to bright. Cathodoluminescence study indicated four main texture generations. These are (1) unzoned microdolomite of planar and subhedral shape, with syntaxial rim cement of echinoderm that show dull to red luminescence, (2) equant calcite cements filling interparticle pores which shows dull luminescence and weak zonal growth, (3.1) homogenous intrinsic blue stoichiometric calcite with dull luminescence and without activators, (3.2) coarse blocky calcite cement with strong oscillatory zoning and bright orange luminescence which postdates other calcite cements, (4) ankerite cement with red to orange, non-luminescence growth zonation which is the last formed cement.

  19. High resolution XPS of the S 2p core level region of the L-cysteine/gold interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalleri, O; Gonella, G; Terreni, S; Vignolo, M; Pelori, P; Floreano, L; Morgante, A; Canepa, M; Rolandi, R

    2004-01-01

    L-cysteine self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been deposited on gold from the liquid and vapour phase. Synchrotron based high resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to characterize the sulfur chemical states at the SAM/gold interface. Results obtained from pristine and x-ray irradiated samples, prepared with both as-received and purified L-cysteine, are reported. Pristine samples prepared with purified cysteine are characterized by an intense, largely dominant S 2p state at a binding energy around 162 eV (2p 3/2 level) assigned to thiolates. A second doublet around 161 eV develops during irradiation. By comparison with the literature, this doublet is assigned to atomic sulfur present either as impurity or generated by S-C bond scission. Comparative measurements performed, under similar experimental conditions, on pristine 3-mercaptopropionic acid [HS(CH 2 ) 2 COOH] layers deposited from the liquid phase are also presented and discussed

  20. Establishment of a high-resolution 2-D reference map of human spermatozoal proteins from 12 fertile sperm-bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Wei; Fan, Li-Qing; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Nien, Hong-Chuan; Sun, Bo-Lan; Luo, Ke-Li; Liao, Ting-Ting; Tang, Le; Lu, Guang-Xiu

    2007-05-01

    To extend the analysis of the proteome of human spermatozoa and establish a 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) reference map of human spermatozoal proteins in a pH range of 3.5-9.0. In order to reveal more protein spots, immobilized pH gradient strips (24 cm) of broad range of pH 3-10 and the narrower range of pH 6-9, as well as different overlapping narrow range pH immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips, including 3.5-4.5, 4.0-5.0, 4.5-5.5, 5.0-6.0 and 5.5-6.7, were used. After 2-DE, several visually identical spots between the different pH range 2-D gel pairs were cut from the gels and confirmed by mass spectrometry and used as landmarks for computer analysis. The 2-D reference map with pH value from 3.5 to 9.0 was synthesized by using the ImageMaster analysis software. The overlapping spots were excluded, so that every spot was counted only once. A total of 3872 different protein spots were identified from the reference map, an approximately 3-fold increase compared to the broad range pH 3-10 IPG strip (1306 spots). The present 2-D pattern is a high resolution 2-D reference map for human fertile spermatozoal protein spots. A comprehensive knowledge of the protein composition of human spermatozoa is very meaningful in studying dysregulation of male fertility.

  1. A high-resolution whole genome radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 17q22-q25.3 across the genes for GH and TK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, J.W.; Schafer, A.J.; Critcher, R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a whole genome radiation hybrid (WG-RH) map across a region of human chromosome 17q, from growth hormone (GH) to thymidine kinase (TK). A panel of 128 WG-RH hybrid cell lines generated by X-irradiation and fusion has been tested for the retention of 39 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers by the polymerase chain reaction. This genome mapping technique has allowed the integration of existing VNTR and microsatellite markers with additional new markers and existing STS markers previously mapped to this region by other means. The WG-RH map includes eight expressed sequence tag (EST) and three anonymous markers developed for this study, together with 23 anonymous microsatellites and five existing ESTs. Analysis of these data resulted in a high-density comprehensive map across this region of the genome. A subset of these markers has been used to produce a framework map consisting of 20 loci ordered with odds greater than 1000:1. The markers are of sufficient density to build a YAC contig across this region based on marker content. We have developed sequence tags for both ends of a 2.1-Mb YAC and mapped these using the WG-RH panel, allowing a direct comparison of cRay{sub 6000} to physical distance. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Negahdar, M; Yamamoto, T

    2016-01-01

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory

  3. WE-AB-202-08: Feasibility of Single-Inhalation/Single-Energy Xenon CT for High-Resolution Imaging of Regional Lung Ventilation in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkham, D; Schueler, E; Diehn, M; Mittra, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Negahdar, M [IBM Research Center, San Jose, California (United States); Yamamoto, T [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    quantify regional lung ventilation volumetrically with high resolution using widely accessible radiologic equipment. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim are founders of TibaRay, Inc. Bill Loo is also a board member. Bill Loo and Peter Maxim have received research grants from Varian Medical Systems, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory.

  4. Comparison Effectiveness of Pixel Based Classification and Object Based Classification Using High Resolution Image In Floristic Composition Mapping (Study Case: Gunung Tidar Magelang City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardha Aryaguna, Prama; Danoedoro, Projo

    2016-11-01

    Developments of analysis remote sensing have same way with development of technology especially in sensor and plane. Now, a lot of image have high spatial and radiometric resolution, that's why a lot information. Vegetation object analysis such floristic composition got a lot advantage of that development. Floristic composition can be interpreted using a lot of method such pixel based classification and object based classification. The problems for pixel based method on high spatial resolution image are salt and paper who appear in result of classification. The purpose of this research are compare effectiveness between pixel based classification and object based classification for composition vegetation mapping on high resolution image Worldview-2. The results show that pixel based classification using majority 5×5 kernel windows give the highest accuracy between another classifications. The highest accuracy is 73.32% from image Worldview-2 are being radiometric corrected level surface reflectance, but for overall accuracy in every class, object based are the best between another methods. Reviewed from effectiveness aspect, pixel based are more effective then object based for vegetation composition mapping in Tidar forest.

  5. Mapping in vitro local material properties of intact and disrupted virions at high resolution using multi-harmonic atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Alexander; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Carrascosa, José L; de Pablo, Pedro J; Raman, Arvind

    2013-06-07

    Understanding the relationships between viral material properties (stiffness, strength, charge density, adhesion, hydration, viscosity, etc.), structure (protein sub-units, genome, surface receptors, appendages), and functions (self-assembly, stability, disassembly, infection) is of significant importance in physical virology and nanomedicine. Conventional Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) methods have measured a single physical property such as the stiffness of the entire virus from nano-indentation at a few points which severely limits the study of structure-property-function relationships. We present an in vitro dynamic AFM technique operating in the intermittent contact regime which synthesizes anharmonic Lorentz-force excited AFM cantilevers to map quantitatively at nanometer resolution the local electro-mechanical force gradient, adhesion, and hydration layer viscosity within individual φ29 virions. Furthermore, the changes in material properties over the entire φ29 virion provoked by the local disruption of its shell are studied, providing evidence of bacteriophage depressurization. The technique significantly generalizes recent multi-harmonic theory (A. Raman, et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2011, 6, 809-814) and enables high-resolution in vitro quantitative mapping of multiple material properties within weakly bonded viruses and nanoparticles with complex structure that otherwise cannot be observed using standard AFM techniques.

  6. Hurricane Ivan Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Ivan made landfall. The regions photographed range from Gulf...

  7. High-resolution regional modeling of summertime transport and impact of African dust over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2016-05-23

    Severe dust outbreaks and high dust loading over Eastern Africa and the Red Sea are frequently detected in the summer season. Observations suggest that small-scale dynamic and orographic effects, from both the Arabian and African sides, strongly contribute to dust plume formation. To better understand these processes, we present here the first high resolution modeling study of a dust outbreak in June 2012 developed over East Africa, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Peninsula. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry component (WRF-Chem), we identified several dust generating dynamical processes that range from convective to synoptic scales, including synoptic cyclones, nocturnal low-level jets, and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems. The simulations reveal an eastward transport of African dust across the Red Sea. Over the northern part of the Red Sea, most of the dust transport occurs above 2 km height, whereas across the central and southern parts of the sea, dust is mostly transported below 2 km height. Dust is the dominant contributor (87%) to the aerosol optical depth, producing a domain average cooling effect of -12.1 W m-2 at the surface, a warming of 7.1 W m-2 in the atmosphere, and a residual cooling of -4.9 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition processes contribute significantly to dust removal from the atmosphere. Model results compare well with available ground-based and satellite observations, but generally underestimate the observed maximum values of aerosol optical depth. The satellite-retrieved mean optical depth at some locations are underestimated by a factor of two. A sensitive experiment suggests that these large local differences may result from poor characterization of dust emissions in some areas of the modeled domain. In this case study we successfully simulate the major fine-scale dust generating dynamical processes, explicitly resolving convection and haboob

  8. Development of High-Resolution Dynamic Dust Source Function - A Case Study with a Strong Dust Storm in a Regional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Chin, Mian; Kemp, Eric M.; Tao, Zhining; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ginoux, Paul

    2017-01-01

    A high-resolution dynamic dust source has been developed in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to improve the existing coarse static dust source. In the new dust source map, topographic depression is in 1-km resolution and surface bareness is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The new dust source better resolves the complex topographic distribution over the Western United States where its magnitude is higher than the existing, coarser resolution static source. A case study is conducted with an extreme dust storm that occurred in Phoenix, Arizona in 0203 UTC July 6, 2011. The NU-WRF model with the new high-resolution dynamic dust source is able to successfully capture the dust storm, which was not achieved with the old source identification. However the case study also reveals several challenges in reproducing the time evolution of the short-lived, extreme dust storm events.

  9. Development of High-Resolution Dynamic Dust Source Function -A Case Study with a Strong Dust Storm in a Regional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Chin, Mian; Kemp, Eric M; Tao, Zhining; Peters-Lidard, Christa D; Ginoux, Paul

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution dynamic dust source has been developed in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to improve the existing coarse static dust source. In the new dust source map, topographic depression is in 1-km resolution and surface bareness is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The new dust source better resolves the complex topographic distribution over the Western United States where its magnitude is higher than the existing, coarser resolution static source. A case study is conducted with an extreme dust storm that occurred in Phoenix, Arizona in 02-03 UTC July 6, 2011. The NU-WRF model with the new high-resolution dynamic dust source is able to successfully capture the dust storm, which was not achieved with the old source identification. However the case study also reveals several challenges in reproducing the time evolution of the short-lived, extreme dust storm events.

  10. A regional high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2012 for Beijing and the surrounding five provinces of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjia; Wu, Bobo; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Xue, Yifeng; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Yan; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-05-01

    A high resolution regional emission inventory of typical primary air pollutants (PAPs) for the year 2012 in Beijing and the surrounding five provinces (BSFP) of North China is developed. It is compiled with the combination of bottom-up and top-down methods, based on city-level collected activity data and the latest updated specific emission factors for different sources. The considered sources are classified into 12 major categories and totally 36 subcategories with respect to their multi-dimensional characteristics, such as economic sector, combustion facility or industrial process, installed air pollution control devices, etc. Power plant sector is the dominant contributor of NOX emissions with an average contribution of 34.1%, while VOCs emissions are largely emitted from industrial process sources (33.9%). Whereas, other stationary combustion sources represent major sources of primary PM2.5, PM10 and BC emissions, accounting for 22.7%, 30.0% and 33.9% of the total emissions, respectively. Hebei province contributes over 34% of the regional total CO emissions because of huge volume of iron and steel production. By comparison, Shandong province ranks as the biggest contributor for NOX, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, VOCs and OC. Further, the BSFP regional total emissions are spatially distributed into grid cells with a high resolution of 9 km × 9 km using GIS tools and surrogate indexes, such regional population, gross domestic product (GDP) and the types of arable soils. The highest emission intensities are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Jinan-Laiwu-Zibo area and several other cities such as Shijiazhuang, Handan, and Zhengzhou. Furthermore, in order to establish a simple method to estimate and forecast PAPs emissions with macroscopic provincial-level statistical parameters in China, multi-parameter regression equations are firstly developed to estimate emissions outside the BSFP region with routine statistics (e.g. population, total final coal consumption

  11. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  12. Detecting Damaged Building Regions Based on Semantic Scene Change from Multi-Temporal High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Tu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of damaged building regions is crucial to emergency response actions and rescue work after a disaster. Change detection methods using multi-temporal remote sensing images are widely used for this purpose. Differing from traditional methods based on change detection for damaged building regions, semantic scene change can provide a new point of view since it can indicate the land-use variation at the semantic level. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for detecting damaged building regions based on semantic scene change in a visual Bag-of-Words model. Pre- and post-disaster scene change in building regions are represented by a uniform visual codebook frequency. The scene change of damaged and non-damaged building regions is discriminated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. An evaluation of experimental results, for a selected study site of the Longtou hill town of Yunnan, China, which was heavily damaged in the Ludian earthquake of 14 March 2013, shows that this method is feasible and effective for detecting damaged building regions. For the experiments, WorldView-2 optical imagery and aerial imagery is used.

  13. Linking high-resolution geomorphic mapping, sediment sources, and channel types in a formerly glaciated basin of northeastern Alto-Adige/Sudtirol, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brardinoni, F.; Perina, E.; Bonfanti, G.; Falsitta, G.; Agliardi, F.

    2012-04-01

    To characterize channel-network morphodynamics and response potential in the Gadria-Strimm basin (14.8 km^2) we conduct a concerted effort entailing: (i) high-resolution mapping of landforms, channel reaches, and sediment sources; and (ii) historical evolution of colluvial channel disturbance through sequential aerial photosets (1945-59-69-82-90-00-06-11). The mapping was carried out via stereographic inspection of aerial photographs, examination of 2.5-m gridded DTM and DSM, and extensive field work. The study area is a formerly glaciated basin characterized by peculiar landform assemblages imposed by a combination of tectonic and glacial first-order structures. The most striking feature in Strimm Creek is a structurally-controlled valley step separating an upper hanging valley, dominated by periglacial and fluvial processes, and a V-notched lower part in which lateral colluvial channels are directly connected to Strimm's main stem. In Gadria Creek, massive kame terraces located in proximity of the headwaters provide virtually unlimited sediment supply to frequent debris-flow activity, making this sub-catchment an ideal site for monitoring, hence studying the mechanics of these processes. Preliminary results point to a high spatial variability of the colluvial channel network, in which sub-sectors have remained consistently active during the study period while others have become progressively dormant with notable forest re-growth. In an attempt to link sediment flux to topography and substrate type, future work will involve photogrammetric analysis across the sequential aerial photosets as well as a morphometric/geomechanical characterization of the surficial materials.

  14. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  15. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: TOWARDS ADVANCED UNDERSTANDING AND PREDICTIVE CAPABILITY OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE ARCTIC USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION REGIONAL ARCTIC CLIMATE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.

    2013-02-07

    The motivation for this project was to advance the science of climate change and prediction in the Arctic region. Its primary goals were to (i) develop a state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate system Model (RACM) including high-resolution atmosphere, land, ocean, sea ice and land hydrology components and (ii) to perform extended numerical experiments using high performance computers to minimize uncertainties and fundamentally improve current predictions of climate change in the northern polar regions. These goals were realized first through evaluation studies of climate system components via one-way coupling experiments. Simulations were then used to examine the effects of advancements in climate component systems on their representation of main physics, time-mean fields and to understand variability signals at scales over many years. As such this research directly addressed some of the major science objectives of the BER Climate Change Research Division (CCRD) regarding the advancement of long-term climate prediction.

  16. A High-Resolution Tile-Based Approach for Classifying Biological Regions in Whole-Slide Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R A; Kothari, S; Phan, J H; Wang, M D

    Computational analysis of histopathological whole slide images (WSIs) has emerged as a potential means for improving cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, an open issue relating to the automated processing of WSIs is the identification of biological regions such as tumor, stroma, and necrotic tissue on the slide. We develop a method for classifying WSI portions (512x512-pixel tiles) into biological regions by (1) extracting a set of 461 image features from each WSI tile, (2) optimizing tile-level prediction models using nested cross-validation on a small (600 tile) manually annotated tile-level training set, and (3) validating the models against a much larger (1.7x10 6 tile) data set for which ground truth was available on the whole-slide level. We calculated the predicted prevalence of each tissue region and compared this prevalence to the ground truth prevalence for each image in an independent validation set. Results show significant correlation between the predicted (using automated system) and reported biological region prevalences with p < 0.001 for eight of nine cases considered.

  17. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  18. Covariability of seasonal temperature and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula in high-resolution regional climate simulations (1001-2099)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montes, S.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Rodrigo, F. S.; García-Valero, J. A.; Montávez, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation and surface temperature are interdependent variables, both as a response to atmospheric dynamics and due to intrinsic thermodynamic relationships and feedbacks between them. This study analyzes the covariability of seasonal temperature (T) and precipitation (P) across the Iberian Peninsula (IP) using regional climate paleosimulations for the period 1001-1990, driven by reconstructions of external forcings. Future climate (1990-2099) was simulated according to SRES scenarios A2 and B2. These simulations enable exploring, at high spatial resolution, robust and physically consistent relationships. In winter, positive P-T correlations dominate west-central IP (Pearson correlation coefficient ρ = + 0.43, for 1001-1990), due to prevalent cold-dry and warm-wet conditions, while this relationship weakens and become negative towards mountainous, northern and eastern regions. In autumn, negative correlations appear in similar regions as in winter, whereas for summer they extend also to the N/NW of the IP. In spring, the whole IP depicts significant negative correlations, strongest for eastern regions (ρ = - 0.51). This is due to prevalent frequency of warm-dry and cold-wet modes in these regions and seasons. At the temporal scale, regional correlation series between seasonal anomalies of temperature and precipitation (assessed in 31 years running windows in 1001-1990) show very large multidecadal variability. For winter and spring, periodicities of about 50-60 years arise. The frequency of warm-dry and cold-wet modes appears correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), explaining mainly co-variability changes in spring. For winter and some regions in autumn, maximum and minimum P-T correlations appear in periods with enhanced meridional or easterly circulation (low or high pressure anomalies in the Mediterranean and Europe). In spring and summer, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation shows some fingerprint on the frequency of warm/cold modes. For

  19. High Resolution Decision Maps for Urban Planning: A Combined Analysis of Urban Flooding and Thermal Stress Potential In Asia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boogaard Floris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding and thermal stress have become key issues for many cities around the world. With the continuing effects of climate change, these two issues will become more acute and will add to the serious problems already experienced in dense urban areas. Therefore, the sectors of public health and disaster management are in the need of tools that can assess the vulnerability to floods and thermal stress. The present paper deals with the combination of innovative tools to address this challenge. Three cities in different climatic regions with various urban contexts have been selected as the pilot areas to demonstrate these tools. These cities are Tainan (Taiwan, Ayutthaya (Thailand and Groningen (Netherlands. For these cities, flood maps and heat stress maps were developed and used for the comparison analysis. The flood maps produced indicate vulnerable low-lying areas, whereas thermal stress maps indicate open, unshaded areas where high Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET values (thermal comfort can be expected. The work to date indicates the potential of combining two different kinds of maps to identify and analyse the problem areas. These maps could be further improved and used by urban planners and other stakeholders to assess the resilience and well-being of cities. The work presented shows that the combined analysis of such maps also has a strong potential to be used for the analysis of other challenges in urban dense areas such as air and water pollution, immobility and noise disturbance.

  20. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  1. Classification of semiurban landscapes from very high-resolution satellite images using a regionalized multiscale segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavzoglu, Taskin; Erdemir, Merve Yildiz; Tonbul, Hasan

    2017-07-01

    In object-based image analysis, obtaining representative image objects is an important prerequisite for a successful image classification. The major threat is the issue of scale selection due to the complex spatial structure of landscapes portrayed as an image. This study proposes a two-stage approach to conduct regionalized multiscale segmentation. In the first stage, an initial high-level segmentation is applied through a "broadscale," and a set of image objects characterizing natural borders of the landscape features are extracted. Contiguous objects are then merged to create regions by considering their normalized difference vegetation index resemblance. In the second stage, optimal scale values are estimated for the extracted regions, and multiresolution segmentation is applied with these settings. Two satellite images with different spatial and spectral resolutions were utilized to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its transferability to different geographical sites. Results were compared to those of image-based single-scale segmentation and it was found that the proposed approach outperformed the single-scale segmentations. Using the proposed methodology, significant improvement in terms of segmentation quality and classification accuracy (up to 5%) was achieved. In addition, the highest classification accuracies were produced using fine-scale values.

  2. High-resolution mapping and characterization of qRgls2, a major quantitative trait locus involved in maize resistance to gray leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Siquan; Chen, Wei; Tan, Jing; Zhu, Mang; Zhong, Tao; Fan, Xingming; Xu, Mingliang

    2014-08-31

    Gray leaf spot (GLS) caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis (Czm) or Cercospora zeina (Cz) is a devastating maize disease and results in substantial yield reductions worldwide. GLS resistance is a quantitatively inherited trait. The development and cultivation of GLS-resistant maize hybrids are the most cost-effective and efficient ways to control this disease. We previously detected a major GLS resistance QTL, qRgls2, in bin 5.03-04, which spans the whole centromere of chromosome 5 encompassing a physical distance of ~110-Mb. With advanced backcross populations derived from the cross between the resistant Y32 and susceptible Q11 inbred lines, a sequential recombinant-derived progeny testing strategy was adapted to fine map qRgls2. We narrowed the region of qRgls2 from an initial ~110-Mb to an interval of ~1-Mb, flanked by the markers G346 and DD11. qRgls2 showed predominantly additive genetic effects and significantly increased the resistance percentage by 20.6 to 24.6% across multiple generations. A total of 15 genes were predicted in the mapped region according to the 5b.60 annotation of the maize B73 genome v2. Two pieces of the mapped qRgls2 region shared collinearity with two distant segments on maize chromosome 4. qRgls2, a major QTL involved in GLS resistance, was mapped to a ~1-Mb region close to the centromere of chromosome 5. There are 15 predicted genes in the mapped region. It is assumed that qRgls2 could be widely used to improve maize resistance to GLS.

  3. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (MLENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE-dipping fault between 2-5 km depth in the carbonate reservoir. The fault measures 5 km along dip and corresponds to a pre-existing thrust fault favorably oriented with respect to the local extensional field.

  4. High-Resolution Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of OCS in the 12 000-13 000 cm -1 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchart, S.; Hadj Bachir, I.; Huet, T. R.; Olafsson, A.; Destombes, J.-L.; Naı¨m, S.; Fayt, A.

    1999-08-01

    A spectrum of natural OCS has been recorded in the near-infrared region using the laser photoacoustic technique. The source is a titanium-sapphire laser pumped by an Ar+ laser. The tunable 1.5 W beam was sent through the photoacoustic cell. This windowless longitudinal resonant cell was designed with two λ/4 buffer volumes at both ends in order to reduce the noise and so to increase the sensitivity (αmin ≈ 10-9 cm-1). The spectrum of OCS, at a pressure of 90 Torr, has been recorded in the regions 11 953-12 084, 12 829-12 890, and 12 998-13 001 cm-1. In addition to the 0006-0000 band of 16O12C32S recently identified by Ch. Hornberger, B. Boor, R. Stuber, W. Demtröder, S. Naı̈m, and A. Fayt, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 179, 237-245, 1996, new weaker bands have been observed: 0405-0000, 1 1003-0000, 1006-0000, 1405-0000, 0206-0000, and 0116-0110, and also the 0006-0000 band of 16O12C34S. Effective state parameters are deduced from the band-by-band least-squares fits. The new data have also been introduced in the global analysis which takes into account the l-type resonance and the main anharmonic interactions and so allows a full understanding of the perturbations and the intensity transfers.

  5. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Alex [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering

    2013-07-24

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while

  6. A High-Resolution Reconstruction of Late Holocene Environmental Change from Laguna Ek'Naab, Northern Holmul Region, Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L.; Wahl, D.; Estrada-Belli, F.

    2015-12-01

    Widespread demographic shifts in the southern Maya lowlands at the end of the Classic period have been attributed to environmental change caused by human activity and/or climate variability. Fire was essential to landscape modification and was a primary agent of environmental change associated with prehispanic land use. While several studies have provided insight into the dynamic relationship between natural and anthropogenic drivers of change, defining the specific interplay between natural environmental change, human modification of the environment, and cultural response to changes remains a persistent challenge. Here we present the results of a multi-proxy study that reconstructs fire history, agricultural land use, and environmental change during and after Pre-Columbian Maya settlement. Results are interpreted in the context of settlement history as inferred from archaeological mapping around the study site. Our findings suggest landscape disturbance, as indicated by erosion, local burning, and nearby maize agriculture, was at its peak during the Early Classic period. This disturbance was likely due to large-scale settlement at the nearby site of Witzna'. All proxies indicate a slow decline in disturbance into the Late Classic period, beginning around 1300 cal yr BP. Cival and Chanchich, two proximal site centers to the south of Laguna Ek'Naab, supported their largest populations during the Late Preclassic and Late Classic, with little or no settlement during the Early Classic. The data from Laguna Ek'Naab suggests that Witzna' may have been an important center during the Early Classic. Whether the decreasing environmental degradation after 1240 cal yr BP is do to a decline in local population or changing land use strategies is not discernable based on the data thus far. However, the near complete absence of burning and continued decrease in erosion from 1240-1090 cal yr BP suggests little anthropogenic activity in the area. Burning resumes in the watershed

  7. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  8. High-resolution spatial databases of monthly climate variables (1961-2010) over a complex terrain region in southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, An-Ding; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate data in gridded format are critical for understanding climate change and its impact on eco-environment. The aim of the current study is to develop spatial databases for three climate variables (maximum, minimum temperatures, and relative humidity) over a large region with complex topography in southwestern China. Five widely used approaches including inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, universal kriging, co-kriging, and thin-plate smoothing spline were tested. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) showed that thin-plate smoothing spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation outperformed other models. Average RMSE, MAE, and MAPE of the best models were 1.16 °C, 0.74 °C, and 7.38 % for maximum temperature; 0.826 °C, 0.58 °C, and 6.41 % for minimum temperature; and 3.44, 2.28, and 3.21 % for relative humidity, respectively. Spatial datasets of annual and monthly climate variables with 1-km resolution covering the period 1961-2010 were then obtained using the best performance methods. Comparative study showed that the current outcomes were in well agreement with public datasets. Based on the gridded datasets, changes in temperature variables were investigated across the study area. Future study might be needed to capture the uncertainty induced by environmental conditions through remote sensing and knowledge-based methods.

  9. Evaluation of Enhanced High Resolution MODIS/AMSR-E SSTs and the Impact on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been generating a 1-km sea surface temperature (SST) composite derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for use in operational diagnostics and regional model initialization. With the assumption that the day-to-day variation in the SST is nominal, individual MODIS passes aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra satellites are used to create and update four composite SST products each day at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC, valid over the western Atlantic and Caribbean waters. A six month study from February to August 2007 over the marine areas surrounding southern Florida was conducted to compare the use of the MODIS SST composite versus the Real-Time Global SST analysis to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Substantial changes in the forecast heat fluxes were seen at times in the marine boundary layer, but relatively little overall improvement was measured in the sensible weather elements. The limited improvement in the WRF model forecasts could be attributed to the diurnal changes in SST seen in the MODIS SST composites but not accounted for by the model. Furthermore, cloud contamination caused extended periods when individual passes of MODIS were unable to update the SSTs, leading to substantial SST latency and a cool bias during the early summer months. In order to alleviate the latency problems, the SPoRT Center recently enhanced its MODIS SST composite by incorporating information from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) instruments as well as the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis. These enhancements substantially decreased the latency due to cloud cover and improved the bias and correlation of the composites at available marine point observations. While these enhancements improved upon the modeled cold bias using the original MODIS SSTs

  10. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  11. GHRSST Level 2P Regional 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with ischemic stroke studied with high resolution pet and the O-15 labelled gas steady-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, K.; Shishido, F.; Inugami, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Ogawa, T.; Murakami, M.; Kanno, I.; Tagawa, K.; Yasui, N.

    1986-01-01

    Although regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies have considerably increased pathophysiological knowledge in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, sometimes the results of such studies do not correlate with neurological abnormalities observed in the subjects being examined. Because regional neuronal activities always couple to the regional energy metabolism of brain tissue, simultaneous observation of rCBF and regional energy metabolism, such as regional oxygen consumption (rCMRO/sub 2/) and regional glucose consumption (rCMRG1), will provide greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease than rCBF study alone. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the 0-15 labelled gas steady-state method offers simultaneous measurement of rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in vivo, and demonstrates imbalance between rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in an ischemic lesion in a human brain. However, clinical PET studies in ischemic cerebrovascular disease reported previously, have been carried out using low resolution (more than 15 mm in the full width at half maximum; FWHM) PET. This report presents preliminary results using a high resolution tomograph; Headtome III and 0-15 labelled gas steady state method to investigate ischemic cerebrovascular disease

  13. Geophysical Modelling and Multi-Scale Studies in the Arctic Seiland Igneous Province: Millimeter to Micrometer Scale Mapping of the Magnetic Sources by High Resolution Magnetic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Z.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Oda, H.; ter Maat, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Rocks samples can have wide range of magnetic properties depending on composition, amount of ferromagnetic minerals, grain sizes and microstructures. These influence the magnetic anomalies from the micro to the global scale making the study of the magnetic properties of interest for multiple applications. Later geological processes such as serpentinization can significantly influence these properties and change the nature of the magnetic anomalies. Particularly, magnetic properties such as remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are directly linked to the magnetic mineralogy composition and grain size and can provide useful information about the geological history of the source. Scanning magnetic microscopy is a highly sensitive and high-resolution magnetometric technique for mapping the magnetic field over a planar surface of a rock sample. The device measures the vertical component of the field above the thin sections and the technique offers a spatial resolution down to tens of micrometers and thus can be used to investigate discrete magnetic mineral grains or magnetic textures and structures, and the magnetic history of the sample. This technique allows a direct correlation between the mineral chemistry (through both electron and optical microscopy) and the magnetic properties. We present as case-study three thin section magnetic scans of two dunite samples from the Reinfjord Ultramafic complex, in northern Norway. The selected thin sections show different magnetic properties which reflect the magnetic petrology. One of the thin sections is from a pristine dunite sample; the other two are highly serpentinized with newly formed magnetite found in multiple, few micrometer thick, veins. We present the preliminary results obtained applying a forward modelling approach on the magnetic anomaly maps acquired over the thin sections. Modelling consists of uniformly-magnetized polygonal bodies whose geometry is constrained by the thickness of the thin section

  14. High resolution crustal structure for the region between the Chilenia and Cuyania terrane above the Pampean flat slab of Argentina from local receiver function and petrological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Pérez, S. B.; Beck, S. L.; Porter, R. C.; Zandt, G.

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Baptiste Ammirati 1,Sofía Perez 1, Patricia Alvarado 1, Susan L. Beck 2, Ryan Porter 3 and George Zandt 2(1) CIGEOBIO-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina (2) The University of Arizona, USA (3) Northern Arizona University, USA At ~31ºS, The subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate presents along-strike variations of its dip angle referred to the Chilean-Pampean flat slab. Geological observations suggest that the regional crustal structure is inherited from the accretion of different terranes at Ordovician times and later reactivated during Andean compression since Miocene. Geophysical observations confirmed that the structure is extending in depth with décollement levels that accommodate crustal shortening in the region. In order to get a better insight on the shallow tectonics we computed high frequency local receiver functions from slab seismicity (~100 km depth). Local earthquakes present a higher frequency content that permits a better vertical resolution. Using a common conversion point (CCP) stacking method we obtained cross sections showing high-resolution crustal structure in the western part of the Pampean flat slab region, at the transition between the Precordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. Our results show a well-defined structure and their lateral extent for both units down to 80 km depth. In good agreement with previous studies, our higher resolution images better identify very shallow discontinuities putting more constraints on the relationships with the regional structural geology. Recent petrological analyses combined with RF high-resolution structure also allow us to better understand the regional crustal composition. Interestingly, we are able to observe a shifting structure beneath the Uspallata-Calingasta Valley, highlighting the differences in terms of crustal structure between the Precordillera and the Frontal Cordillera. Previously determined focal mechanisms in the region match well this

  15. Regional influence of decadal to multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations during the last two millennia in Morocco, inferred from two high resolution δ18O speleothem records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Brahim, Yassine; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Khodri, Myriam; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Cruz, Francisco W.; Pérez-Zanón, Núria; Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Cheng, Hai

    2017-04-01

    Climate projections predict substantial increase of extreme heats and drought occurrences during the coming decades in Morocco. It is however not clear what can be attributed to natural climate variability and to anthropogenic forcing, as hydroclimate variations observed in areas such as Morocco are highly influenced by the Atlantic climate modes. Since observational data sets are too short to resolve properly natural modes of variability acting on decadal to multidecadal timescales, high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are the only alternative to reconstruct climate variability in the remote past. Herein, we present two high resolution and well dated speleothems oxygen isotope (δ18O) records sampled from Chaara and Ifoulki caves (located in Northeastern and Southwestern Morocco respectively) to investigate hydroclimate variations during the last 2000 years. Our results are supported by a monitoring network of δ18O in precipitation from 17 stations in Morocco. The new paleoclimate records are discussed in the light of existing continental and marine paleoclimate proxies in Morocco to identify significant correlations at various lead times with the main reconstructed oceanic and atmospheric variability modes and possible climate teleconnections that have potentially influenced the climate during the last two millennia in Morocco. The results reveal substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords. Evidence of dry conditions exist during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period and the Climate Warm Period (CWP) and humid conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period. Statistical analyses suggest that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the last two millennia. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably

  16. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  17. High-resolution mapping of a fruit firmness-related quantitative trait locus in tomato reveals epistatic interactions associated with a complex combinatorial locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Natalie H; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-08-01

    Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Fir(s.p.)QTL2.1 to Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

  18. Automated method for relating regional pulmonary structure and function: integration of dynamic multislice CT and thin-slice high-resolution CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Jehangir K.; Kugelmass, Steven D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    We have developed a method utilizing x-ray CT for relating pulmonary perfusion to global and regional anatomy, allowing for detailed study of structure to function relationships. A thick slice, high temporal resolution mode is used to follow a bolus contrast agent for blood flow evaluation and is fused with a high spatial resolution, thin slice mode to obtain structure- function detail. To aid analysis of blood flow, we have developed a software module, for our image analysis package (VIDA), to produce the combined structure-function image. Color coded images representing blood flow, mean transit time, regional tissue content, regional blood volume, regional air content, etc. are generated and imbedded in the high resolution volume image. A text file containing these values along with a voxel's 3-D coordinates is also generated. User input can be minimized to identifying the location of the pulmonary artery from which the input function to a blood flow model is derived. Any flow model utilizing one input and one output function can be easily added to a user selectable list. We present examples from our physiologic based research findings to demonstrate the strengths of combining dynamic CT and HRCT relative to other scanning modalities to uniquely characterize pulmonary normal and pathophysiology.

  19. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the 3 μm region: role of hydrogenation and alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Mackie, Cameron J.; Candian, Alessandra; Petrignani, Annemieke; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to elucidate the spectral changes in the 3 μm region that result from chemical changes in the molecular periphery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with extra hydrogens (H-PAHs) and methyl groups (Me-PAHs). Methods: Advanced laser spectroscopic techniques combined with mass spectrometry were applied on supersonically cooled 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene, 9-methylanthracene, and 9,10-dimethylanthracene, allowing us to record mass-selective and conformationally selective absorption spectra of the aromatic, aliphatic, and alkyl CH-stretches in the 3.175 - 3.636 µm region with laser-limited resolution. We compared the experimental absorption spectra with standard harmonic calculations and with second-order vibrational perturbation theory anharmonic calculations that use the SPECTRO program for treating resonances. Results: We show that anharmonicity plays an important if not dominant role, affecting not only aromatic, but also aliphatic and alkyl CH-stretch vibrations. The experimental high-resolution data lead to the conclusion that the variation in Me- and H-PAHs composition might well account for the observed variations in the 3 μm emission spectra of carbon-rich and star-forming regions. Our laboratory studies also suggest that heavily hydrogenated PAHs form a significant fraction of the carriers of IR emission in regions in which an anomalously strong 3 μm plateau is observed.

  20. Model-based classification of CPT data and automated lithostratigraphic mapping for high-resolution characterization of a heterogeneous sedimentary aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, Bart; Mallants, Dirk; Batelaan, Okke; Gedeon, Matej; Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cone penetration testing (CPT) is one of the most efficient and versatile methods currently available for geotechnical, lithostratigraphic and hydrogeological site characterization. Currently available methods for soil behaviour type classification (SBT) of CPT data however have severe limitations, often restricting their application to a local scale. For parameterization of regional groundwater flow or geotechnical models, and delineation of regional hydro- or lithostratigraphy, regional SBT classification would be very useful. This paper investigates the use of model-based clustering for SBT classification, and the influence of different clustering approaches on the properties and spatial distribution of the obtained soil classes. We additionally propose a methodology for automated lithostratigraphic mapping of regionally occurring sedimentary units using SBT classification. The methodology is applied to a large CPT dataset, covering a groundwater basin of ~60 km2 with predominantly unconsolidated sandy sediments in northern Belgium. Results show that the model-based approach is superior in detecting the true lithological classes when compared to more frequently applied unsupervised classification approaches or literature classification diagrams. We demonstrate that automated mapping of lithostratigraphic units using advanced SBT classification techniques can provide a large gain in efficiency, compared to more time-consuming manual approaches and yields at least equally accurate results.

  1. Model-based classification of CPT data and automated lithostratigraphic mapping for high-resolution characterization of a heterogeneous sedimentary aquifer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Rogiers

    Full Text Available Cone penetration testing (CPT is one of the most efficient and versatile methods currently available for geotechnical, lithostratigraphic and hydrogeological site characterization. Currently available methods for soil behaviour type classification (SBT of CPT data however have severe limitations, often restricting their application to a local scale. For parameterization of regional groundwater flow or geotechnical models, and delineation of regional hydro- or lithostratigraphy, regional SBT classification would be very useful. This paper investigates the use of model-based clustering for SBT classification, and the influence of different clustering approaches on the properties and spatial distribution of the obtained soil classes. We additionally propose a methodology for automated lithostratigraphic mapping of regionally occurring sedimentary units using SBT classification. The methodology is applied to a large CPT dataset, covering a groundwater basin of ~60 km2 with predominantly unconsolidated sandy sediments in northern Belgium. Results show that the model-based approach is superior in detecting the true lithological classes when compared to more frequently applied unsupervised classification approaches or literature classification diagrams. We demonstrate that automated mapping of lithostratigraphic units using advanced SBT classification techniques can provide a large gain in efficiency, compared to more time-consuming manual approaches and yields at least equally accurate results.

  2. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  3. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  4. High-resolution DEMs for High-mountain Asia: A systematic, region-wide assessment of geodetic glacier mass balance and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, D. E.; Arendt, A. A.; Osmanoglu, B.; Montesano, P.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) constitutes the largest glacierized region outside of the Earth's polar regions. Although available observations are limited, long-term records indicate sustained regional glacier mass loss since 1850, with increased loss in recent decades. Recent satellite data (e.g., GRACE, ICESat-1) show spatially variable glacier mass balance, with significant mass loss in the Himalaya and Hindu Kush and slight mass gain in the Karakoram. We generated 4000 high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from sub-meter commercial stereo imagery (DigitalGlobe WorldView/GeoEye) acquired over glaciers in High-mountain Asia from 2002-present (mostly 2013-present). We produced a regional 8-m DEM mosaic for 2015 and estimated 15-year geodetic mass balance for 40000 glaciers larger than 0.1 km2. We are combining with other regional DEM sources to systematically document the spatiotemporal evolution of glacier mass balance for the entire HMA region. We also generated monthly to interannual DEM and velocity time series for high-priority sites distributed across the region, with >15-20 DEMs available for some locations from 2010-present. These records document glacier dynamics, seasonal snow accumulation/redistribution, and processes that affect glacier mass balance (e.g., ice-cliff retreat, debris cover evolution). These efforts will provide basin-scale assessments of snow/ice melt runoff contributions for model cal/val and downstream water resources applications. We will continue processing all archived and newly available commercial stereo imagery for HMA, and will release all DEMs through the HiMAT DAAC.

  5. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  7. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  8. Improvements in Sensible Heat-Flux Parametrization in the High-Resolution Regional Model (HRM) Through the Modified Treatment of the Roughness Length for Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurose, T. J.; Subrahamanyam, D. Bala

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the impact of the differential treatment of the roughness lengths for momentum and heat (z_{0m} and z_{0h}) in the flux parametrization scheme of the high-resolution regional model (HRM) for a heterogeneous terrain centred around Thiruvananthapuram, India (8.5°N, 76.9°E). The magnitudes of sensible heat flux ( H) obtained from HRM simulations using the original parametrization scheme differed drastically from the concurrent in situ observations. With a view to improving the performance of this parametrization scheme, two distinct modifications are incorporated: (1) In the first method, a constant value of 100 is assigned to the z_{0m}/z_{0h} ratio; (2) and in the second approach, this ratio is treated as a function of time. Both these modifications in the HRM model showed significant improvements in the H simulations for Thiruvananthapuram and its adjoining regions. Results obtained from the present study provide a first-ever comparison of H simulations using the modified parametrization scheme in the HRM model with in situ observations for the Indian coastal region, and suggest a differential treatment of z_{0m} and z_{0h} in the flux parametrization scheme.

  9. Assessment of genetic mutations in the XRCC2 coding region by high resolution melting curve analysis and the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is the major pathway for repairing double strand breaks (DSBs in eukaryotes and XRCC2 is an essential component of the HR repair machinery. To evaluate the potential role of mutations in gene repair by HR in individuals susceptible to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC we used high resolution melting (HRM analysis, a recently introduced method for detecting mutations, to examine the entire XRCC2 coding region in an Iranian population. HRM analysis was used to screen for mutations in three XRCC2 coding regions in 50 patients and 50 controls. There was no variation in the HRM curves obtained from the analysis of exons 1 and 2 in the case and control groups. In exon 3, an Arg188His polymorphism (rs3218536 was detected as a new melting curve group (OR: 1.46; 95%CI: 0.432-4.969; p = 0.38 compared with the normal melting curve. We also found a new Ser150Arg polymorphism in exon 3 of the control group. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the XRCC2 coding region have no potential effects on susceptibility to DTC. However, further studies with larger populations are required to confirm this conclusion.

  10. Very high resolution regional climate simulations on the 4 km scale as a basis for carbon balance assessments in northeast European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna; Rinke, Annette; Matthes, Heidrun; Marchenko, Sergej; Daanen, Ronald; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Simulations with global circulation models (GCMs) clearly indicate that major climate changes in polar regions can be expected during the 21st century. Model studies have shown that the area of the Northern Hemisphere underlain by permafrost could be reduced substantially in a warmer climate. However, thawing of permafrost, in particular if it is ice-rich, is subject to a time lag due to the large latent heat of fusion. State-of-the-art GCMs are unable to adequately model these processes because (a) even the most advanced subsurface schemes rarely treat depths below 5 m explicitly, and (b) soil thawing and freezing processes cannot be dealt with directly due to the coarse resolution of present GCMs. Any attempt to model subsurface processes needs information about soil properties, vegetation and snow cover, which are hardly realistic on a typical GCM grid. Furthermore, simulated GCM precipitation is often underestimated and the proportion of rain and snow is incorrect. One possibility to overcome resolution-related problems is to use regional climate models (RCMs). Such an RCM, HIRHAM, has until now been the only one used for the entire circumpolar domain, and its most recent version, HIRHAM5, has also been used in the high resolution study described here. Instead of the traditional approach via a degree-day based frost index from observations or model data, we use the regional model to create boundary conditions for an advanced permafrost model. This approach offers the advantage that the permafrost model can be run on the grid of the regional model, i.e. in a considerably higher resolution than in previous approaches. We here present results from a new time-slice integration with an unprecedented horizontal resolution of only 4 km, covering northeast European Russia. This model simulation has served as basis for an assessment of the carbon balance for a region in northeast European Russia within the EU-funded Carbo-North project.

  11. Can small island mountains provide relief from the Subtropical Precipitation Decline? Simulating future precipitation regimes for small island nations using high resolution Regional Climate Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J.; Terando, A. J.; Misra, V.; Wootten, A.

    2017-12-01

    Small island nations are vulnerable to changes in the hydrologic cycle because of their limited water resources. This risk to water security is likely even higher in sub-tropical regions where anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is expected to lead to a drier future (the so-called `dry-get-drier' pattern). However, high-resolution numerical modeling experiments have also shown an enhancement of existing orographically-influenced precipitation patterns on islands with steep topography, potentially mitigating subtropical drying on windward mountain sides. Here we explore the robustness of the near-term (25-45 years) subtropical precipitation decline (SPD) across two island groupings in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These islands, forming the boundary between the Greater and Lesser Antilles, significantly differ in size, topographic relief, and orientation to prevailing winds. Two 2-km horizontal resolution regional climate model simulations are used to downscale a total of three different GCMs under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. Results indicate some possibility for modest increases in precipitation at the leading edge of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico, but consistent declines elsewhere. We conclude with a discussion of potential explanations for these patterns and the attendant risks to water security that subtropical small island nations could face as the climate warms.

  12. Med-CORDEX: a first coordinated inter-comparison of high-resolution and fully coupled regional climate models for the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Due to its geographical, meteorological and oceanographic features, the Mediterranean region can be considered as one of the best place to test and use regional climate modelling tools. It has been chosen as one of the CORDEX sub-domain (MED) leading to the Med-CORDEX initiative. This open and voluntary initiative, financially supported by MISTRALS/HyMeX, has been proposed by the Mediterranean climate modelling research community as a follow-up of previous initiatives. In addition to the CORDEX-like simulations (Atmosphere-RCM, 50 km, ERA-Interim and GCM driven runs), Med-CORDEX includes additional simulations to experiment some of the regional climate modelling current challenges. We present here the status and results of these additional simulations dedicated to the use of (1) very high-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCM, up to 10 km) and (2) fully coupled Regional Climate System Models (RCSM), coupling the various components of the regional climate (atmosphere, land surface and hydrology, river and ocean). Today, Med-CORDEX gathers 23 different modelling groups from 9 different countries (France, Italy, Spain, Serbia, Turkey, Greece, Tunisia, Germany, Hungary) in Europe, Middle-East and North-Africa. They use 12 different atmosphere RCMs including land-surface representation, 4 river models, 10 regional ocean models and 12 different Regional Climate System Models. Almost all the simulations planned (Evaluation, Historical and Scenarios modes) have been completed by the modelling teams. More than half of the runs are archived and freely available for non-commercial use through a dedicated database hosted at ENEA at www.medcordex.eu in common and standardized netcdf format (265,000 files and 3.6 Tb uploaded). This includes atmosphere-only, ocean-only and fully coupled regional climate models. In particular multi-model regional ocean simulations have been archived in a common and standardized format for the first time in the history of the Mediterranean Sea

  13. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuor, Gerald; Hounkpatin, Ozias K L; Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    , coloration and saturation were prominent predictors in digital soil mapping. Considering the increased availability of freely available Remote Sensing data (e.g. Landsat, SRTM, Sentinels), soil information at local and regional scales in data poor regions such as West Africa can be improved with relatively little financial and human resources.

  14. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Forkuor

    of redness, coloration and saturation were prominent predictors in digital soil mapping. Considering the increased availability of freely available Remote Sensing data (e.g. Landsat, SRTM, Sentinels, soil information at local and regional scales in data poor regions such as West Africa can be improved with relatively little financial and human resources.

  15. Hi-C 2.0: An optimized Hi-C procedure for high-resolution genome-wide mapping of chromosome conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaghzal, Houda; Dekker, Job; Gibcus, Johan H

    2017-07-01

    Chromosome conformation capture-based methods such as Hi-C have become mainstream techniques for the study of the 3D organization of genomes. These methods convert chromatin interactions reflecting topological chromatin structures into digital information (counts of pair-wise interactions). Here, we describe an updated protocol for Hi-C (Hi-C 2.0) that integrates recent improvements into a single protocol for efficient and high-resolution capture of chromatin interactions. This protocol combines chromatin digestion and frequently cutting enzymes to obtain kilobase (kb) resolution. It also includes steps to reduce random ligation and the generation of uninformative molecules, such as unligated ends, to improve the amount of valid intra-chromosomal read pairs. This protocol allows for obtaining information on conformational structures such as compartment and topologically associating domains, as well as high-resolution conformational features such as DNA loops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-resolution measurement and mapping of tungstate in waters, soils and sediments using the low-disturbance DGT sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Dong-Xing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Xu, Hua-Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Gang [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Luo, Jun, E-mail: esluojun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Lena Q. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Two high-resolution diffusive gradients in thin-films samplers were characterized. • For the first time DGT was applied to study the bioavailability of W in soils. • 1D and 2D high resolution profiling of W fluxes across the SWI were obtained. • The apparent diffusion W fluxes across two micro-interfaces were calculated. - Abstract: Increasing tungsten (W) use for industrial and military applications has resulted in greater W discharge into natural waters, soils and sediments. Risk modeling of W transport and fate in the environment relies on measurement of the release/mobilization flux of W in the bulk media and the interfaces between matrix compartments. Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising passive sampling technique to acquire such information. DGT devices equipped with the newly developed high-resolution binding gels (precipitated zirconia, PZ, or ferrihydrite, PF, gels) or classic/conventional ferrihydrite slurry gel were comprehensively assessed for measuring W in waters. {sup Ferrihydrite}DGT can measure W at various ionic strengths (0.001–0.5 mol L{sup −1} NaNO{sub 3}) and pH (4–8), while {sup PZ}DGT can operate across slightly wider environmental conditions. The three DGT configurations gave comparable results for soil W measurement, showing that typically W resupply is relatively poorly sustained. 1D and 2D high-resolution W profiling across sediment—water and hotspot—bulk media interfaces from Lake Taihu were obtained using {sup PZ}DGT coupled with laser ablation ICP–MS measurement, and the apparent diffusion fluxes across the interfaces were calculated using a numerical model.

  17. Validation of ERS-1 and high-resolution satellite gravity with in-situ shipborne gravity over the Indian offshore regions: Accuracies and implications to subsurface modeling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, S.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Michael, L.; Krishna, K.S.; Majumdar, T.J.

    Geoid and gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry are gradually gaining importance in marine geoscientific investigations. Keeping this in mind, we have validated ERS-1 (168 day repeat) altimeter data and very high-resolution free...

  18. Coupled atmosphere ocean climate model simulations in the Mediterranean region: effect of a high-resolution marine model on cyclones and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of an eddy-permitting Mediterranean Sea circulation model on the simulation of atmospheric cyclones and precipitation in a climate model. This is done by analyzing results of two fully coupled GCM (general circulation models simulations, differing only for the presence/absence of an interactive marine module, at very high-resolution (~ 1/16°, for the simulation of the 3-D circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Cyclones are tracked by applying an objective Lagrangian algorithm to the MSLP (mean sea level pressure field. On annual basis, we find a statistically significant difference in vast cyclogenesis regions (northern Adriatic, Sirte Gulf, Aegean Sea and southern Turkey and in lifetime, giving evidence of the effect of both land–sea contrast and surface heat flux intensity and spatial distribution on cyclone characteristics. Moreover, annual mean convective precipitation changes significantly in the two model climatologies as a consequence of differences in both air–sea interaction strength and frequency of cyclogenesis in the two analyzed simulations.

  19. Chromosomal minimal critical regions in therapy-related leukemia appear different from those of de novo leukemia by high-resolution aCGH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Itzhar

    Full Text Available Therapy-related acute leukemia (t-AML, is a severe complication of cytotoxic therapy used for primary cancer treatment. The outcome of these patients is poor, compared to people who develop de novo acute leukemia (p-AML. Cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML are similar to those found in p-AML but present more frequent unfavorable karyotypes depending on the inducting agent. Losses of chromosome 5 or 7 are observed after alkylating agents while balanced translocations are found after topoisomerase II inhibitors. This study compared t-AML to p-AML using high resolution array CGH in order to find copy number abnormalities (CNA at a higher resolution than conventional cytogenetics. More CNAs were observed in 30 t-AML than in 36 p-AML: 104 CNAs were observed with 63 losses and 41 gains (mean number 3.46 per case in t-AML, while in p-AML, 69 CNAs were observed with 32 losses and 37 gains (mean number of 1.9 per case. In primary leukemia with a previously "normal" karyotype, 18% exhibited a previously undetected CNA, whereas in the (few t-AML with a normal karyotype, the rate was 50%. Several minimal critical regions (MCRs were found in t-AML and p-AML. No common MCRs were found in the two groups. In t-AML a 40 kb deleted MCR pointed to RUNX1 on 21q22, a gene coding for a transcription factor implicated in frequent rearrangements in leukemia and in familial thrombocytopenia. In de novo AML, a 1 Mb MCR harboring ERG and ETS2 was observed from patients with complex aCGH profiles. High resolution cytogenomics obtained by aCGH and similar techniques already published allowed us to characterize numerous non random chromosome abnormalities. This work supports the hypothesis that they can be classified into several categories: abnormalities common to all AML; those more frequently found in t-AML and those specifically found in p-AML.