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Sample records for regional atrophy rates

  1. Evaluating Alzheimer's disease progression using rate of regional hippocampal atrophy.

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    Edit Frankó

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate was similar in all three groups, but the rate was significantly higher in patients with AD than in control subjects. We also found higher atrophy rates in progressive MCI patients as compared to stable MCI, particularly in the antero-lateral portion of the right hippocampus. Importantly, the regions showing the highest atrophy rate correspond to those that were described to have the highest burden of tau deposition. Our results show that local hippocampal atrophy rate is a reliable biomarker of disease stage and progression and could also be considered as a method to objectively evaluate treatment effects.

  2. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

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    Sluimer, Jasper D. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G. [UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Cover, Keith S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olabarriaga, Silvia D. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fox, Nick C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UCL, Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Image Analysis Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 {+-} 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  3. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluimer, Jasper D.; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip; Karas, Giorgos B.; Barkhof, Frederik; Schijndel, Ronald van; Barnes, Josephine; Boyes, Richard G.; Cover, Keith S.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Fox, Nick C.; Vrenken, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 ± 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate atrophy rates in six regions: frontal, medial temporal, temporal (extramedial), parietal, occipital lobes and insular cortex. In MCI, the highest atrophy rate was observed in the medial temporal lobe, comparable with AD. AD patients showed even higher atrophy rates in the extramedial temporal lobe. Additionally, atrophy rates in frontal, parietal and occipital lobes were increased. Cox proportional hazard models showed that all regional atrophy rates predicted conversion to AD. Hazard ratios varied between 2.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2) for occipital atrophy and 15.8 (95% CI = 3.5-71.8) for medial temporal lobe atrophy. In conclusion, atrophy spreads through the brain with development of AD. MCI is marked by temporal lobe atrophy. In AD, atrophy rate in the extramedial temporal lobe was even higher. Moreover, atrophy rates also accelerated in parietal, frontal, insular and occipital lobes. Finally, in nondemented elderly, medial temporal lobe atrophy was most predictive of progression to AD, demonstrating the involvement of this region in the development of AD. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative regional validation of the visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy

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    Moeller, Christiane; Benedictus, Marije R.; Koedam, Esther L.G.M.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center and Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Adriaan; Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Validate the four-point visual rating scale for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) on magnetic resonance images (MRI) through quantitative grey matter (GM) volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to justify its use in clinical practice. Two hundred twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 128 with subjective memory complaints underwent 3T MRI. PCA was rated according to the visual rating scale. GM volumes of six posterior structures and the total posterior region were extracted using IBASPM and compared among PCA groups. To determine which anatomical regions contributed most to the visual scores, we used binary logistic regression. VBM compared local GM density among groups. Patients were categorised according to their PCA scores: PCA-0 (n = 122), PCA-1 (n = 143), PCA-2 (n = 79), and PCA-3 (n = 13). All structures except the posterior cingulate differed significantly among groups. The inferior parietal gyrus volume discriminated the most between rating scale levels. VBM showed that PCA-1 had a lower GM volume than PCA-0 in the parietal region and other brain regions, whereas between PCA-1 and PCA-2/3 GM atrophy was mostly restricted to posterior regions. The visual PCA rating scale is quantitatively validated and reliably reflects GM atrophy in parietal regions, making it a valuable tool for the daily radiological assessment of dementia. (orig.)

  6. Accelerating regional atrophy rates in the progression from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, J.D.; van der Flier, W.M.; Karas, G.B.; van Schijndel, R.; Barnes, J.; Boyes, R.G.; Cover, K.S.; Olabarriaga, S.D.; Fox, N.C.; Scheltens, P.; Vrenken, H.; Barkhof, F.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated progression of atrophy in vivo, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We included 64 patients with AD, 44 with MCI and 34 controls with serial MRI examinations (interval 1.8 +/- 0.7 years). A nonlinear registration algorithm (fluid) was used to calculate

  7. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  8. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

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    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  9. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

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    Kamiyama, Kazutoshi; Sugihara, Masaki; Wada, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  10. Patterns of regional cerebellar atrophy in genetic frontotemporal dementia

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    Martina Bocchetta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There appears to be a differential pattern of cerebellar atrophy in the major genetic forms of FTD, being relatively spared in GRN, localized to the lobule VIIa-Crus I in the superior-posterior region of the cerebellum in C9orf72, the area connected via the thalamus to the prefrontal cortex and involved in cognitive function, and localized to the vermis in MAPT, the ‘limbic cerebellum’ involved in emotional processing.

  11. Atrophy rates in asymptomatic amyloidosis: implications for Alzheimer prevention trials.

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    K Abigail Andrews

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease (AD to prevent the onset of symptoms. Cortical β-amyloid plaques, the first stage of AD pathology, can be detected in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET, and several studies have shown that ~1/3 of healthy elderly have significant β-amyloid deposition. Here we assessed whether asymptomatic amyloid-PET-positive controls have increased rates of brain atrophy, which could be harnessed as an outcome measure for AD prevention trials. We assessed 66 control subjects (age = 73.5±7.3 yrs; MMSE = 29±1.3 from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study who had a baseline Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB PET scan and two 3T MRI scans ~18-months apart. We calculated PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVR, and classified individuals as amyloid-positive/negative. Baseline and 18-month MRI scans were registered, and brain, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes and annualized volume changes calculated. Increasing baseline PiB-PET measures of β-amyloid load correlated with hippocampal atrophy rate independent of age (p = 0.014. Twenty-two (1/3 were PiB-positive (SUVR>1.40, the remaining 44 PiB-negative (SUVR≤1.31. Compared to PiB-negatives, PiB-positive individuals were older (76.8±7.5 vs. 71.7±7.5, p<0.05 and more were APOE4 positive (63.6% vs. 19.2%, p<0.01 but there were no differences in baseline brain, ventricle or hippocampal volumes, either with or without correction for total intracranial volume, once age and gender were accounted for. The PiB-positive group had greater total hippocampal loss (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.02±0.05 ml/yr, p = 0.02, independent of age and gender, with non-significantly higher rates of whole brain (7.1±9.4 vs. 4.7±5.5 ml/yr and ventricular (2.0±3.0 vs. 1.1±1.0 ml/yr change. Based on the observed effect size, recruiting 384 (95%CI 195-1080 amyloid-positive subjects/arm will provide 80% power to detect 25

  12. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Kitamura, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  13. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Kitamura, Shin [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo

    1983-04-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways.

  14. Normalized regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis

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    Zivadinov, Robert; Locatelli, Laura; Stival, Barbara; Bratina, Alessio; Nasuelli, Davide; Zorzon, Marino; Grop, Attilio; Brnabic-Razmilic, Ozana

    2003-01-01

    There is still a controversy regarding the best regional brain atrophy measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies. The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlate better with the MRI-defined regional brain lesions than the absolute measurements of regional brain atrophy. We assessed 45 patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting (RR) MS (median disease duration 12 years), and measured T1-lesion load (LL) and T2-LL of frontal lobes and pons, using a reproducible semi-automated technique. The regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of frontal lobes and pons was obtained by use of a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semi-automated and automated segmentation processes. A normalized measurement, the regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF), was calculated as the ratio of RBPV to the total volume of the parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons. The total regional brain volume fraction (TRBVF) was obtained after we had corrected for the total volume of the parenchyma and the CSF in the frontal lobes and in the region of the pons for the total intracranial volume. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for RBPF of the pons was 1% for intra-observer reproducibility and 1.4% for inter-observer reproducibility. Generally, the normalized measurements of regional brain atrophy correlated with regional brain volumes and disability better than did the absolute measurements. RBPF and TRBVF correlated with T2-LL of the pons (r=-0.37, P=0.011, and r= -0.40, P=0.0005 respectively) and with T1-LL of the pons (r=-0.27, P=0.046, and r=-0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas RBPV did not (r=-0.18, P = NS). T1-LL of the frontal lobes was related to RBPF (r=-0.32, P=0.033) and TRBVF (r=-0.29, P=0.05), but not to RBPV (R=-0.27, P= NS). There was only a trend of correlation between T2-LL of the frontal lobes and

  15. Chronic Depressive Symptomatology in Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Frontal Atrophy Rate which Hastens Conversion to Alzheimer Dementia.

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    Sacuiu, Simona; Insel, Philip S; Mueller, Susanne; Tosun, Duygu; Mattsson, Niklas; Jack, Clifford R; DeCarli, Charles; Petersen, Ronald; Aisen, Paul S; Weiner, Michael W; Mackin, R Scott

    2016-02-01

    Investigate the association of chronic depressive symptomatology (chrDS) with cortical atrophy rates and conversion to Alzheimer dementia (AD) over 3 years in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a multicenter, clinic-based study, MCI elderly participants were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, based on availability of both serial structural magnetic resonance imaging and chrDS endorsed on three depression-related items from the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (chrDS N = 32 or no depressive symptoms N = 62) throughout follow-up. Clinical and laboratory investigations were performed every 6 months during the first 2 years and yearly thereafter (median follow-up: 3 years; interquartile range: 1.5-4.0 years). Cortical atrophy rates in 16 predefined frontotemporoparietal regions affected in major depression and AD and the rate of incident AD at follow-up. ChrDS in a single domain amnestic MCI sample were associated with accelerated cortical atrophy in the frontal lobe and anterior cingulate but not with atrophy rates in temporomedial or other AD-affected regions. During follow-up, 38 participants (42.7%) developed AD. Participants with chrDS had 60% shorter conversion time to AD than those without depressive symptoms. This association remained significant in survival models adjusted for temporomedial atrophy rates and showed the same trend in models adjusted for frontal cortical atrophy rate, which all increased the risk of AD. Our results suggest that chrDS associated with progressive atrophy of frontal regions may represent an additional risk factor for conversion to dementia in MCI as opposite to representing typical prodromal AD symptomatology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  17. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA: a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS. This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meaning of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy (TA with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA. In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  18. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew; Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M.; Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Parsons, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  19. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A. [The University of Melbourne, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shoutai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mituhiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID. (author)

  1. Cortical volumes and atrophy rates in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers and related non-carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Østergaard, Lasse R; Rodell, Anders B

    2008-01-01

    with a mean interval of 16 months and surface based cortical segmentation we measured cortical thickness and volume, and quantified atrophy rates. Cortical thickness and atrophy rates were averaged within major lobes and focal effects were determined by parametric statistical maps. The volumetric atrophy...... in the frontal and occipital lobes, and in the left temporal lobe. Results indicated that cortical thickness has a higher sensitivity for detecting small changes than whole-brain volumetric measures. Comparing mutation carriers with non-carriers revealed increased atrophy rates in mutation carriers bilaterally...

  2. Deficits in memory and visuospatial learning correlate with regional hippocampal atrophy in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has a critical role in episodic memory and visuospatial learning and consolidation. We assessed the patterns of whole and regional hippocampal atrophy in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their correlations with neuropsychological impairment. From 103 MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), brain dual-echo and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla scanner. All patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment of hippocampal-related cognitive functions, including Paired Associate Word Learning, Short Story, delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Paced Auditory Serial Attention tests. The hippocampi were manually segmented and volumes derived. Regional atrophy distribution was assessed using a radial mapping analysis. Correlations between hippocampal atrophy and clinical, neuropsychological and MRI metrics were also evaluated. Hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients vs HC (p right and hippocampus). In MS patients, radial atrophy affected CA1 subfield and subiculum of posterior hippocampus, bilaterally. The dentate hilus (DG:H) of the right hippocampal head was also affected. Regional hippocampal atrophy correlated with brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes, while no correlation was found with disability. Damage to the CA1 and subiculum was significantly correlated to the performances at hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological tests. These results show that hippocampal subregions have a different vulnerability to MS-related damage, with a relative sparing of the head of the left hippocampus. The assessment of regional hippocampal atrophy may help explain deficits of specific cognitive functions in MS patients, including memory and visuospatial abilities.

  3. Whole-brain atrophy rate and cognitive decline: longitudinal MR study of memory clinic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, J.D.; van der Flier, W.M.; Karas, G.B.; Fox, N.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Vrenken, H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whole-brain atrophy rate in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) and its association with cognitive decline, and investigate the risk of progression to dementia in initially non-demented patients given baseline brain volume and whole-brain

  4. A cross-sectional MRI study of brain regional atrophy and clinical characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Applying a cross-sectional design, we set out to further characterize the significance of extrahippocampal brain atrophy in a large sample of \\'sporadic\\' mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE+HS). By evaluating the influence of epilepsy chronicity on structural atrophy, this work represents an important step towards the characterization of MRI-based volumetric measurements as genetic endophenotypes for this condition. METHODS: Using an automated brain segmentation technique, MRI-based volume measurements of several brain regions were compared between 75 patients with \\'sporadic\\' MTLE+HS and 50 healthy controls. Applying linear regression models, we examined the relationship between structural atrophy and important clinical features of MTLE+HS, including disease duration, lifetime number of partial and generalized seizures, and history of initial precipitating insults (IPIs). RESULTS: Significant volume loss was detected in ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and cerebral white matter (WM). In addition, contralateral hippocampal and bilateral cerebellar grey matter (GM) volume loss was observed in left MTLE+HS patients. Hippocampal, amygdalar, and cerebral WM volume loss correlated with duration of epilepsy. This correlation was stronger in patients with prior IPIs history. Further, cerebral WM, cerebellar GM, and contralateral hippocampal volume loss correlated with lifetime number of generalized seizures. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that multiple brain regions beyond the hippocampus are involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE+HS. IPIs are an important factor influencing the rate of regional atrophy but our results also support a role for processes related to epilepsy chronicity. The consequence of epilepsy chronicity on candidate brain regions has important implications on their application as genetic endophenotypes.

  5. Protein synthesis rates in atrophied gastrocnemius muscles after limb immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K. R.; Seider, M. J.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Noting that protein synthesis declines in the gastrocnemius 6 hr after immobilization, the study sought to detect an increase of protein synthesis when the limb was freed, and to examine the effects of exercise on the rate of increase. Rats were used as subjects, with their hind legs in plaster of Paris in plantar flexion to eliminate strain on the gastrocnemius. Periods of immobilization were varied and samples of blood from the muscle were taken to track protein synthesis rates for different groups in immobilization and exercise regimens (running and weightlifting). Synthesis rates declined 3.6% during time in the cast, then increased 6.3%/day after the casts were removed. Both running and weightlifting were found to increase the fractional rate of protein formation in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared with contralateral muscles that were not exercised and were used as controls, suggesting that the mechanism controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is rapidly responsive to changes in muscular contractile activity.

  6. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael; Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke; Murzin, Vyacheslav; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Brewer, James B.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Dale, Anders M.; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  7. Cerebral Cortex Regions Selectively Vulnerable to Radiation Dose-Dependent Atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, Tyler M.; Karunamuni, Roshan; Kaifi, Samar; Burkeen, Jeffrey; Connor, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Krishnan, Anitha Priya; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Bartsch, Hauke [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murzin, Vyacheslav [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Nguyen, Tanya T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Brewer, James B. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); McDonald, Carrie R. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Dale, Anders M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A., E-mail: jhattangadi@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. Methods and Materials: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT. The study patients underwent high-resolution, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted; T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, FLAIR) before RT and 1 year afterward. Semiautomated software was used to segment anatomic regions of the cerebral cortex for each patient. Cortical thickness was measured for each region before RT and 1 year afterward. Two higher-order cortical regions of interest (ROIs) were tested for association between radiation dose and cortical thinning: entorhinal (memory) and inferior parietal (attention/memory). For comparison, 2 primary cortex ROIs were also tested: pericalcarine (vision) and paracentral lobule (somatosensory/motor). Linear mixed-effects analyses were used to test all other cortical regions for significant radiation dose-dependent thickness change. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05 using 2-tailed tests. Results: Cortical atrophy was significantly associated with radiation dose in the entorhinal (P=.01) and inferior parietal ROIs (P=.02). By contrast, no significant radiation dose-dependent effect was found in the primary cortex ROIs (pericalcarine and paracentral lobule). In the whole-cortex analysis, 9 regions showed significant radiation dose-dependent atrophy, including areas responsible for memory, attention, and executive function (P≤.002). Conclusions: Areas of cerebral cortex important for higher-order cognition may be most vulnerable to radiation-related atrophy. This is consistent with clinical observations

  8. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Centre, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department Epidemiology and Biostatistics, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 {+-} 0.9 and 0.6 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 {+-} 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  9. Visual assessment of posterior atrophy development of a MRI rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedam, Esther L.G.E.; Scheltens, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Lehmann, Manja; Fox, Nick; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Barkhof, Frederik; Wattjes, Mike P.

    2011-01-01

    To develop a visual rating scale for posterior atrophy (PA) assessment and to analyse whether this scale aids in the discrimination between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Magnetic resonance imaging of 118 memory clinic patients were analysed for PA (range 0-3), medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (range 0-4) and global cortical atrophy (range 0-3) by different raters. Weighted-kappas were calculated for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Relationships between PA and MTA with the MMSE and age were estimated with linear-regression analysis. Intra-rater agreement ranged between 0.93 and 0.95 and inter-rater agreement between 0.65 and 0.84. Mean PA scores were higher in AD compared to controls (1.6 ± 0.9 and 0.6 ± 0.7, p < 0.01), and other dementias (0.8 ± 0.8, p < 0.01). PA was not associated with age compared to MTA (B = 1.1 (0.8) versus B = 3.1 (0.7), p < 0.01). PA and MTA were independently negatively associated with the MMSE (B = -1.6 (0.5), p < 0.01 versus B = -1.4 (0.5), p < 0.01). This robust and reproducible scale for PA assessment conveys independent information in a clinical setting and may be useful in the discrimination of AD from other dementias. (orig.)

  10. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    2010-01-01

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods...... quality control for both the acquisition and image processing were included in the study. Cortical thickness was measured using FACE (fast accurate cortex extraction) and averaged within main lobes using a stereotaxic atlas. Atrophy rates were calculated as percent decrease in cortical thickness and rate...

  11. Exosomal biomarkers of brain insulin resistance associated with regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roger J; Mustapic, Maja; Goetzl, Edward J; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ 42 ). Exosomes were isolated from plasma, enriched for neural origin using immunoprecipitation for L1CAM, and measured for pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 phosphotypes. MPRAGE images were segmented by brain tissue type and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for gray matter against pSer 312 - and p-panTyr-IRS-1 was conducted. Given the regionally variable brain expression of IRS-1, we used the Allen Brain Atlas to make spatial comparisons between VBM results and IRS-1 expression. Brain volume was positively associated with P-panTyr-IRS-1 and negatively associated with pSer 312 -IRS-1 in a strikingly similar regional pattern (bilateral parietal-occipital junction, R middle temporal gyrus). This volumetric association pattern was spatially correlated with Allen Human Brain atlas normal brain IRS-1 expression. Exosomal biomarkers of brain IR are thus associated with atrophy in AD as could be expected by their pathophysiological roles and do so in a pattern that reflects regional IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, neural-origin plasma exosomes may recover molecular signals from specific brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1933-1940, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Construction of a yeast artifical chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyn, P.W.; Wang, C.H.; Vitale, E.; Pan, J.; Ross, B.M.; Grunn, A.; Palmer, D.A.; Warburton, D.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Gilliam, T.G. (New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY (United States)); Lien, L.L.; Kunkel, L.M. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-07-15

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Atrophy in distinct corticolimbic networks in frontotemporal dementia relates to social impairments measured using the Social Impairment Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickart, Kevin C; Brickhouse, Michael; Negreira, Alyson; Sapolsky, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) often exhibit prominent, early and progressive impairments in social behaviour. We developed the Social Impairment Rating Scale (SIRS), rated by a clinician after a structured interview, which grades the types and severity of social behavioural symptoms in seven domains. In 20 FTD patients, we used the SIRS to study the anatomic basis of social impairments. In support of hypotheses generated from a prior study of healthy adults, we found that the relative magnitude of brain atrophy in three partially dissociable corticolimbic networks anchored in the amygdala predicted the severity of distinct social impairments measured using the SIRS. Patients with the greatest atrophy in a mesolimbic, reward-related (affiliation) network exhibited the most severe socioemotional detachment, whereas patients with the greatest atrophy in an interoceptive, pain-related (aversion) network exhibited the most severe lack of social apprehension. Patients with the greatest atrophy in a perceptual network exhibited the most severe lack of awareness or understanding of others’ social and emotional behaviour. Our findings underscore observations that FTD is associated with heterogeneous social symptoms that can be understood in a refined manner by measuring impairments in component processes subserved by dissociable neural networks. Furthermore, these findings support the validity of the SIRS as an instrument to measure the social symptoms of patients with FTD. Ultimately, we hope it will be useful as a longitudinal outcome measure in natural history studies and in clinical trials of putative interventions to improve social functioning. PMID:24133285

  14. Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with temporal and hippocampal atrophy rates in healthy elderly adults: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex; Lee, Grace J; Lee, Agatha; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Khoo, Theresa; Wu, Stephanie; Geschwind, Daniel; Bartzokis, George

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, the presence of the ε2 allele has been shown to mitigate cognitive decline. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM), a novel computational approach for visualizing longitudinal progression of brain atrophy, was used to determine whether cognitively intact elderly participants with the ε4 allele demonstrate greater volume reduction than those with the ε2 allele. Healthy "younger elderly" volunteers, aged 55-75, were recruited from the community and hospital staff. They were evaluated with a baseline and follow-up MRI scan (mean scan interval = 4.72 years, s.d. = 0.55) and completed ApoE genotyping. Twenty-seven participants were included in the study of which 16 had the ε4 allele (all heterozygous ε3ε4 genotype) and 11 had the ε2ε3 genotype. The two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic characteristics and all subjects were cognitively "normal" at both baseline and follow-up time points. TBM was used to create 3D maps of local brain tissue atrophy rates for individual participants; these spatially detailed 3D maps were compared between the two ApoE groups. Regional analyses were performed and the ε4 group demonstrated significantly greater annual atrophy rates in the temporal lobes (p = 0.048) and hippocampus (p = 0.016); greater volume loss was observed in the right hippocampus than the left. TBM appears to be useful in tracking longitudinal progression of brain atrophy in cognitively asymptomatic adults. Possession of the ε4 allele is associated with greater temporal and hippocampal volume reduction well before the onset of cognitive deficits.

  15. Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  16. Alzheimer disease brain atrophy subtypes are associated with cognition and rate of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risacher, Shannon L; Anderson, Wesley H; Charil, Arnaud; Castelluccio, Peter F; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Saykin, Andrew J; Schwarz, Adam J

    2017-11-21

    To test the hypothesis that cortical and hippocampal volumes, measured in vivo from volumetric MRI (vMRI) scans, could be used to identify variant subtypes of Alzheimer disease (AD) and to prospectively predict the rate of clinical decline. Amyloid-positive participants with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) 1 and ADNI2 with baseline MRI scans (n = 229) and 2-year clinical follow-up (n = 100) were included. AD subtypes (hippocampal sparing [HpSp MRI ], limbic predominant [LP MRI ], typical AD [tAD MRI ]) were defined according to an algorithm analogous to one recently proposed for tau neuropathology. Relationships between baseline hippocampal volume to cortical volume ratio (HV:CTV) and clinical variables were examined by both continuous regression and categorical models. When participants were divided categorically, the HpSp MRI group showed significantly more AD-like hypometabolism on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET ( p Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, 13-Item Subscale (ADAS-Cog 13 ), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Functional Assessment Questionnaire (all p < 0.05) and tAD MRI on the MMSE and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) (both p < 0.05). Finally, a larger HV:CTV was associated with poorer baseline executive function and a faster slope of decline in CDR-SB, MMSE, and ADAS-Cog 13 score ( p < 0.05). These associations were driven mostly by the amount of cortical rather than hippocampal atrophy. AD subtypes with phenotypes consistent with those observed with tau neuropathology can be identified in vivo with vMRI. An increased HV:CTV ratio was predictive of faster clinical decline in participants with AD who were clinically indistinguishable at baseline except for a greater dysexecutive presentation. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Impairment of visuospatial/visuoconstructional skills in multiple sclerosis patients: the correlation with regional lesion load and subcortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasescu, R; Cerezo Garcia, M; Aladro Benito, Y

    2016-04-01

    About 20% to 26% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) show alterations in visuospatial/visuoconstructive (VS-VC) skills even though temporo-parieto-occipital impairment is a frequent finding in magnetic resonance imaging. No studies have specifically analysed the relationship between these functions and lesion volume (LV) in these specific brain areas. To evaluate the relationship between VS-VC impairment and magnetic resonance imaging temporo-parieto-occipital LV with subcortical atrophy in patients with MS. Of 100 MS patients undergoing a routine neuropsychological evaluation, 21 were selected because they displayed VS-VC impairments in the following tests: Incomplete picture, Block design (WAIS-III), and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. We also selected 13 MS patients without cognitive impairment (control group). Regional LV was measured in FLAIR and T1-weighted images using a semiautomated method; subcortical atrophy was measured by bicaudate ratio and third ventricle width. Partial correlations (controlling for age and years of school) and linear regression analysis were employed to analyse correlations between magnetic resonance imaging parameters and cognitive performance. All measures of LV and brain atrophy were significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment. Regional LV, bicaudate ratio, and third ventricle width are significantly and inversely correlated with cognitive performance; the strongest correlation was between third ventricle width and VC performance (Block design: P=.001; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P<.000). In the multivariate analysis, third ventricle width only had a significant effect on performance of VC tasks (Block design: P=.000; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: P=.000), and regional FLAIR VL was linked to the VS task (Incomplete picture; P=.002). Measures of subcortical atrophy explain the variations in performance on visuocostructive tasks, and regional FLAIR VL measures are linked to VS tasks. Copyright © 2015

  18. Multiple sclerosis patients lacking oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid have less global and regional brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniel; Voevodskaya, Olga; Imrell, Kerstin; Stawiarz, Leszek; Spulber, Gabriela; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Hillert, Jan; Westman, Eric; Karrenbauer, Virginija Danylaité

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal immunoglobulin G bands (OCB) differ in brain atrophy. Twenty-eight OCB-negative and thirty-five OCB-positive patients were included. Larger volumes of total CSF and white matter (WM) lesions; smaller gray matter (GM) volume in the basal ganglia, diencephalon, cerebellum, and hippocampus; and smaller WM volume in corpus callosum, periventricular-deep WM, brainstem, and cerebellum, were observed in OCB-positives. OCB-negative patients, known to differ genetically from OCB-positives, are characterized by less global and regional brain atrophy. This finding supports the notion that OCB-negative MS patients may represent a clinically relevant MS subgroup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional differences of relationships between atrophy and glucose metabolism of cerebral cortex in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, H.; Uemura, K.; Kanekiyo, S.; Ishii, K.; Ishii, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to estimate a correlation between the extent of atrophy and the decline in the brain function measured with PET study among the patients with Alzheimer's disease by each brain lobe. Materials and Methods: Two groups, the normal controls (male: 8, female: 22 age: 62.4±4.9) and the patients with Alzheimer's disease (male: 6, female: 24, age: 65.9±7.2) participated in this study. The extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted gyrus on 2D-projection magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the cerebral cortical glucose metabolism was assessed on 2D-projection positron emission tomography (PET) image, and then a relationship between the cerebral atrophy and the function was evaluated by each brain lobe extracted automatically. 2D-projection of PET and MR images were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. In order to extract brain lobes from each subject automatically, the bitmap with different value by each brain lobe was made from a standard brain image and was automatically transformed to match each subject's brain image by using SPM99. A correlation image was generated between 2D-projection images of glucose metabolism and the area of the sulcus and the gyrus extracted from the correlation between MR and PET images clustered by K-means method. Results: The glucose metabolism of Alzheimer's disease was lower than that of normal control subjects at the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes with the same extent of atrophy as that of the normal. There was high correlation between the area of gyrus and the glucose metabolism, and the correlation tendency of the Alzheimer's disease was steeper than that of the normal control at the parietal lobe. Conclusions: Combined analysis of regional morphology and function may be useful to distinguish pathological process such as early stage of Alzheimer's disease from normal physiological aging

  20. Macro-regional variation in attitudes toward and experiences of vulvar and vaginal atrophy among Italian post-menopausal women: a post hoc analysis of REVIVE survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Particco, Martire; Biglia, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Di Carlo, Costantino; Luisi, Stefano; Paoletti, Anna Maria

    2017-05-01

    Italian participants in the European REVIVE survey reported that vaginal and vulvar atrophy (VVA) impaired various aspects of their lives, notably the ability to enjoy sex. The aim of the present study was to explore regional differences in knowledge, experiences, and treatment of VVA in the Italian REVIVE sample (n = 1000), which was analyzed according to region of residence. While many respondents were unfamiliar with the VVA condition, most could relate their VVA symptoms to the menopause. The rate of diagnosis of VVA was twice as high in Central Italy as in the North-East. For individual VVA symptoms, 25.4-41.6% of respondents judged that the symptom had worsened over time. There were no significant regional differences for symptoms in terms of reported rate, change in severity, impact on sexual activity, or health-care visits. Testosterone cream and OTC medication based on hyaluronic acid showed significant regional differences in lifetime rates of use. In Italy, there are modest regional differences in knowledge, diagnosis, and treatment of VVA, some of which may be explained by inter-regional differences in health care. Further efforts are needed to ensure that Italian women are properly informed about VVA and have access to appropriate health care and treatments.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT). Comparing with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and aged control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Kitani, M; Tsunematsu, T

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the reduction of cerebal blood flow and brain atrophy in SDAT, these were measured in 13 cases of senile dementia of Alzheimer type, and compared to 15 cases of multi-infarct Dementia, 39 cases of lacunar infarction without dementia (non-demented CVD group) and 69 cases of aged normal control. Brain atrophy was evaluated by two-dimensional method on CT film by digitizer and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. The degree of brain atrophy in SDAT was almost similar of that of MID. But it was more severe than that of non-demented group. MID showed the lowest rCBF among these groups. SDAT showed significantly lower rCBF than that of aged control, but rCBF in SDAT was equal to that of lacunar stroke without dementia. Focal reduction of cerebral blood flow in bilateral fronto-parietal and left occipital regions were observed in SDAT. Verbal intelligence score (Hasegawa's score) correlated with rCBF and brain atrophy index in MID, and a tendency of correlation between rCBF and brain atrophy in MID was also observed. However, there was no correlation among those indices in SDAT. These findings suggest that the loss of brain substance dose not correspond to the reduction of rCBF in SDAT and simultaneous measurement of rCBF and brain atrophy was useful to differ SDAT from MID.

  2. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A David Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins.To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159.Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B(6 and B(12 in 271 individuals (of 646 screened over 70 y old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187 volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d, vitamin B(12 (0.5 mg/d and vitamin B(6 (20 mg/d, the other with placebo; treatment was for 24 months. The main outcome measure was the change in the rate of atrophy of the whole brain assessed by serial volumetric MRI scans.A total of 168 participants (85 in active treatment group; 83 receiving placebo completed the MRI section of the trial. The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [95% CI, 0.63-0.90] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [0.94-1.22] in the placebo group (P =  0.001. The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine >13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P =  0.001. A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores. There was no difference in serious adverse events according to treatment category.The accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly with mild cognitive impairment can be slowed by treatment with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins. Sixteen percent of those over 70 y old have mild

  3. Global and regional brain atrophy is associated with low or retrograde facial vein flow in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jakimovski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased collateral facial vein (FV flow may be associated with structural damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The objective was to assess differences in FV flow and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-derived outcomes in MS. The study included 136 MS patients who underwent neck and head vascular system examination by echo-color Doppler. Inflammatory MRI markers were assessed on a 3T MRI using a semi-automated edge detection and contouring/ thresholding technique. MRI volumetric outcomes of whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, cortex, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF, deep gray matter (DGM, thalamus, caudate nucleus (CN, putamen, globus pallidus (GP, and hippocampus were calculated. Independent t-test and ANCOVA, adjusted for age, were used to compare groups based on FV flow quartiles. Thirty-four MS patients with FV flow ≤327.8 mL/min (lowest quartile had significantly lower WB (P327.8 mL/min (higher quartiles. There were no differences in T1-, T2- and gadolinium- enhancing lesion volumes between the quartile groups. The lack of an association between FV blood flow and inflammatory MRI measures in MS patients, but an association with brain atrophy, suggests that the severity of neurodegenerative process may be related to hemodynamic alterations. MS patients with more advanced global and regional brain atrophy showed low or retrograde FV volume flow.

  4. Regional Hippocampal Atrophy and Higher Levels of Plasma Amyloid-Beta Are Associated With Subjective Memory Complaints in Nondemented Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Jose L; Iglesias, Juan E.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests a link between the presence of subjective memory complaints (SMC) and lower volume of the hippocampus, one of the first regions to show neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown whether this pattern of hippocampal atrophy is region...

  5. Rates of ubiquitin conjugation increase when muscles atrophy, largely through activation of the N-end rule pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, V.; Baracos, V.; Sarraf, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The rapid loss of muscle mass that accompanies many disease states, such as cancer or sepsis, is primarily a result of increased protein breakdown in muscle, and several observations have suggested an activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Accordingly, in extracts of atrophying muscles from tumor-bearing or septic rats, rates of 125I-ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins were found to be higher than in control extracts. On the other hand, in extracts of muscles from hypothyroid rats, where overall proteolysis is reduced below normal, the conjugation of 125I-ubiquitin to soluble proteins decreased by 50%, and treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) restored ubiquitination to control levels. Surprisingly, the N-end rule pathway, which selectively degrades proteins with basic or large hydrophobic N-terminal residues, was found to be responsible for most of these changes in ubiquitin conjugation. Competitive inhibitors of this pathway that specifically block the ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, suppressed most of the increased ubiquitin conjugation in the muscle extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats. These inhibitors also suppressed ubiquitination in normal extracts toward levels in hypothyroid extracts, which showed little E3alpha-dependent ubiquitination. Thus, the inhibitors eliminated most of the differences in ubiquitination under these different pathological conditions. Moreover, 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, was ubiquitinated more rapidly in extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats, and more slowly in those from hypothyroid rats, than in controls. Thus, the rate of ubiquitin conjugation increases in atrophying muscles, and these hormone- and cytokine-dependent responses are in large part due to activation of the N-end rule pathway.

  6. Fronto-striatal atrophy correlates of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seok Yi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Behavioural disturbances in frontotemporal dementia (FTD are thought to reflect mainly atrophy of cortical regions. Recent studies suggest that subcortical brain regions, in particular the striatum, are also significantly affected and this pathology might play a role in the generation of behavioural symptoms. Objective: To investigate prefrontal cortical and striatal atrophy contributions to behavioural symptoms in FTD. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two participants (87 FTD patients, 39 AD patients and 56 controls were included. Behavioural profiles were established using the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory Revised (CBI-R and Frontal System Behaviour Scale (FrSBe. Atrophy in prefrontal (VMPFC, DLPFC and striatal (caudate, putamen regions was established via a 5-point visual rating scale of the MRI scans. Behavioural scores were correlated with atrophy rating scores. Results: Behavioural and atrophy ratings demonstrated that patients were significantly impaired compared to controls, with bvFTD being most severely affected. Behavioural-anatomical correlations revealed that VMPFC atrophy was closely related to abnormal behaviour and motivation disturbances. Stereotypical behaviours were associated with both VMPFC and striatal atrophy. By contrast, disturbance of eating was found to be related to striatal atrophy only. Conclusion: Frontal and striatal atrophy contributed to the behavioural disturbances seen in FTD, with some behaviours related to frontal, striatal or combined fronto-striatal pathology. Consideration of striatal contributions to the generation of behavioural disturbances should be taken into account when assessing patients with potential FTD.

  7. Usefulness of medial temporal lobe atrophy visual rating scale in detecting Alzheimer′s disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Heo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE and the Korean version of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (K-ACE have been validated as quick neuropsychological tests for screening dementia in various clinical settings. Medial temporal atrophy (MTA is an early pathological characteristic of Alzheimer′s disease (AD. We aimed to assess the diagnostic validity of the fusion of the neuropsychological test and visual rating scale (VRS of MTA in AD. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty subjects (25 AD, 25 controls were included. The neuropsychological tests used were the K-MMSE and the K-ACE. T1 axial imaging visual rating scale (VRS was applied for assessing the grade of MTA. We calculated the fusion score with the difference of neuropsychological test and VRS of MTA. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was used to determine optimal cut-off score, sensitivity and specificity of the fusion scores in screening AD. Results: No significant differences in age, gender and education were found between AD and control group. The values of K-MMSE, K-ACE, CDR, VRS and cognitive function test minus VRS were significantly lower in the AD group than control group. The AUC (Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity for K-MMSE minus VRS were 0.857, 84% and 80% and for K-ACE minus VRS were 0.884, 80% and 88%, respectively. Those for K-MMSE only were 0.842, 76% and 72% and for K-ACE only were 0.868, 80% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: The fusion of the neuropsychological test and VRS suggested clinical usefulness in their easy and superiority over neuropsychological test only. However, this study failed to find any difference. This may be because of small numbers in the study or because there is no true difference.

  8. Computed tomography in alcoholic cerebellar atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubek, A; Lee, K [Hvidovre Hospital Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology; Municipal Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology)

    1979-01-01

    This is a controlled CT evaluation of the infratentorial region in 41 male alcoholics under age 35. Criteria for the presence of atrophy are outlined. Twelve patients had cerebellar atrophy. Vermian atrophy was present in all. Atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres was demonstrated in eight patients as well. The results are statistically significant when compared to an age-matched group of 40 non-alcoholic males among whom two cases of vermian atrophy were found. There were clinical signs of alcoholic cerebellar atrophy in one patient only. The disparity between the clinical and the radiological data are discussed with reference to previous pneumoencephalographic findings. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO.

  9. Regional labour market research on participation rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of 17 empirical studies in which the participation rate has been estimated with the help of regional data. After defining and pointing our the orientation of regional labour market research on participation rates, three methodological issues dominate the

  10. Regional patterns of grey matter atrophy and magnetisation transfer ratio abnormalities in multiple sclerosis clinical subgroups: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Shahrukh; Muhlert, Nils; Samson, Rebecca S; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-04-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping. MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation. These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently. © The Author(s), 2014.

  11. Simplifying the Treatment of Bone Atrophy in the Posterior Regions: Combination of Zygomatic and Wide-Short Implants—A Case Report with 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Faot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of maxillary and mandibular bone atrophy represents one of the main challenges of modern oral implantology because it requires a variety of procedures, which not only differ technically, but also differ in their results. In the face of limitations such as deficiencies in the height and thickness of the alveolar structure, prosthetic rehabilitation has sought to avoid large bone reconstruction through bone grafting; this clinical behavior has become a treatment system based on evidence from clinical scientific research. In the treatment of atrophic maxilla, the use of zygomatic implants has been safely applied as a result of extreme technical rigor and mastery of this surgical skill. For cases of posterior mandibular atrophy, short implants with a large diameter and a combination of short and long implants have been recommended to improve biomechanical resistance. These surgical alternatives have demonstrated a success rate similar to that of oral rehabilitation with the placing of conventional implants, allowing the adoption of immediate loading protocol, a decrease in morbidity, simplification and speed of the treatment, and cost reduction. This case report presents complete oral rehabilitation in a patient with bilateral bone atrophy in the posterior regions of the maxilla and mandible with the goal of developing and increasing posterior occlusal stability during immediate loading.

  12. Regional brain stem atrophy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease detected by anatomical MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jubault

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dysfunction of dopaminergic dependent cortico-basal ganglia loops and diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms (tremors and/or rigidity and bradykinesia. Post-mortem studies tend to show that the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra constitutes an intermediate step in a broader neurodegenerative process rather than a unique feature of Parkinson's disease, as a consistent pattern of progression would exist, originating from the medulla oblongata/pontine tegmentum. To date, neuroimaging techniques have been unable to characterize the pre-symptomatic stages of PD. However, if such a regular neurodegenerative pattern were to exist, consistent damages would be found in the brain stem, even at early stages of the disease. We recruited 23 PD patients at Hoenn and Yahr stages I to II of the disease and 18 healthy controls (HC matched for age. T1-weighted anatomical scans were acquired (MPRAGE, 1 mm3 resolution and analyzed using an optimized VBM protocol to detect white and grey matter volume reduction without spatial a priori. When the HC group was compared to the PD group, a single cluster exhibited statistical difference (p<0.05 corrected for false detection rate, 4287 mm3 in the brain stem, between the pons and the medulla oblongata. The present study provides in-vivo evidence that brain stem damage may be the first identifiable stage of PD neuropathology, and that the identification of this consistent damage along with other factors could help with earlier diagnosis in the future. This damage could also explain some non-motor symptoms in PD that often precede diagnosis, such as autonomic dysfunction and sleep disorders.

  13. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria; Bergstroem, Jakob; Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan; Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders; Ekbom, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  14. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and age-related brain atrophy: a quantitative study with computed tomography and the xenon-133 inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatazawa, J.; Kubota, K.; Abe, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and two subjects (40 men and 62 women) neither having a history of neurologic deficits nor showing organic lesions on computed tomographic examination of the brain were studied. Ages of the subjects ranged from 26 to 81 years. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method, and the volume percentage of brain with respect to the cranial cavity (craniocerebral index) was calculated by means of computer programs. Regional cerebral blood flow was computed as the fast component of two-compartmental analysis and as the initial slope index value. The percentage of each subject's craniocerebral index in relation to the standard for subjects with non-atrophied brains (brain volume index) was calculated as the indicator of brain atrophy. Both the mean brain fast component values and the mean brain initial slope index values correlated closely with the brain volume index in the elderly. Low cerebral blood flow values coincided with loss of brain substance in the final stage of age-related brain atrophy, but not in the intermediate stage

  15. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism associated with ataxic gait. An FDG-PET activation study in patients with olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Masahiro; Ohyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akirou; Senda, Michio; Ishii, Kenji.

    1995-01-01

    In 7 patients with olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), regional cerebral glucose metabolism was evaluated using 18 F-FDG PET under two different conditions; 30 minutes' treadmill walking, and supine resting. The two sets of PET images were three-dimensionally registered to the MRI. Then, the PET images were normalized by the global value. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, pons, and thalamus, and FDG uptake was obtained to calculate the activation ratio (=[FDG uptake under walking]/ [FDG uptake under resting]) for each region. Normalized resting FDG uptake had no significant difference between controls and OPCA patients in any region. Activation ratio of OPCA patients was significantly decreased in the cerebellar vermis compared with the controls. In the controls, FDG uptake had little difference between resting and walking in the cerebellar hemisphere, pons and thalamus. On the other hand, the FDG uptake of OPCA patients was moderately increased by walking in these regions. The reduction of activation ratio in the cerebellar vermis reflects the dysfunction caused by degeneration. The result suggests that the PET activation study can demonstrate cerebellar dysfunction in the early phase of OPCA, in which other neuro-imaging methods cannot detect the tissue atrophy, hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in the resting state. In the cerebellar hemisphere, pons and thalamus, the activation ratio was nearly equal to one in control subjects, while it was larger in OPCA patients. The instability during the ataxic gait increases the inputs from the vestibular, somatosensory and visual systems to these regions and outputs from these regions to the other neural systems. In conclusion, PET activation study is a useful and noninvasive technique for investigating the brain function associated with human gait. (H.O.)

  16. Comparison of regional brain atrophy and cognitive impairment between pure akinesia with gait freezing and Richardson's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Yong; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Ham, Jee Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Sohn, Young H.; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2015-01-01

    Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is considered a clinical phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy. The brain atrophy and cognitive deficits in PAGF are expected to be less prominent than in classical Richardson's syndrome (RS), but this hypothesis has not been explored yet. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with probable RS, 19 with PAGF, and 29 healthy controls, and compared cortical thickness, subcortical gray matter volume, and neuropsychological performance among the three groups. Patients with PAGF had thinner cortices in frontal, inferior parietal, and temporal areas compared with controls; however, areas of cortical thinning in PAGF patients were less extensive than those in RS patients. In PAGF patients, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes were also smaller than controls, whereas subcortical gray matter volumes in PAGF and RS patients were comparable. In a comparison of neuropsychological tests, PAGF patients had better cognitive performance in executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function than RS patients had. These results demonstrate that cognitive impairment, cortical thinning, and subcortical gray matter atrophy in PAGF patients resemble to those in RS patients, though the severity of cortical thinning and cognitive dysfunction is milder. Our results suggest that, PAGF and RS may share same pathology but that it appears to affect a smaller proportion of the cortex in PAGF. PMID:26483680

  17. Comparison of regional brain atrophy and cognitive impairment between pure akinesia with gait freezing and Richardson’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong eHong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF is considered a clinical phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy. The brain atrophy and cognitive deficits in PAGF are expected to be less prominent than in classical Richardson’s syndrome (RS, but this hypothesis has not been explored yet. We reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with probable RS, 19 with PAGF, and 29 healthy controls, and compared cortical thickness, subcortical grey matter volume, and neuropsychological performance among the three groups. Patients with PAGF had thinner cortices in frontal, inferior parietal, and temporal areas compared with controls; however, areas of cortical thinning in PAGF patients were less extensive than those in RS patients. In PAGF patients, hippocampal and thalamic volumes were also smaller than controls, whereas subcortical grey matter volumes in PAGF and RS patients were comparable. In a comparison of neuropsychological tests, PAGF patients had better cognitive performance in executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function than RS patients had. These results demonstrate that cognitive impairment, cortical thinning, and subcortical grey matter atrophy in PAGF patients resemble to those in RS patients, though the severity of cortical thinning and cognitive dysfunction is milder. Our results suggest that PAGF and RS may share same pathology but that it appears to affect a smaller proportion of the cortex in PAGF.

  18. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19...... hand and the functional ability of the SCI participants measured by the clinical motor score on the other. There was no significant correlation between activation in any other cerebral area and the motor score. Activation in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1), M1 and PMC was negatively correlated...... to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials...

  19. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  20. Automated geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images using region-based C-V model via local similarity factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sijie; de Sisternes, Luis; Chen, Qiang; Leng, Theodore; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among elderly individuals. Geographic atrophy (GA) is a phenotypic manifestation of the advanced stages of non-exudative AMD. Determination of GA extent in SD-OCT scans allows the quantification of GA-related features, such as radius or area, which could be of important value to monitor AMD progression and possibly identify regions of future GA involvement. The purpose of this work is to develop an automated algorithm to segment GA regions in SD-OCT images. An en face GA fundus image is generated by averaging the axial intensity within an automatically detected sub-volume of the three dimensional SD-OCT data, where an initial coarse GA region is estimated by an iterative threshold segmentation method and an intensity profile set, and subsequently refined by a region-based Chan-Vese model with a local similarity factor. Two image data sets, consisting on 55 SD-OCT scans from twelve eyes in eight patients with GA and 56 SD-OCT scans from 56 eyes in 56 patients with GA, respectively, were utilized to quantitatively evaluate the automated segmentation algorithm. We compared results obtained by the proposed algorithm, manual segmentation by graders, a previously proposed method, and experimental commercial software. When compared to a manually determined gold standard, our algorithm presented a mean overlap ratio (OR) of 81.86% and 70% for the first and second data sets, respectively, while the previously proposed method OR was 72.60% and 65.88% for the first and second data sets, respectively, and the experimental commercial software OR was 62.40% for the second data set.

  1. The value of structural MRI measurements of cerebral atrophy in predicting the rate of cognitive decline in the non-demented elderly: a GEE analysis based on data from the Vienna transdanube aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was the assessment of various structural measurements of cerebral atrophy at baseline and the evaluation of their potential value in predicting future cognitive decline in a longitudinal study design. Data were drawn from the Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study. Magnetic resonance images of 532 subjects aged 75-76 years at baseline were analyzed to assess 8 different cerebral atrophy markers. A population averaged model with the corresponding analytical technique of generalized estimating equations (GEE) were applied to the birth-cohort to assess associations between the MRI-based atrophy markers and 6 cognitive test scores at baseline and two follow-up investigations. Cognitive tests were comprised of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), Verbal Fluency (VF) and the Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA, TMTB). Vascular risk factors and several other covariates that were available in the VITA database were included as additional predictors in the longitudinal data analysis. Severity of right hippocampal head atrophy predicted the rate of cognitive decline in all 6 test scores. (MMSE: β =-0.507; p = 0.002, BNT: β = -1.090; p = 0.004, FOME: β = -0.291; p = 0.003, VF: β = 0.718; p = 0.025, TMTA: Exp(β) = 0.123; p [de

  2. Brain atrophy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Takeda, Shumpei; Hatazawa, Jun

    1985-01-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT and following results were obtained. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34 -- 35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multiinfarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extents of brain atrophy (20 -- 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Some aged subjects had little or no atrophy of their brains, as seen in young subjects, and others had markedly shrunken brains associated with senility. From these results there must be pathological factors promoting brain atrophy with a great individual difference. We have studied the relation of intelligence to brain volume, and have ascertained that progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was decrease in the cerebral blood flow. MNR-CT can easily detected small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy, while X-CT can not. Therefore NMR-CT is very useful for detection of subtle changes in the brain. (J.P.N.)

  3. Regional variation in rates of pediatric perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarda, Samir; Short, Heather L; Hockenberry, Jason M; McCarthy, Ian; Raval, Mehul V

    2017-09-01

    While trends in perforated appendicitis (PA) rates have been studied, regional variability in pediatric admissions for PA remains unknown. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the 2006-2012 Kids' Inpatient Database was conducted to examine variation in PA admission rates by region of the United States and insurance status. PA rates were calculated and reported as per 1000 admissions in accordance with national quality measure specifications. National PA rates per 1000 admissions for 2006, 2009, and 2012 were 313.9, 279.2, and 309.1, respectively. Similarly, all regions demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in PA rates between 2006 and 2009 (pappendicitis, geographic region and insurance status appear to be associated with perforation upon presentation. Understanding regional variation in pediatric PA rates may inform health policymakers in the constantly evolving insurance coverage landscape. Level III Treatment Study - Retrospective comparative study of appendicitis presentation in children by region of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti DV

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito MorettiNational Institute for the research and cure of Alzheimer’s disease, S. John of God, Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: An increased electroencephalographic (EEG upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance.Methods: EEG α3/α2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment.Results: In the higher α3/α2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups.Conclusion: A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.Keywords: electroencephalography, perfusion, atrophy, temporoparietal network, memory deficits, hippocampal volume, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease

  5. Frontal parenchymal atrophy measures in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Laura; Zivadinov, Robert; Grop, Attilio; Zorzon, Marino

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether, in a cross-sectional study, the normalized measures of whole and regional brain atrophy correlate better with tests assessing the cognitive function than the absolute brain atrophy measures. The neuropsychological performances and disability have been assessed in 39 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). T1- and T2-lesion load (LL) of total brain and frontal lobes (FLs) were measured using a reproducible semiautomated technique. The whole brain volume and the regional brain parenchymal volume (RBPV) of FLs were obtained using a computerized interactive program, which incorporates semiautomated and automated segmentation processes. Normalized measures of brain atrophy, i.e., brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and regional brain parenchymal fraction (RBPF) of FLs, were calculated. The scan-rescan, inter- and intrarater coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) have been estimated. The RBPF of FLs showed an acceptable level of reproducibility which ranged from 1.7% for intrarater variability to 3.2% for scan-rescan variability. The mean ICC was 0.88 (CI 0.82-0.93). The RBPF of FLs demonstrated stronger magnitudes of correlation with neuropsychological functioning, disability and quantitative MRI lesion measures than RBPV. These differences were statistically significant: PColor Word Interference test, Pcognitive functions, whereas BPAV did not. The correlation analysis results were supported by the results of multiple regression analysis which showed that only the normalized brain atrophy measures were associated with tests exploring the cognitive functions. These data suggest that RBPF is a reproducible and sensitive method for measuring frontal parenchymal atrophy. The normalized measures of whole and regional brain parenchymal atrophy should be preferred to absolute measures in future studies that correlate neuropsychological performances and brain atrophy measures

  6. The case for regional exchange rate arrangement in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Kinkyo

    2004-01-01

    The Asian crisis highlighted the difficulties for developing countries to actively manage exchange rates in an environment of high capital mobility. Now it became fashionable to argue that the exchange rate should be either allowed to float freely or irrevocably fixed. This paper examines the case for regional exchange rate arrangements as an instrument to enhance the manageability of exchange rates and discusses the options in East Asia. It critically assess the existing proposal of common b...

  7. On the Regional Birth Rate Differences in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shukurov, Sobir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate, theoretically and empirically, regional variation in crude birthrates in Uzbekistan at a provincial (viloyat) level for the period 1991-2010. Also, it offers maps showing the provincial crude birth rates for this period, and probe the ways in which regional fertility differences have arisen. A panel data analysis is also carried out to explain determinants of birth rates. The findings of this study underline that increased women’s particip...

  8. Childhood optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; Repka, M X

    2000-02-01

    To determine the causes, and relative incidence of the common causes, of optic nerve atrophy in children under 10 years old and to compare prevalent aetiologies with those given in previous studies. The Wilmer Information System database was searched to identify all children, diagnosed between 1987 and 1997 with optic atrophy, who were under 10 years old at diagnosis. The medical records of these children were reviewed retrospectively A total of 272 children were identified, Complications from premature birth were the most frequent aetiology of optic atrophy (n = 44, 16%); 68% of these premature infants having a history of intraventricular haemorrhage. Tumour was the second most common aetiology (n = 40, 15%). The most frequent tumour was pilocytic astrocytoma (50%), followed by craniopharyngioma (17%). Hydrocephalus, unrelated to tumour, was the third most common aetiology (n = 26, 10%). In 114 cases (42%), the cause of optic atrophy became manifest in the perinatal period and/or could be attributed to adverse events in utero. A cause was not determined in 4% of cases. In the last decade, prematurity and hydrocephalus appear to have become important causes of optic atrophy in childhood. This trend is probably the result of improved survival of infants with extremely low birth weight.

  9. Advancing functional dysconnectivity and atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse A. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSP-S results from neurodegeneration within a network of brainstem, subcortical, frontal and parietal cortical brain regions. It is unclear how network dysfunction progresses and relates to longitudinal atrophy and clinical decline. In this study, we evaluated patients with PSP-S (n = 12 and healthy control subjects (n = 20 at baseline and 6 months later. Subjects underwent structural MRI and task-free functional MRI (tf-fMRI scans and clinical evaluations at both time points. At baseline, voxel based morphometry (VBM revealed that patients with mild-to-moderate clinical symptoms showed structural atrophy in subcortex and brainstem, prefrontal cortex (PFC; supplementary motor area, paracingulate, dorsal and ventral medial PFC, and parietal cortex (precuneus. Tf-fMRI functional connectivity (FC was examined in a rostral midbrain tegmentum (rMT-anchored intrinsic connectivity network that is compromised in PSP-S. In healthy controls, this network contained a medial parietal module, a prefrontal-paralimbic module, and a subcortical-brainstem module. Baseline FC deficits in PSP-S were most severe in rMT network integrative hubs in the prefrontal-paralimbic and subcortical-brainstem modules. Longitudinally, patients with PSP-S had declining intermodular FC between the subcortical-brainstem and parietal modules, while progressive atrophy was observed in subcortical-brainstem regions (midbrain, pallidum and posterior frontal (perirolandic cortex. This suggested that later-stage subcortical-posterior cortical change may follow an earlier-stage subcortical-anterior cortical disease process. Clinically, patients with more severe baseline impairment showed greater subsequent prefrontal-parietal cortical FC declines and posterior frontal atrophy rates, while patients with more rapid longitudinal clinical decline showed coupled prefrontal-paralimbic FC decline. VBM and FC can augment disease monitoring in PSP

  10. Rating Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valentinovich Kuznetsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors consider the quality of life as an objective and its indicators as the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of balanced spatial development. The problem of measuring the quality of life has a complex and integrated nature, therefore, we should develop the practice of ratings in its spatial comparisons. The article demonstrates the possibility of using the rating lists of the quality of life of Russian regions by the rating agency “RIA Rating” for 2013–2015 as an information tool for the analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of the public development of the regional administration. The authors have concluded that with a consecutive growth of an average value of the integrated rating index of quality of life, the different ways of assessing the degree of differentiation of the regions according to the quality of life provide conflicting results. It is necessary to pay attention not so much to ranging and grading of regions as to their classification depending on to the nature of typical problems. Therefore, the rating scale is structured on the basis of the “problematic principle of regional grouping”. The authors have proposed the method of the gradation of the rating scale, allowing to take into account the direction of change of the region’s position in the ranking. The relevance of the rating as a key information tool to reduce the regional differentiation of the life quality of the population among the regulatory bodies and civil society will increase if: it is also used for other subnational entities of the Russian Federation; there is the use of econometric and computational capabilities of high-tech software systems for a posteriori analysis and models for strategic forecasting of the rankings; there is the search of a synergistic effect from a variety of estimates of the degree of spatial development.

  11. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  12. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Approximately 1 in 50 Americans, or about 6 ... Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network ( PNCR ) and the Muscular ... is the SMN2 gene? Muscle weakness and atrophy in SMA results from the ...

  13. A case of hepatic atrophy by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson; Saitoh, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was treated with 60 Co irradiation (total dose 6000 rads) focused on the right side porta hepatis under the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in 1975. Seventeen years after the treatment, she was admitted to our institution because of dull pain at right hypochondriac region. Adominal CT demonstrated an extreme hepatic atrophy and tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver. In November, 1991 right trisegmentectomy was performed under the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Laparotomy revealed the extreme atrophy of the right lobe and associated hypertrophy of the left lobe of the liver. In this case radiation hepatitis occurred after irradiation to the liver and it was followed by the extreme hepatic atrophy as a long term effect of high dose irradiation on the liver. (author)

  14. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    how characteristics of the economic and political milieu within each region influence the ratio of firm births. We find that knowledge spillovers from universities and firm-based R&D strongly affect the start-up rates for both high-tech firms and knowledge-intensive services firms. Further, the start......This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literature......-up rate of knowledge-intensive service firms is tied more strongly to the supply of university educated individuals and the political regulatory regime within the municipality than start-ups in high-tech industries. This suggests that knowledge-intensive service-start-ups are more susceptible to both...

  15. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager's syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T 2 weighted image and as low intensity on T 1 , suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T 2 weighted image. (author)

  16. MRI study of degenerative process in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The characteristic morphological changes of the brainstem and cerebellar regions of multiple system atrophy (MSA) were studied by MRI in varing subtypes, that is olivoponto cerebellar atrophy (OPCA: 23 cases), striatonigral degeneration (SND: 7 cases) and Shy-Drager`s syndrome (SDS: 9 cases). OPCA was characterized by atrophy of the entire regions of the brainstem and the cerebellum. SND and SDS tended to show atrophy similar in type but lessin extent to OPCA. The common lesions in MSA were atrophy of the pontine base and cerebellum, and dilation of the fourth ventricle. Atrophy of the pontine base was more dominant in the inferior part than in the superior part, and cerebellar atrophy was more dominant in the superior part than in the inferior part, indicating that degeneration of the pontocerebellar pathway proceeds principally along fibers connecting the inferior part of the pons and the superior part of the cerebellum. Dilation of the fourth ventricle indicated atrophy of the middle cerebellar peduncle. In almost all the cases of OPCA and about a half the cases of SND and SDS, the pontine base and the middle cerebellar peduncle appeared as high signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image and as low intensity on T{sub 1}, suggesting degeneration and demyelination. In a few cases of OPCA, the dorsolateral part of the putamen were demonstrated as low signal intensity on T{sub 2} weighted image. (author).

  17. Determining long-term regional erosion rates using impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergarten, Stefan; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    More than 300,000 impact craters have been found on Mars, while the surface of Moon's highlands is even saturated with craters. In contrast, only 184 impact craters have been confirmed on Earth so far with only 125 of them exposed at the surface. The spatial distribution of these impact craters is highly inhomogeneous. Beside the large variation in the age of the crust, consumption of craters by erosion and burial by sediments are the main actors being responsible for the quite small and inhomogeneous crater record. In this study we present a novel approach to infer long-term average erosion rates at regional scales from the terrestrial crater inventory. The basic idea behind this approach is a dynamic equilibrium between the production of new craters and their consumption by erosion. It is assumed that each crater remains detectable until the total erosion after the impact exceeds a characteristic depth depending on the crater's diameter. Combining this model with the terrestrial crater production rate, i.e., the number of craters per unit area and time as a function of their diameter, allows for a prediction of the expected number of craters in a given region as a function of the erosion rate. Using the real crater inventory, this relationship can be inverted to determine the regional long-term erosion rate and its statistical uncertainty. A limitation by the finite age of the crust can also be taken into account. Applying the method to the Colorado Plateau and the Deccan Traps, both being regions with a distinct geological history, yields erosion rates in excellent agreement with those obtained by other, more laborious methods. However, these rates are formally exposed to large statistical uncertainties due to the small number of impact craters. As higher crater densities are related to lower erosion rates, smaller statistical errors can be expected when large regions in old parts of the crust are considered. Very low long-term erosion rates of less than 4

  18. The atrophy pattern in the subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer disease by structural MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bing; Zhang Xin; Li Ming; Chen Fei; Xu Jun; Wang Huiting; Qian Lai; Zhao Hui; Xu Yun; Zhu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the patterns of cortical atrophy of the two subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). And to compare them with that of Alzheimer disease (AD) to provide an objective basis for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: A total of 83 patients were enrolled in this study and there were 30 patients with cognitively normal controls (CN), 30 with AD and 23 with FTLD (10 with bvFTD, 13 with PPA). Philips 3.0 T TX scanner and 8 channel head coil was employed. Three dimensional turbo fast echo (3D-TFE) T 1 WI sequence with high resolution was used to collect the volume data of gray matter. 3D-TFE T 1 WI images were normalized and segmented into gray matter map for statistical analysis by SPM 8 and VBM 8. The false discovery rate (FDR) was adopted in P value adjustment, P<0.001, and the cluster size was set at 5. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) was set at 4 mm for the smoothing. Paired t test was used for statistics. Results: In bvFTD, PPA and AD groups,there were diffuse regions with reduced volume in cerebral cortex and subcortical structures (such as the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudate nuclei, et al). The most obvious atrophic region in bvFTD and PPA group was found in the frontotemporal. Compared with AD, gray matter atrophy in bvFTD was found in brain regions including bilateral temporal lobes, bilateral superior temporal pole gyri, bilateral middle temporal pole gyri, right fusiform gyrus and bilateral frontal lobes. Among them, temporal and frontal lobes atrophy had obvious right partial lateralizing, with 14 301 voxels in right temporal lobe and 5105 in left (t=-5.03, P<0.05). The number of atrophy voxels in right and left frontal lobe were 1344 and 125 (t=3.45, P<0.05). The left temporooccipital lobe atrophy was more obvious than the right in PPA,with 15 637 voxels in left and 10 723 in right (t=-2.65, P<0

  19. Progressive hemifacial atrophy with ciliary body atrophy and ocular hypotony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashwini Kini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA is a disease of unknown etiology affecting one-half of the face. Ocular involvement is uncommon. Atrophy of iris is rare, with only a few cases of partial atrophy being reported in the literature. We report a case of total atrophy of iris and ciliary body with associated ocular hypotony in a 16-year-old girl with PHA. We believe this is the first reported case of complete atrophy of iris and ciliary body in PHA. Ocular hypotony in PHA was thought to be due to intra-ocular inflammation. However in our case it appears to be secondary to severe atrophy of the ciliary body.

  20. Consensus Definition for Atrophy Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration on OCT: Classification of Atrophy Report 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadda, Srinivas R; Guymer, Robyn; Holz, Frank G; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Curcio, Christine A; Bird, Alan C; Blodi, Barbara A; Bottoni, Ferdinando; Chakravarthy, Usha; Chew, Emily Y; Csaky, Karl; Danis, Ronald P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Freund, K Bailey; Grunwald, Juan; Hoyng, Carel B; Jaffe, Glenn J; Liakopoulos, Sandra; Monés, Jordi M; Pauleikhoff, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Sarraf, David; Spaide, Richard F; Tadayoni, Ramin; Tufail, Adnan; Wolf, Sebastian; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2018-04-01

    To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Consensus meeting. Panel of retina specialists, image reading center experts, retinal histologists, and optics engineers. As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meetings (CAM) program, an international group of experts surveyed the existing literature, performed a masked analysis of longitudinal multimodal imaging for a series of eyes with AMD, and reviewed the results of this analysis to define areas of agreement and disagreement. Through consensus discussions at 3 meetings over 12 months, a classification system based on OCT was proposed for atrophy secondary to AMD. Specific criteria were defined to establish the presence of atrophy. A consensus classification system for atrophy and OCT-based criteria to identify atrophy. OCT was proposed as the reference standard or base imaging method to diagnose and stage atrophy. Other methods, including fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, and color imaging, provided complementary and confirmatory information. Recognizing that photoreceptor atrophy can occur without retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy and that atrophy can undergo an evolution of different stages, 4 terms and histologic candidates were proposed: complete RPE and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA), incomplete RPE and outer retinal atrophy, complete outer retinal atrophy, and incomplete outer retinal atrophy. Specific OCT criteria to diagnose cRORA were proposed: (1) a region of hypertransmission of at least 250 μm in diameter, (2) a zone of attenuation or disruption of the RPE of at least 250 μm in diameter, (3) evidence of overlying photoreceptor degeneration, and (4) absence of scrolled RPE or other signs of an RPE tear. A classification system and criteria for OCT-defined atrophy in the setting of AMD has been proposed based on an international consensus. This classification is a more complete

  1. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A.; Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J.; Viader, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  2. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  3. Muscular atrophy in diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Gadeberg, P C; Brock, B

    1997-01-01

    Diabetic patients with polyneuropathy develop motor dysfunction. To establish whether motor dysfunction is associated with muscular atrophy the ankle dorsal and plantar flexors of the non-dominant leg were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging in 8 patients with symptomatic neuropathy, in 8 non...... confirmed that the atrophy predominated distally. We conclude that muscular atrophy underlies motor weakness at the ankle in diabetic patients with polyneuropathy and that the atrophy is most pronounced in distal muscles of the lower leg indicating that a length dependent neuropathic process explains...

  4. Cerebellar atrophy in epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1991-01-01

    52 patients with epileptic seizures of different form, frequency and duration who had received long term treatment with anticonvulsive drugs were examined on Siretom 2000, a brain scanner of II generation. 6 standard incisions were made in all patients in the area of cerebellum, side ventricules and high convexity. Additional scanning with an incision width of 5 mm was made when pathological changes were detected. There were found 3 cases of cerebellar atrophy, 3 - cerebral atrophy, 1 - combined atrophy and 4 - with other changes. It was difficult to establish any relation between the rerebellar atrophy and the type of anticonvulsant used because treatment had usually been complex. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  5. Chronostratigraphy and deposition rates in the Okinawa Trough region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培英; 王永吉; 刘振夏

    1999-01-01

    Six representative cores from Okinawa Trough have been dated using AMS 14C, Standard 14C and ESR methods, and comparatively analysed. Systematic measurements of the oriented samples taken from the cores were conducted for obtaining their remnant magnetic polarity. With the aid of the dates obtained, particularly the AMS 14C ages of planktonic foraminiferal tests, two polarity events and two polar wanderings of the earth magnetic field have been defined. Calculations of the deposition rates for all the six core sites indicate rather high values in the trough plain, at least equivalent to those rates reported for the region of the East China Sea. They commonly range from 10 to 30 cm/ka, and even greater than 40 cm/ka in some localities. The deposition rate varied widely with topography and periods of time. In general, it is greater during the postglacial period than during the last glaciation. The chronostratigraphy in the Okinawa Trough region established through this study argues against the pr

  6. Genetics Home Reference: optic atrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nerve Atrophy Encyclopedia: Visual Acuity Test Health Topic: Color Blindness Health Topic: Optic Nerve Disorders Genetic and Rare ... Disease InfoSearch: Optic atrophy 1 Kids Health: What's Color Blindness? MalaCards: autosomal dominant optic atrophy, classic form Merck ...

  7. The inheritance of peripapillary atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Healey, Paul R.; Mitchell, Paul; Gilbert, Clare E.; Lee, Anne J.; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    PURPOSE. To estimate the relative importance of genes and environment in peripapillary atrophy type beta (beta-PPA) in a classic twin study. METHODS. Female twin pairs (n = 506) aged 49 to 79 years were recruited from the St. Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry. Peripapillary atrophy was identified from

  8. Is the Supraspinatus Muscle Atrophy Truly Irreversible after Surgical Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok Won; Kim, Sae Hoon; Tae, Suk-Kee; Yoon, Jong Pil; Choi, Jung-Ah

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrophy of rotator cuff muscles has been considered an irreversible phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether atrophy is truly irreversible after rotator cuff repair. Methods We measured supraspinatus muscle atrophy of 191 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative multidetector computed tomography images, taken at least 1 year after operation. The occupation ratio was calculated using Photoshop CS3 software. We compared the change between pre- and postoperative occupation ratios after modifying the preoperative occupation ratio. In addition, possible relationship between various clinical factors and the change of atrophy, and between the change of atrophy and cuff integrity after surgical repair were evaluated. Results The mean occupation ratio was significantly increased postoperatively from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 0.52 ± 0.17 (p < 0.001). Among 191 patients, 81 (42.4%) showed improvement of atrophy (more than a 10% increase in occupation ratio) and 33 (17.3%) worsening (more than a 10% decrease). Various clinical factors such as age tear size, or initial degree of atrophy did not affect the change of atrophy. However, the change of atrophy was related to repair integrity: cuff healing failure rate of 48.5% (16 of 33) in worsened atrophy; and 22.2% (18 of 81) in improved atrophy (p = 0.007). Conclusions The supraspinatus muscle atrophy as measured by occupation ratio could be improved postoperatively in case of successful cuff repair. PMID:23467404

  9. Dominant optic atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaers Guy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC and their axons forming the optic nerve, which transfer the visual information from the photoreceptors to the lateral geniculus in the brain. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease varies from 1/10000 in Denmark due to a founder effect, to 1/30000 in the rest of the world. Clinical description DOA patients usually suffer of moderate visual loss, associated with central or paracentral visual field deficits and color vision defects. The severity of the disease is highly variable, the visual acuity ranging from normal to legal blindness. The ophthalmic examination discloses on fundoscopy isolated optic disc pallor or atrophy, related to the RGC death. About 20% of DOA patients harbour extraocular multi-systemic features, including neurosensory hearing loss, or less commonly chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, multiple sclerosis-like illness, spastic paraplegia or cataracts. Aetiology Two genes (OPA1, OPA3 encoding inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and three loci (OPA4, OPA5, OPA8 are currently known for DOA. Additional loci and genes (OPA2, OPA6 and OPA7 are responsible for X-linked or recessive optic atrophy. All OPA genes yet identified encode mitochondrial proteins embedded in the inner membrane and ubiquitously expressed, as are the proteins mutated in the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. OPA1 mutations affect mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism, control of apoptosis, calcium clearance and maintenance of mitochondrial genome integrity. OPA3 mutations only affect the energy metabolism and the control of apoptosis. Diagnosis Patients are usually diagnosed during their early childhood, because of

  10. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  11. Shining a light on posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Boeve, Bradley F; Cappa, Stefano F; Dickerson, Bradford C; Dubois, Bruno; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Mendez, Mario F; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Tim; Tang-Wai, David F; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bain, Lisa; Carrillo, Maria C; Fox, Nick C

    2013-07-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing skills, relatively intact memory and language in the early stages, and atrophy of posterior brain regions. Misdiagnosis of PCA is common, owing not only to its relative rarity and unusual and variable presentation, but also because patients frequently first seek the opinion of an ophthalmologist, who may note normal eye examinations by their usual tests but may not appreciate cortical brain dysfunction. Seeking to raise awareness of the disease, stimulate research, and promote collaboration, a multidisciplinary group of PCA research clinicians formed an international working party, which had its first face-to-face meeting on July 13, 2012 in Vancouver, Canada, prior to the Alzheimer's Association International Conference. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Climate Variability on US Regional Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, R. D.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have found consistent evidence of a relationship between temperature and criminal behavior. However, despite agreement in the overall relationship, little progress has been made in distinguishing between two proposed explanatory theories. The General Affective Aggression Model (GAAM) suggests that high temperatures create periods of higher heat stress that enhance individual aggressiveness, whereas the Routine Activities Theory (RAT) theorizes that individuals are more likely to be outdoors interacting with others during periods of pleasant weather with a resulting increase in both interpersonal interactions and victim availability. Further, few studies have considered this relationship within the context of climate change in a quantitative manner. In an effort to distinguish between the two theories, and to examine the statistical relationships on a broader spatial scale than previously, we combined data from the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR—compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR—compiled by the National Centers for Environmental Protection, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). US homicide data described by the SHR was compared with seven relevant observed climate variables (temperature, dew point, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation, accumulated snowfall, snow cover, and snow depth) provided by the NARR atmospheric reanalysis. Relationships between homicide rates and climate variables, as well as reveal regional spatial patterns will be presented and discussed, along with the implications due to future climate change. This research lays the groundwork for the refinement of estimates of an oft-overlooked climate change impact, which has previously been estimated to cause an additional 22,000 murders between 2010 and 2099, including providing important constraints for empirical models of future violent crime incidences in the face of global

  13. Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Tetiana; Pudas, Sara; Lundquist, Anders; Orädd, Greger; Josefsson, Maria; Salami, Alireza; de Luna, Xavier; Nyberg, Lars

    2017-03-01

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced modulation of scanpaths in response to task demands in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Pertzov, Yoni; Yong, Keir X X; Nicholas, Jennifer; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-02-01

    A difficulty in perceiving visual scenes is one of the most striking impairments experienced by patients with the clinico-radiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However whilst a number of studies have investigated perception of relatively simple experimental stimuli in these individuals, little is known about multiple object and complex scene perception and the role of eye movements in posterior cortical atrophy. We embrace the distinction between high-level (top-down) and low-level (bottom-up) influences upon scanning eye movements when looking at scenes. This distinction was inspired by Yarbus (1967), who demonstrated how the location of our fixations is affected by task instructions and not only the stimulus' low level properties. We therefore examined how scanning patterns are influenced by task instructions and low-level visual properties in 7 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 8 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease, and 19 healthy age-matched controls. Each participant viewed 10 scenes under four task conditions (encoding, recognition, search and description) whilst eye movements were recorded. The results reveal significant differences between groups in the impact of test instructions upon scanpaths. Across tasks without a search component, posterior cortical atrophy patients were significantly less consistent than typical Alzheimer's disease patients and controls in where they were looking. By contrast, when comparing search and non-search tasks, it was controls who exhibited lowest between-task similarity ratings, suggesting they were better able than posterior cortical atrophy or typical Alzheimer's disease patients to respond appropriately to high-level needs by looking at task-relevant regions of a scene. Posterior cortical atrophy patients had a significant tendency to fixate upon more low-level salient parts of the scenes than controls irrespective of the viewing task. The study provides a detailed characterisation of

  15. Predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for brain atrophy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Guo, Lei; Nie, Jingxin; Li, Kaiming; Liu, Tianming

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present an approach of predictive modeling of neuroanatomic structures for the detection of brain atrophy based on cross-sectional MRI image. The underlying premise of applying predictive modeling for atrophy detection is that brain atrophy is defined as significant deviation of part of the anatomy from what the remaining normal anatomy predicts for that part. The steps of predictive modeling are as follows. The central cortical surface under consideration is reconstructed from brain tissue map and Regions of Interests (ROI) on it are predicted from other reliable anatomies. The vertex pair-wise distance between the predicted vertex and the true one within the abnormal region is expected to be larger than that of the vertex in normal brain region. Change of white matter/gray matter ratio within a spherical region is used to identify the direction of vertex displacement. In this way, the severity of brain atrophy can be defined quantitatively by the displacements of those vertices. The proposed predictive modeling method has been evaluated by using both simulated atrophies and MRI images of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging: Relationship to Atrophy in Brain Regions Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; Wright, Clinton; Sun, Xiaoyan; Alperin, Noam; Crocco, Elzabeth; Czaja, Sara J; Raffo, Arlene; Penate, Ailyn; Melo, Jose; Capp, Kimberly; Gamez, Monica; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between MRI measures and performance on the LASSI-L as well as traditional memory and non-memory cognitive measures was also evaluated in both diagnostic groups. Relative to traditional neuropsychological measures, MCI patients' failure to recover from PSI was associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (rs = 0.48), precuneus (rs = 0.50); rostral middle frontal lobules (rs = 0.54); inferior temporal lobules (rs = 0.49), superior parietal lobules (rs = 0.47), temporal pole (rs = 0.44), and increased dilatation of the inferior lateral ventricle (rs = -0.49). For CN elders, only increased inferior lateral ventricular size was associated with vulnerability to PSI (rs = -0.49), the failure to recover from PSI (rs = -0.57), and delayed recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (rs = -0.48). LASSI-L indices eliciting failure to recover from PSI were more highly associated with more MRI regional biomarkers of AD than other traditional cognitive measures. These results as well as recent amyloid imaging studies with otherwise cognitively normal subjects, suggest that recovery from PSI may be a sensitive marker of preclinical AD and deserves further investigation.

  17. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Andrea; Strammer, Erzsebet; Aradi, Mihaly; Orsi, Gergely; Perlaki, Gabor; Hajnal, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Banati, Miklos; Illes, Eniko; Zaitsev, Alexander; Herold, Robert; Guttmann, Charles R G; Illes, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.

  18. Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mike

    Full Text Available Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus. Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed, processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex and socially relevant information (left temporal pole. Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.

  19. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  20. Optimal regional biases in ECB interest rate setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a simple model of optimal monetary policy to consider whether the influence of national output and inflation rates on ECB interest rate setting should equal a country’s weight in the eurozone economy. The findings depend on assumptions regarding interest rate elasticities, exchange

  1. Relation of measured brain glucose utilisation and cerebral atrophy in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, N L; Horwitz, B; Creasey, H; Carson, R; Duara, R; Berg, G W; Rapoport, S I

    1987-06-01

    The effect of cerebral atrophy on measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc), as determined with positron emission tomography (PET), was examined in 49 healthy males aged 21-83 years. Global CMRglc and regional CMRglc for 34 grey matter regions parallel to and from 30 to 80 mm above the inferior orbital meatal (IOM) line were measured under resting conditions, using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and an ECAT II positron emission tomograph. Using a GE 8800 CT/T scanner, slices parallel to and from 30 to 80 mm above the IOM line were analysed for CSF volume. Cerebral atrophy, indicated by increased CSF volume, was correlated significantly with global CMRglc, but accounted for no more than 13% of the variance in the CMRglc measurements. Methods for correcting for inter-subject variation in CSF volume were proposed. Global values for CMRglc, uncorrected or corrected for CSF volume, were found to be age invariant. These findings indicate that (a) cerebral atrophy has a small, but statistically significant effect on CMRglc as measured with PET; (b) CMRglc is age invariant in healthy males.

  2. Correlation of clinical course with MRI findings in olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy and late-cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Morishita, Shinji; Konagaya, Yoko; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Satoru

    1989-01-01

    We quantitatively analyzed 1.5 T MRI in 36 cases of sporadic spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and 30 control cases without intracranial lesions, using graphic analyzer. SCD consisted of 21 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 15 late cortical cerebellar atrophy (LCCA). There was negative correlation between vermian size and the duration of illness both in OPCA (r=0.8960, p<0.001) and LCCA (r=0.7756, p<0.01), but the progression rate in OPCA was three times greater than that in LCCA. LCCA was suggested the preclinical vermian atrophy by the statistical regression study. In OPCA, the duration of illness also revealed significant correlations with atrophy of ventral pons (r=0.8308, p<0.001) and also cerebellar hemisphere (medial hemiphere; r=0.7278, p<0.001. lateral hemisphere; r=0.6039, p<0.01). OPCA showed diffuse atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere, whereas LCCA showed medial dominant atrophy. OPCA demonstrated significant correlation between the fourth ventricle dilatation and the duration of illness (r=0.6005, p<0.01). A discriminant study significantly separated OPCA, LCCA and control each other by sizes of ventral pons and cerebellar vermis (p<0.001). In T2 weighted MRI, 10 cases out of 14 LCCA did not show hypointensity in dentate nucleus in spite of normal appearance in the other portions usually decreased intensity. The dentate nucleus of OPCA showed a significant atrophy. The insidence of putaminal hypointensity in OPCA was significantly greater than that of control group (ki-quare=6.476, p<0.05). There were no atrophies in red nucleus and tegmentum of midbrain, which indicated minimum involvement in cerebellar efferent system both in OPCA and LCCA. We concluded that the quantitative and qualitative analysis of high field MRI is useful in clinical discrimination between OPCA and LCCA. (author)

  3. Regions With Low Rates of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Have Lower Rates of CPR Training in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Straney, Lahn; Smith, Karen; Cartledge, Susie; Case, Rosalind; Bernard, Stephen; Finn, Judith

    2017-06-05

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) more than doubles the chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Recent data have shown considerable regional variation in bystander CPR rates across the Australian state of Victoria. This study aims to determine whether there is associated regional variation in rates of CPR training and willingness to perform CPR in these communities. We categorized each Victorian postcode as either a low or high bystander CPR region using data on adult, bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (n=7175) from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. We then surveyed adult Victorians (n=404) and compared CPR training data of the respondents from low and high bystander CPR regions. Of the 404 adults surveyed, 223 (55%) resided in regions with low bystander CPR. Compared with respondents from high bystander CPR regions, respondents residing in regions with low bystander CPR had lower rates of CPR training (62% versus 75%, P =0.009) and lower self-ratings for their overall knowledge of CPR (76% versus 84%, P =0.04). There were no differences between the regions in their reasons for not having undergone CPR training or in their willingness to perform CPR. Rates of survival for bystander-witnessed, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were significantly lower in low bystander CPR regions (15.7% versus 17.0%, P CPR training and lower survival in regions with lower rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. Targeting these regions with CPR training programs may improve bystander CPR rates and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. One-Dimensional-Ratio Measures of Atrophy Progression in Multiple Sclerosis as Evaluated by Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martola, J.; Wiberg Kristoffersen, M.; Aspelin, P.; Stawiarz, L.; Fredrikson, S.; Hillert, J.; Bergstroem, J.; Flodmark, O.

    2009-01-01

    Background: For decades, normalized one-dimensional (1D) measures have been used in the evaluation of brain atrophy. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the use of normalized linear measures over longitudinal follow-up remains insufficiently documented. Purpose: To evaluate the association between different regional atrophy measures and disability in MS patients over four decades in a longitudinal cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: 37 consecutively selected MS patients were included. At baseline, patients had a range of disease duration (1-33 years) and age (24-65 years). Each patient was followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for a mean of 9.25 years (range 7.3-10 years). Four 1D measures were applied at three time points on axial 5-mm T1-weighted images. Three clinical MS subgroups were represented: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Results: There were significant changes in all 1D ratios during follow-up. The Evans ratio (ER) and the bifrontal ratio (BFR) were associated with the development of disability. Changes of ER and BFR reflected more aggressive disease progression, as expressed by MS severity score (MSSS). Conclusion: All four normalized ratios showed uniform atrophy progression, suggesting a consistent rate of atrophy over long-term disease duration independent of MS course. Disability status correlated with 1D measures, suggesting that serial evaluation of Evans and bifrontal ratios might contribute to the radiological evaluation of MS patients

  5. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty breathing. Children with this type often have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. In severe cases, ... Proximal spinal muscular atrophy Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient Support and ...

  6. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  7. 76 FR 8730 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region.... Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... ancillary service rates for the Desert Southwest Customer Service Region in accordance with section 302 of...

  8. Study of tourists exposure rate in Mahallat hot Spring Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, H. M.B.; Fallah, M.G.; Ghiasinejad, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: High level radiation areas have been recognized on various parts of the earth. Some of these areas include: Brasilia, India, and Iran. Mahallat hot spring region in the central part of Iran is also one of these areas. Study of exposure in these areas could be helpful in investigating the effects of ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: In addition to several seasonal springs, Mahallat hot spring region contains five permanent springs named: Soleimani, Shafa, Dombe, Romatism and Sauda. Internal exposure (due to inhalation of radon gas and drinking water) and external exposure (due to cosmic rays and radioactive elements in the ground) to the tourists was studied. Used materials and apparatus include: RSS -112 ionizing chamber for environmental gamma rays exposure measurement, highly pure germanium detector for measuring radioactive elements in the ground, liquid scintillation counter for measuring 222 Rn gas concentration in water samples, Bubbler chamber and Locus cells for Rn concentration measurements (Emanation method) and Alfa guard detector for 226 Ra concentration measurements. Conclusions and Discussion: A total of 270 visitors are included in this study. Considering residual durations of the studied group in open and closed environment of bathrooms, hotel and inn rooms, obtained annual external effective dose is 75.4±8.7μSv and 138.3±11.8μSv for natives and travelers respectively. EEC coefficients has been used for calculating annual internal effective dose due to radon gas inhalation. Annual internal effective dose, in this path, is 0.9 and 2.1 mSv in open and closed environment for native and visitors respectively. Annual internal effective dose due to drinking water, is 0.43 and 0.09μSv for natives people and travelers, respectively. Measurements show that more than 90% of the received dose in the studied groups is due to radon gas inhalation. External and internal dose summation is 0.98 mSv for natives and 2.2 mSv for for

  9. Study of tourists exposure rate in Mahallat hot Spring Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, H. M.B. [Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, M.G. [Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiasinejad, M. [Iran Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: High level radiation areas have been recognized on various parts of the earth. Some of these areas include: Brasilia, India, and Iran. Mahallat hot spring region in the central part of Iran is also one of these areas. Study of exposure in these areas could be helpful in investigating the effects of ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods: In addition to several seasonal springs, Mahallat hot spring region contains five permanent springs named: Soleimani, Shafa, Dombe, Romatism and Sauda. Internal exposure (due to inhalation of radon gas and drinking water) and external exposure (due to cosmic rays and radioactive elements in the ground) to the tourists was studied. Used materials and apparatus include: RSS -112 ionizing chamber for environmental gamma rays exposure measurement, highly pure germanium detector for measuring radioactive elements in the ground, liquid scintillation counter for measuring {sup 222}Rn gas concentration in water samples, Bubbler chamber and Locus cells for Rn concentration measurements (Emanation method) and Alfa guard detector for {sup 226}Ra concentration measurements. Conclusions and Discussion: A total of 270 visitors are included in this study. Considering residual durations of the studied group in open and closed environment of bathrooms, hotel and inn rooms, obtained annual external effective dose is 75.4{+-}8.7{mu}Sv and 138.3{+-}11.8{mu}Sv for natives and travelers respectively. EEC coefficients has been used for calculating annual internal effective dose due to radon gas inhalation. Annual internal effective dose, in this path, is 0.9 and 2.1 mSv in open and closed environment for native and visitors respectively. Annual internal effective dose due to drinking water, is 0.43 and 0.09{mu}Sv for natives people and travelers, respectively. Measurements show that more than 90% of the received dose in the studied groups is due to radon gas inhalation. External and internal dose summation is 0.98 mSv for natives and 2

  10. Carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy in Italian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SMA is necessary for effective clinical/prenatal diagnosis ... of SMA critical region in the group of 450 normal controls. ... izing and quality test are as described in Calì et al. .... nosis for spinal muscular atrophy: clinical laboratory analysis of.

  11. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in Sweden 1987-2002 : regional incidence and case fatality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, H.; Buskens, E.; Granath, F.; Adami, J.; Ekbom, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Blomqvist, P.

    Background: Incidence estimates of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Sweden vary, which may be caused by regional variations. Reliable estimates of age-specific case fatality rates are lacking. We analysed regional incidence rates and case fatality rates of SAH in Sweden. Methods: The Swedish

  12. Progression of brain atrophy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study in de novo patients without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessa, Carlo; Lucetti, Claudio; Giannelli, Marco; Diciotti, Stefano; Poletti, Michele; Danti, Sabrina; Baldacci, Filippo; Vignali, Claudio; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-08-01

    The presence of brain atrophy and its progression in early Parkinson's disease (PD) are still a matter of debate, particularly in patients without cognitive impairment. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess whether PD patients who remain cognitively intact develop progressive atrophic changes in the early stages of the disease. For this purpose, we employed high-resolution T1-weighted MR imaging to compare 22 drug-naïve de novo PD patients without cognitive impairment to 17 age-matched control subjects, both at baseline and at three-year follow-up. We used tensor-based morphometry to explore the presence of atrophic changes at baseline and to compute yearly atrophy rates, after which we performed voxel-wise group comparisons using threshold-free cluster enhancement. At baseline, we did not observe significant differences in regional atrophy in PD patients with respect to control subjects. In contrast, PD patients showed significantly higher yearly atrophy rates in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus, and thalamus when compared to control subjects. Our results indicate that even cognitively preserved PD patients show progressive cortical and subcortical atrophic changes in regions related to cognitive functions and that these changes are already detectable in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Regional socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as predictors of regional infant mortality rate in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Kollarova, Jana; Rosic, Martin; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exploring the associations of regional differences in infant mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity could offer important clues for designing public health policy measures. Methods Data included perinatal and infant mortality in the 79 districts of the Slovak

  14. Stigma, attitudes and help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in relation to regional suicide rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to

  15. Variations in breastfeeding rates for very preterm infants between regions and neonatal units in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Blondel, Béatrice; Agostino, Rocco

    2011-01-01

    To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models.......To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models....

  16. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dhikav, Vikas; Duraiswamy, Sharmila; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL) can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. Materia...

  17. Prominent microglial activation in cortical white matter is selectively associated with cortical atrophy in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Daniel T; Kim, Garam; Gefen, Tamar; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily; Geula, Changiz

    2018-04-21

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy are unknown. We investigated white matter activated microglia and their association with grey matter atrophy in 10 PPA cases with either AD or FTLD-TDP pathology. Activated microglia were quantified with optical density measures of HLA-DR immunoreactivity in two regions with peak cortical atrophy, and one non-atrophied region within the language dominant hemisphere of each PPA case. Non-atrophied contralateral homologues of the language dominant regions were examined for hemispheric asymmetry. Qualitatively, greater densities of activated microglia were observed in cortical white matter when compared to grey matter. Quantitative analyses revealed significantly greater densities of activated microglia in the white matter of atrophied regions compared to non-atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere (p<0.05). Atrophied regions of the language dominant hemisphere also showed significantly more activated microglia compared to contralateral homologues (p<0.05). White matter activated microglia accumulate more in atrophied regions in the language dominant hemisphere of PPA. While microglial activation may constitute a response to neurodegenerative processes in white matter, the resultant inflammatory processes may also exacerbate disease progression and contribute to cortical atrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Znaor, Ariana; Holcatova, Ivana; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Ferlay, Jacques; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    Marked unexplained national variations in incidence rates of kidney cancer have been observed for decades in Europe. To investigate geographic variations at the regional level and identify European regions with high incidence rates of kidney cancer. Regional- and national-level incidence data were extracted from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents databases, local cancer registry databases, and local published reports. World population age-standardised rates (ASRs) were calculated for the periods 2003-2007 and 1988-1992. Rates by period and sex were compared using map visualisation. During 2003-2007, the highest ASR was found in the Plzen region, Czech Republic (31.4/100,000 person-years in men). Other regions of the Czech Republic had ASRs of 18.6-27.5/100,000 in men, with a tendency for higher rates in regions south of Prague. Surrounding regions, including eastern Germany and regions of Slovakia and Austria, had medium-to-high incidence rates (13.0-16.8/100,000 in men). Three other areas in Europe showed higher incidence rates in men compared with the rest of the continent: Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and Belarus (15.0-17.6/100,000); Iceland (13.5/100,000), and northern Italy (up to 16.0/100,000). Similar regional differences were observed among women, with rates approximately half of those observed in men in the same region. In general, these regional geographic variations remained stable over the periods 1988-1992 and 2003-2007, although higher incidence rates were detected in the Baltic countries in 2003-2007. Several European regions show particularly high rates of kidney cancer incidence. Large variations were observed within countries covered by national health-care systems, implying that overdetection is not the major factor. We present regional geographic variations in kidney cancer incidence rates in Europe. We highlight several regions with high incidence rates where further studies should be conducted for cancer control and prevention. Copyright

  19. A Comparison of Moment Rates for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Competitive Kinematic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. C.; Ozeren, M. S.; Shen-Tu, B.; Galgana, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Relatively continuous, complex, and long-lived episodes of tectonic deformation gradually shaped the lithosphere of the eastern Mediterranean region into its present state. This large geodynamically interconnected and seismically active region absorbs, accumulates and transmits strains arising from stresses associated with: (1) steady northward convergence of the Arabian and African plates; (2) differences in lithospheric gravitational potential energy; and (3) basal tractions exerted by subduction along the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Over the last twenty years, numerous kinematic models have been built using a variety of assumptions to take advantage of the extensive and dense GPS observations made across the entire region resulting in a far better characterization of the neotectonic deformation field than ever previously achieved. In this study, three separate horizontal strain rate field solutions obtained from three, region-wide, GPS only based kinematic models (i.e., a regional block model, a regional continuum model, and global continuum model) are utilized to estimate the distribution and uncertainty of geodetic moment rates within the eastern Mediterranean region. The geodetic moment rates from each model are also compared with seismic moment release rates gleaned from historic earthquake data. Moreover, kinematic styles of deformation derived from each of the modeled horizontal strain rate fields are examined for their degree of correlation with earthquake rupture styles defined by proximal centroid moment tensor solutions. This study suggests that significant differences in geodetically obtained moment rates from competitive kinematic models may introduce unforeseen bias into regularly updated, geodetically constrained, regional seismic hazard assessments.

  20. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  1. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, R.; Vattimo, A.; Martini, G.; Turchetti, V.; Righi, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy

  2. Carbocalcitonin treatment in Sudeck's atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A; Martini, G; Turchetti, V; Righi, G A

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of new calcitonin, the amino analog of eel calcitonin (carboCT) on Sudeck's atrophy of the foot was investigated in 14 patients. CarboCT was administered at the dose of 40 Medical Research Council (MRC) units per day, and the duration of treatment was two to ten months. No adverse effects were noted. Bone pain and local edema decreased associated with improvement of motility. CarboCT induced a slight decrease in plasma calcium, plasma phosphate, and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. An increase in cAMP/Cr ratio, an index of parathyroid function, was also observed (probably a manifestation of the hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin and secondary parathyroid stimulation). The whole body retention of 99mTc-MDP represents a valuable index of bone turnover, it decreased progressively and significantly on treatment. A dynamic study of local bone uptake of 99mTC-MDP was performed in eight patients. After carboCT therapy, statistically significant decreases in local blood flow, early uptake, and delayed uptake were appreciated in the involved foot. These findings lead to the conclusion that carboCT is effective in the treatment of Sudeck's atrophy.

  3. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of the proximal limb and bulbar muscles. The disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG/glutamine tract in the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor. That SBMA exclusively affects males reflects the fact that critical pathogenic events are hormone-dependent. These include translocation of the polyglutamine androgen receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and unfolding of the mutant protein. Studies of the pathology of SBMA subjects have revealed nuclear aggregates of the mutant androgen receptor, loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, and both neurogenic and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis include toxicity in both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle, where effects on transcription, intracellular transport, and mitochondrial function have been documented. Therapies to treat SBMA patients remain largely supportive, although experimental approaches targeting androgen action or promoting degradation of the mutant androgen receptor protein or the encoding RNA are under active study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated segmentation of geographic atrophy using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Ziyuan; Sadda, SriniVas R.

    2018-02-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is an end-stage manifestation of the advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in developed nations. Techniques to rapidly and precisely detect and quantify GA would appear to be of critical importance in advancing the understanding of its pathogenesis. In this study, we develop an automated supervised classification system using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for segmenting GA in fundus autofluorescene (FAF) images. More specifically, to enhance the contrast of GA relative to the background, we apply the contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization. Blood vessels may cause GA segmentation errors due to similar intensity level to GA. A tensor-voting technique is performed to identify the blood vessels and a vessel inpainting technique is applied to suppress the GA segmentation errors due to the blood vessels. To handle the large variation of GA lesion sizes, three deep CNNs with three varying sized input image patches are applied. Fifty randomly chosen FAF images are obtained from fifty subjects with GA. The algorithm-defined GA regions are compared with manual delineation by a certified grader. A two-fold cross-validation is applied to evaluate the algorithm performance. The mean segmentation accuracy, true positive rate (i.e. sensitivity), true negative rate (i.e. specificity), positive predictive value, false discovery rate, and overlap ratio, between the algorithm- and manually-defined GA regions are 0.97 +/- 0.02, 0.89 +/- 0.08, 0.98 +/- 0.02, 0.87 +/- 0.12, 0.13 +/- 0.12, and 0.79 +/- 0.12 respectively, demonstrating a high level of agreement.

  5. Brain atrophy at onset and physical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS patients during the disease onset predicts long term disability. METHODS: MS patients with follow-up time of at least 7 years from disease onset and with baseline and second magnetic resonance 12 months later were included to measure brain atrophy. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS was categorized in three groups, EDSS=0, EDSS=1 and 2.5 and EDSS>2.5, and used as disability measure. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included. Mean atrophy during the first year in patients that reached an EDSS≥3 was -0.76±0.45 %, in patients with an EDSS between 1 and 2.5 was -0.59±0.56, while in patients with an EDSS of 0 it was -0.38±0.42 (p=0.003. DISCUSSION: Brain atrophy rates during the first year of disease were predictive of disease progression in our population.

  6. Labour Market Flexibility and Regional Unemployment Rate Dynamics: Spain (1980-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bande; Marika Karanassou

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to shed light in the dynamics of Spanish regional unemployment rates and determine the driving forces of their disparities. The Spanish economy has one of the highest unemployment rates in the EU and is characterised by severe regional disparities. We apply the chain reaction theory of unemployment according to which the evolution of unemployment is driven by the interplay of lagged adjustment processes and the spillover effects within the labour market system. Our model inclu...

  7. Regional variation in hospital admission rates in the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Nordrhein-Westfalen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordt, M. van; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the analysis of regional variations in hospital admission rates a model was set up, including both supply and demand indicators. Data were gathered for regions in four health care systems (the Dutch, Belgian, French and German), for 1982, 1979, 1974 (France 1982 only). Hospital bed supply proved

  8. Molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy in myotonic dystrophies

    OpenAIRE

    Timchenko, Lubov

    2013-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) are multisystemic diseases that primarily affect skeletal muscle, causing myotonia, muscle atrophy, and muscle weakness. DM1 and DM2 pathologies are caused by expansion of CTG and CCTG repeats in non-coding regions of the genes encoding myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) and Zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9) respectively. These expansions cause DM pathologies through accumulation of mutant RNAs that alter RNA metabolism in p...

  9. Computed tomographic myelography characteristics of spinal cord atrophy in juvenile muscular atrophy of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabuki, Norio; Mitomo, Masanori; Miura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Kawai, Ryuji; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    Although atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity has been reported, the atrophic patterns of the cord, especially in the transverse section, have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to clarify the atrophic patterns of the cord by CT myelography (CTM) and to discuss the pathogenesis of cord atrophy. Sixteen patients with juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity were examined by CTM. Atrophy of the lower cervical and upper thoracic cord, consistent with the segmental weakness, was seen in all patients. Flattening of the ventral convexity was a characteristic atrophic pattern of the cord. Bilateral cord atrophy was commonly observed; 8/12 patients with unilateral clinical form and all 4 patients with bilateral form showed bilateral cord atrophy with dominance on the clinical side. There was no correlation between the degree of cord atrophy and duration of symptoms. Flattening of the ventral convexity, associated with purely motor disturbances, reflects selective atrophy of the anterior horns in the cord, which is attributable to chronic ischemia. Cord atrophy proved to precede clinical manifestations. The characteristic atrophy of the cord provides useful information to confirm the diagnosis without long-term observation. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  11. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  12. Perinatal market penetration rate. A tool to evaluate regional perinatal programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W F; McGill, L

    1987-01-01

    Very small babies born in tertiary centers fare better than outborn babies referred for tertiary care after birth. Viewing the 1001-1500 gm regional cohort of fetuses as a potential "market" for center delivery, and measuring a center's penetration into this market, quantitates how well a center draws to itself these small, high-risk fetuses for delivery. An Illinois center's annual penetration rate into its regional market for the years 1973-1983 is presented and significant increases are found. The penetration rates of nine Illinois perinatal centers are calculated and wide discrepancies are found. Defining a high-risk regional cohort as a market stresses a perinatal center's obligation to its region. The penetration rate into a defined market measures how well a center fulfills this obligation.

  13. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease correlates with ventricular width and atrophy-corrected cortical glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, I.; Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Kessler, J.; Grond, M.; Mielke, R.; Heiss, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    We compared the correlation of PET and MRI with neuropsychological tests in 26 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The width of the temporal horns and the third ventricle, regional metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu) and the proportion of cerebrospinal fluid space in mesial temporal and temporoparietal cortical regions were measured with three-dimensionally coregistered PET and MRI in two planes perpendicular to the Sylvian fissure. Highly significant correlations between rCMRGlu and neuropsychological tests were found mainly in the temporoparietal cortex, with and without correction for atrophy. Correlations of similar magnitude were seen also between most tests and the width of the temporal horns and third ventricle. Changes in the third ventricle and mesial temporal lobe were best seen with MRI, whereas PET most clearly depicted alterations in neocortical association areas. These two aspects of the disease correlated with the severity of dementia to a similar degree. (orig.)

  14. Culture’s Influence: Regionally Differing Social Milieus and Variations in Fertility Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, B.

    2015-01-01

    How can we understand subnational differences in fertility rates? The most common explanations see the key to these differences in the socio-structural composition of a region’s population and its structural conditions. However, such explanations fail to account for fertility rate differences in regions with similar populations and structures. This paper analyzes two social milieus in southern Germany and argues that variations in their fertility rates can only be understood through their cul...

  15. Age differences in intercorrelations between regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, B.; Duara, R.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of cerebral metabolic intercorrelations were compared in the resting state in 15 healthy young men (ages 20 to 32 years) and 15 healthy elderly men (ages 64 to 83 years). Controlling for whole-brain glucose metabolism, partial correlation coefficients were determined between pairs of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose determined by positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and obtained in 59 brain regions. Compared with the young men, the elderly men had fewer statistically significant correlations, with the most notable reductions observed between the parietal lobe regions, and between the parietal and frontal lobe regions. These results suggest that cerebral functional interactions are reduced in healthy elderly men

  16. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Isamu; Takei, Tadao; Oota, Hideomi; Maekawa, Kihei.

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in intants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therepy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by hight doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been obserbed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time. (author)

  17. Detection of brain atrophy due to ACTH or corticosteroid therapy with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, I.; Takei, T. (National Sagamihara Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan)); Oota, H.; Maekawa, K.

    1981-07-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids seemed to cause brain atrophy in infants. We studied the atrophy which was caused by these drugs with computed tomography (CT). 1) Nine cases of infantile spasms examined before, during and after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy on CT was observed immediately after the completion of ACTH therapy. The brain atrophy receded slightly after several months. It was more marked in younger patients, in cases treated by high doses of ACTH and in cases where brain atrophy had already been observed before ACTH therapy. 2) Twenty cases of infantile spasms or Lennox Gastaut syndrome were examined after ACTH therapy with CT. Brain atrophy was observed in twelve cases. Main features of brain atrophy were the enlargement of sylvian fissure and the widening of subarachnoid space at the frontal or temporal region. Mental retardation was observed in eighteen cases. 3) Two cases of nephrotic syndrome were treated with pulse therapy of prednisolone. CT was carried out before and after treatment. Atrophy of cerebrum was observed in these cases. 4) A case of infantile spasms treated with anticonvulsants without ACTH was studied by electroencephalography (EEG) and CT. The abnormal pattern of EEG was markedly corrected, while brain atrophy on CT was not observed after the therapy. Because of these observations the use of ACTH has to be reconsidered. ACTH should be the drug of second choice for the therapy of infantile spasms and should be used in case other anticonvulsants have no effect. ACTH should be used at lower dosages and for shorter periods of time.

  18. Healthy brain connectivity predicts atrophy progression in non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vilaplana, Eduard; Brown, Jesse A; Hubbard, H Isabel; Binney, Richard J; Attygalle, Suneth; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Miller, Zachary A; Pakvasa, Mikhail; Henry, Maya L; Rosen, Howard J; Henry, Roland G; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration has been hypothesized to follow predetermined large-scale networks through the trans-synaptic spread of toxic proteins from a syndrome-specific epicentre. To date, no longitudinal neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis in vivo in frontotemporal dementia spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that longitudinal progression of atrophy in non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia spreads over time from a syndrome-specific epicentre to additional regions, based on their connectivity to the epicentre in healthy control subjects. The syndrome-specific epicentre of the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was derived in a group of 10 mildly affected patients (clinical dementia rating equal to 0) using voxel-based morphometry. From this region, the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), we derived functional and structural connectivity maps in healthy controls (n = 30) using functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and diffusion-weighted imaging tractography. Graph theory analysis was applied to derive functional network features. Atrophy progression was calculated using voxel-based morphometry longitudinal analysis on 34 non-fluent/agrammatic patients. Correlation analyses were performed to compare volume changes in patients with connectivity measures of the healthy functional and structural speech/language network. The default mode network was used as a control network. From the epicentre, the healthy functional connectivity network included the left supplementary motor area and the prefrontal, inferior parietal and temporal regions, which were connected through the aslant, superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes were found in the left language-related regions and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Functional connectivity strength in the healthy speech/language network, but not in the default network, correlated with

  19. Computer tomography investigation of epilepsy the brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of brain atrophy in patients with epilepsy is often discussed in literature. The aim of the study is to present the results of computer tomography measurements of ventricular size and sulci of brain of 90 patients with various electro-clinical forms of epilepsy, including males and females at the age of 15 to 70 years. Computer tomography measurements were performed having in mind 6 parameters (frontal horn index, FHI; Huckman's number, HZ; cella media index,CMI; width of the third and the fourth ventricles; sulci). The results were compared to the CT measurements of a control group of 40 healthy males and females in the same age range.The obtained data indicate high percentage of subcortical atrophy among patients with epilepsy. Ventricular dilatation was found to be in light extent occurring most early in the frontal brain regions (frontal horns and lateral ventricles)., furthermore observed in the young age. (author)

  20. Thiamine content and turnover rates of some rat nervous regions, using labeled thiamine as a tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindi, G.; Patrini, C.; Comincioli, V.; Reggiani, C.

    1980-01-01

    The content of total thiamine radioactivity in some nervous structures and liver of the rat was determined in a steady state condition, using [thiazole-2- 14 C]thiamine as a tracer. The contents were analyzed by a mamillary type compartmental model which enabled the authors to calculate the influx and efflux fractional rate constants, turnover times, turnover rates and relative accuracy. The results show in general a good agreement between turnover rate values and brain regional sensitivity to thiamine deficiency, the most vunerable areas to thiamine depletion being those with the highest turnover rates. (Auth.)

  1. Additional corpus biopsy enhances the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in a background of gastritis with atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164) uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test) and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG) were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; pgastritis with atrophy increased regardless of biopsy site (for normal, mild, moderate, and severe gastritis with atrophy, the sensitivity of histology Giemsa stain was 100%, 100%, 88%, and 66%, respectively, and 100%, 97%, 91%, and 66%, respectively, for rapid urease test). In moderate to severe antrum or body gastritis with atrophy, additional corpus biopsy resulted in increased sensitivity to 16.67% compare to single antrum biopsy. Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results. PMID:23272897

  2. Car-borne survey of natural background gamma dose rate in Canakkale region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Arikan, I. H.; Oquz, F.; Aezdemir, T.; Yuecel, B.; Varinlioqlu, A.; Koese, A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural background gamma radiation was measured along roads in the environs of Canakkale region by using a car-borne spectrometer system with a plastic gamma radiation detector. In addition, activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples from the Canakkale region were determined by using a gamma spectrometer with an HPGe detector. A total of 92 856 data of the background gamma dose rate were collected for the Canakkale region. The background gamma dose rate of the Canakkale region was mapped using ArcGIS software, applying the geostatistical inverse distance-weighted method. The average and population-weighted average of the gamma dose are 55.4 and 40.6 nGy h -1 , respectively. The corresponding average annual effective dose to the public ranged from 26.6 to 96.8 μSv. (authors)

  3. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. Brain atrophy in the visual cortex and thalamus induced by severe stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Takanobu; Oishi, Naoya; Ikoma, Kazuya; Nishimura, Isao; Sakai, Yuki; Matsuda, Kenichi; Yamada, Shunji; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Narumoto, Jin; Fukui, Kenji

    2017-10-06

    Psychological stress induces many diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the causal relationship between stress and brain atrophy has not been clarified. Applying single-prolonged stress (SPS) to explore the global effect of severe stress, we performed brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition and Voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Significant atrophy was detected in the bilateral thalamus and right visual cortex. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry for Iba-1 as the marker of activated microglia indicates regional microglial activation as stress-reaction in these atrophic areas. These data certify the impact of severe psychological stress on the atrophy of the visual cortex and the thalamus. Unexpectedly, these results are similar to chronic neuropathic pain rather than PTSD clinical research. We believe that some sensitisation mechanism from severe stress-induced atrophy in the visual cortex and thalamus, and the functional defect of the visual system may be a potential therapeutic target for stress-related diseases.

  5. Consideration of the method of image diagnosis with respect to frontal lobe atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Sugawara, K.; Narita, Y.; Namura, I.

    1996-12-01

    Proposes a segmentation method for a quantitative image diagnosis as a means of realizing an objective diagnosis of the frontal lobe atrophy. From the data obtained on the grade of membership, the fractal dimensions of the cerebral tissue [cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), gray matter, and white matter] and the contours are estimated. The mutual relationship between the degree of atrophy and the fractal dimension has been analyzed based on the estimated fractal dimensions. Using a sample of 42 male and female cases, ranging In age from 50's to 70's, it has been concluded that the frontal lobe atrophy can be quantified by regarding it as an expansion of CSF region on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Furthermore, when the process of frontal lobe atrophy is separated into early and advanced stages, the volumetric change of CSF and white matter in frontal lobe displays meaningful differences between the two stages, demonstrating that the fractal dimension of CSF rises with the progress of atrophy. Moreover, an interpolation method for three-dimensional (3-D) shape reconstruction of the region of diagnostic interest is proposed and 3-D shape visualization, with respect to the degree and form of atrophy, is performed on the basis of the estimated fractal dimension of the segmented cerebral tissue.

  6. Depression and anxiety in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-Y; Cao, B; Zou, Y-T; Wei, Q-Q; Ou, R-W; Zhao, B; Wu, Y; Shang, H-F

    2018-01-01

    It has been noticed that the patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) can accompany with depression and anxiety. This study aimed to establish the incidence and determinants of depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese MSA patients. A total of 237 MSA patients were enrolled in the study. Neuropsychological assessment was performed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. We found that 62.0% and 71.7% patients had at least mild depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The severity of depression of MSA patients was associated with lower educational years (P=.024), longer disease duration (Panxiety was associated with increased disease duration (Panxiety were female gender, longer disease duration, and disease severity. Depression and anxiety symptoms are common in patients with MSA. Neurologists should pay attention to depression and anxiety in patients with MSA, especially in female patients and those with longer disease duration and severe disease condition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fronto-striatal atrophy in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia & Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eBertoux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD has only recently been associated with significant striatal atrophy, whereas the striatum appears to be relatively preserved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Considering the critical role the striatum has in cognition and behaviour, striatal degeneration, together with frontal atrophy, could be responsible of some characteristic symptoms in bvFTD and emerges therefore as promising novel diagnostic biomarker to distinguish bvFTD and AD. Previous studies have, however, only taken either cortical or striatal atrophy into account when comparing the two diseases. In this study, we establish for the first time a profile of fronto-striatal atrophy in 23 bvFTD and 29 AD patients at presentation, based on the structural connectivity of striatal and cortical regions. Patients are compared to 50 healthy controls by using a novel probabilistic connectivity atlas, which defines striatal regions by their cortical white matter connectivity, allowing us to explore the degeneration of the frontal and striatal regions that are functionally linked. Comparisons with controls revealed that bvFTD showed substantial fronto-striatal atrophy affecting the ventral as well as anterior and posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal cortices and the related striatal subregions. By contrast, AD showed few fronto-striatal atrophy, despite having significant posterior dorso-lateral prefrontal degeneration. Direct comparison between bvFTD and AD revealed significantly more atrophy in the ventral striatal-ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions in bvFTD. Consequently, deficits in ventral fronto-striatal regions emerge as promising novel and efficient diagnosis biomarker for bvFTD. Future investigations into the contributions of these fronto-striatal loops on bvFTD symptomology are needed to develop simple diagnostic and disease tracking algorithms.

  8. Cerebral atrophy as outcome measure in short-term phase 2 clinical trials in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elskamp, I.J. van den; Boden, B.; Barkhof, F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dattola, V. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Knol, D.L. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Filippi, M. [Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Neuroimaging Research Unit, Milan (Italy); Kappos, L. [University Hospital, University of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Fazekas, F. [Medical University of Graz, Department of Neurology, Graz (Austria); Wagner, K. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Pohl, C. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Bonn, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Sandbrink, R. [Bayer-Schering Pharma, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf, Department of Neurology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Polman, C.H. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uitdehaag, B.M.J. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Cerebral atrophy is a compound measure of the neurodegenerative component of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a conceivable outcome measure for clinical trials monitoring the effect of neuroprotective agents. In this study, we evaluate the rate of cerebral atrophy in a 6-month period, investigate the predictive and explanatory value of other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in relation to cerebral atrophy, and determine sample sizes for future short-term clinical trials using cerebral atrophy as primary outcome measure. One hundred thirty-five relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients underwent six monthly MRI scans from which the percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and the number and volume of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions, T2 lesions, and persistent black holes (PBH) were determined. By means of multiple linear regression analysis, the relationship between focal MRI variables and PBVC was assessed. Sample size calculations were performed for all patients and subgroups selected for enhancement or a high T2 lesion load at baseline. A significant atrophy occurred over 6 months (PBVC = -0.33%, SE = 0.061, p < 0.0001). The number of baseline T2 lesions (p = 0.024), the on-study Gd-enhancing lesion volume (p = 0.044), and the number of on-study PBHs (p = 0.003) were associated with an increased rate of atrophy. For a 50% decrease in rate of atrophy, the sample size calculations showed that approximately 283 patients per arm are required in an unselected sampled population and 185 patients per arm are required in a selected population. Within a 6-month period, significant atrophy can be detected and on-study associations of PBVC and PBHs emphasizes axonal loss to be a driving mechanism. Application as primary outcome measure in short-term clinical trials with feasible sample size requires a potent drug to obtain sufficient power. (orig.)

  9. Spatiotemporal Propagation of the Cortical Atrophy: Population and Individual Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Koval

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated failures in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD have raised a strong interest for the prodromal phase of the disease. A better understanding of the brain alterations during this early phase is crucial to diagnose patients sooner, to estimate an accurate disease stage, and to give a reliable prognosis. According to recent evidence, structural alterations in the brain are likely to be sensitive markers of the disease progression. Neuronal loss translates in specific spatiotemporal patterns of cortical atrophy, starting in the enthorinal cortex and spreading over other cortical regions according to specific propagation pathways. We developed a digital model of the cortical atrophy in the left hemisphere from prodromal to diseased phases, which is built on the temporal alignment and combination of several short-term observation data to reconstruct the long-term history of the disease. The model not only provides a description of the spatiotemporal patterns of cortical atrophy at the group level but also shows the variability of these patterns at the individual level in terms of difference in propagation pathways, speed of propagation, and age at propagation onset. Longitudinal MRI datasets of patients with mild cognitive impairments who converted to AD are used to reconstruct the cortical atrophy propagation across all disease stages. Each observation is considered as a signal spatially distributed on a network, such as the cortical mesh, each cortex location being associated to a node. We consider how the temporal profile of the signal varies across the network nodes. We introduce a statistical mixed-effect model to describe the evolution of the cortex alterations. To ensure a spatiotemporal smooth propagation of the alterations, we introduce a constrain on the propagation signal in the model such that neighboring nodes have similar profiles of the signal changes. Our generative model enables the reconstruction of personalized

  10. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  11. Ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical inequalities in road traffic injury rates in the Auckland region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Jamie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Exeter, Daniel; Stewart, Joanna; Bell, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    To describe ethnic, socioeconomic and geographical differences in road traffic injury (RTI) within Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. We analysed rates of RTI deaths and non-fatal hospital admissions using the New Zealand Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Data Set 2000-08. Poisson regression examined the association of age, gender, prioritised ethnicity and small area deprivation (New Zealand Index of Deprivation) with RTI rates, and RTI rates were mapped for 21 local board areas within the Auckland region. While RTI rates increased with levels of deprivation in all age groups, the gradient was steepest among children (9% increase/decile) and adults aged 25-64 years (11% increase/decile). In all age groups, RTI risk was highest among Māori. Pacific children had an elevated risk of RTI compared with the NZ European/Other group, but Pacific youth (15-24 years) and adults (25-64 years) had a lower risk. While RTI rates were generally higher for those living in rural local board areas, all but one local board in the southern Auckland urban area had among the highest rates. There are substantial ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in RTI risk in the Auckland region, with high rates among Māori (all ages), Pacific children, people living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods, the urban south and rural regions. To meet the vision of regional plans, road safety efforts must prioritise vulnerable communities at greatest risk of RTI, and implement and monitor the effectiveness of strategies that specifically include a focus on reducing inequalities in RTI rates. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Diagnosis of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2018-05-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias. A careful medical history and meticulous neurological examination remain the cornerstone for the accurate diagnosis of MSA. Ancillary investigations are helpful to support the diagnosis, rule out potential mimics, and define therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes diagnostic investigations useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected MSA. Currently used techniques include structural and functional brain imaging, cardiac sympathetic imaging, cardiovascular autonomic testing, olfactory testing, sleep study, urological evaluation, and dysphagia and cognitive assessments. Despite advances in the diagnostic tools for MSA in recent years and the availability of consensus criteria for clinical diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of MSA remains sub-optimal. As other diagnostic tools emerge, including skin biopsy, retinal biomarkers, blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and advanced genetic testing, a more accurate and earlier recognition of MSA should be possible, even in the prodromal stages. This has important implications as misdiagnosis can result in inappropriate treatment, patient and family distress, and erroneous eligibility for clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of emitter junction and passive base region on low dose rate effect in bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershenkov, V.S.; Cherepko, S.V.; Maslov, V.B.; Belyakov, V.V.; Sogoyan, A.V.; Ulimov, N.; Emelianov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Low dose rate effect in bipolar devices consists in the increase of peripheral surface recombination current with dose rate decrease. This is due to the more rapid positive oxide charge and interface trap density build-up as the dose rate becomes lower. High dose rate elevated temperature irradiation is proposed for simulation if the low dose rate effect. In the present we tried to separate the effect of radiation-induced charge in the thick passivation oxide over the emitter junction and passive base regions of npn bipolar transistor. Its goal is to improve bipolar device design for use in space environments and nuclear installations. Three experiments were made during this work. 1. Experiment on radiation-induced charge neutralization (RICN) effect under elevated temperature was performed to show transistor degradation dependence on emitter-base bias. 2. High dose rate elevated and room temperature irradiation of bipolar transistors were performed to separate effects of emitter-junction and passive base regions. 3. Pre- and post- irradiation hydrogen ambient storage was used to investigate its effect on radiation-induced charge build-up over the passive base region. All experiments were performed with npn and pnp transistors. (authors)

  14. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Hicks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06–1.78, p = 0.02. A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center, subject characteristics (race and sex, and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  15. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Steven D; Wang, Ming; Fry, Katherine; Doraiswamy, Vignesh; Wohlford, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.78, p  = 0.02). A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center), subject characteristics (race and sex), and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates) identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  16. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Konagaya, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  17. Quantitative MRI study of progressive cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yukihiko [Suzuka National Hospital, Suzuka, Mie (Japan); Konagaya, Yoko [JR Tokai General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    We investigated cerebral atrophy in multiple system atrophy (MSA) by quantitative analysis of MRI. The subjects were 28 patients with MSA (14 striato-nigral degeneration; SND, 14 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy; OPCA. 106 MRI examinations were performed totally) and 85 normal persons for control. The ratios of the ventral pons to the infratentorial space in the sagittal section, the putamen, cerebrum, frontal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes to the intracranial space in the horizontal section, and the temporal lobe to the intracranial space in the coronal section were measured. In the early stage of the disease, OPCA showed significant atrophy of the ventral pons compared with SND, and conversely, SND demonstrated significantly smaller putamen than that in OPCA. According to the progression of the disease, the atrophy of these neural tissues progressed, which resulted in so significant differences between SND and OPCA. The cerebral atrophy was observed in 17 MSA patients. The atrophy of the frontal lobe was much frequent and prominent to that in the temporal lobe and parietal and occipital lobes. SND showed higher incidence of the cerebral atrophy than OPCA in the early stage of the disease. In long period follow-up cases, one case showed cerebral atrophy in earlier stage, and another case in late stage. We indicated the involvement of the cerebral hemispheres in MSA, especially the frontal lobe. (author)

  18. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  19. Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyper-ornithinemia responsive to vitamin B6: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadzadeh Alireza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, characterized by progressive chorioretinal atrophy that results in progressive deterioration of peripheral and night vision and leading to blindness. Case presentation This report presents a case of a 28-year-old man consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with hemeralopia. Eye fundoscopy showed regions of confluent rounded chorioretinal atrophy. The visual field and retinal angiography were altered. A high level of plasma ornithine (629 nmol/mL was detected and a diagnosis of gyrate atrophy of the retina and choroid was made. The patient was treated with high dose Pyridoxine supplement (300 mg/d for 6 months and the ornithine level of his serum was successfully reduced. Conclusion The exact mechanism of chorioretinal atrophy in hyper-ornithinemia is not known and a small percentage of the affected people respond to Vitamin B6 supplementation.

  20. Fast rate of evolution in alternatively spliced coding regions of mammalian genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtdinov Ramil N

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least half of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. Alternative isoforms are often genome-specific and it has been suggested that alternative splicing is one of the major mechanisms for generating protein diversity in the course of evolution. Another way of looking at alternative splicing is to consider sequence evolution of constitutive and alternative regions of protein-coding genes. Indeed, it turns out that constitutive and alternative regions evolve in different ways. Results A set of 3029 orthologous pairs of human and mouse alternatively spliced genes was considered. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN, the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS, and their ratio (ω = dN/dS appear to be significantly higher in alternatively spliced coding regions compared to constitutive regions. When N-terminal, internal and C-terminal alternatives are analysed separately, C-terminal alternatives appear to make the main contribution to the observed difference. The effects become even more pronounced in a subset of fast evolving genes. Conclusion These results provide evidence of weaker purifying selection and/or stronger positive selection in alternative regions and thus one more confirmation of accelerated evolution in alternative regions. This study corroborates the theory that alternative splicing serves as a testing ground for molecular evolution.

  1. Variation in heterozygosity predicts variation in human substitution rates between populations, individuals and genomic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Amos

    Full Text Available The "heterozygote instability" (HI hypothesis suggests that gene conversion events focused on heterozygous sites during meiosis locally increase the mutation rate, but this hypothesis remains largely untested. As humans left Africa they lost variability, which, if HI operates, should have reduced the mutation rate in non-Africans. Relative substitution rates were quantified in diverse humans using aligned whole genome sequences from the 1,000 genomes project. Substitution rate is consistently greater in Africans than in non-Africans, but only in diploid regions of the genome, consistent with a role for heterozygosity. Analysing the same data partitioned into a series of non-overlapping 2 Mb windows reveals a strong, non-linear correlation between the amount of heterozygosity lost "out of Africa" and the difference in substitution rate between Africans and non-Africans. Putative recent mutations, derived variants that occur only once among the 80 human chromosomes sampled, occur preferentially at the centre of 2 Kb windows that have elevated heterozygosity compared both with the same region in a closely related population and with an immediately adjacent region in the same population. More than half of all substitutions appear attributable to variation in heterozygosity. This observation provides strong support for HI with implications for many branches of evolutionary biology.

  2. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-28

    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Forced oscillation technique in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Leanne M; Keeling, Lucy A; Shackleton, Claire E; Sly, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes respiratory compromise that is difficult to assess in young children. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is commercially available for children as young as 2 years of age and is nonvolitional. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of FOT in young children with SMA. Children with SMA aged resistance at 8 Hz (Rrs8) (mean z score, +0.66; SD, 1.34; P = .12) were abnormal. Four children performed spirometry. Linear relationships to Xrs8 exist: FVC (R2, 0.54), unassisted PCF (R2, 0.33), assisted PCF (R2, 0.43), and AHI (R2, 0.32). Over 12 months, Xrs8z score worsened (rate of change of +1.08, P change +0.51, P .05) was found between clinical characteristics and FOT values. FOT is feasible in young children with SMA, with abnormal values of reactance and resistance on grouped data, worsening over 12 months. Xrs8 is related to respiratory tests used to monitor progress in SMA (FVC, PCF, AHI). Further research on the value of FOT in managing individuals is warranted.

  4. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Methods: Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Results: Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%–270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. PMID:26138948

  5. Atrophy in the Thalamus But Not Cerebellum Is Specific for C9orf72 FTD and ALS Patients – An Atlas-Based Volumetric MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Schönecker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neuropathology of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS due to a C9orf72 mutation is characterized by two distinct types of characteristic protein depositions containing either TDP-43 or so-called dipeptide repeat proteins that extend beyond frontal and temporal regions. Thalamus and cerebellum seem to be preferentially affected by the dipeptide repeat pathology unique to C9orf72 mutation carriers.Objective: This study aimed to determine if mutation carriers showed an enhanced degree of thalamic and cerebellar atrophy compared to sporadic patients or healthy controls.Methods: Atlas-based volumetry was performed in 13 affected C9orf72 FTD, ALS and FTD/ALS patients, 45 sporadic FTD and FTD/ALS patients and 19 healthy controls. Volumes and laterality indices showing significant differences between mutation carriers and sporadic patients were subjected to binary logistic regression to determine the best predictor of mutation carrier status.Results: Compared to sporadic patients, mutation carriers showed a significant volume reduction of the thalamus, which was most striking in the occipital, temporal and prefrontal subregion of the thalamus. Disease severity measured by mini mental status examination (MMSE and FTD modified Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (FTD-CDR-SOB significantly correlated with volume reduction in the aforementioned thalamic subregions. No significant atrophy of cerebellar regions could be detected. A logistic regression model using the volume of the prefrontal and the laterality index of the occipital subregion of the thalamus as predictor variables resulted in an area under the curve (AUC of 0.88 while a model using overall thalamic volume still resulted in an AUC of 0.82.Conclusion: Our data show that thalamic atrophy in C9orf72 mutation carriers goes beyond the expected atrophy in the prefrontal and temporal subregion and is in good agreement with the

  6. Bilateral hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy: Effect of depressive symptoms and febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegersh, Andrey; Avedissian, Christina; Shamim, Sadat; Dustin, Irene; Thompson, Paul M.; Theodore, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Neuroimaging studies suggest a history of febrile seizures, and depression, are associated with hippocampal volume reductions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods We used radial atrophy mapping (RAM), a three-dimensional (3D) surface modeling tool, to measure hippocampal atrophy in 40 patients with unilateral TLE, with or without a history of febrile seizures and symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regression was used to single out the effects of covariates on local atrophy. Key Findings Subjects with a history of febrile seizures (n = 15) had atrophy in regions corresponding to the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus contralateral to seizure focus (CHC) compared to those without a history of febrile seizures (n = 25). Subjects with Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score ≥14 (n = 11) had atrophy in the superoanterior portion of the CHC compared to subjects with BDI-II <14 (n = 29). Significance Contralateral hippocampal atrophy in TLE may be related to febrile seizures or depression. PMID:21269286

  7. Developments of regional gross domestic product and the unemployment rate in Romania during 2000 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schonauer (Sacală Corina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of territorial units can be characterized by measuring the ability of producing goods and services and by measuring labor force in the area. The capacity of producing goods and services is measured by calculating the gross domestic product indicator. This article presents a comparative analysis of the evolution of regional GDP and the ILO unemployment rate at the level of the eight regions in Romania for a period of 13 years. The presented data come from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  8. The heating rate in the tropical tropopause region; Die Erwaermungsrate in der tropischen Tropopausenregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    The major part of the movement of air masses from the troposphere to the stratosphere takes place in the tropics. The conveyed air mass is transported with the Brewer-Dobson circulation poleward and therefore influences the global stratospheric composition. An important cause variable for the transport of air through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the radiative heating, which is investigated in this work. The influence of trace gases, temperature, and cloudiness on the heating rate is quantified, especially the effect of the overlap of several cloud layers is discussed. The heating rate in the tropics is simulated for one year. Regional differences of the heating rate profile appear between convective and stably stratified regions. By means of trace gas concentrations, temperature, and heating rates it is determined that an enhanced transport of air through the TTL took place between January and April 2007. The comparison with previous works shows that accurate input data sets of trace gases, temperature, and cloudiness and exact methods for the simulation of the radiative transfer are indispensable for modeling of the heating rate with the required accuracy. (orig.)

  9. Regional variation in the predictive validity of self-rated health for mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Berchick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a commonly used measure for assessing general health in surveys in the United States. However, individuals from different parts of the United States may vary in how they assess their health. Geographic differences in health care access and in the prevalence of illnesses may make it difficult to discern true regional differences in health when using SRH as a health measure. In this article, we use data from the 1986 and 1989–2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files and estimate Cox regression models to examine whether the relationship between SRH and five-year all-cause mortality differs by Census region. Contrary to hypotheses, there is no evidence of regional variation in the predictive validity of SRH for mortality. At all levels of SRH, and for both non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black respondents, SRH is equally and strongly associated with five-year mortality across regions. Our results suggest that differences in SRH across regions are not solely due to differences in how respondents assess their health across regions, but reflect true differences in health. Future research can, therefore, employ this common measure to investigate the geographic patterning of health in the United States.

  10. Аrctic tourism: the rating of regions, the оpportunities and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic and northern tourism as operational definitions are used in scientific publications more infrequently and irregularly. In practice, the tourism has become an inalienable sector of the economy; it has a multiplying effect for the development of social services, infrastructure and other sectors. The first National Tourist Rating of the 85 subjects of the Russian Federation (2015, the first rating of tourist attractiveness of the regions of the Russian Arctic contributes to the analyzes of the opportunities and threats to tourism.

  11.  Cortical Atrophy is Associated with Accelerated Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Mitzi M; Insel, Philip S; Nelson, Craig; Tosun, Duygu; Mattsson, Niklas; Mueller, Susanne G; Sacuiu, Simona; Bickford, David; Weiner, Michael W; Mackin, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. Prospective cohort study. Multicenter, clinic-based. Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points. Repeated measures of cognitive outcomes, cortical atrophy, and their associations were evaluated with mixed effects models adjusting for age, education, sex, and APOE genotype. The SSD group demonstrated accelerated decline on measures of global cognition (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale; df = 421, t = 2.242, p = 0.025), memory (Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory II; df = 244, t = -2.525, p = 0.011), information processing speed (Trail Making Test Parts A [df = 421, t = 2.376, p = 0.018] and B [df = 421, t = 2.533, p = 0.012]), and semantic fluency (Category Fluency; df = 424, t = -2.418, p = 0.016), as well as accelerated frontal lobe (df = 341, t = -2.648, p = 0.008) and anterior cingulate (df = 341, t = -3.786, p confrontation naming or for rate of atrophy in any other regions. Accelerated frontal lobe and anterior cingulate atrophy was associated with cognitive decline on measures of global cognition, information processing speed, and semantic fluency (all p < 0.05), but not memory. Individuals with chronic SSD may represent an MCI subgroup that is highly vulnerable to accelerated cognitive decline, an effect that may be governed by frontal lobe and anterior cingulate atrophy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region... CONTACT: Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power... Customer Service Region Network Integration Transmission Service Rate Schedules PD-NTS3 and INT-NTS3 for P...

  13. Governance and Regional Variation of Homicide Rates: Evidence From Cross-National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Criminological theories of cross-national studies of homicide have underestimated the effects of quality governance of liberal democracy and region. Data sets from several sources are combined and a comprehensive model of homicide is proposed. Results of the spatial regression model, which controls for the effect of spatial autocorrelation, show that quality governance, human development, economic inequality, and ethnic heterogeneity are statistically significant in predicting homicide. In addition, regions of Latin America and non-Muslim Sub-Saharan Africa have significantly higher rates of homicides ceteris paribus while the effects of East Asian countries and Islamic societies are not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with the expectation of the new modernization and regional theories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  15. Homicide and mental disorder in a region with a high homicide rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Tsymbalova, Alla

    2016-10-01

    There are few studies of the relationship between mental disorder and homicide offences from regions with high rates of homicide. We examined the characteristics and psychiatric diagnoses of homicide offenders from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation, a region of Russia with a high total homicide rate. In the 30 years between 1981 and 2010, 3414 homicide offenders were the subjected to pre-trial evaluations by experienced psychiatrists, almost half of whom (1596, 46.7%) met the international classification of diseases (ICD) 10 criteria for at least one mental disorder. The six most common individual diagnoses were alcohol dependence (15.9%), acquired organic mental disorder (7.3%), personality disorder (7.1%), schizophrenia (4.4%) and intellectual disability (3.6%). More than one disorder was found in 7.4% of offenders and alcohol dependence was the most frequently diagnosed co-morbid disorder. One in ten offenders were found to be not criminally responsible for their actions. Few homicides involved the use of substances other than alcohol, and firearms were used in 1.6% of homicides. The finding that people with mental disorders other than psychosis committed a high proportion of homicides in a region with a high rate of homicide, suggests that people with mental disorders are vulnerable to similar sociological factors to those that contribute to homicide offences by people who do not have mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  17. Elevated congenital anomaly rates and incorporated cesium-137 in the Polissia region of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Koerblein, Alfred; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Nataliya; Komov, Oleksandr; Kuznietsov, Illia; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Sosyniuk, Zoriana

    2016-03-01

    Investigations soon after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl in Russian) accident of exposed populations residing elsewhere in Europe led government and international agencies to conclude that exposures to cesium-137 (Cs-137) were not teratogenic. Our observations of elevated population rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) and microcephaly and microphthalmia (M/M) in the Rivne Province in Ukraine, which were among the highest in Europe, prompted this follow-up investigation inclusive of whole-body counts (WBCs) of Cs-137 among ambulatory patients and pregnant women residing in Polissia, the most polluted region in Rivne. Yearly (2000-2012) population rates of NTDs and M/M and WBC patterns of ambulatory patients (2001-2010) and pregnant women (2011-2013) in Polissia and non-Polissia regions of Rivne were analyzed. The NTD and M/M population rates in Rivne remain elevated and are statistically significantly higher in Polissia than in non-Polissia. The WBCs among residents in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than among those from non-Polissia. NTD and M/M rates are highest in the Polissia region of Rivne and are among the highest in Europe. In Polissia, the WBCs of Cs-137 are above officially set permissible upper limits. The results are based on aggregate data of NTDs and M/Ms and average WBC values. Further investigations of causality of the high rates of NTDs and M/Ms are needed and urgent strengthening policies and implementations to reduce exposures to teratogens, in particular radioactive nuclides and alcohol, and consumption of folic acid supplements are indicated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Apparent Transverse Relaxation Rate Differentiate Parkinson Disease and Atypical Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Lewis, M M; Kanekar, S; Sterling, N W; He, L; Kong, L; Li, R; Huang, X

    2017-05-01

    Both diffusion tensor imaging and the apparent transverse relaxation rate have shown promise in differentiating Parkinson disease from atypical parkinsonism (particularly multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy). The objective of the study was to assess the ability of DTI, the apparent transverse relaxation rate, and their combination for differentiating Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and controls. A total of 106 subjects (36 controls, 35 patients with Parkinson disease, 16 with multiple system atrophy, and 19 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were included. DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate measures from the striatal, midbrain, limbic, and cerebellar regions were obtained and compared among groups. The discrimination performance of DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate among groups was assessed by using Elastic-Net machine learning and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Compared with controls, patients with Parkinson disease showed significant apparent transverse relaxation rate differences in the red nucleus. Compared to those with Parkinson disease, patients with both multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy showed more widespread changes, extending from the midbrain to striatal and cerebellar structures. The pattern of changes, however, was different between the 2 groups. For instance, patients with multiple system atrophy showed decreased fractional anisotropy and an increased apparent transverse relaxation rate in the subthalamic nucleus, whereas patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed an increased mean diffusivity in the hippocampus. Combined, DTI and the apparent transverse relaxation rate were significantly better than DTI or the apparent transverse relaxation rate alone in separating controls from those with Parkinson disease/multiple system atrophy/progressive supranuclear palsy; controls from those with Parkinson

  19. Measurement and analysis of reaction rate distributions of cores with spectrum shifter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shigekazu; Shiroya, Seiji; Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu; Aizawa, Otohiko; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A study for the neutronic characteristics of the spectrum-controlled neutron irradiation fields using various reflector materials was performed. Spectrum shifter regions were constructed in the upper reflector region of the solid moderated core (B-Core) of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). Beryllium, graphite and aluminum were selected as the loading materials for the spectrum shifter. Two tight-pitch lattice cores with different moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (V m /V f ) of 0.97 and 0.65 have been used. Axial reaction rate distributions of gold, nickel and indium wires were measured, and the spectrum index was defined as the Cd ratio of the gold wire and the ratio of gold reaction rate to nickel reaction rate. Using the conventional design calculation procedure, the experimental and calculated reaction rate and spectrum index show several disagreements. Detailed treatment of the neutron streaming effect, heterogeneous cell structure and depression factor are shown to be necessary for improving the agreement between experimental and calculated values. (author)

  20. Regional rates of myocardial fatty acid metabolism: Comparison with coronary angiography and ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schad, N.; Vattimo, A.; Bertelli, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 50 patients, 1 mCi 123 I phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) was injected at peak ergometric stress and 1500 frames were acquired (1 frame/s) with a high count rate gamma camera. Parametric images of rates of decrease and increase for different time intervals after stress were compared with coronary angiography and LV ventriculography, separately evaluating the 3 main coronary territories: 18/150 territories supplied by normal coronaries presented rather homogeneous regional clearing rates, whereas a gradual decrease in clearing rates towards the end of the territory (frequently with peripheral defects) was seen in all 87/150 territories with significant coronary narrowing. In local correspondence to clearing defects, initial IPPA accumulations could be observed with later onset of clearing between 10 and 25 min. In all 44/150 territories presented abnormal clearing rates, mostly with a patchy pattern, with normal coronary anatomy, but all except one had LV dysfunction and a clinical diagnosis of cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus or hypertensive disease. Twenty four of the 41 patients with CAD had, in correspondence to a prior myocardial infarction, minimum or missing metabolic activity frequently in circumscribed zones, partly separated by bridges of still viable tissue with preserved but reduced clearing rates. (orig.)

  1. Regional rates of myocardial fatty acid metabolism: comparison with coronary angiography and ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, N; Wagner, R K; Hallermeier, J; Daus, H J; Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P

    1990-01-01

    In 50 patients, 1 mCi 123I phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) was injected at peak ergometric stress and 1500 frames were acquired (1 frame/s) with a high count rate gamma camera. Parametric images of rates of decrease and increase for different time intervals after stress were compared with coronary angiography and LV ventriculography, separately evaluating the 3 main coronary territories: 18/150 territories supplied by normal coronaries presented rather homogeneous regional clearing rates, whereas a gradual decrease in clearing rates towards the end of the territory (frequently with peripheral defects) was seen in all 87/150 territories with significant coronary narrowing. In local correspondence to clearing defects, initial IPPA accumulations could be observed with later onset of clearing between 10 and 25 min. 44/150 territories presented abnormal clearing rates, mostly with a patchy pattern, with normal coronary anatomy, but all except one had LV dysfunction and a clinical diagnosis of cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus or hypertensive disease. Twenty four of the 41 patients with CAD had, in correspondence to a prior myocardial infarction, minimum or missing metabolic activity frequently in circumscribed zones, partly separated by bridges of still viable tissue with preserved but reduced clearing rates.

  2. Progressive Diaphragm Atrophy in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glau, Christie L; Conlon, Thomas W; Himebauch, Adam S; Yehya, Nadir; Weiss, Scott L; Berg, Robert A; Nishisaki, Akira

    2018-02-05

    Diaphragm atrophy is associated with delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation and increased mortality in critically ill adults. We sought to test for the presence of diaphragm atrophy in children with acute respiratory failure. Prospective, observational study. Single-center tertiary noncardiac PICU in a children's hospital. Invasively ventilated children with acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm thickness at end-expiration and end-inspiration were serially measured by ultrasound in 56 patients (median age, 17 mo; interquartile range, 5.5-52), first within 36 hours of intubation and last preceding extubation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 140 hours (interquartile range, 83-201). At initial measurement, thickness at end-expiration was 2.0 mm (interquartile range, 1.8-2.5) and thickness at end-inspiration was 2.5 mm (interquartile range, 2-2.8). The change in thickness at end-expiration during mechanical ventilation between first and last measurement was -13.8% (interquartile range, -27.4% to 0%), with a -3.4% daily atrophy rate (interquartile range, -5.6 to 0%). Thickening fraction = ([thickness at end-inspiration - thickness at end-expiration]/thickness at end-inspiration) throughout the course of mechanical ventilation was linearly correlated with spontaneous breathing fraction (beta coefficient, 9.4; 95% CI, 4.2-14.7; p = 0.001). For children with a period of spontaneous breathing fraction less than 0.5 during mechanical ventilation, those with exposure to a continuous neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 15) had a significantly larger decrease in thickness at end-expiration compared with children with low spontaneous breathing fraction who were not exposed to a neuromuscular blockade infusion (n = 18) (-16.4%, [interquartile range, -28.4% to -7.0%] vs -7.3%; [interquartile range, -10.9% to -0%]; p = 0.036). Diaphragm atrophy is present in children on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Diaphragm contractility, measured as

  3. CT features of olivopontocerebellar atrophy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.D.; Gururaj, A.K.; Jeans, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992, 14 children were seen in whom a clinical diagnosis of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) had been made. The majority of patients presented with cerebellar ataxia and hypotonia. Five children had a family history of a similar illness in first-degree relatives. All cases had undergone clinical and neurologic examinations, routine laboratory tests and cranial CT. CT features were graded to quantitative the degree of atrophy in each cerebellar hemisphere, vermis and brain stem. All patients had varying degrees of atrophic changes of cerebellum, brain stem and cerebrum. These CT features appear to be distinctive enough to enable the diagnosis of OPCA to be made. (orig.)

  4. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients. © The Author(s), 2015.

  5. Impaired emotional autobiographical memory associated with right amygdalar-hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Nathalie; Botzung, Anne; Noblet, Vincent; Rousseau, François; Després, Olivier; Cretin, Benjamin; Kremer, Stéphane; Blanc, Frédéric; Manning, Liliann

    2015-01-01

    We studied the influence of emotions on autobiographical memory (AbM) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), characteristically triggering atrophy in the hippocampus and the amygdala, two crucial structures sustaining memory and emotional processing. Our first aim was to analyze the influence of emotion on AbM in AD patients, on both the proportion and the specificity of emotional memories. Additionally, we sought to determine the relationship of emotional AbM to amygdalar-hippocampal volumes. Eighteen prodromal to mild AD patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls were included. We obtained 30 autobiographical memories per participant using the modified Crovitz test (MCT). Analyses were performed on global scores, rates and specificity scores of the emotional vs. neutral categories of memories. Amygdalar-hippocampal volumes were extracted from 3D T1-weighted MRI scans and tested for correlations with behavioral data. Overall, AD patients displayed a deficit in emotional AbMs as they elicited less emotional memories than the controls, however, the specificity of those memories was preserved. The deficit likely implied retrieval or storage as it was extended in time and without reminiscence bump effect. Global scores and rates of emotional memories, but not the specificity scores, were correlated to right amygdalar and hippocampal volumes, indicating that atrophy in these structures has a central role in the deficit observed. Conversely, emotional memories were more specific than neutral memories in both groups, reflecting an enhancement effect of emotion that could be supported by other brain regions that are spared during the early stages of the disease.

  6. Automated segmentation of geographic atrophy in fundus autofluorescence images using supervised pixel classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihong; Medioni, Gerard G; Hernandez, Matthias; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a manifestation of the advanced or late stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 65 in the western world. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated supervised pixel classification approach for segmenting GA, including uni- and multifocal patches in fundus autofluorescene (FAF) images. The image features include region-wise intensity measures, gray-level co-occurrence matrix measures, and Gaussian filter banks. A [Formula: see text]-nearest-neighbor pixel classifier is applied to obtain a GA probability map, representing the likelihood that the image pixel belongs to GA. Sixteen randomly chosen FAF images were obtained from 16 subjects with GA. The algorithm-defined GA regions are compared with manual delineation performed by a certified image reading center grader. Eight-fold cross-validation is applied to evaluate the algorithm performance. The mean overlap ratio (OR), area correlation (Pearson's [Formula: see text]), accuracy (ACC), true positive rate (TPR), specificity (SPC), positive predictive value (PPV), and false discovery rate (FDR) between the algorithm- and manually defined GA regions are [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], respectively.

  7. On the Achievable Rate-Regions for the Gaussian Two-way Diamond Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Askarian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this channel,we study rate region of a Gaussian two-way diamond channel which operates in half-duplex mode. In this channel, two transceiver (TR nodes exchange their messages with the help of two relay nodes. We consider a special case of the Gaussian two-way diamond channels which is called Compute-and-Forward Multiple Access Channel (CF-MAC. In the CF-MAC, the TR nodes transmit their messages to the relay nodes which are followed by a simultaneous communication from the relay nodes to the TRs. Adopting rate splitting method in the terminal encoders and then using Compute-and-Forward (CF relaying and decoding the sum of messages at the relay nodes, an achievable rate region for this channel is obtained. To this end, we use a superposition coding based on lattice codes. Using numerical results, we show that our proposed scheme has better performance than other similar methods and achieves a tighter gap to the outer bound.

  8. Mutations of different molecular origins exhibit contrasting patterns of regional substitution rate variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Elango

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Transitions at CpG dinucleotides, referred to as "CpG substitutions", are a major mutational input into vertebrate genomes and a leading cause of human genetic disease. The prevalence of CpG substitutions is due to their mutational origin, which is dependent on DNA methylation. In comparison, other single nucleotide substitutions (for example those occurring at GpC dinucleotides mainly arise from errors during DNA replication. Here we analyzed high quality BAC-based data from human, chimpanzee, and baboon to investigate regional variation of CpG substitution rates. We show that CpG substitutions occur approximately 15 times more frequently than other single nucleotide substitutions in primate genomes, and that they exhibit substantial regional variation. Patterns of CpG rate variation are consistent with differences in methylation level and susceptibility to subsequent deamination. In particular, we propose a "distance-decaying" hypothesis, positing that due to the molecular mechanism of a CpG substitution, rates are correlated with the stability of double-stranded DNA surrounding each CpG dinucleotide, and the effect of local DNA stability may decrease with distance from the CpG dinucleotide.Consistent with our "distance-decaying" hypothesis, rates of CpG substitution are strongly (negatively correlated with regional G+C content. The influence of G+C content decays as the distance from the target CpG site increases. We estimate that the influence of local G+C content extends up to 1,500 approximately 2,000 bps centered on each CpG site. We also show that the distance-decaying relationship persisted when we controlled for the effect of long-range homogeneity of nucleotide composition. GpC sites, in contrast, do not exhibit such "distance-decaying" relationship. Our results highlight an example of the distinctive properties of methylation-dependent substitutions versus substitutions mostly arising from errors during DNA replication. Furthermore

  9. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  10. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van; Royen, E.A. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer's disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.)

  11. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  12. Skeletal muscle atrophy in bioengineered skeletal muscle: a new model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter H U; Vandenburgh, Herman H

    2013-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy has been well characterized in various animal models, and while certain pathways that lead to disuse atrophy and its associated functional deficits have been well studied, available drugs to counteract these deficiencies are limited. An ex vivo tissue-engineered skeletal muscle offers a unique opportunity to study skeletal muscle physiology in a controlled in vitro setting. Primary mouse myoblasts isolated from adult muscle were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) containing hundreds of aligned postmitotic muscle fibers expressing sarcomeric proteins. When electrically stimulated, BAMs generated measureable active forces within 2-3 days of formation. The maximum isometric tetanic force (Po) increased for ∼3 weeks to 2587±502 μN/BAM and was maintained at this level for greater than 80 days. When BAMs were reduced in length by 25% to 50%, muscle atrophy occurred in as little as 6 days. Length reduction resulted in significant decreases in Po (50.4%), mean myofiber cross-sectional area (21.7%), total protein synthesis rate (22.0%), and noncollagenous protein content (6.9%). No significant changes occurred in either the total metabolic activity or protein degradation rates. This study is the first in vitro demonstration that length reduction alone can induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and establishes a novel in vitro model for the study of skeletal muscle atrophy.

  13. Regional scales of fire danger rating in the forest: improved technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Volokitina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fires distribute unevenly in time and over area under the influence of weather and other factors. It is unfeasible to air patrol the whole forest area daily during a fire season as well as to keep all fire suppression forces constantly alert. Daily work and preparedness of forest fire protection services is regulated by the level of fire danger according to weather conditions (Nesterov’s index. PV-1 index, fire hazard class (Melekhov’s scale, regional scales (earlier called local scales. Unfortunately, there is still no unified comparable technique of making regional scales. As a result, it is difficult to maneuver forest fire protection resources, since the techniques currently used are not approved and not tested for their performance. They give fire danger rating incomparable even for neighboring regions. The paper analyzes the state-of-the-art in Russia and abroad. It is stated the irony is that with factors of fire danger measured quantitatively, the fire danger itself as a function has no quantitative expression. Thus, selection of an absolute criteria is of high importance for improvement of daily fire danger rating. On the example of the Chunsky forest ranger station (Krasnoyarsk Krai, an improved technique is suggested of making comparable local scales of forest fire danger rating based on an absolute criterion of fire danger rating – a probable density of active fires per million ha. A method and an algorithm are described of automatized local scales of fire danger that should facilitate effective creation of similar scales for any forest ranger station or aviation regional office using a database on forest fires and weather conditions. The information system of distant monitoring by Federal Forestry Agency of Russia is analyzed for its application in making local scales. To supplement the existing weather station net it is suggested that automatic compact weather stations or, if the latter is not possible, simple

  14. Two-Way Multiple Relays Channel: Achievable Rate Region and Optimal Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhair Al-Qudah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a communication model containing two users that exchange their information with the help of multiple parallel relay nodes. To avoid interference at these common nodes, two users are required to transmit over the different frequency bands. Based on this scenario, the achievable rate region is initially derived. Next, an optimization scheme is described to choose the best relays that can be used by each user. Then, two power allocation optimization schemes are investigated to allocate the proper average power value to each node. Finally, comparisons between these two optimization schemes are carried out through some numerical examples.

  15. Assessment of vaginal atrophy: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M. A.; Limpens, J.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an evidence-based definition of vaginal atrophy (VA) and present an overview of subjective and objective measurements of VA applicable in clinical practice and research. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies

  16. Cube propagation for focal brain atrophy estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Sørensen, Lauge; Darkner, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Precise and robust whole brain, ventricle, and hippocampal atrophy measurements are important as they serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease. They are used as secondary outcomes in drug trials, and they correlate with the cognitive scores. When two successive scans are non-linearly aligned...

  17. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  18. Progressive Hemifacial Atrophy with Morphea of Cheek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Auluck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is a rare collagen disorder in which fibrosis of skin, subcutaneous tissues and muscles can occur with occasional involvement of bones. Localized scleroderma is a benign condition but can cause significant deformity when it affects the face. We report a case of localized scleroderma of the face causing progressive hemifacial atrophy.

  19. Clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy in monkeys with experimental glaucoma and temporary central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study included 16 eyes of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta - 4 eyes with experimental glaucoma, 11 eyes after experimental temporary occlusion of the central retinal artery, and 1 normal eye. On histological sections, we measured zones with different histological characteristics.On fundus photographs, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy were measured and correlated with the histological data. Results: The size of the clinical alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy was significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium (P = 0.05; correlation coefficient r = 0.49 and with the size of the histological region with a decreased density of retinal photoreceptors (P = 0.01; r = 0.60. The size of clinical beta zone of parapapillary atrophy significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (P <0.001; r = 0.91, with the size of the histological zone with a complete loss of photoreceptors (P <0.001; r = 0.81, and with the size of the histological zone with a closed choriocapillaris (P <0.001; r = 0.89. Conclusions: The clinically seen alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological parapapillary irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium and decreased density of retinal photoreceptors. The clinically seen beta zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the photoreceptors, and a closure of the choriocapillaris.

  20. Cognitive impairment in Alzheimer`s disease correlates with ventricular width and atrophy-corrected cortical glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slansky, I [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany); Herholz, K [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany); Pietrzyk, U [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany); Kessler, J [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany); Grond, M [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany); Mielke, R [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany); Heiss, W D [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    We compared the correlation of PET and MRI with neuropsychological tests in 26 patients with probable Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The width of the temporal horns and the third ventricle, regional metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu) and the proportion of cerebrospinal fluid space in mesial temporal and temporoparietal cortical regions were measured with three-dimensionally coregistered PET and MRI in two planes perpendicular to the Sylvian fissure. Highly significant correlations between rCMRGlu and neuropsychological tests were found mainly in the temporoparietal cortex, with and without correction for atrophy. Correlations of similar magnitude were seen also between most tests and the width of the temporal horns and third ventricle. Changes in the third ventricle and mesial temporal lobe were best seen with MRI, whereas PET most clearly depicted alterations in neocortical association areas. These two aspects of the disease correlated with the severity of dementia to a similar degree. (orig.)

  1. Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123 I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. (author)

  2. Rating the Efficiency of Regional Health Systems and Compulsory Health Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Russkikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of increasing of the regional differentiation of the health systems and compulsory health insurance, the comparative analysis and efficiency assessment of their performance in the context of the subjects of the Russian Federation becomes particularly relevant. Therefore, the research is focused on the regional health systems and compulsory health insurance (CHI, and the subject matter of the study is the analysis of the system performance. In the article, the comparative analysis of the authors’ approaches to the formation of efficiency criteria of the performance of regional health systems and CHI, as well as to the development of a typology of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation based on these criteria is conducted. The authors propose a system of indicators to measure the economic, medical and social efficiency of the systems under consideration. Moreover, a set of indicators of economic efficiency forms two groups of indicators. The first group of indicators reflects the financial performance, and the second — the structural efficiency. A methodological approach to the formation of the rating for subjects of the Russian Federation according to the levels of efficiency, based on the procedures of cluster analysis and fuzzy mathematics are developed. A feature of the proposed approach to the construction of a typology of the subjects in terms of efficiency is the introduction of a reference subject with the national average performance indicators system that allows to qualitatively assess the effectiveness of regional health systems and CHI by comparing them with the «reference subject». The results of the empirical research have indicated a high differentiation of the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of economic efficiency, have allowed to identify the subjects-outsiders. The theoretical and practical results can be used for the rational choice of priorities of the state policy in the field of the

  3. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroma, Y.; Kina, S.; Fujitani, T.; Hosoda, M.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Sahoo, S. K.; Tokonami, S.; Furukawa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137(arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m -2 s -1 and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m -2 s -1 , respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, 238 U and 232 Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg -1 dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg -1 dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa. (authors)

  4. Labour force participation rates at the regional and national levels of the European Union : An integrated analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul; Zeilstra, Annette S.

    This study investigates the causes of variation in regional labour force participation rates in a cross-country perspective. A microeconomic framework of the tabour force participation decision is aggregated across individuals to obtain an explanatory rnodel of regional participation rates in which

  5. White matter changes contribute to corpus callosum atrophy in the elderly: The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Sjöstrand, Karl

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The corpus callosum (CC) is the most important structure involved in the transmission of interhemispheric information. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between regional age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and atrophy of CC in elderly ...

  6. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Amandine; Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Le Goff, Melanie; Chanraud, Sandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2017-03-09

    The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored. Baseline volumes analysis revealed that FCSRT and IST declines were both associated with lower volumes of the medial temporal region. Volumes loss analysis confirmed that both declines are related to medial temporal lobe atrophy and revealed that FCSRT decline was specifically associated with atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex whereas IST decline was specifically related to temporal pole atrophy. These results suggest that cognitive decline across aging is firstly related to structural modifications of the medial temporal lobe, followed by an atrophy in the posterior midline structures for episodic memory and an atrophy of the temporal pole for semantic fluency.

  7. 3D characterization of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using tensor-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Lee, Suh; Klunder, Andrea D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Brun, Caroline; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Britson, Paula J.; Ward, Chadwick P.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Borowski, Bret; Fleisher, Adam S.; Fox, Nick C.; Boyes, Richard G.; Barnes, Josephine; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Boreta, Lauren; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) creates three-dimensional maps of disease-related differences in brain structure, based on nonlinearly registering brain MRI scans to a common image template. Using two different TBM designs (averaging individual differences versus aligning group average templates), we compared the anatomical distribution of brain atrophy in 40 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition conferring increased risk for AD. We created an unbiased geometrical average image template for each of the three groups, which were matched for sex and age (mean age: 76.1 years+/−7.7 SD). We warped each individual brain image (N=120) to the control group average template to create Jacobian maps, which show the local expansion or compression factor at each point in the image, reflecting individual volumetric differences. Statistical maps of group differences revealed widespread medial temporal and limbic atrophy in AD, with a lesser, more restricted distribution in MCI. Atrophy and CSF space expansion both correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Using cumulative p-value plots, we investigated how detection sensitivity was influenced by the sample size, the choice of search region (whole brain, temporal lobe, hippocampus), the initial linear registration method (9- versus 12-parameter), and the type of TBM design. In the future, TBM may help to (1) identify factors that resist or accelerate the disease process, and (2) measure disease burden in treatment trials. PMID:18378167

  8. Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lucas; Deerenberg, Eva B; van Dijk, Sven M; Lamme, Bas; Koning, Anton H; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Jeekel, Johannes; Lange, Johan F

    2014-04-01

    Incisional hernia (IH) can be attributed to multiple factors. The presence of a parastomal hernia has shown to be a risk factor for IH after midline laparotomy. Our hypothesis is that this increased risk of IH may be caused by changes in biomechanical forces, such as midline shift to the contralateral side of the colostomy owing to decreased restraining forces at the site of the colostomy, and left abdominal rectus muscle (ARM) atrophy owing to intercostal nerve damage. Patients were selected if they underwent end-colostomy via open operation between 2004 and 2011. Patients were eligible if computed tomography (CT) had been performed postoperatively. If available, preoperative CTs were collected for case-control analyses. Midline shift was measured using V-scope application in the I-space, a CAVE-like virtual reality system. For the ARM atrophy hypothesis, measurements of ARM were performed at the level of colostomy, and 3 and 8 cm cranial and caudal of the colostomy. Postoperative CT were available for 77 patients; of these patients, 30 also had a preoperative CT. Median follow-up was 19 months. A mean shift to the right side was identified after preoperative and postoperative comparison; from -1.3 ± 4.6 to 2.1 ± 9.3 (P = .043). Furthermore, during rectus muscle measurements, a thinner left ARM was observed below the level of colostomy. Creation of a colostomy alters the abdominal wall. Atrophy of the left ARM was seen caudal to the level of the colostomy, and a midline shift to the right side was evident on CT. These changes may explain the increased rate of IH after colostomy creation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nash Equilibrium of an Energy Saving Strategy with Dual Rate Transmission in Wireless Regional Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiang Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless regional area network (WRAN adopts centralized network architecture and is currently one of the most typical cognitive radio networks. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the communication networks with the constraint of spectrum resource utilization, a working sleep mechanism is introduced into the base station (BS, and a novel energy saving strategy with dual rate transmission is proposed. Combining the multiple-vacation queue and priority queue, using the quasi-birth-death process and the matrix-geometric solution method, we assess the average latency and the forced termination probability of secondary user packets, as well as the energy saving ratio and the channel utilization of system. Based on the revenue-expenditure structure, a profit function is built, and then the Nash equilibrium behavior and the socially optimal behavior are investigated. With the help of the particle swarm optimization, an intelligent optimization algorithm to search the socially optimal arrival rate of secondary user packets is presented. In order to unify the arrival rates of secondary user packets with Nash equilibrium and social optimization, a reasonable pricing policy is formulated. In addition, system experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy saving strategy and the rationality of the pricing policy.

  10. High HPV vaccination uptake rates for adolescent girls after regional governmental funding in Shiki City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Shimizu, Y; Netsu, S; Hanley, S; Konno, R

    2012-08-10

    In Japan, the bivalent HPV vaccine was approved in October, 2009 and became available as a non-routine vaccine from December, 2009. While routine vaccinations are free, the cost and responsibility for non-routine vaccinations are left to the individual. In exceptional circumstances regional governments fund non-routine vaccinations. This was the case in Shiki City, Saitama Prefecture, where a high uptake rate for individual (non-school based) HPV vaccination was obtained. On January 20, 2010, the mayor of Shiki City announced to the media his decision to vaccinate adolescent girls in Shiki City against HPV. A project team for HPV vaccination was set up in the city's Health Promotion Center. To gain mutual consent for HPV vaccination, senior health professionals, city officials, the head of the board of education, school principals and health-care teachers met several times. The cohort to be vaccinated was 1254 girls aged 12-15 years. Individual notifications were mailed to each girl on April 23, 2010, along with information about the HPV vaccine. As of April 10th, 2011, the uptake rate for girls aged 15 years old was 90.7% for the 1st dose. The vaccine registry is managed by the health care system of the city. The success of the HPV vaccination program and high uptake rates in Shiki City is a good model for the nationwide HPV vaccination program that started in February, 2011. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface strain rate colour map of the Tatra Mountains region (Slovakia based on GNSS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárik Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface deformation of the Tatra Mountains region in Western Carpathians can nowadays be studied directly thanks to precise geodetic measurements using the GNSS. The strain or stress tensor field is, however, a rather complex “data structure” difficult to present legibly and with sufficient resolution in the form of a classical map. A novel and promising approach to the solution of this problem is coding the three principal strain or stress values into the three colour channels (red, green, blue of an RGB colour. In our previous study, the colour depended on the stress tensor shape descriptors. In the current study, the adapted colouring scheme uses a subset of shape descriptors common to stress and strain, which differ only in the scaling factor. In this manner, we generate the colour map of the surface strain rate field, where the colour of each grid point carries the information about the shape of the strain rate tensor at that point. The resulting strain rate colour map can be displayed simultaneously with the map of the faults or elevations and be easily checked for the data or interpolation method errors and incompatibility with the geophysical and geological expectations.

  12. Bilateral optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfeng; Wei, Shihui

    2013-06-01

    To report a phenomenon of optical nerve atrophy secondary to lateral occipital lobe infarction. Two successive patients with unilateral occipital lobe infarction who experienced bilateral optical nerve atrophy during the follow-up underwent cranial imaging, fundus photography, and campimetry. Each patient was diagnosed with occipital lobe infarction by cranial MRI. During the follow-up, a bilateral optic atrophy was revealed, and campimetry showed a right homonymous hemianopia of both eyes with concomitant macular division. Bilateral optic atrophy was related to occipital lobe infarction, and a possible explanation for the atrophy was transneuronal degeneration caused by occipital lobe infarction.

  13. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Schneider, E.; Hacker, H.; Fischer, P.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution. (orig.)

  14. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease - represented in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H; Schneider, E; Hacker, H; Fischer, P A [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neurologie)

    1979-01-01

    To clarify the importance of brain atrophy in relation to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, 173 patients were examined by computed tomography (CT). In 51.4% of the CT findings, brain atrophy was considered to be pathological. Statistically significant relations of age and sex were found with regard to the extent and localization of brain atrophy. Cortical atrophy also showed a significant dependence on duration of disease. Linear measurements at the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle lead us to assume that brain atrophy in Parkinson's patients is more prevalent than in normal patients within the scope of age involution.

  15. Visualizing stages of cortical atrophy in progressive MCI from the ADNI cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a condition where patients are at risk of developing clinically definite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an annual conversion rate of approximately 15%[1]. AD is characterized by progressive brain atrophy with major impact on the cerebral cortex...... and visualize the cortical atrophy at different stages in patients who eventually converted to clinically definite AD. We selected patients with a diagnosis of MCI from the ADNI database who converted to AD during the follow-up period. T1-weighted MRI scans were collected at time of conversion(n=140...

  16. Morphology and mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus spp. strains from the Mexican mixtec region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Mendoza, P.C.; del Toro, G. Valencia; Ramírez-Carrillo, R.; Robles-Martínez, F.; Yáñez-Fernández, J.; Garín-Aguilar, M.E.; Hernández, C.G.; Bravo-Villa, G.

    2014-01-01

    Two native Pleurotus spp. strains (white LB-050 and pale pink LB-051) were isolated from rotten tree trunks of cazahuate (Ipomoea murucoides) from the Mexican Mixtec Region. Both strains were chemically dedikaryotized to obtain their symmetrical monokaryotic components (neohaplonts). This was achieved employing homogenization time periods from 60 to 65 s, and 3 day incubation at 28 °C in a peptone-glucose solution (PGS). Pairing of compatible neohaplonts resulted in 56 hybrid strains which were classified into the four following hybrid types: (R1-nxB1-n, R1-nxB2-1, R2-nxB1-n and R2-nxB2-1). The mycelial growth of Pleurotus spp. monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains showed differences in texture (cottony or floccose), growth (scarce, regular or abundant), density (high, regular or low), and pigmentation (off-white, white or pale pink). To determine the rate and the amount of mycelium growth in malt extract agar at 28 °C, the diameter of the colony was measured every 24 h until the Petri dish was completely colonized. A linear model had the best fit to the mycelial growth kinetics. A direct relationship between mycelial morphology and growth rate was observed. Cottony mycelium presented significantly higher growth rates (p < 0.01) in comparison with floccose mycelium. Thus, mycelial morphology can be used as criterion to select which pairs must be used for optimizing compatible-mating studies. Hybrids resulting from cottony neohaplonts maintained the characteristically high growth rates of their parental strains with the hybrid R1-nxB1-n being faster than the latter. PMID:25477920

  17. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere: Escape rates and the structure of the exobase region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2009-08-01

    In Strobel [Strobel, D.F., 2008. Icarus, 193, 588-594] a mass loss rate from Titan's upper atmosphere, ˜4.5×10 amus, was calculated for a single constituent, N 2 atmosphere by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating due to CH 4 absorption. It was estimated, but not proven, that the hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Here the individual conservation of momentum equations for the three major components of the upper atmosphere (N 2, CH 4, H 2) are solved in the low Mach number limit and compared with Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements to demonstrate that light gases (CH 4, H 2) preferentially escape over the heavy gas (N 2). The lightest gas (H 2) escapes with a flux 99% of its limiting flux, whereas CH 4 is restricted to ⩾75% of its limiting flux because there is insufficient solar power to support escape at the limiting rate. The respective calculated H 2 and CH 4 escape rates are 9.2×10 and 1.7×10 s, for a total of ˜4.6×10 amus. From the calculated densities, mean free paths of N 2, CH 4, H 2, and macroscopic length scales, an extended region above the classic exobase is inferred where frequent collisions are still occurring and thermal heat conduction can deliver power to lift the escaping gas out of the gravitational potential well. In this region rapid acceleration of CH 4 outflow occurs. With the thermal structure of Titan's thermosphere inferred from INMS data by Müller-Wodarg et al. [Müller-Wodarg, I.C.F., Yelle, R.V., Cui, J., Waite Jr., J.H., 2008. J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2007JE003033. E10005], in combination with calculated temperature profiles that include sputter induced plasma heating at the exobase, it is concluded that on average that the integrated, globally average, orbit-averaged, plasma heating rate during the Cassini epoch does not exceed ˜5×10 eVcms ( ˜0.0008 ergcms).

  18. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Miyabayashi, Shigeaki; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tada, Keiya; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Masatoshi; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE. (author)

  19. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  20. Relating coccolithophore calcification rates to phytoplankton community dynamics: Regional differences and implications for carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Adey, Tim R.; Balch, William M.; Holligan, Patrick M.

    2007-03-01

    Recent measurements of surface coccolithophore calcification from the Atlantic Ocean (50°N-50°S) are compared to similar measurements from other oceanic settings. By combining the different data sets of surface measurements, we examine general and regional patterns of calcification relative to organic carbon production (photosynthesis) and other characteristics of the phytoplankton community. Generally, surface calcification and photosynthesis are positively correlated, although the strength of the relationship differs between biogeochemical provinces. Relationships between surface calcification, chlorophyll- a and calcite concentrations are also statistically significant, although again there is considerable regional variability. Such variability appears unrelated to phytoplankton community composition or hydrographic conditions, and may instead reflect variations in coccolithophore physiology. The contribution of inorganic carbon fixation (calcification) to total carbon fixation (calcification plus photosynthesis) is ˜1-10%, and we estimate a similar contribution from coccolithophores to total organic carbon fixation. However, these contributions vary between biogeochemical provinces, and occasionally coccolithophores may account for >20% of total carbon fixation in unproductive central subtropical gyres. Combining surface calcification and photosynthetic rates with standing stocks of calcite, particulate organic carbon, and estimated phytoplankton carbon allows us to examine the fates of these three carbon pools. The relative turnover times vary between different biogeochemical provinces, with no clear relationship to the overall productivity or phytoplankton community structure found in each province. Rather, interaction between coccolithophore physiology (coccolith production and detachment rates), species diversity (cell size), and food web dynamics (grazer ecology) may control the composition and turnover times of calcite particles in the upper ocean.

  1. Evaluation of hepatic atrophy after transcatheter arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Mee Ran; Oh, Min Cheol; Park, Chul Min; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic atrophy has been recognized as a complication of hepatic and biliary disease but we have often found it in follow up CT after transcatheter arterial embolization (TACE). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of hepatic atrophy after TACE. Of 53 patients who had TACE. We evaluated the relationship between the incidence of hepatic atrophy and the number of TACE, and also evaluated the average number of TACE in patients with hepatic atrophy. Of 20 patients who had received more than average number of TACE for development of hepatic atrophy (2 times with portal vein obstruction, 2.7 times without portal vein obstruction in this study), we evaluated the relationship between the lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor and the incidence of hepatic atrophy. There were 8 cases of hepatic atrophy (3 with portal vein obstruction, 5 without portal vein obstruction), average number for development of hepatic atrophy were 2.5 times. As the number of TACE were increased, the incidence of hepatic atrophy were also increased. Of 20 patients who received more than average number of TACE for development of hepatic atrophy, we noted 6 cases of hepatic atrophy in 11 patients with dense homogenous lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor and noted only 1 case of hepatic atrophy in 9 patient with inhomogenous lipiodol uptake pattern. Hepatic atrophy was one of the CT findings after TACE even without portal vein obstruction. Average number of TACE was 2.5 times and risk factors for development of hepatic atrophy were portal vein obstruction, increased number of TACE, and dense homogenous lipiodol uptake pattern of tumor

  2. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently a...... associated with synucleinopathies. We investigated whether alterations in PPI were more pronounced in MSA compared with Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and healthy controls....

  3. Cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Sargent, Michael A.; Poskitt, Kenneth J. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Prendiville, Julie S. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    Trichothiodystrophy is a rare neuroectodermal disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by brittle hair, nail dysplasia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and gonadal failure. We describe a female patient whose cranial MRI revealed almost total lack of myelination in the supratentorial white matter, which is similar to the previously described cases. In addition, there was progressive cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, which has not been well documented in association with trichothiodystrophy. (orig.)

  4. ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE, HOSPITALIZATION RATE AND MORTALITY LEVELS RELATED TO GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: According to prognosis made by World Health Organization experts, by mid-21st century gastrointestinal disorders will be among the leaders, partially due to lifestyle of a modern man (stress, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy habits, environmental pollution, genetically modified and low quality foods.Aim: To provide informational support of activities aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to patients with gastrointestinal disorders and at further development of specialized gastroenterological care to the population of the Moscow Region, its better availability and higher efficacy and quality.Materials and methods: We calculated and analyzed gastrointestinal morbidity in 2014 (according to referrals among the main age categories (children, adolescents, adults of the population of the Moscow Region, as well as hospitalization rates and in-hospital mortality. The information was taken from the Federal Statistical Surveillance report forms # 12 and # 14.Results: In 2014, the highest prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders was registered in adolescents, being by 42.7% higher than that in adults and by 11.7% higher than that in children. The leading causes of referrals in all age categories were gastritis and duodenitis, as well as gall bladder and bile tract disorders. The structure of morbidity was characterized by a high proportion of pancreatic disorders, stomach and duodenal ulcers in adults. The rate of hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal disorders was 17.8 cases per 1000 patients, being 17.4‰ in adults and 19.8‰ in children and adolescents. The main reasons for hospitalization in adults were diseases of pancreas (23.9% of all hospitalization due to gastrointestinal disorders, gall bladder and bile tract disorders (16.3%. In children and adolescents, the main reasons for hospitalizations were intestinal disorders (36.4%, gastritis and duodenitis (17.9%. In-hospital mortality from

  5. Salivary flow rate and pH after radiotherapy of the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares de; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de; Krapf, Stella Maria Rigo; Souza, Fabiany Rodrigues de

    2004-01-01

    The most common sequelae in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy (60Cobalt) is postirradiation hypo salivation. This leads to a change in oral physiology, and, as a consequence, the irradiated individual is susceptible to infections and caries lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of stimulated whole saliva flow rate (SWSFR) during and after radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer by lateral opposed fields. Six samples of mechanically stimulated whole saliva were collected of each individual and evaluated by gravimetric method.The first sample was collected before radiotherapy; the second one after 1500 cGy dose; the third one after the last dose of treatment and the remainder samples in intervals of subsequent two months up to six months after the end of treatment. The SWSFR decreased in 50% after a dose of 1500 cGy (1/4 of received treatment). After radiation therapy, the SWSFR was 0,33 ml/min and after six months was 0,20 ml/min. These values represented, respectively, a decreasing in 64% and 78% of initial values (ANOVA, Tukey's Test p<0.05).Based in these results, the authors concluded radiotherapy when applied in malign neoplasms of the head and neck region by lateral opposed fields was able to decrease significantly salivary flow rate. Intensive preventive dental care during and after radiotherapy seems to be an useful tool to avoid radiation caries and their complications. (author)

  6. Interference MAC: Impact of improper Gaussian signaling on the rate region Pareto boundary

    KAUST Repository

    Kariminezhad, Ali

    2017-11-02

    Meeting the challenges of 5G demands better exploitation of the available spectrum by allowing multiple parties to share resources. For instance, a secondary unlicensed system can share resources with the cellular uplink of a primary licensed system for an improved spectral efficiency. This induces interference which has to be taken into account when designing such a system. A simple yet robust strategy is treating interference as noise (TIN), which is widely adapted in practice. It is thus important to study the capabilities and limitations of TIN in such scenarios. In this paper, we study this scenario modelled as multiple access channel (MAC) interfered by a Point-to-Point (P2P) channel, where we focus on the characterization of the rate region. We use improper Gaussian signaling (instead of proper) at the transmitters to increase the design flexibility, which offers the freedom of optimizing the transmit signal pseudo-variance in addition to its variance. We formulate the weighted max-min problem as a semidefinite program, and use semidefinite relaxation (SDR) to obtain a near-optimal solution. Numerical optimizations show that, by improper Gaussian signaling the achievable rates can be improved upto three times when compared to proper Gaussian signaling.

  7. The rate of dielectric breakdown weathering of lunar regolith in permanently shadowed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A. P.; Stubbs, T. J.; Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.

    2017-02-01

    Large solar energetic particle events may cause dielectric breakdown in the upper 1 mm of regolith in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). We estimate how the resulting breakdown weathering compares to meteoroid impact weathering. Although the SEP event rates measured by the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are too low for breakdown to have significantly affected the regolith over the duration of the LRO mission, regolith gardened by meteoroid impacts has been exposed to SEPs for ∼106 yr. Therefore, we estimate that breakdown weathering's production rate of vapor and melt in the coldest PSRs is up to 1.8 - 3.5 ×10-7 kg m-2 yr-1 , which is comparable to that produced by meteoroid impacts. Thus, in PSRs, up to 10-25% of the regolith may have been melted or vaporized by dielectric breakdown. Breakdown weathering could also be consistent with observations of the increased porosity ("fairy castles") of PSR regolith. We also show that it is conceivable that breakdown-weathered material is present in Apollo soil samples. Consequently, breakdown weathering could be an important process within PSRs, and it warrants further investigation.

  8. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonaldo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic organ that is maintained by multiple pathways regulating cell and protein turnover. During muscle atrophy, proteolytic systems are activated, and contractile proteins and organelles are removed, resulting in the shrinkage of muscle fibers. Excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with poor prognosis in several diseases, including myopathies and muscular dystrophies, as well as in systemic disorders such as cancer, diabetes, sepsis and heart failure. Muscle loss also occurs during aging. In this paper, we review the key mechanisms that regulate the turnover of contractile proteins and organelles in muscle tissue, and discuss how impairments in these mechanisms can contribute to muscle atrophy. We also discuss how protein synthesis and degradation are coordinately regulated by signaling pathways that are influenced by mechanical stress, physical activity, and the availability of nutrients and growth factors. Understanding how these pathways regulate muscle mass will provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  9. Soil carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates in seminatural grassland in Aso region, Kumamoto, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Yo; Clifton-Brown, John; Sugiyama, Shinji; Nakaboh, Makoto; Hatano, Ryusuke; Fernández, Fabián G; Ryan Stewart, J; Nishiwaki, Aya; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Global soil carbon (C) stocks account for approximately three times that found in the atmosphere. In the Aso mountain region of Southern Japan, seminatural grasslands have been maintained by annual harvests and/or burning for more than 1000 years. Quantification of soil C stocks and C sequestration rates in Aso mountain ecosystem is needed to make well-informed, land-use decisions to maximize C sinks while minimizing C emissions. Soil cores were collected from six sites within 200 km(2) (767-937 m asl.) from the surface down to the k-Ah layer established 7300 years ago by a volcanic eruption. The biological sources of the C stored in the Aso mountain ecosystem were investigated by combining C content at a number of sampling depths with age (using (14) C dating) and δ(13) C isotopic fractionation. Quantification of plant phytoliths at several depths was used to make basic reconstructions of past vegetation and was linked with C-sequestration rates. The mean total C stock of all six sites was 232 Mg C ha(-1) (28-417 Mg C ha(-1) ), which equates to a soil C sequestration rate of 32 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) over 7300 years. Mean soil C sequestration rates over 34, 50 and 100 years were estimated by an equation regressing soil C sequestration rate against soil C accumulation interval, which was modeled to be 618, 483 and 332 kg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively. Such data allows for a deeper understanding in how much C could be sequestered in Miscanthus grasslands at different time scales. In Aso, tribe Andropogoneae (especially Miscanthus and Schizoachyrium genera) and tribe Paniceae contributed between 64% and 100% of soil C based on δ(13) C abundance. We conclude that the seminatural, C4 -dominated grassland system serves as an important C sink, and worthy of future conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Picture agnosia as a characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Hieda, Sotaro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a degenerative disease characterized by progressive visual agnosia with posterior cerebral atrophy. We examine the role of the picture naming test and make a number of suggestions with regard to diagnosing PCA as atypical dementia. We investigated 3 cases of early-stage PCA with 7 control cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). The patients and controls underwent a naming test with real objects and colored photographs of familiar objects. We then compared rates of correct answers. Patients with early-stage PCA showed significant inability to recognize photographs compared to real objects (F = 196.284, p = 0.0000) as measured by analysis of variants. This difficulty was also significant to AD controls (F = 58.717, p = 0.0000). Picture agnosia is a characteristic symptom of early-stage PCA, and the picture naming test is useful for the diagnosis of PCA as atypical dementia at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  12. Frequent seizures are associated with a network of gray matter atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy with or without hippocampal sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Coan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS have diffuse subtle gray matter (GM atrophy detectable by MRI quantification analyses. However, it is not clear whether the etiology and seizure frequency are associated with this atrophy. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of GM atrophy and the influence of seizure frequency in patients with TLE and either normal MRI (TLE-NL or MRI signs of HS (TLE-HS. METHODS: We evaluated a group of 172 consecutive patients with unilateral TLE-HS or TLE-NL as defined by hippocampal volumetry and signal quantification (122 TLE-HS and 50 TLE-NL plus a group of 82 healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry was performed with VBM8/SPM8 in 3T MRIs. Patients with up to three complex partial seizures and no generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the previous year were considered to have infrequent seizures. Those who did not fulfill these criteria were considered to have frequent seizures. RESULTS: Patients with TLE-HS had more pronounced GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral mesial temporal structures, temporal lobe, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Patients with TLE-NL had more subtle GM atrophy, including the ipsilateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral thalami and pre/post-central gyri. Both TLE-HS and TLE-NL showed increased GM volume in the contralateral pons. TLE-HS patients with frequent seizures had more pronounced GM atrophy in extra-temporal regions than TLE-HS with infrequent seizures. Patients with TLE-NL and infrequent seizures had no detectable GM atrophy. In both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, the duration of epilepsy correlated with GM atrophy in extra-hippocampal regions. CONCLUSION: Although a diffuse network GM atrophy occurs in both TLE-HS and TLE-NL, this is strikingly more evident in TLE-HS and in patients with frequent seizures. These findings suggest that neocortical atrophy in TLE is related to the ongoing seizures and epilepsy duration, while thalamic

  13. Comparison with hippocampal atrophy and hypoperfusion in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, YA; Kim, SH; Chung, SK; Juh, RH; Sohn, HS; Suh, TS; Choe, BY

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hypoperfusion and hippocampal atropy of the medial temporal lobe are peculiarity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The manual ROI (region of interest) technique for hippocampal volume estimation is specific and sensitive for the detection of hippocampal atrophy. In patients with AD reported a significant correlation between hippocampal volume and hypoperfusion. This study investigated correlations between atrophy distinct medial temporal lobe structure and hypoperfusion in hippocampal volumetry. Methods: The hippocampi were individually outlined on Tl-weighted volumetry MRI and calculated with MATLAB in 12 patients with AD. All volume measurements were performed by a segmentation technique with a combination of tracing and thresholding. The volume of a given structure in each slice was obtained by automatically counting the number of pixels within the segmented regions and multiplying the number by a voxel size. In order to permit direct regional comparisons, both of each patient's Tc- 99m ECD SPECT was then registered to the patient's MRI. Delineation continued anteriorly in each contiguous slice reaching the head of the hippocampus, which was distinguished from the overlying amygdala by the presence of the alveus or uncal recess. The right hippocampus (RH) was measured first, followed by the left hippocampus (LH). The accuracy of registration was investigated in a validation study with developed brain phantom. Results:The mean total intracranial volume of the AD was significantly smaller volume (1492.9 cm 3 ) and hypo perfused than those in normal subjects. The mean hippocampal volumes were 2.01 cm 3 and l.99 cm 3 for the RH and LH. The correlations between volume and hypoperfusion in the affected hippocampi were found to be significant; especially the medial temporal lobe is markedly hypo perfused. Conclusion: Volumetry is the most sensitive tool for the detection of hippocampal abnormality in AD, and significant correlation between asymmetry in

  14. Impact of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolotutu, A. D.; Djirimu, M. A.; Lutfi, M.; Anggadini, F.

    2018-05-01

    Research was conducted in several districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province in order to determine the effect of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate, and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty at the districts/city in the province. The analysis used is Panel Data Regression. The results show that first, life expectancy and gross domestic regional income have a negative and significant impact on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province. Second, the opened unemployment rate has a positive and significant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the province. Third, literacy rates show a positive effect and insignificant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province of Central Sulawesi. Fourth, these four variables simultaneously affect the poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi

  15. Evidence for gene-specific rather than transcription rate-dependent histone H3 exchange in yeast coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Vingron, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histones are dynamically exchanged independently of DNA replication. Recent reports show that different coding regions differ in their amount of replication-independent histone H3 exchange. The current paradigm is that this histone exchange variability among coding regions is a consequence of transcription rate. Here we put forward the idea that this variability might be also modulated in a gene-specific manner independently of transcription rate. To that end, we study transcription rate-independent replication-independent coding region histone H3 exchange. We term such events relative exchange. Our genome-wide analysis shows conclusively that in yeast, relative exchange is a novel consistent feature of coding regions. Outside of replication, each coding region has a characteristic pattern of histone H3 exchange that is either higher or lower than what was expected by its RNAPII transcription rate alone. Histone H3 exchange in coding regions might be a way to add or remove certain histone modifications that are important for transcription elongation. Therefore, our results that gene-specific coding region histone H3 exchange is decoupled from transcription rate might hint at a new epigenetic mechanism of transcription regulation.

  16. Regional Distribution of Epifascial Swelling and Epifascial Lymph Drainage Rate Constants in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    MODI, STEPHANIE; STANTON, ANTHONY W. B.; MELLOR, RUSSELL H.; MICHAEL PETERS, A.; RODNEY LEVICK, J.; MORTIMER, PETER S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The view that breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a simple, direct mechanical result of axillary lymphatic obstruction (‘stopcock’ mechanism) appears incomplete, because parts of the swollen limb (e.g., hand) can remain nonswollen. The lymph drainage rate constant (k) falls in the swollen forearm but not in the spared hand, indicating regional differences in lymphatic function. Here the generality of the hypothesis that regional epifascial lymphatic failure underlies region...

  17. MORBIDITY RATE OF RETARDEDNESS AND CNS ORGANIC DISEASES AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE BRYANSK REGION BORN AFTER CHERNOBYL NPP ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dynamics of morbidity rate of oligophrenia and CNS organic diseases for the population born in the Bryansk region after the Chernobyl accident. Two regions were taken for the detailed analysis: contaminated - Novozybkov and not contaminated - Zhukov. 518 patient medical records were analyzed in the contaminated region and 359 ones in not contaminated. It is revealed that morbidity indicators for the radioactive contaminated territories are significantly higher than for the not contaminated territories.

  18. Hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction associated with physical inactivity in community-dwelling elderly subjects: The Sefuri study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Yuki; Nogami, Kohjiro; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the modifiable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the relationship between physical activity, hippocampal atrophy, and memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). We examined 213 community-dwelling elderly subjects (99 men and 114 women with a mean age of 68.9 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. All participants underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). Physical activities were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We evaluated the degree of hippocampal atrophy (z-score-referred to as ZAdvance hereafter), using a free software program-the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 plus Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through an Exponentiated Lie algebra. Routine magnetic resonance imaging findings were as follows: silent brain infarction, n  = 24 (11.3%); deep white matter lesions, n  = 72 (33.8%); periventricular hyperintensities, n  = 35 (16.4%); and cerebral microbleeds, n  = 14 (6.6%). Path analysis based on SEM indicated that the direct paths from leisure-time activity to hippocampal atrophy (β = -.18, p  physical inactivity, and hippocampal atrophy appeared to cause memory dysfunction, although we are unable to infer a causal or temporal association between hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction from the present observational study.

  19. Beta-Zone parapapillary atrophy and the velocity of glaucoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Christopher C; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Prata, Tiago S; Tello, Celso; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Beta-Zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) occurs more commonly in eyes with glaucoma. Rates of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in eyes with and without beta-zone PPA at the time of baseline assessment were compared. Retrospective, comparative study. Two hundred forty-five patients from the New York Glaucoma Progression Study. Subjects with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and repeatable VF loss were assessed for eligibility. Eyes with a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT) examination, at least 5 visual field tests after the HRT in either eye, optic disc photographs, and Zone PPA was defined as a region of chorioretinal atrophy with visible sclera and choroidal vessels adjacent to the optic disc. Global rates of VF progression were determined by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. Univariate analysis included age, gender, ethnicity, central corneal thickness (CCT), refractive error, baseline mean deviation, baseline intraocular pressure (IOP), mean IOP, IOP fluctuation, disc area, rim area, rim area-to-disc area ratio, beta-zone PPA area, beta-zone PPA area-to-disc area ratio, and presence or absence of beta-zone PPA. The relationship between beta-zone PPA and the rate and risk of glaucoma progression. Two hundred forty-five eyes of 245 patients (mean age, 69.6+/-12.3 years) were enrolled. The mean follow-up was 4.9+/-1.4 years and the mean number of VFs after HRT was 9.3+/-2.7. beta-Zone PPA was present in 146 eyes (65%). Eyes with beta-zone PPA progressed more rapidly (-0.84+/-0.8 dB/year) than eyes without it (-0.51+/-0.6 dB/year; Pzone PPA (HR, 2.59; P1.5 dB/year; P = 0.08) global rates of progression occurred more commonly in eyes with beta-zone PPA than in eyes without it. Thinner CCT (zone PPA (kappa = 0.13). Eyes with beta-zone PPA are at increased risk for glaucoma progression and warrant close clinical surveillance. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional inequalities in self-rated health in Russia: What is the role of social and economic capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytikäinen, Laura; Kemppainen, Teemu

    2016-07-01

    Using the data from the European Social Survey (round 6, 2012), this article studies regional inequalities in self-rated health in Russia and examines the role that socio-demographic factors and economic and social capital play in these differences. Also, the regional variation in the determinants of self-rated health is analysed. The article argues that there are considerable and statistically significant unadjusted differences in self-rated health across Russian Federal Districts. We elaborated these differences by regression adjustments, with the result that some of the differences were explained by our predictors and some were amplified. The odds for good self-rated health were lower in the Volga than in Central Russia due to age and socio-economic composition. In contrast, the regression adjustments amplified the differences of the Northwest and the South in comparison to the Central District. The odds for good self-rated health were considerably lower in the Far Eastern part of the country than in the Central District, independently of the adjustments. While social and economic capital predicted good self-rated health at the individual level, they did not explain regional differences. Interaction analyses revealed regional variation in some of the determinants of self-rated health. Most notably, the effects of age, trade union membership and volunteering depended on the regional context. This article argues that the healthcare reforms that transfer funding responsibilities to regional administration may be dangerous for the already less affluent and less healthy rural regions. Thus, regional governance has a growing importance in preventing increases in health inequalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  2. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions : the MOSAIC birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A. C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    Objective: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. Design: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. Participants:

  3. Analysis of MRI in chronic alcoholics with brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Sook; Kim, Myung Soon; Whang, Kum

    1997-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate by MRI brain atrophy and abnormal parenchymal signal intensity on T2-weighted spin echo image in alcoholics. MRI of 24 alcoholic patients were retrospectively evaluated to measure brain atrophy (cerebral sulcal width, bifrontal horn distance, third ventricular width, fourth ventricular width, ambient cistern width, cerebellopontine angle cistern width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci) and abnormal high signal lesions of brain parenchyma on T2-weighted spin echo image, and were compared with age matched controls (n=29). The alcoholics and controls were divided into two age groups, younger (30-49 years) and older (50-72 years), and statistical analysis was then performed. Axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images were obtained using a 0.5 Tesla superconductive system. Statistical significant parameters in the supratentorial region were cerebral sulcal width, distance between lateral ends of frontal horns of both lateral ventricles, and third ventricular width (p < 0.05), and in the infratentorial region were fourth ventricular width, ambient cistern width, cerebellopontine angle cistern width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci (p < 0.05). In the younger age group, statistical significant parameters were cerebral sulcal width, third ventricular width, ambient cistern width, cerebellopontine angle cistern width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci (p < 0.05) and in the older group were cerebral sulcal width, bifrontal horn distance, third ventricular width, fourth ventricular width, number of cerebellar sulci, and number of vermian sulci (p < 0.05). Abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images were seen in 46% of alcoholics (11/24) and in 13% of controls (3/29). High signal lesions in the older group were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Atrophic brain changes and periventricular high signal foci on T2-weighted spin echo image are

  4. Dissociating Memory Networks in Early Alzheimer’s Disease and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration - A Combined Study of Hypometabolism and Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Stefan; Dukart, Juergen; Vogt, Barbara; Horstmann, Annette; Becker, Georg; Villringer, Arno; Barthel, Henryk; Sabri, Osama; Müller, Karsten; Schroeter, Matthias L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We aimed at dissociating the neural correlates of memory disorders in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Methods We included patients with AD (n = 19, 11 female, mean age 61 years) and FTLD (n = 11, 5 female, mean age 61 years) in early stages of their diseases. Memory performance was assessed by means of verbal and visual memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R), including forgetting rates. Brain glucose utilization was measured by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and brain atrophy by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Using a whole brain approach, correlations between test performance and imaging data were computed separately in each dementia group, including a group of control subjects (n = 13, 6 female, mean age 54 years) in both analyses. The three groups did not differ with respect to education and gender. Results Patients in both dementia groups generally performed worse than controls, but AD and FTLD patients did not differ from each other in any of the test parameters. However, memory performance was associated with different brain regions in the patient groups, with respect to both hypometabolism and atrophy: Whereas in AD patients test performance was mainly correlated with changes in the parieto-mesial cortex, performance in FTLD patients was correlated with changes in frontal cortical as well as subcortical regions. There were practically no overlapping regions associated with memory disorders in AD and FTLD as revealed by a conjunction analysis. Conclusion Memory test performance may not distinguish between both dementia syndromes. In clinical practice, this may lead to misdiagnosis of FTLD patients with poor memory performance. Nevertheless, memory problems are associated with almost completely different neural correlates in both dementia syndromes. Obviously, memory functions are carried out by

  5. Studies on reversibility of cerebral atrophy in alcoholics by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Yoshito; Sanga, Kenji; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Kawamura, Toshiaki; Domon, Yuji; Mitamura, Akira; Hayashi, Yu; Ogata, Motoyo.

    1987-01-01

    Only sparse data exist concerning objectively quantified reversibility of cerebral atrophy (CA) in alcoholics by computed tomography (CT). This study explored reversible CA changes from measurements of the area seen on repeated CT scans, which were acquired over a period of 6 - 191 weeks in 44 alcoholics. In the group of abstinent alcoholics, significant recovery of CA was observed in all 6 regions of interest (ROI) at the second CT scan, as compared with that at the first CT scan. Measurements obtained from CT revealed aggravation of CA in the bilateral anterior horns, right cella media, and frontal subarachnoid space in the group with drinking alcoholics. The rate of recovery was significantly higher with the interval between the first and second CT scans and the duration of abstinence being longer. For the frontal area, it tended to be better when the degree of CA was severer at the first CT scan. There was no significant correlation between the rate of recovery and age or the duration of drinking habit in any of the ROIs. The beginning of CA recovery after abstinence is likely to depend on the brain sites; The cella media seemed to be the first to recover from CA. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, J; Lethaby, A; Kennedy, R

    2006-10-18

    symptoms of vaginal atrophy, results indicated significant findings favouring the cream, ring, and tablets when compared to placebo and non-hormonal gel. Fourteen trials compared safety. Four looked at hyperplasia, four looked at endometrial overstimulation and seven looked at adverse effects. One trial showed significant adverse effects of the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) when compared to tablets (oestradiol) which included uterine bleeding, breast pain and perineal pain (1 RCT; OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.50). Two trials showed significant endometrial overstimulation as evaluated by a progestagen challenge test with the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) group when compared to the ring (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.78). Although not statistically significant there was a 2% incidence of simple hyperplasia in the ring group when compared to the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) and 4% incidence of hyperplasia (one simple, one complex) in the cream group (conjugated equine oestrogen) when compared to the tablet (oestradiol). Eleven studies compared acceptability to the participants by comparing: comfort of product use, ease of use, overall product rating, delivery system and satisfaction. Results showed a significant preference for the oestradiol-releasing vaginal ring. Creams, pessaries, tablets and the oestradiol vaginal ring appeared to be equally effective for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. One trial found significant side effects following cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) administration when compared to tablets causing uterine bleeding, breast pain and perineal pain. Another trial found significant endometrial overstimulation following use of the cream (conjugated equine oestrogen) when compared to the ring. As a treatment choice women appeared to favour the oestradiol-releasing vaginal ring for ease of use, comfort of product and overall satisfaction.

  7. Kabachenko A. Restoration of entrepreneurial activity rate in the context of Donetsk region labor market stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Кабаченко, Г. С.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the state of entrepreneurship inDonetskregion, which is characterized by: disproportion specialization of small enterprises by economic activity; uneven deployment of small businesses in the region; the tendency to reduce business in the region; uneven distribution of human capital size enterprises. The analysis shows that small and medium businesses in the region and slowed develops unevenly. Its potential is not realized sufficiently due to several problems at both the region...

  8. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R.; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment wi...

  9. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6457, (602...

  10. Quantitative estimation of brain atrophy and function with PET and MRI two-dimensional projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Reiko; Uemura, Koji; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Toyama, Hinako; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of atrophy and the decline in brain function objectively and quantitatively. Two-dimensional (2D) projection images of three-dimensional (3D) transaxial images of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. A correlation image was generated between 2D projection images of MRI and cerebral blood flow (CBF) or 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images and the sulcus was extracted from the correlation image clustered by K-means method. Furthermore, the extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted sulcus on 2D-projection MRI and the cerebral cortical function such as blood flow or glucose metabolic rate was assessed in the cortex excluding sulcus on 2D-projection PET image, and then the relationship between the cerebral atrophy and function was evaluated. This method was applied to the two groups, the young and the aged normal subjects, and the relationship between the age and the rate of atrophy or the cerebral blood flow was investigated. This method was also applied to FDG-PET and MRI studies in the normal controls and in patients with corticobasal degeneration. The mean rate of atrophy in the aged group was found to be higher than that in the young. The mean value and the variance of the cerebral blood flow for the young are greater than those of the aged. The sulci were similarly extracted using either CBF or FDG PET images. The purposed method using 2-D projection images of MRI and PET is clinically useful for quantitative assessment of atrophic change and functional disorder of cerebral cortex. (author)

  11. Protein synthesis and degradation during starvation-induced cardiac atrophy in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Parmacek, M.S.; Magid, N.M.; Decker, R.S.; Lesch, M.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of protein degradation in the development of starvation-induced cardiac atrophy, in vivo fractional synthetic rates of total cardiac protein, myosin heavy chain, actin, light chain 1, and light chain 2 were measured in fed and fasted rabbits by continuous infusion of [ 3 H] leucine. In addition, the rate of left ventricular protein accumulation and loss were assessed in weight-matched control and fasted rabbits. Rates of total cardiac protein degradation were then estimated as the difference between rates of synthesis and growth. Fasting produced left ventricular atrophy by decreasing the rate of left ventricular protein synthesis (34.8 +/- 1.4, 27.3 +/- 3.0, and 19.3 +/- 1.2 mg/day of left ventricular protein synthesized for 0-, 3-, and 7-day fasted rabbits, respectively). Inhibition of contractile protein synthesis was evident by significant reductions in the fractional synthetic rates of all myofibrillar protein subunits. Although fractional rates of protein degradation increased significantly within 7 days of fasting, actual amounts of left ventricular protein degraded per day were unaffected. Thus, prolonged fasting profoundly inhibits the synthesis of new cardiac protein, including the major protein constituents of the myofibril. Both this inhibition in new protein synthesis as well as a smaller but significant reduction in the average half-lives of cardiac proteins are responsible for atrophy of the heart in response to fasting

  12. Lipomatous muscle atrophy caused by irradiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhomberg, W.; Hergan, K.

    1990-01-01

    As compared to other organs and tissues liable to sustain delayed injury from radiotherapy, the musculature seems to be a hard-wearing, radiation-resistant organ. Apart from the possibility of inducing Myodegeneratio cordis, muscles are merely threatened, as far as is known today, by possible fibrosis in the surrounding area. Certainly, extremely high doses of more than 100 Gy occasionally may trigger necrosis and atrophies in tissues. The article reports on a patient suffering from carcinoma of the bladder who developed muscle and tendon degeneration following telecobalt irradiation after a latency period of eight years, forcing him ultimately to quit work. (orig.) [de

  13. Cisternography contribution in the cortical atrophy diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Balallai, N.; Suzuki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A 37 years-old woman suffered a car accident. On admission to hospital she presented: torpor, the right pupil greater than the left, both reacting to light, and left hemiparesis with homologous Babinski reflex. She was submitted to carotid arteriogram an air-contrast study without significant findings. Eletroencephalographic examination showed diffuse parenquimatous involvement of left cerebral hemisphery. Scinticisternography demonstrated delayed reabsorption of the radioactive tracer in both frontal areas. A subsequent trepanation made the diagnosis of cortical atrophy in the areas mentioned above. This case shows aditional information concerning anatomic detail provided by isotope cisternography, that eventually can't be detected by air-contrast study [pt

  14. Cisternography contribution in the cortical atrophy diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calegaro, J U.M. [Centro de Analises Clinicas e Medicina Nuclear, Londrina (Brazil); Balallai, N; Suzuki, K [Instituto de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia, Londrina (Brazil)

    1975-01-01

    A 37 years-old woman suffered a car accident. On admission to hospital she presented: torpor, the right pupil greater than the left, both reacting to light, and left hemiparesis with homologous Babinski reflex. She was submitted to carotid arteriogram an air-contrast study without significant findings. Eletroencephalographic examination showed diffuse parenquimatous involvement of left cerebral hemisphery. Scinticisternography demonstrated delayed reabsorption of the radioactive tracer in both frontal areas. A subsequent trepanation made the diagnosis of cortical atrophy in the areas mentioned above. This case shows aditional information concerning anatomic detail provided by isotope cisternography, that eventually can't be detected by air-contrast study.

  15. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  16. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  17. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, Giorgos; Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany; Rombouts, Serge; Schijndel, Ronald van; Klein, Martin; Flier, Wiesje van der; Vrenken, Hugo; Barkhof, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  18. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Arno P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Brinkmann, Christian K; Holz, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in retinal imaging technology have largely contributed to the understanding of the natural history, prognostic markers and disease mechanisms of geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. There is still no therapy available to halt or slow the disease process. In order to evaluate potential therapeutic effects in interventional trials, there is a need for precise quantification of the GA progression rate. Fundus autofluorescence imaging allows for accurate identification and segmentation of atrophic areas and currently represents the gold standard for evaluating progressive GA enlargement. By means of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, distinct microstructural alterations related to GA can be visualized. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative: a one-year follow up study using tensor-based morphometry correlating degenerative rates, biomarkers and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Alex D; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Ward, Chadwick P; Borowski, Bret; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Fleisher, Adam S; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-04-15

    Tensor-based morphometry can recover three-dimensional longitudinal brain changes over time by nonlinearly registering baseline to follow-up MRI scans of the same subject. Here, we compared the anatomical distribution of longitudinal brain structural changes, over 12 months, using a subset of the ADNI dataset consisting of 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Each individual longitudinal change map (Jacobian map) was created using an unbiased registration technique, and spatially normalized to a geometrically-centered average image based on healthy controls. Voxelwise statistical analyses revealed regional differences in atrophy rates, and these differences were correlated with clinical measures and biomarkers. Consistent with prior studies, we detected widespread cerebral atrophy in AD, and a more restricted atrophic pattern in MCI. In MCI, temporal lobe atrophy rates were correlated with changes in mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores, clinical dementia rating (CDR), and logical/verbal learning memory scores. In AD, temporal atrophy rates were correlated with several biomarker indices, including a higher CSF level of p-tau protein, and a greater CSF tau/beta amyloid 1-42 (ABeta42) ratio. Temporal lobe atrophy was significantly faster in MCI subjects who converted to AD than in non-converters. Serial MRI scans can therefore be analyzed with nonlinear image registration to relate ongoing neurodegeneration to a variety of pathological biomarkers, cognitive changes, and conversion from MCI to AD, tracking disease progression in 3-dimensional detail.

  20. CT findings of cervical spondylosis associated with muscle atrophy in the upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Yasuyuki [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    The shape, site and size of osteophytes in cervical spondylosis associated with muscle atrophy were studied by CT to know their relation with pathogenesis. Subjects were: muscle atrophy group (30 cases, 59.5-year-old in a mean, operation was performed on 26), spondylosis group (20, 60.0 year-old) and normal group (10, 60.2-year-old). Their cervical vertebral regions were subjected to the scout roentgenography, CT and myelography. Osteophytes were measured on the x-ray film copied from CT-monitoring image. In the muscle atrophy group, about the shape around vertebral foramen, the occipitofrontal diameter of vertebral canal was found larger than in spondylosis group. Osteophytes were often localized at the outer position of paramedian site, of which constriction was rather smaller. The shape of the vertebral arch was keen. Clinically, the muscle atrophy group was considered to be of myelosis under such conditions as having less affective lesion on spinal cord. (H.O.)

  1. Mapping of the bovine spinal muscular atrophy locus to Chromosome 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medugorac, Ivica; Kemter, Juliane; Russ, Ingolf; Pietrowski, Detlef; Nüske, Stefan; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Schmahl, Wolfgang; Förster, Martin

    2003-06-01

    A hereditary form of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) caused by an autosomal recessive gene has been reported for American Brown-Swiss cattle and in advanced backcrosses between American Brown-Swiss and many European brown cattle breeds. Bovine SMA (bovSMA) bears remarkable resemblance to the human SMA (SMA1). Affected homozygous calves also show progressive symmetric weakness and neurogenic atrophy of proximal muscles. The condition is characterized by severe muscle atrophy, quadriparesis, and sternal recumbency as result of neurogenic atrophy. We report on the localization of the gene causing bovSMA within a genomic interval between the microsatellite marker URB031 and the telomeric end of bovine Chromosome (Chr) 24 (BTA24). Linkage analysis of a complex pedigree of German Braunvieh cattle revealed a recombination fraction of 0.06 and a three-point lod score of 11.82. The results of linkage and haplotyping analysis enable a marker-assisted selection against bovSMA based on four microsatellite markers most telomeric on BTA24 to a moderate accuracy of 89-94%. So far, this region is not orthologous to any human chromosome segments responsible for twelve distinct disease phenotypes of autosomal neuropathies. Our results indicate the apoptosis-inhibiting protein BCL2 as the most promising positional candidate gene causing bovSMA. Our findings offer an attractive animal model for a better understanding of human forms of SMA and for a probable anti-apoptotic synergy of SMN-BCL2 aggregates in mammals.

  2. Global and regional annual brain volume loss rates in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippling, Sven; Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Suppa, Per; Spies, Lothar; Manogaran, Praveena; Gocke, Carola; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Opfer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The objective is to estimate average global and regional percentage brain volume loss per year (BVL/year) of the physiologically ageing brain. Two independent, cross-sectional single scanner cohorts of healthy subjects were included. The first cohort (n = 248) was acquired at the Medical Prevention Center (MPCH) in Hamburg, Germany. The second cohort (n = 316) was taken from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Brain parenchyma (BP), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), corpus callosum (CC), and thalamus volumes were calculated. A non-parametric technique was applied to fit the resulting age-volume data. For each age, the BVL/year was derived from the age-volume curves. The resulting BVL/year curves were compared between the two cohorts. For the MPCH cohort, the BVL/year curve of the BP was an increasing function starting from 0.20% at the age of 35 years increasing to 0.52% at 70 years (corresponding values for GM ranged from 0.32 to 0.55%, WM from 0.02 to 0.47%, CC from 0.07 to 0.48%, and thalamus from 0.25 to 0.54%). Mean absolute difference between BVL/year trajectories across the age range of 35-70 years was 0.02% for BP, 0.04% for GM, 0.04% for WM, 0.11% for CC, and 0.02% for the thalamus. Physiological BVL/year rates were remarkably consistent between the two cohorts and independent from the scanner applied. Average BVL/year was clearly age and compartment dependent. These results need to be taken into account when defining cut-off values for pathological annual brain volume loss in disease models, such as multiple sclerosis.

  3. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B.; Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S.; Graham, Andrew; Hodges, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  4. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  5. EVALUATION OF PATCHY ATROPHY SECONDARY TO HIGH MYOPIA BY SEMIAUTOMATED SOFTWARE FOR FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miere, Alexandra; Capuano, Vittorio; Serra, Rita; Jung, Camille; Souied, Eric; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-05-31

    To evaluate the progression of patchy atrophy in high myopia using semiautomated software for fundus autofluorescence (FAF) analysis. The medical records and multimodal imaging of 21 consecutive highly myopic patients with macular chorioretinal patchy atrophy (PA) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent repeated fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography over at least 12 months. Color fundus photography was also performed in a subset of patients. Total atrophy area was measured on FAF images using Region Finder semiautomated software embedded in Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) at baseline and during follow-up visits. Region Finder was compared with manually measured PA on FAF images. Twenty-two eyes of 21 patients (14 women, 7 men; mean age 62.8 + 13.0 years, range 32-84 years) were included. Mean PA area using Region Finder was 2.77 ± 2.91 SD mm at baseline, 3.12 ± 2.68 mm at Month 6, 3.43 ± 2.68 mm at Month 12, and 3.73 ± 2.74 mm at Month 18 (overall P autofluorescence analysis by Region Finder semiautomated software provides accurate measurements of lesion area and allows us to quantify the progression of PA in high myopia. In our series, PA enlarged significantly over at least 12 months, and its progression seemed to be related to the lesion size at baseline.

  6. Additional corpus biopsy enhances the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in a background of gastritis with atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Hung-Chieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164 uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; p Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results.

  7. Abnormal pain perception in patients with Multiple System Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory-Magne, F; Pellaprat, J; Harroch, E; Galitzsky, M; Rousseau, V; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Rascol, O; Gerdelat, A; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease or Multiple System Atrophy frequently experience painful sensations. The few studies investigating pain mechanisms in Multiple System Atrophy patients have reported contradictory results. In our study, we compared pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and evaluated the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds. We assessed subjective and objective pain thresholds (using a thermotest and RIII reflex), and pain tolerance in OFF and ON conditions, clinical pain, motor and psychological evaluation. Pain was reported in 78.6% of Multiple System Atrophy patients and in 37.5% of Parkinson's disease patients. In the OFF condition, subjective and objective pain thresholds were significantly lower in Multiple System Atrophy patients than in healthy controls (43.8 °C ± 1.3 vs 45.7 °C ± 0.8; p = 0.0005 and 7.4 mA ± 3.8 vs 13.7 mA ± 2.8; p = 0.002, respectively). They were also significantly reduced in Multiple System Atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease patients. No significant difference was found in pain tolerance for the 3 groups and in the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients. In the ON condition, pain tolerance tended to be reduced in Multiple System Atrophy versus Parkinson's disease patients (p = 0.05). Multiple System Atrophy patients had an increase in pain perception compared to Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls. The l-DOPA effect was similar for pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients, but tended to worsen pain tolerance in Multiple System Atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Rajan, Vik; Lin, Eugene; Hu, Zhaoyong; Han, H. Q.; Zhou, Xiaolan; Song, Yanping; Min, Hosung; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several other catabolic conditions are characterized by increased circulating inflammatory cytokines, defects in IGF-1 signaling, abnormal muscle protein metabolism, and progressive muscle atrophy. In these conditions, no reliable treatments successfully block the development of muscle atrophy. In mice with CKD, we found a 2- to 3-fold increase in myostatin expression in muscle. Its pharmacological inhibition by subcutaneous injections of an anti-myostatin peptibody into CKD mice (IC50 ∼1.2 nM) reversed the loss of body weight (≈5–7% increase in body mass) and muscle mass (∼10% increase in muscle mass) and suppressed circulating inflammatory cytokines vs. results from CKD mice injected with PBS. Pharmacological myostatin inhibition also decreased the rate of protein degradation (16.38±1.29%; Pmyostatin expression via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, whereas muscle cells exposed to myostatin stimulated IL-6 production via p38 MAPK and MEK1 pathways. Because IL-6 stimulates muscle protein breakdown, we conclude that CKD increases myostatin through cytokine-activated pathways, leading to muscle atrophy. Myostatin antagonism might become a therapeutic strategy for improving muscle growth in CKD and other conditions with similar characteristics.—Zhang, L., Rajan, V., Lin, E., Hu, Z., Han, H.Q., Zhou, X., Song, Y., Min, H., Wang, X., Du, J., Mitch, W. E. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. PMID:21282204

  9. Measuring brain atrophy with a generalized formulation of the boundary shift integral☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Leung, Kelvin K.; Cash, David M.; Modat, Marc; Fox, Nick C.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A.M.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Brain atrophy measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used as an imaging biomarker for disease diagnosis and tracking of pathologic progression in neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we present a generalized and extended formulation of the boundary shift integral (gBSI) using probabilistic segmentations to estimate anatomic changes between 2 time points. This method adaptively estimates a non-binary exclusive OR region of interest from probabilistic brain segmentations of the baseline and repeat scans to better localize and capture the brain atrophy. We evaluate the proposed method by comparing the sample size requirements for a hypothetical clinical trial of Alzheimer's disease to that needed for the current implementation of BSI as well as a fuzzy implementation of BSI. The gBSI method results in a modest but reduced sample size, providing increased sensitivity to disease changes through the use of the probabilistic exclusive OR region. PMID:25264346

  10. Will Preoperative Atrophy and Fatty Degeneration of the Shoulder Muscles Improve after Rotator Cuff Repair in Patients with Massive Rotator Cuff Tears?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, retear rate after repair for massive cuff tear have been improved through devised suture techniques. However, reported retear rate is relevant to preoperative atrophy and fatty degeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperative atrophy and fatty degeneration of rotator cuff muscles improve by successful repair. Twenty-four patients with massive rotator cuff tear were evaluated on the recovery of atrophy and fatty degeneration of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle after surgery. Atrophy was classified by the occupation ratio and fatty degeneration by modified Goutallier's classification. Both were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the operation. When the cuff was well repaired, improvement of the atrophy and fatty degeneration were observed in a half and a one-fourth of the cases, respectively. In retear cases, however, atrophy and fatty degeneration became worse. Improvement of atrophy and fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles may be expected in the cases with successful achievement of rotator cuff repair for large and massive tear.

  11. Transcription Restores DNA Repair to Heterochromatin, Determining Regional Mutation Rates in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in cancer are more frequent in heterochromatic and late-replicating regions of the genome. We report that regional disparities in mutation density are virtually abolished within transcriptionally silent genomic regions of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs arising in an XPC−/− background. XPC−/− cells lack global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER, thus establishing differential access of DNA repair machinery within chromatin-rich regions of the genome as the primary cause for the regional disparity. Strikingly, we find that increasing levels of transcription reduce mutation prevalence on both strands of gene bodies embedded within H3K9me3-dense regions, and only to those levels observed in H3K9me3-sparse regions, also in an XPC-dependent manner. Therefore, transcription appears to reduce mutation prevalence specifically by relieving the constraints imposed by chromatin structure on DNA repair. We model this relationship among transcription, chromatin state, and DNA repair, revealing a new, personalized determinant of cancer risk.

  12. Corpus callosum atrophy in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear whether callosal atrophy is already present in the early stages of AD, and to what extent it may be associated with other structural changes in the brain......, such as age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) and progression of the disease....

  13. A meta-analysis on progressive atrophy in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Lorenzo; Bernasconi, Andrea; Wiebe, Samuel; Koepp, Matthias J.; Bernasconi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. Results: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles. Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria for quantitative evaluation. We observed a predominance of cross-sectional studies, use of different clinical indices of progression, and high heterogeneity in age-control procedures. Meta-analysis of 18/1 cross-sectional/longitudinal studies on hippocampal atrophy (n = 979 patients) yielded a pooled effect size of r = −0.42 for ipsilateral atrophy related to epilepsy duration (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.51 to −0.32; p 80% of articles reported duration-related progression in extratemporal cortical and subcortical regions. Detailed analysis of study design features yielded low to moderate levels of evidence for progressive atrophy across studies, mainly due to dominance of cross-sectional over longitudinal investigations, use of diverse measures of seizure estimates, and absence of consistent age control procedures. Conclusions: While the neuroimaging literature is overall suggestive of progressive atrophy in drug-resistant TLE, published studies have employed rather weak designs to directly demonstrate it. Longitudinal multicohort studies are needed to unequivocally differentiate aging from disease progression. PMID:28687722

  14. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... for NIC. For babies rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  15. Impaired emotional autobiographical memory associated with right amygdalar-hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie ePHILIPPI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of emotions on autobiographical memory (AbM in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, characteristically triggering atrophy in the hippocampus and the amygdala, two crucial structures sustaining memory and emotional processing. Our first aim was to analyze the influence of emotion on AbM in AD patients, on both the proportion and the specificity of emotional memories. Additionally, we sought to determine the relationship of emotional AbM to amygdalar-hippocampal volumes. Eighteen prodromal to mild AD patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls were included. We obtained 30 autobiographical memories per participant using the modified Crovitz test (MCT. Analyses were performed on global scores, rates and specificity scores of the emotional vs. neutral categories of memories. Amygdalar-hippocampal volumes were extracted from 3D T1-weighted MRI scans and tested for correlations with behavioral data. Overall, AD patients displayed a deficit in emotional AbMs as they elicited less emotional memories than the controls, however, the specificity of those memories was preserved. The deficit likely implied retrieval or storage as it was extended in time and without reminiscence bump effect. Global scores and rates of emotional memories, but not the specificity scores, were correlated to right amygdalar and hippocampal volumes, indicating that atrophy in these structures has a central role in the deficit observed. Conversely, emotional memories were more specific than neutral memories in both groups, reflecting an enhancement effect of emotion that could be supported by other brain regions that are spared during the early stages of the disease.

  16. Progressive retinal atrophy in Shetland sheepdog is associated with a mutation in the CNGA1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik, A C; Ropstad, E O; Ekesten, B; Karlstam, L; Wade, C M; Lingaas, F

    2015-10-01

    Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is the collective name of a class of hereditary retinal dystrophies in the dog and is often described as the equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa in humans. PRA is characterized by visual impairment due to degeneration of the photoreceptors in the retina, usually leading to blindness. PRA has been reported in dogs from more than 100 breeds and can be genetically heterogeneous both between and within breeds. The disease can be subdivided by age at onset and rate of progression. Using genome-wide association with 15 Shetland Sheepdog (Sheltie) cases and 14 controls, we identified a novel PRA locus on CFA13 (Praw  = 8.55 × 10(-7) , Pgenome  = 1.7 × 10(-4) ). CNGA1, which is known to be involved in human cases of retinitis pigmentosa, was located within the associated region and was considered a likely candidate gene. Sequencing of this gene identified a 4-bp deletion in exon 9 (c.1752_1755delAACT), leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon. The study indicated genetic heterogeneity as the mutation was present in all PRA-affected individuals in one large family of Shelties, whereas some other cases in the studied Sheltie population were not associated with this CNGA1 mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mutation in CNGA1 causing PRA in dogs. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    : Virologic response (viral load SIDA patients. Analyses were stratified by region (south, central west, north, east) or time started cART (early, 1996-1997; mid, 1998-1999; late, 2000-1904). RESULTS: Virologic...

  18. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    : Virologic response (viral load SIDA patients. Analyses were stratified by region (south, central west, north, east) or time started cART (early, 1996-1997; mid, 1998-1999; late, 2000-1904). RESULTS: Virologic...

  19. CT findings of brain atrophy after chemotherapy in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medicine College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    A study was performed to evaluate the atrophic changes of the central nerve system after chemotherapy in the patients with acute leukemia. The computed tomographic findings and medical records of 20 proven acute leukemia patients under 35 years-old who developed various CNS symptoms and signs during and/or after 2 courses of chemotherapy were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution was from 14 to 5 years (mean was 26 years). Male was 15. 2. Presenting clinical symptoms and signs were headache (16/20), nausea and vomiting (11/20) and loss of consciousness (5/20). 3. Brain atrophy was noted in 16 patients including cortical and subcortical atrophy 15 cases and subcortical atrophy 1 case. 4. Two cases of hemorrhage, one each of intracranial hematoma and chronic subdural hematoma were found in addition to brain atrophy. This showed that chemotherapeutic agents cause brain atrophy in a considerable number of the patients with symptomatic acute leukemia.

  20. Rapid sequence divergence rates in the 5 prime regulatory regions of young Drosophila melanogaster duplicate gene pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Kohn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While it remains a matter of some debate, rapid sequence evolution of the coding sequences of duplicate genes is characteristic for early phases past duplication, but long established duplicates generally evolve under constraint, much like the rest of the coding genome. As for coding sequences, it may be possible to infer evolutionary rate, selection, and constraint via contrasts between duplicate gene divergence in the 5 prime regions and in the corresponding synonymous site divergence in the coding regions. Finding elevated rates for the 5 prime regions of duplicated genes, in addition to the coding regions, would enable statements regarding the early processes of duplicate gene evolution. Here, 1 kb of each of the 5 prime regulatory regions of Drosophila melanogaster duplicate gene pairs were mapped onto one another to isolate shared sequence blocks. Genetic distances within shared sequence blocks (d5’ were found to increase as a function of synonymous (dS, and to a lesser extend, amino-acid (dA site divergence between duplicates. The rate d5’/dS was found to rapidly decay from values > 1 in young duplicate pairs (dS 0.8. Such rapid rates of 5 prime evolution exceeding 1 (~neutral predominantly were found to occur in duplicate pairs with low amino-acid site divergence and that tended to be co-regulated when assayed on microarrays. Conceivably, functional redundancy and relaxation of selective constraint facilitates subsequent positive selection on the 5 prime regions of young duplicate genes. This might promote the evolution of new functions (neofunctionalization or division of labor among duplicate genes (subfunctionalization. In contrast, similar to the vast portion of the non-coding genome, the 5 prime regions of long-established gene duplicates appear to evolve under selective constraint, indicating that these long-established gene duplicates have assumed critical functions.

  1. Effect of long-term proton pump inhibitor administration on gastric mucosal atrophy: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Wu, Cong; Li, Ling; Wang, Zhaoming; Xie, Haibin; He, Xiaozhou; Feng, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, some studies have reported that PPIs can alter the gastric mucosal architecture; however, the relationship remains controversial. This meta-analysis study was designed to quantify the association between long-term PPI administration and gastric atrophy. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to identify studies using the keywords proton pump inhibitors or PPI and gastric atrophy or atrophic gastritis; the timeframe of publication searched was up to May 2016. Heterogeneity among studies was tested with the Q test; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P values were calculated by I2 tests and regarded as statistically significant when <0.05. Results: We identified 13 studies that included 1465 patients under long-term PPI therapy and 1603 controls, with a total gastric atrophy rate of 14.50%. There was a higher presence of gastric atrophy (15.84%; statistically significant) in PPI group compared to the control group (13.29%) (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.00–2.41). Conclusions: The pooled data suggest that long-term PPI use is associated with increased rates of gastric atrophy. Large-scale multicenter studies should be conducted to further investigate the relationship between acid suppressants and precancerous diseases. PMID:28721975

  2. Atrophy progression in semantic dementia with asymmetric temporal involvement: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, S M; Rankin, K P; Narvid, J; Seeley, W W; Dean, D; Rosen, H J; Miller, B L; Ashburner, J; Gorno-Tempini, M L

    2009-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal anatomical study to map the progression of gray matter atrophy in anatomically defined predominantly left (LTLV) and right (RTLV) temporal lobe variants of semantic dementia (SD). T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained at presentation and one-year follow-up from 13 LTLV, 6 RTLV, and 25 control subjects. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in SPM2 was applied to derive a voxel-wise estimation of regional tissue loss over time from the deformation field required to warp the follow-up scan to the presentation scan in each subject. When compared to controls, both LTLV and RTLV showed significant progression of gray matter atrophy not only within the temporal lobe most affected at presentation, but also in the controlateral temporal regions (p<0.05 FWE corrected). In LTLV, significant progression of volume loss also involved the ventromedial frontal and the left anterior insular regions. These results identified the anatomic substrates of the previously reported clinical evolution of LTLV and RTLV into a unique 'merged' clinical syndrome characterized by semantic and behavioral deficits and bilateral temporal atrophy.

  3. Regional suicide rates in the Netherlands : does religion still play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    Background This study examined the nature of ecological associations between 'religiousness' and suicide rates (1985-1994) in the 11 provinces in the Netherlands. Methods Indices of religiousness, obtained from a nationwide survey were used as aggregate predictors of provincial suicide rates in

  4. Self-rated health and quality of life in adults attending regional disability services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boland, Máirín C

    2009-04-01

    There is limited background information on self-rated health in people with disability in Ireland. This paper examines self-rated health scores and dimensions of functioning in people attending disability services and compares scores to the general population in Ireland, which has not been done before.

  5. Hospital differences in rates of cesarean deliveries in the Sardinian region: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cannas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of cesarean deliveries have been increasing steadily in several European countries in recent decades, with Italy having the second-highest rate (38% in 2010, causing concern and debate about the appropriateness of many interventions. Moreover, some recent studies suggest that rates of common obstetric interventions are not homogeneous across hospitals, maybe not only because of patient case mix but also possibly because of different hospital practices and cultures. Thus, it is important to investigate whether the variation in rates of cesarean sections can be traced back to patient characteristics or whether it depends upon context variables at the hospital level. Objective and method: Using official hospital abstracts on deliveries that occurred in Sardinia over a two-year period, we implement multilevel logistic regression models in order to assess whether the observed differences in cesarean rates across hospitals can be justified by case-mix differences across hospitals. Results: The between-hospital variation in rates of cesarean delivery is estimated to be 0.388 in the model with only the intercept and 0.382 in the model controlling for the mother’s clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions: The results show that taking into account the individual characteristics of delivered mothers is not enough to justify the observed variation across hospital rates, suggesting the important role of unobserved variables at the hospital level in determining cesarean section rates.

  6. Stuttgart Regional Court: Decision of October 3, 1980 - on the boycotting of electricity rate payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Due to lawsuit economy, the interest of the electricity supply utility in obtaining a declaratory judgment, stating that an electricity rate payment boycotter has no right of refusal to pay, and no right to withhold payment of, rates with regard to future claims from electricity supplies, has to be advocated. To affirm interest in a declaratory action, it is sufficient that the future obligations of the electricity rate payment boycotter can be described as the result of present electricity supply relationships. Vis-a-vis the electricity supply utility, the electricity rate payment boycotter has no right of refusal to pay, and no right to withhold payment of, rates because of the operation of a nuclear power station. (orig.) [de

  7. Altered myoplasmic Ca(2+) handling in rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres during disuse atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Norbert; Andrianjafiniony, Tina; Dupré-Aucouturier, Sylvie; Pouvreau, Sandrine; Desplanches, Dominique; Jacquemond, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Calcium-dependent signalling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle atrophy, but whether intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is affected in that situation remains obscure. We show here that there is a 20% atrophy of the fast-type flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle in rats hind limb unloaded (HU) for 2 weeks, with no change in fibre type distribution. In voltage-clamp experiments, the amplitude of the slow Ca(2+) current was found similar in fibres from control and HU animals. In fibres loaded with the Ca(2+) dye indo-1, the value for the rate of [Ca(2+)] decay after the end of 5-100-ms-long voltage-clamp depolarisations from -80 to +10 mV was found to be 30-50% lower in fibres from HU animals. This effect was consistent with a reduced contribution of both saturable and non-saturable components of myoplasmic Ca(2+) removal. However, there was no change in the relative amount of parvalbumin, and type 1 sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase was increased by a factor of three in the atrophied muscles. Confocal imaging of mitochondrial membrane potential showed that atrophied FDB fibres had significantly depolarized mitochondria as compared to control fibres. Depolarization of mitochondria in control fibres with carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone induced a slowing of the decay of [Ca(2+)] transients accompanied by an increase in resting [Ca(2+)] and a reduction of the peak amplitude of the transients. Overall results provide the first functional evidence for severely altered intracellular Ca(2+) removal capabilities in atrophied fast-type muscle fibres and highlight the possible contribution of reduced mitochondrial polarisation.

  8. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin protects against skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness after anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Caroline Nw; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Grekin, Jeremy A; Khouri, Roger K; Russell, Alan J; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear. Rats underwent a surgically induced ACL tear and were treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin (10B3, GlaxoSmithKline) or a sham antibody (E1-82.15, GlaxoSmithKline). Muscles were harvested at either 7 or 21 days after induction of a tear to measure changes in contractile function, fiber size, and genes involved in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. These time points were selected to evaluate early and later changes in muscle structure and function. Compared to the sham antibody group, 7 days after ACL tear, myostatin inhibition reduced the expression of proteolytic genes and induced the expression of hypertrophy genes. These early changes in gene expression lead to a 22% increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and a 10% improvement in maximum isometric force production that were observed 21 days after ACL tear. Overall, myostatin inhibition lead to several favorable, although modest, changes in molecular biomarkers of muscle regeneration and reduced muscle atrophy and weakness following ACL tear. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2499-2505, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straney, Lahn D; Bray, Janet E; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia. We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008-2010 to 68.6% in 2010-2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates.

  10. Fluid biomarkers in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurens, Brice; Constantinescu, Radu; Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research efforts, no reliable biomarker currently exists for the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Such biomarkers are urgently needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic guidance and also to serve as efficacy measures or surrogates of target...... engagement for future clinical trials. We here review candidate fluid biomarkers for MSA and provide considerations for further developments and harmonization of standard operating procedures. A PubMed search was performed until April 24, 2015 to review the literature with regard to candidate blood...... and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for MSA. Abstracts of 1760 studies were retrieved and screened for eligibility. The final list included 60 studies assessing fluid biomarkers in patients with MSA. Most studies have focused on alpha-synuclein, markers of axonal degeneration or catecholamines. Their results...

  11. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia da Silva, Mari N.; Millington, Rebecca S.; Bridge, Holly; James-Galton, Merle; Plant, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions. PMID:28861031

  12. Features of brain atrophy in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, I; Melamed, E; Gomori, J M

    1985-03-01

    Multiple parameters for brain volume and mass were studied in 85 parkinsonian patients and in 149 normal controls aged 24 to 89 using CT scanning. In controls there was reduction in brain substance with advancing age. Increased brain atrophy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) was mainly observed in the younger age group of 24 to 49. This included parameters evaluating the size of the lateral and third ventricles and the size of the subarachnoid space in the frontal interhemispheric and Sylvian fissures. With computed canonical correlation analysis a formula was obtained which expressed the tendency of the atrophic process in PD to involve the areas surrounding the third ventricle and the mesial aspect of the frontal lobes more than during normal aging.

  13. Visual Dysfunction in Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari N. Maia da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognized visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarized, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions.

  14. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Corbelli

    Full Text Available In geographic atrophy (GA, choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA and OCT angiography (OCT-A.Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed.Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%. All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01.Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  15. Choroidal Round Hyporeflectivities in Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbelli, Eleonora; Sacconi, Riccardo; De Vitis, Luigi Antonio; Carnevali, Adriano; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Querques, Lea; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In geographic atrophy (GA), choroidal vessels typically appear on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) as hyperreflective round areas with highly reflective borders. We observed that some GA eyes show choroidal round hyporeflectivities with highly reflective borders beneath the atrophy, and futher investigated the charcteristcs by comparing structural OCT, indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and OCT angiography (OCT-A). Round hyporeflectivities were individuated from a pool of patients with GA secondary to non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016 at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the University Vita-Salute San Raffaele. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including ICGA, structural OCT and OCT-A. The correspondence between choroidal round hyporeflectivities beneath GA on structural OCT and ICGA and OCT-A imaging were analyzed. Fifty eyes of 26 consecutive patients (17 females and 9 males; mean age 76.8±6.2 years) with GA were included. Twenty-nine round hyporeflectivities have been found by OCT in choroidal layers in 21 eyes of 21 patients (42.0%; estimated prevalence of 57.7%). All 29 round hyporeflectivities showed constantly a hyperreflective border and a backscattering on structural OCT, and appeared as hypofluorescent in late phase ICGA and as dark foci with non detectable flow in the choroidal segmentation of OCT-A. Interestingly, the GA area was greater in eyes with compared to eyes without round hyporeflectivities (9.30±5.74 and 5.57±4.48mm2, respectively; p = 0.01). Our results suggest that most round hyporeflectivities beneath GA may represent non-perfused or hypo-perfused choroidal vessels with non-detectable flow.

  16. Different atrophy-hypertrophy transcription pathways in muscles affected by severe and mild spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millino Caterina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations of the survival motor neuron gene SMN and is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by degeneration of spinal motor neurons. SMN has a role in neurons but its deficiency may have a direct effect on muscle tissue. Methods We applied microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to study at transcriptional level the effects of a defective SMN gene in skeletal muscles affected by the two forms of SMA: the most severe type I and the mild type III. Results The two forms of SMA generated distinct expression signatures: the SMA III muscle transcriptome is close to that found under normal conditions, whereas in SMA I there is strong alteration of gene expression. Genes implicated in signal transduction were up-regulated in SMA III whereas those of energy metabolism and muscle contraction were consistently down-regulated in SMA I. The expression pattern of gene networks involved in atrophy signaling was completed by qRT-PCR, showing that specific pathways are involved, namely IGF/PI3K/Akt, TNF-α/p38 MAPK and Ras/ERK pathways. Conclusion Our study suggests a different picture of atrophy pathways in each of the two forms of SMA. In particular, p38 may be the regulator of protein synthesis in SMA I. The SMA III profile appears as the result of the concurrent presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers. This more favorable condition might be due to the over-expression of MTOR that, given its role in the activation of protein synthesis, could lead to compensatory hypertrophy in SMA III muscle fibers.

  17. Stability region of closed-loop pilot-vehicle system for fly-by-wire aircraft with limited actuator rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-hui, Li; Liang, Qu; Hao-jun, Xu; Qi-meng, Cao

    2017-01-01

    The category-II PIO (Pilot Induced Oscillations) caused by actuator rate limitation of fly-by-wire airplanes will badly threaten the flight safety. The stability regions of closed-loop pilot-vehicle (CLPV) system with rate limited actuator were studied in this paper to assess stability of such CLPV system. The augmented state  variables were introduced to segregate the rate limited element from the primary  system in order to build the saturation nonlinear model of CLPV system. To get the max...

  18. Rapid ice unloading in the Fleming Glacier region, southern Antarctic Peninsula, and its effect on bedrock uplift rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chen; King, Matt A.; Watson, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    deformation. We subtract modeled elastic deformation rates, and a suite of modeled viscous rates, from GPS-derived three-dimensional bedrock velocities at sites to the south of Fleming Glacier to infer properties of Earth rheology. Assuming the pre-breakup bedrock uplift was positive due to post-Last Glacial...... Maximum (LGM) ice retreat, our viscoelastic-corrected GPS uplift rates suggest upper mantle viscosities are >2×1019 Pas and likely >1×1020 Pas in this region, 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than previously found for the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Horizontal velocities at the GPS site nearest...

  19. Clay sediment accumulation rates on the monsoon-dominated western continental shelf and slope region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Clay accumulation rates shown in sediment cores from the nearshore to outer continental shelf and slope regions in water depths of 10-1246 m on the western continental margins of India were determined by the 210Pb dating technique. The 210Pb excess...

  20. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS.......026) and time (P changes were observed (south, P = 0.061; central west, P ....001; north: P = 0.070; east, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence of regional differences in initial virologic response to cART. Improvements over time were observed, suggesting that so far, the effect of primary resistance has not been of sufficient magnitude to prevent increasing suppression...

  1. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr.; Gillin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

  2. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  3. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  4. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  5. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  6. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  7. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 7 - Kansas City

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  8. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  9. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  10. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, HHS Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  11. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  12. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 1 - Boston

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  13. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 6 - Dallas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  14. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  15. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  16. Impaired Driving Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 10 - Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for people killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC =>0.08%, 2012, 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis...

  17. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 2 - New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  18. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 5 - Chicago

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  19. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 8 - Denver

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  20. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 4 - Atlanta

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  1. Motor Vehicle Occupant Death Rate, by Age and Gender, 2012 & 2014, Region 3 - Philadelphia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rate of deaths by age/gender (per 100,000 population) for motor vehicle occupants killed in crashes, 2012 & 2014. 2012 Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System...

  2. Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina with myopia, cataract and systemic proximal myopathy: A rare case report from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Bangal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern characterised by hyperornithinemia and typical ocular findings. This report presents a 17-year-old intellectually challenged girl consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with night blindness. Fundus examination showed patches of chorioretinal atrophy with typical scalloped borders and peri vascular pigmentation in the equatorial region. Fundus fluroscein angiography revealed characteristic staining pattern. Other ocular associations included myopia and posterior sub capsular cataract. Progressive systemic proximal myopathy was one of the associated features. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B6 was advised.

  3. Modeling climate effects on hip fracture rate by the multivariate GARCH model in Montreal region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Reza; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Changes in extreme meteorological variables and the demographic shift towards an older population have made it important to investigate the association of climate variables and hip fracture by advanced methods in order to determine the climate variables that most affect hip fracture incidence. The nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous variable-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARMA X-GARCH) and multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) time series approaches were applied to investigate the nonlinear association between hip fracture rate in female and male patients aged 40-74 and 75+ years and climate variables in the period of 1993-2004, in Montreal, Canada. The models describe 50-56 % of daily variation in hip fracture rate and identify snow depth, air temperature, day length and air pressure as the influencing variables on the time-varying mean and variance of the hip fracture rate. The conditional covariance between climate variables and hip fracture rate is increasing exponentially, showing that the effect of climate variables on hip fracture rate is most acute when rates are high and climate conditions are at their worst. In Montreal, climate variables, particularly snow depth and air temperature, appear to be important predictors of hip fracture incidence. The association of climate variables and hip fracture does not seem to change linearly with time, but increases exponentially under harsh climate conditions. The results of this study can be used to provide an adaptive climate-related public health program and ti guide allocation of services for avoiding hip fracture risk.

  4. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A.; Sekita, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  5. Five-year retrospective changes in hippocampal atrophy and cognitive screening test performances in very mild Alzheimer's disease: the Tajiri Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Meguro, K.; Shimada, M.; Ishizaki, J.; Yamadori, A. [Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Disability Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sekita, Y. [Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics, Sendai (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is important for normal cognitive function, especially for memory, and is the region with the earliest and most extensive pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the atrophic changes of the hippocampus over a 5-year period and its relation to cognitive screening test performances in normal elderly subjects, those with very mild AD, and patients with AD. Fifty-seven elderly subjects without a moderate or greater degree of cerebrovascular disease as shown by MRI were randomly selected from the town of Tajiri. Thirty-three subjects with a clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 0 (normal), 18 CDR-0.5 (very mild AD) subjects, and six CDR-1 and 2 (AD) subjects underwent MRI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) twice during the period. Retrospective changes in the hippocampal width and the MMSE scores were evaluated. There were significant CDR group effects for the changes in the mean bilateral hippocampal widths and the MMSE scores. Normal subjects did not show cognitive decline, although there was a slight tendency for hippocampal atrophy. A significant and meaningful Spearman's correlation was noted between left hippocampal atrophy and the MMSE scores over the 5-year period for the CDR-0.5 group. These CDR-0.5 subjects met the MCI (mild cognitive impairment) criteria as proposed by the consensus paper. Findings suggested that normal elderly subjects maintain a high level of cognitive functions for at least 5 years, although hippocampal atrophy might occur. Atrophic change of the left hippocampus might be a good marker of the very early stage of AD. (orig.)

  6. [Social marketing to increase the rate of cataract surgery in the Sava region of Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkumbe, H E; Razafinimpanana, N; Rakotondrajoa, L P

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is one of the main reasons why people who are visually impaired or blind as a result of cataracts do not visit eye care centers for surgery that can restore their sight. This study was conducted to determine the best ways to inform the main target groups about the possibility of restoring sight to those whose visual impairment and blindness is due to cataracts and about outreach visits by the mobile eye clinic of FLM SALFA, Sambava, in the Sava region of Madagascar from November 2008 through October 2009. Two community eye health workers conducted awareness campaigns and delivered posters to radio stations, religious leaders, and administrative authorities of the 17 most populated municipalities in the region of Sava, two weeks before these visits. All participants who visited the mobile clinic were interviewed, and the ophthalmologist's diagnosis was noted on the questionnaire. Women accounted for 51.5% of the 955 participants. Radio was the most effective means of communication in the region overall, and specifically for reaching men (P=0.044); churches were more successful for reaching women (P = 0.000). Cataract was diagnosed in 16.2% of men and 8.1% of women (p = 0.0001). To significantly increase the number of people, especially women, having cataract surgery in the Sava region, it is essential to work closely with the leaders of all religious groups, as well as with radio stations.

  7. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km 2 ). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R 2  = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of regional anesthesia on the success rate of external cephalic version: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzinger, Katherine R; Harper, Lorie M; Tuuli, Methodius G; Macones, George A; Colditz, Graham A

    2011-11-01

    To estimate whether the use of regional anesthesia is associated with increased success of external cephalic version. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 through April 2011 for published, randomized controlled trials in the English language comparing regional anesthesia with no regional anesthesia for external cephalic version. The primary outcome was external cephalic version success. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery, maternal discomfort, and adverse events. Pooled risk ratios (relative risk) were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q statistic and quantified using the I Z method. Six randomized controlled trials met criteria for study inclusion. Regional anesthesia was associated with a higher external cephalic version success rate compared with intravenous or no analgesia (59.7% compared with 37.6%; pooled relative risk 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.93). This significant association persisted when the data were stratified by type of regional anesthesia (spinal compared with epidural). The number needed to treat with regional anesthesia to achieve one additional successful external cephalic version was five. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (P=.32, I Z=14.9%) or publication bias (Harbord test P=.78). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of cesarean delivery comparing regional anesthesia with intravenous or no analgesia (48.4% compared with 59.3%; pooled relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.55-1.17). Adverse events were rare and not significantly different between the two groups. Regional anesthesia is associated with a higher success rate of external cephalic version.

  9. Neutron and Gamma Fluxes and dpa Rates for HFIR Vessel Beltline Region (Present and Upgrade Designs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2001-01-11

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is currently undergoing an upgrading program, a part of which is to increase the diameters of two of the four radiation beam tubes (HB-2 and HB-4). This change will cause increased neutron and gamma radiation dose rates at and near locations where the tubes penetrate the vessel wall. Consequently, the rate of radiation damage to the reactor vessel wall at those locations will also increase. This report summarizes calculations of the neutron and gamma flux (particles/cm{sup 2}/s) and the dpa rate (displacements/atom/s) in iron at critical locations in the vessel wall. The calculated dpa rate values have been recently incorporated into statistical damage evaluation codes used in the assessment of radiation induced embrittlement. Calculations were performed using models based on the discrete ordinates methodology and utilizing ORNL two-dimensional and three-dimensional discrete ordinates codes. Models for present and proposed beam tube designs are shown and their results are compared. Results show that for HB-2, the dpa rate in the vessel wall where the tube penetrates the vessel will be increased by {approximately}10 by the proposed enlargement. For HB-4, a smaller increase of {approximately}2.6 is calculated.

  10. Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl SH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarah H Lindahl Sutter East Bay Medical Foundation, SEBMF – Diablo Division, Castro Valley, CA, USA Background: Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods: Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012 was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results: Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions. Conclusion: Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. Keywords: menopause, estrogen, local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy

  11. Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Anne G.; Keating, Elizabeth H.; Guthrie, George D.; Zhu, Chen

    2007-05-01

    Reactions and reaction rates within aquifers are fundamental components of critical hydrological processes. However, reactions simulated in laboratory experiments typically demonstrate rates that are much faster than those observed in the field. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more reaction rate analyses in natural settings. This study of geochemical reactions in the regional aquifer in the Pajarito Plateau near Los Alamos, New Mexico combines modeling with petrographic assessment to further knowledge and understanding of complex natural hydrologic systems. Groundwater geochemistry shows marked evolution along assumed flow paths. The flow path chosen for this study was evaluated using inverse mass balance modeling to calculate the mass transfer. X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy were used to identify possible reactants and products. Considering the mineralogy of the aquifer and saturation indices for the regional water refined initial interpretations. Calculations yielded dissolution rates for plagioclase on the order of 10-15 mol s-1 m-2 and for K-feldspar on the order of 10-17 mol s-1 m-2, orders of magnitude slower than laboratory rates. While these rates agree with other aquifer studies, they must be considered in the light of the uncertainty associated with geometric surface area estimates, 14C ages, and aquifer properties.

  12. Botulinum Toxin and Muscle Atrophy: A Wanted or Unwanted Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Paul D; Couto, Rafael A; Isakov, Raymond; Yoo, Donald B; Azizzadeh, Babak; Guyuron, Bahman; Zins, James E

    2016-04-01

    While the facial rejuvenating effect of botulinum toxin type A is well known and widespread, its use in body and facial contouring is less common. We first describe its use for deliberate muscle volume reduction, and then document instances of unanticipated and undesirable muscle atrophy. Finally, we investigate the potential long-term adverse effects of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy. Although the use of botulinum toxin type A in the cosmetic patient has been extensively studied, there are several questions yet to be addressed. Does prolonged botulinum toxin treatment increase its duration of action? What is the mechanism of muscle atrophy and what is the cause of its reversibility once treatment has stopped? We proceed to examine how prolonged chemodenervation with botulinum toxin can increase its duration of effect and potentially contribute to muscle atrophy. Instances of inadvertent botulinum toxin-induced atrophy are also described. These include the "hourglass deformity" secondary to botulinum toxin type A treatment for migraine headaches, and a patient with atrophy of multiple facial muscles from injections for hemifacial spasm. Numerous reports demonstrate that muscle atrophy after botulinum toxin type A treatment occurs and is both reversible and temporary, with current literature supporting the notion that repeated chemodenervation with botulinum toxin likely responsible for both therapeutic and incidental temporary muscle atrophy. Furthermore, duration of response may be increased with subsequent treatments, thus minimizing frequency of reinjection. Practitioners should be aware of the temporary and reversible effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle atrophy and be prepared to reassure patients on this matter. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Regional differences of ADHD diagnosis rates in health insurance data from 2005 to 2015 : Methodological considerations and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Thomas G

    2017-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are among the most common mental disorders in children and adolescents. For a number of years there has been evidence of regional differences in Germany. This article provides current results on the frequency of diagnosis and treatment and also discusses methodological aspects. The analysis is based on routine data of a statutory health insurance company including annual diagnoses and drug prescriptions from 2005 to 2015 of at least 1.34 million children and adolescents between 0 and 19 years of age. Small-area results of ADHD diagnosis rates and methylphenidate prescriptions are presented with a standardized differentiation according to 413 districts pursuant to territorial status from the end of 2008. From 2005 to 2014, ADHD diagnoses were documented for an increasing proportion of 0 to 19-year-olds in Germany. In 2015 the proportion was 4.2%; boys aged 10 were affected most frequently with a proportion of 11.1%. Regional diagnosis rates vary considerably. Two counties showed diagnosis and prescription rates that were more than twice as high as regionally expected for all years in question; other districts showed rates that were continually lower than expected by at least a third. Analyses on the level of administratively defined districts have some advantages but alternative regional structuring would be desirable due to very heterogeneous population figures. Regarding ADHD diagnoses and documented methylphenidate prescriptions on an outpatient basis, significant regional differences in Germany were detected, for which plausible medical justifications do not yet exist. Specialist discussions seem urgently needed.

  14. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Read, S.; Towriss, C.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Grundy, E.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest

  16. Deformation-Based Atrophy Estimation for Alzheimer’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) - the most common form of dementia, is a term used for accelerated memory loss and cognitive abilities enough to severely hamper day-to-day activities. One of the most globally accepted markers for AD is atrophy, in mainly the brain parenchyma. The goal of the PhD project...... and a new way to estimate atrophy from a deformation field. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed solution but applying it on the publicly available Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging data (ADNI) initiative and compare to existing state-of-art atrophy estimation methods....

  17. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Jeevanandham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  18. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Ramachandran, Rajoo; Dhanapal, Vignesh; Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Sai, Venkata

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  19. Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic, cognitive and clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS was always considered as a white matter inflammatory disease. Today, there is an important body of evidence that supports the hypothesis that gray matter involvement and the neurodegenerative mechanism are at least partially independent from inflammation. Gray matter atrophy develops faster than white matter atrophy, and predominates in the initial stages of the disease. The neurodegenerative mechanism creates permanent damage and correlates with physical and cognitive disability. In this review we describe the current available evidence regarding brain atrophy and its consequence in MS patients.

  20. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  1. Trends in the oncological incidence and mortality rates in Buhovo, Dolni Bogrov, Gorni Bogrov - regions with radio ecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Chobanova, N.; Bajrakova, A.

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective study is carried out to analyze the incidence and mortality trends of some malignant neoplasms in regions at relatively high radioecological risk near former uranium sites (Buhovo, Dolni Bogrov, Gorni Bogrov). Information sources are official medical statistics data, original records and database of the Oncological Dispensary in Sofia. A package of statistical programs SPSS, version 7.5, is used for the statistical analysis. The analysis didn't confirm the increase of incidence /mortality rate trends of radiation-related diseases in these regions in comparison with the same indices for the country within that period. (author)

  2. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities. The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanne; Ryberg, Charlotte; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that corpus callosum atrophy is associated with global cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases, but few studies have investigated specific cognitive functions. Objective: To investigate the role of regional corpus callosum atrophy in mental speed...... of the total corpus callosum area and its subregions with cognitive performance were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for volume of WMH and other confounding factors. Results: Atrophy of the total corpus callosum area was associated with poor performance in tests assessing speed of mental...... processing - namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores...

  3. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that corpus callosum atrophy is associated with global cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases, but few studies have investigated specific cognitive functions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of regional corpus callosum atrophy in mental speed...... of the total corpus callosum area and its subregions with cognitive performance were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for volume of WMH and other confounding factors. RESULTS: Atrophy of the total corpus callosum area was associated with poor performance in tests assessing speed of mental...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...

  4. Comparison of grey matter atrophy between patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Jia Xiuqin; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Sun Hui; Liao Zhangyuan; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have established regional grey matter (GM) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether there is any regional GM atrophy in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the difference between NMO and MS is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 26 NMO patients, 26 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 26 normal controls. An analysis of covariance model assessed with cluster size inference was used to compare GM volume among three groups. The correlations of GM volume changes with disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and brain T2 lesion volume (LV) were analyzed. Results: GM atrophy was found in NMO patients in several regions of frontal, temporal, parietal lobes and insula (uncorrected, p < 0.001). While extensive GM atrophy was found in RRMS patients, including most cortical regions and the deep grey matter (corrected for multiple comparisons, p < 0.01). Compared with NMO, those with RRMS had significant GM loss in bilateral thalami, caudate, left parahippocampal gyrus, right hippocampus and insula (corrected, p < 0.01). In RRMS group, regional GM loss in right caudate and bilateral thalami were strongly correlated with brain T2LV. Conclusions: Our study found the difference of GM atrophy between NMO and RRMS patients mainly in deep grey matter. The correlational results suggested axonal degeneration from lesions on T2WI may be a key pathogenesis of atrophy in deep grey matter in RRMS.

  5. 3D pattern of brain atrophy in HIV/AIDS visualized using tensor-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Becker, James T.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    35% of HIV-infected patients have cognitive impairment, but the profile of HIV-induced brain damage is still not well understood. Here we used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to visualize brain deficits and clinical/anatomical correlations in HIV/AIDS. To perform TBM, we developed a new MRI-based analysis technique that uses fluid image warping, and a new α-entropy-based information-theoretic measure of image correspondence, called the Jensen–Rényi divergence (JRD). Methods 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 26 AIDS patients (CDC stage C and/or 3 without HIV-associated dementia; 47.2 ± 9.8 years; 25M/1F; CD4+ T-cell count: 299.5 ± 175.7/µl; log10 plasma viral load: 2.57 ± 1.28 RNA copies/ml) and 14 HIV-seronegative controls (37.6 ± 12.2 years; 8M/6F) were fluidly registered by applying forces throughout each deforming image to maximize the JRD between it and a target image (from a control subject). The 3D fluid registration was regularized using the linearized Cauchy–Navier operator. Fine-scale volumetric differences between diagnostic groups were mapped. Regions were identified where brain atrophy correlated with clinical measures. Results Severe atrophy (~15–20% deficit) was detected bilaterally in the primary and association sensorimotor areas. Atrophy of these regions, particularly in the white matter, correlated with cognitive impairment (P=0.033) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion (P=0.005). Conclusion TBM facilitates 3D visualization of AIDS neuropathology in living patients scanned with MRI. Severe atrophy in frontoparietal and striatal areas may underlie early cognitive dysfunction in AIDS patients, and may signal the imminent onset of AIDS dementia complex. PMID:17035049

  6. Gamma dose rate changes in buildings in the region of Southeastern Iran using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomehzadeh Mahani, A.; Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: It is important to measure background radiation, because human beings are always exposed to environmental radiation. The terrestrial component of the natural background depends on the compositions of soils and rocks in which are contained. A significant contribution to total dose from natural sources comes from terrestrial radionuclides such as U- 238, Th- 232 and K- 40. The level of gamma dose rate in buildings depends on the climate / weather, ventilation of living environment, local geology, drainage patterns and other factors. The objective of this study was to establishing the distribution of environmental gamma dose rates in the type of building sampled included cement-sand and soil brick buildings. Materials and Methods: Equipments used in this study include: 1-TLD-100 H (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) dosimeters. 2- TLD-Reader 3500 made by Harshaw, USA. In order to determine indoor gamma dose rate, the dosimeters were calibrated at room temperature with Co-60 source. Before using the dosimeters to measure environmental dose they were subjected to the thermal treatment in a normal oven. Two TLDs, were embedded in a 5 mm PMMA mini-phantom to register only gamma ray. 20 buildings for this study chosen randomly throughout Kerman town, southeastern Iran. Inside each building a holder was hung at a height of above 3 m. The period of monitoring of TLDs was 15 days. The TLDs were retrieved from the buildings and taken to the Mashhad university of medical sciences where they were read with a Harshaw TLD reader model 3500. Results: Our results indicate that indoor gamma dose rate ranged from 106 n Sv/h to 133 n Sv/h for cement-sand buildings with an average of 114.72 n Sv/h. For soil buildings the indoor gamma dose rate varied from 86 n Sv/h to 116 n Sv/h with an average of 100.50 n Sv/h. While the average gamma dose rate in cement-sand buildings is highest (114.72 n Sv/h), that of soil buildings is lowest (100.50 n Sv/h). Discussion: Average values vary from building

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ikehira, Hiroo; Hashimoto, Takahiro

    1992-08-01

    We studied 18 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) by high field strength MRI: 6 striatonigral degeneration (SND), 4 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 8 olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). We also studied 30 Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched controls. The diagnosis of SND, SDS, and OPCA were based on criteria after Hirayama et al (1985). Bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor were assessed with the summed scores of the signs used as the extrapyramidal scores. The mean extrapyramidal scores were not significantly different in patients with SND, SDS, OPCA, and PD. MRI studies were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit, using a T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR2500 ms/TE40 ms). The width of the pars compacta signal in all subjects was measured by the method of Duguid et al (1986). Intensity profiles were made on a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean widths of the pars compacta signal were: 2.8[+-]0.4 mm (SND), 2.8[+-]0.7 mm (SDS), 3.6[+-]0.6 mm (OPCA), 2.7[+-]0.3 mm (PD), and 4.3[+-]0.6 mm (control). The mean widths of the pars compacta signal in PD, SND, and SDS were significantly narrower than that in the control group (p<0.05), while the OPCA group was not significantly narrower. The results may indicate that the time course of nigral involvement is milder in OPCA than in SND and SDS. The extrapyramidal signs in OPCA may be attributed mainly to the degeneration of the putamen rather than to that of the substantia nigra. Abnormal hypointensity in the posterolateral putamen was found in only one SND patient and in two OPCA patients, even though this finding has been frequently observed in MSA. Since no PD patients exhibited this finding, it may of some value in differentiating MSA from PD. (author).

  8. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Matoba, Motohiro; Narita, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin

  9. Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu, E-mail: sakai@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sagara, Atsunobu; Arakawa, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Ryoto; Hirosaki, Akiko; Takase, Kazuhide; Jo, Ara [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Sato, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Division of Pharmacy Professional Development and Research, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Chiba, Yoshihiko [Department of Biology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan); Yamazaki, Mitsuaki [Department of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 9300194 (Japan); Matoba, Motohiro [Department of Palliative Medicine and Psychooncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1040045 (Japan); Narita, Minoru, E-mail: narita@hoshi.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 1428501 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Fatigue is the most common side effect of chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of “muscle fatigue” induced by anti-cancer drugs are not fully understood. We therefore investigated the muscle-atrophic effect of cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, in mice. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cisplatin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5, hindlimb and quadriceps muscles were isolated from mice. The loss of body weight and food intake under the administration of cisplatin was the same as those in a dietary restriction (DR) group. Under the present conditions, the administration of cisplatin significantly decreased not only the muscle mass of the hindlimb and quadriceps but also the myofiber diameter, compared to those in the DR group. The mRNA expression levels of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) were significantly and further increased by cisplatin treated group, compared to DR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of myostatin and p21 were significantly upregulated by the administration of cisplatin, compared to DR. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, which leads to the blockade of the upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx, was significantly and dramatically decreased by cisplatin. These findings suggest that the administration of cisplatin increases atrophic gene expression, and may lead to an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation pathways, which would lead to muscle atrophy. This phenomenon could, at least in part, explain the mechanism of cisplatin-induced muscle fatigue. - Highlights: • Cisplatin decreased mass and myofiber diameter in quadriceps muscle. • The mRNA of MAFbx, MuRF1 and FOXO3 were increased by the cisplatin. • The mRNA of myostatin and p21 were upregulated by cisplatin. • The phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a was decreased by cisplatin.

  10. Use of fundus autofluorescence images to predict geographic atrophy progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearelly, Srilaxmi; Khanifar, Aziz A; Lederer, David E; Lee, Jane J; Ghodasra, Jason H; Stinnett, Sandra S; Cousins, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence imaging has been shown to be helpful in predicting progression of geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. We assess the ability of fundus autofluorescence imaging to predict rate of GA progression using a simple categorical scheme. Subjects with GA secondary to age-related macular degeneration with fundus autofluorescence imaging acquired at least 12 months apart were included. Rim area focal hyperautofluorescence was defined as percentage of the 500-μm-wide margin bordering the GA that contained increased autofluorescence. Rim area focal hyperautofluorescence on baseline fundus autofluorescence images was assessed and categorized depending on the extent of rim area focal hyperautofluorescence (Category 1: ≤33%; Category 2: between 33 and 67%; Category 3: ≥67%). Total GA areas at baseline and follow-up were measured to calculate change in GA progression. Forty-five eyes of 45 subjects were included; average duration of follow-up was 18.5 months. Median growth rates differed among categories of baseline rim area focal hyperautofluorescence (P = 0.01 among Categories 1, 2, and 3; P = 0.008 for Category 1 compared with Category 3, Jonckheere-Terpstra test). A simple categorical scheme that stratifies the amount of increased autofluorescence in the 500-μm margin bordering GA may be used to differentiate faster and slower progressors.

  11. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in Ryukyu Islands, subtropical region of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, M.; Shiroma, M.; Motomura, D.; Fujioka, S.; Kawakami, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Arakawa, K.; Fukahori, K.; Jyunicho, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ohomoto, T.; Kina, S.; Shiroma, Y.; Masuda, N.; Hiraoka, H.; Shingaki, R.; Akata, N.; Zhuo, W.; Tokonami, S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to explain the distribution of natural radiation level in the Asia, in situ measurements of dose rate in air due to terrestrial gamma radiation have been conducted in a total of 21 islands that belong to Ryukyu Islands (Ryukyu Archipelago), subtropical rejoin of southwest Japan. Car-borne surveys have also been carried out in Okinawa-jima, the biggest island of the archipelago. Based on the results for these measurements, arithmetic mean, the maximum and the minimum of the dose rates at 1 m in height from the unpaved soil ground in the archipelago were estimated to be 47, 165 and 8 nGy h -1 , respectively. A comparative study of car-borne data obtained prior to and subsequent to the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, as for Okinawa-jima, indicated that the nuclear accident has no impact on the environmental radiation at the present time. (authors)

  12. Value of cerebral blood flow rate and regional oxygen consumption studies in cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clanet, M

    1987-06-18

    Studies of experimentally-induced ischaemia have shown that the intensity of neuronal suffering is related to the fall in perfusion rate. Below a certain level, called functional threshold, cerebral function is reversibly altered, whereas at a lower level (tissue necrosis threshold) the damage inflicted on neurons is irreversible. Between these two thresholds lies a ''penumbra zone''. This concept of thresholds must be mitigated by 2 parameters: duration of ischaemia and selective vulnerability of the various structures affected. Variations in blood flow rate only indirectly affect the state of tissues. Techniques developed from positron emission tomography make it possible to evaluate the metabolic activity of brain tissue in vivo: oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/), oxygen extraction (EO/sub 2/) and glucose consumption (CMRG) which are thus correlated to cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume, sometimes also to tissue pH. Normal relations between blood flow rate and metabolism may be altered. Misery perfusion reflects a fall in cerebral blood flow with an increase in EO/sub 2/ and often a decrease in CMRO/sub 2/, whereas luxury perfusion reflects an increase in cerebral blood flow rate with reduction of CMRO/sub 2/, EO/sub 2/ and CMRG. The type of alteration encountered in human ischaemia varies according to the nature of the accident: studies of transient accidents emphasize the different haemodynamic aspects of occlusion of the wider arteries. The metabolic and haemodynamic profiles of established ischaemic accidents vary according to their type and to the time of the study, reflecting the complexity of the physiopathological mechanisms involved; they are frequently associated with metabolic repercussions at a distance from the ischaemic focus, which supports the concept of diaschisis.

  13. Value of cerebral blood flow rate and regional oxygen consumption studies in cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clanet, M.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of experimentally-induced ischaemia have shown that the intensity of neuronal suffering is related to the fall in perfusion rate. Below a certain level, called functional threshold, cerebral function is reversibly altered, whereas at a lower level (tissue necrosis threshold) the damage inflicted on neurons is irreversible. Between these two thresholds lies a ''penumbra zone''. This concept of thresholds must be mitigated by 2 parameters: duration of ischaemia and selective vulnerability of the various structures affected. Variations in blood flow rate only indirectly affect the state of tissues. Techniques developed from positron emission tomography make it possible to evaluate the metabolic activity of brain tissue in vivo: oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction (EO 2 ) and glucose consumption (CMRG) which are thus correlated to cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume, sometimes also to tissue pH. Normal relations between blood flow rate and metabolism may be altered. Misery perfusion reflects a fall in cerebral blood flow with an increase in EO 2 and often a decrease in CMRO 2 , whereas luxury perfusion reflects an increase in cerebral blood flow rate with reduction of CMRO 2 , EO 2 and CMRG. The type of alteration encountered in human ischaemia varies according to the nature of the accident: studies of transient accidents emphasize the different haemodynamic aspects of occlusion of the wider arteries. The metabolic and haemodynamic profiles of established ischaemic accidents vary according to their type and to the time of the study, reflecting the complexity of the physiopathological mechanisms involved; they are frequently associated with metabolic repercussions at a distance from the ischaemic focus, which supports the concept of diaschisis [fr

  14. Effect of recirculation and regional counting rate on reliability of noninvasive bicompartmental CBF measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    1985-01-01

    Based on data from routine intravenous Xe133-rCBF studies in 50 patients, using Obrist's algorithm the effect of counting rate statistics and amount of recirculating activity on reproducibility of results was investigated at five simulated counting rate levels. Dependence of the standard deviation of compartmental and noncompartmental flow parameters on recirculation and counting rate was determined by multiple linear regression analysis. Those regression equations permit determination of the optimum accuracy that may be expected from individual flow measurements. Mainly due to a delay of the start-of-fit time an exponential increase in standard deviation of flow measurements was observed as recirculation increased. At constant start-of-fit, however, a linear increase in standard deviation of compartmental flow parameters only was found, while noncompartmental results remained constant. Therefore, and in regard to other studies of potential sources of error, an upper limit of 2.5 min for the start-of-fit time and usage of noncompartmental flow parameters for measurements affected by high recirculation are suggested

  15. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: Application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, R.A., E-mail: rufino.ligero@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Barrera, M. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Barbero, L. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Melendez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cadiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the {sup 137}Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the {sup 210}Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  16. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  17. Gamma dose rate changes in buildings in the region of Southeastern Iran using thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomehzadeh Mahani, A. [Hormozgan un Univ. of medical sciences, Paramedical School, Bandarabbas (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahreyni Toosi, M.T. [Mashhad Univ. of medical sciences, Medical school (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    oduction: It is important to measure background radiation, because human beings are always exposed to environmental radiation. The terrestrial component of the natural background depends on the compositions of soils and rocks in which are contained. A significant contribution to total dose from natural sources comes from terrestrial radionuclides such as U- 238, Th- 232 and K- 40. The level of gamma dose rate in buildings depends on the climate / weather, ventilation of living environment, local geology, drainage patterns and other factors. The objective of this study was to establishing the distribution of environmental gamma dose rates in the type of building sampled included cement-sand and soil brick buildings. Materials and Methods: Equipments used in this study include: 1-TLD-100 H (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) dosimeters. 2- TLD-Reader 3500 made by Harshaw, USA. In order to determine indoor gamma dose rate, the dosimeters were calibrated at room temperature with Co-60 source. Before using the dosimeters to measure environmental dose they were subjected to the thermal treatment in a normal oven. Two TLDs, were embedded in a 5 mm PMMA mini-phantom to register only gamma ray. 20 buildings for this study chosen randomly throughout Kerman town, southeastern Iran. Inside each building a holder was hung at a height of above 3 m. The period of monitoring of TLDs was 15 days. The TLDs were retrieved from the buildings and taken to the Mashhad university of medical sciences where they were read with a Harshaw TLD reader model 3500. Results: Our results indicate that indoor gamma dose rate ranged from 106 n Sv/h to 133 n Sv/h for cement-sand buildings with an average of 114.72 n Sv/h. For soil buildings the indoor gamma dose rate varied from 86 n Sv/h to 116 n Sv/h with an average of 100.50 n Sv/h. While the average gamma drate in cement-sand buildings is highest (114.72 n Sv/h), that of soil buildings is lowest (100.50 n Sv/h). Discussion: Average values vary from building to

  18. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalchi, Mario; Diciotti, Stefano; Giannelli, Marco; Ginestroni, Andrea; Soricelli, Andrea; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aiello, Marco; Tessa, Carlo; Galli, Lucia; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Piacentini, Silvia; Salvatore, Elena; Toschi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  19. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  20. The Banks Rating Analysis The Differences Between The Regional Development Banks And Non-Foreign Exchange Commercial Banks In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Irwan Ch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the bank rating in terms of differences the financial performance between the Regional Development Banks and Non-Foreign Exchange Commercial Banks. It is consist of capital adequacy asset quality profitability Return On Asset ROA Return on Equity ROE Net Interest Margin NIM and Liquidity Loan to Deposit Ratio. The fulfillment of capital adequacy and asset quality of the bank groups did not differed significantly while in terms of profitability and liquidity there are significant differences. The earning difference is more likely due to the Regional Development Banks sources of funds for the implementation of the Local Government Cash Holder function as the Provincial Government and District City. The difference of liquidity are showed by the performance of Regional Development Banks and the Non-Foreign Exchange Commercial Banks in lendingfinancing whereas the two groups of banks on average are still relatively low in lending.

  1. Comparing the Rates of Dopamine Hemodynamic Effect Onset after Infusion through Peripheral Veins in Three Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokkyu Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dopamine is an inotropic agent that is often selected for continuous infusion. For hemodynamic stability, the rate of infusion is controlled in the range of 5-15 μg/kg/min. This study aimed to compare the time intervals from the administration of dopamine to the onset of its hemodynamic effects when dopamine was administered through three different peripheral veins (the cephalic vein [CV], the great saphenous vein [GSV], and the external jugular vein [EJV]. Methods Patients in group 1, group 2, and group 3 received dopamine infusions in the CV, GSV, and EJV, respectively. A noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor (NICCOMO™, Medis, Ilmenau, Germany was used to assess cardiac output (CO and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Six minutes after intubation, baseline heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, CO, and SVR values were recorded and dopamine infusion was initiated at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 15 minutes postinfusion were recorded. Results No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to the rate of hemodynamic change. In all groups, systolic BP, diastolic BP, MAP, and SVR tended to increase after decreasing for the first 4 minutes; in contrast, HR and CO decreased until 8 minutes, after which they tended to reach a plateau. Conclusions For patients under general anesthesia receiving dopamine at 10 μg/kg/min, there were no clinical differences in the effect of dopamine administered through three different peripheral veins.

  2. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  3. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.

    2014-07-01

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35°C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  4. Biochemical adaptations of antigravity muscle fibers to disuse atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented in four parts of this report. The four parts include; (1) studies to gain information on the molecular basis of atrophy by antigravity muscle; (2) studies on the work capacity of antigravity muscles during atrophy and during recovery from atrophy; (3) studies on recovery of degenerated antigravity fibers after removal of hind-limb casts; and (4) studies on the atrophy and recovery of bone. The philosophy of these studies was to identify the time sequence of events in the soleus muscle of the rat following immobilization of the hind limbs, so that the length of the soleus muscle within the fixed limb is less than its resting length. In two separate studies, no decline in the weight of the soleus muscle could be detected during the first 72 hours of limb immobilization.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn period. Gyrate atrophy usually does not affect intelligence; however, abnormalities may be observed in brain imaging ... generated when protein is broken down by the body. In addition to its role in the urea ...

  6. Disease-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, Scott K.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Murphy, Kate T.; Reid, Michael B.; Zijdewind, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Numerous health problems including acute critical illness, cancer, diseases associated with chronic inflammation, and neurological disorders often result in skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue. Disease-related muscle atrophy and fatigue is an important clinical problem because acquired skeletal

  7. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  8. Suicide and general elections in Austria: do preceding regional suicide rate differentials foreshadow subsequent voting behavior swings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Formann, Anton K; Fülöp, Gerhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2003-05-01

    Suicide-epidemiological research on short-term effects of elections on national/regional suicide and parasuicide incidence has yielded contradictory evidence. Reversing the cause-effect relationship of this line of research we investigated whether preceding regional suicide rates are related to subsequent election results. For Austria's 121 districts, we regressed averaged standardized suicide rates for the preceding period (1988-1994) on political parties' subsequent electoral gains/losses (1999-to-1995) while controlling for a set of 12 domain-relevant psychosocial/economic indices. Stepwise weighted multiple regression led to a significant model. The 1999-to-1995 electoral gains/losses of two opposition parties, together with the population variation caused by migration balance and by births/deaths balance, accounted for a substantial part (30%) of the variability in preceding district-level suicide rates. Various other social indices failed to contribute further substantial increments to this model. This finding suggests that variations in preceding regional suicide incidence might be mirrored in subsequent changes in voting behavior. A speculative post hoc explanation for the finding is offered: on a community level, suicide's aftermath might produce socially and politically alienated survivors of suicide who co-shape swings towards opposition parties in subsequent general elections. The finding calls for more research on suicide's long-term aftermath. Within-country replicability and cross-national generalizability await further investigation. At present, the factor/mechanism accounting for this finding is neither well-established nor has been directly tested.

  9. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  10. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the repetition rate of a simple sensory stimulus and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain. Positron emission tomography (PET), using intravenously administered H 2 ( 15 )O as the diffusible blood-flow tracer, was employed for all CBF measurements. The use of H 2 ( 15 )O with PET allowed eight CBF measurements to be made in rapid sequence under multiple stimulation conditions without removing the subject from the tomograph. Nine normal volunteers each underwent a series of eight H2( 15 )O PET measurements of CBF. Initial and final scans were made during visual deprivation. The six intervening scans were made during visual activation with patterned-flash stimuli given in random order at 1.0-, 3.9-, 7.8-, 15.5-, 33.1-, and 61-Hz repetition rates. The region of greatest rCBF increase was determined. Within this region the rCBF was determined for every test condition and then expressed as the percentage change from the value of the initial unstimulated scan (rCBF% delta). In every subject, striate cortex rCBF% delta varied systematically with stimulus rate. Between 0 and 7.8 Hz, rCBF% delta was a linear function of stimulus repetition rate. The rCBF response peaked at 7.8 Hz and then declined. The rCBF% delta during visual stimulation was significantly greater than that during visual deprivation for every stimulus rate except 1.0 Hz. The anatomical localization of the region of peak rCBF response was determined for every subject to be the mesial occipital lobes along the calcarine fissure, primary visual cortex. Stimulus rate is a significant determinant of rCBF response in the visual cortex. Investigators of brain responses to selective activation procedures should be aware of the potential effects of stimulus rate on rCBF and other measurements of cerebral metabolism

  11. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magraner, M.; Coret, F.; Casanova, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta ® and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm 3 , to 960 mm 3 (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 × 10 5 mm 3 to 1.42 × 10 5 mm 3 (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was −2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0–6 months PBVC −1.7%; 6–12 months PBVC −0.74%; 12–18 months PBVC −0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient −0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (−2.3% to −1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  12. The relationship between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy in natalizumab treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magraner, M., E-mail: majomagbe@ono.com [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain); Coret, F., E-mail: coret_fra@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic de Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Casanova, B., E-mail: Casanova_bon@gva.es [Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the evolution of brain atrophy and its relationship with inflammatory activity in RRMS patients treated with natalizumab. Methods: Eighteen RRMS patients were prospectively followed up for 18 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Patients were monitored monthly and assessed for signs of relapses, adverse events or disability increase. MRI scans were performed before starting natalizumab and every six months. Cross-sectional T2 lesion volume (T2LV) and the normalized brain volume (NBV) at baseline and 18 months MRI scans were calculated using the Steronauta{sup Registered-Sign} and SIENAx softwares, respectively. Longitudinal Percentage of Brain Volume Change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA. Linkage between inflammatory activity and brain atrophy was studied. Results: Natalizumab reduced ARR by 67% and cumulative CEL by 87.5%. T2 lesion volume decreased from 1000 mm{sup 3}, to 960 mm{sup 3} (p = 0.006) and NBV decreased from 1.55 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} to 1.42 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} mm{sup 3} (p = 0.025). Global PBVC from baseline to 18 months was -2.5%, predominantly during the first six months (0-6 months PBVC -1.7%; 6-12 months PBVC -0.74%; 12-18 months PBVC -0.50%). The number of relapses before treatment was correlated to the PBVC during the first semester (Pearson's coefficient -0.520, p = 0.003), while the number of basal CEL or baseline T2LV did not correlate with brain atrophy rate. During follow-up, nine patients had clinical or radiological inflammatory activity. Their PBVC was significantly higher in the first semester (-2.3% to -1.1%, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Natalizumab reduced relapse rate and CEL in MRI. Brain atrophy predominated in the first semester and was related to previous inflammatory activity.

  13. Abnormalities of fixation, saccade and pursuit in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Kaski, Diego; Yong, Keir X X; Paterson, Ross W; Slattery, Catherine F; Ryan, Natalie S; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-07-01

    The clinico-neuroradiological syndrome posterior cortical atrophy is the cardinal 'visual dementia' and most common atypical Alzheimer's disease phenotype, offering insights into mechanisms underlying clinical heterogeneity, pathological propagation and basic visual phenomena (e.g. visual crowding). Given the extensive attention paid to patients' (higher order) perceptual function, it is surprising that there have been no systematic analyses of basic oculomotor function in this population. Here 20 patients with posterior cortical atrophy, 17 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 22 healthy controls completed tests of fixation, saccade (including fixation/target gap and overlap conditions) and smooth pursuit eye movements using an infrared pupil-tracking system. Participants underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, with a proportion also undertaking brain imaging and analysis of molecular pathology. In contrast to informal clinical evaluations of oculomotor dysfunction frequency (previous studies: 38%, current clinical examination: 33%), detailed eyetracking investigations revealed eye movement abnormalities in 80% of patients with posterior cortical atrophy (compared to 17% typical Alzheimer's disease, 5% controls). The greatest differences between posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease were seen in saccadic performance. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy made significantly shorter saccades especially for distant targets. They also exhibited a significant exacerbation of the normal gap/overlap effect, consistent with 'sticky fixation'. Time to reach saccadic targets was significantly associated with parietal and occipital cortical thickness measures. On fixation stability tasks, patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed more square wave jerks whose frequency was associated with lower cerebellar grey matter volume, while patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed large saccadic intrusions

  14. Can regional strain and strain rate measurement be performed during both dobutamine and exercise echocardiography, and do regional deformation responses differ with different forms of stress testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidavicius, Giedrius; Kowalski, Miroslaw; Williams, R Ian; D'hooge, Jan; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Pierre-Justin, Gilbert; Claus, Piet; Rademakers, Frank; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Fraser, Alan G; Pierard, Luc A; Bijnens, Bart; Sutherland, George R

    2003-04-01

    Regional strain (epsilon) and strain rate (SR) measurement could be the optimal approach to quantifying stress echocardiography images. However, signal noise could preclude their use. Study aims Our aim was to compare the feasibility of regional peak systolic (p) velocity (Vel), pSR/epsilon measurement, and their normal responses during upright (group 1, n = 10) and supine (group 2, n = 10) bicycle exercise and (group 3, n = 10) dobutamine stress. For each type of stress study, pVel/pSR/epsilon data were acquired at baseline, low (100-120 bpm), and peak (140-160 bpm) heart rate (HR); and during recovery. During dobutamine pVel/pSR/epsilon were interpretable in >95% of segments at every stress stage, whereas in groups 1 and 2 pSR/epsilon responses were noninterpretable in >36% of segments (P pVel and SR values increased linearly and reached maximal value at peak HR (P pVel increased linearly, whereas pepsilon response was biphasic as a result of the reduced filling at higher HRs.

  15. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji Jeevanandham; Rajoo Ramachandran; Vignesh Dhanapal; Ilanchezhian Subramanian; Venkata Sai

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism wit...

  16. Functional neural substrates of posterior cortical atrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, H; Raz, N; Levin, Netta

    2015-07-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome in which the most pronounced pathologic involvement is in the occipito-parietal visual regions. Herein, we aimed to better define the cortical reflection of this unique syndrome using a thorough battery of behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) tests. Eight PCA patients underwent extensive testing to map their visual deficits. Assessments included visual functions associated with lower and higher components of the cortical hierarchy, as well as dorsal- and ventral-related cortical functions. fMRI was performed on five patients to examine the neuronal substrate of their visual functions. The PCA patient cohort exhibited stereopsis, saccadic eye movements and higher dorsal stream-related functional impairments, including simultant perception, image orientation, figure-from-ground segregation, closure and spatial orientation. In accordance with the behavioral findings, fMRI revealed intact activation in the ventral visual regions of face and object perception while more dorsal aspects of perception, including motion and gestalt perception, revealed impaired patterns of activity. In most of the patients, there was a lack of activity in the word form area, which is known to be linked to reading disorders. Finally, there was evidence of reduced cortical representation of the peripheral visual field, corresponding to the behaviorally assessed peripheral visual deficit. The findings are discussed in the context of networks extending from parietal regions, which mediate navigationally related processing, visually guided actions, eye movement control and working memory, suggesting that damage to these networks might explain the wide range of deficits in PCA patients.

  17. Soil movements and surface erosion rates on rocky slopes in the mountain areas of the karst region of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Bai, X. Y.; Long, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The karst region of Southwest China with an area of 54 × 104 km2 is one of the largest karst areas in the world and experiences subtropical climate. Hill-depressions are common landforms in the mountain areas of this region. Downslope soil movement on the ground by surface water erosion and soil sinking into underground holes by creeping or pipe erosion are mayor types of soil movements on rocky carbonate slopes. The 137Cs technique was used to date the sediment deposits in six karst depressions, to estimate average surface erosion rates on slopes from their catchments. The estimates of soil loss rates obtained from this study evidenced considerable variability. A value of 1.0 t km-2 year-1 was obtained for a catchment under original dense karst forest, but the erosion rates ranged between 19.3 t km-2 year-1 and 48.7 t km-2 year-1 in four catchments under secondary forest or grasses, where the original forest cover had been removed in the Ming and Qing dynasties, several hundred years ago. The highest rate of 1643 t km-2 year-1 was obtained for a catchment underlain by clayey carbonate rocks, where the soil cover was thicker and more extensive than in the other catchments and extensive land reclamation for cultivation had occurred during the period 1979-1981, immediately after the Cultural Revolution.

  18. MRI of the spinocerebellar degeneration (multiple system atrophy, Holmes type, and Menzel-Joseph type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Eiichiro; Makino, Naoki.

    1991-01-01

    We have analyzed MRI in 33 patients with several forms of spinocerebellar degeneration; 17 with multiple system atrophy, 10 with Holmes type, and 6 with Menzel-Joseph type. The MRIs were obtained using a 1.5-T GEMR System. Patients with multiple system atrophy demonstrated: atrophy of the brain stem, particularly basis pontis; decreased signal intensity of the white matter of pons; atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum; atrophy and decreased signal intensity of the putamen, particularly along their lateral and posterior portions; and atrophy of the cerebrum. Patients with Holmes type showed: atrophy of the cerebellum; atrophy of the vermis more than hemispheres; and nuclei of the cerebellum with no decreased intensity on T 2 -weighted sequences. Patients with Menzel-Joseph type demonstrated moderate atrophy of the brain stem and mild atrophy of the white matter of cerebellum. MRI is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of the spinocerebellar degeneration. (author)

  19. Brain atrophy and dementia from the aspect of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Michiko

    1979-01-01

    Two major causes of dementia in the elderly are reported to be the degeneration of brain and cerebrovascular diseases. Recently, CT findings of cerebrovascular diseases and brain atrophy have been noticed, because they rather clearly show these changes. The authors examined the view of atrophy frequently observed on the dementia in the elderly. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In accordance with the increase of age the appearance of the view of atrophy increased in frequency and that of extreme brain atrophy also increased. 2) As the age increased, the average value of the width of the 3rd ventricle tended to increase. 3) In the cases accompanied with the view of cerebrovascular diseases remarkable ventricular dilatation was frequently observed, and in the very old dilatations of cerebral sulci, central fissure and Sylvian fissure were observed of all cases. 4) Of the group of severe dementia the view of extreme brain atrophy was observed in the major. However, there was no significant difference on the lesion of atrophy between the cases. The results mentioned above include some exceptional points respectively, so further investigation will be necessary from the qualitative and quantitative points of view. (author)

  20. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva; Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja; Niskanen, Eini; Koenoenen, Mervi; Haenninen, Tuomo

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  1. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  2. Brain Activity in Valuation Regions while Thinking about the Future Predicts Individual Discount Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nicole; Kim, B. Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-01-01

    People vary widely in how much they discount delayed rewards, yet little is known about the sources of these differences. Here we demonstrate that neural activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and ventral striatum (VS) when human subjects are asked to merely think about the future—specifically, to judge the subjective length of future time intervals—predicts delay discounting. High discounters showed lower activity for longer time delays, while low discounters showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the correlation between VMPFC and VS activity and discounting occurs even in the absence of choices about future rewards, and does not depend on a person explicitly evaluating future outcomes or judging their self-relevance. This suggests a link between discounting and basic processes involved in thinking about the future, such as temporal perception. Our results also suggest that reducing impatience requires not suppression of VMPFC and VS activity altogether, but rather modulation of how these regions respond to the present versus the future. PMID:23926268

  3. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...

  4. Insulin is Differentially Related to Cognitive Decline and Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M.; Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Hutfles, Lewis; Brooks, William M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship of insulin resistance with cognitive decline and brain atrophy over two years in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=48) and nondemented controls (n=61). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted at baseline to determine insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC). A standard battery of cognitive tasks and MRI were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. In nondemented controls, higher baseline insulin AUC was associated with 2-year decline in global cognitive performance (beta=−0.36, p=0.005). In early AD, however, higher insulin AUC was associated with less decline in global cognitive performance (beta=0.26, p=0.06), slower global brain atrophy (beta=0.40, p=0.01) and less regional atrophy in the bilateral hippocampi and cingulate cortices. While insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline in nondemented aging, higher peripheral insulin may have AD-specific benefits or insulin signaling may be affected by systemic physiologic changes associated with AD. PMID:21745566

  5. A decision tree for differentiating multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease using 3-T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shalini Rajandran; Tan, Li Kuo; Mohd Ramli, Norlisah; Lim, Shen Yang; Rahmat, Kartini; Mohd Nor, Hazman

    2013-06-01

    To develop a decision tree based on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to differentiate multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson's disease (PD). 3-T brain MRI and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) were performed on 26 PD and 13 MSA patients. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the putamen, substantia nigra, pons, middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) and cerebellum. Linear, volumetry and DTI (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) were measured. A three-node decision tree was formulated, with design goals being 100 % specificity at node 1, 100 % sensitivity at node 2 and highest combined sensitivity and specificity at node 3. Nine parameters (mean width, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of MCP; anteroposterior diameter of pons; cerebellar FA and volume; pons and mean putamen volume; mean FA substantia nigra compacta-rostral) showed statistically significant (P decision tree. Threshold values were 14.6 mm, 21.8 mm and 0.55, respectively. Overall performance of the decision tree was 92 % sensitivity, 96 % specificity, 92 % PPV and 96 % NPV. Twelve out of 13 MSA patients were accurately classified. Formation of the decision tree using these parameters was both descriptive and predictive in differentiating between MSA and PD. • Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy can be distinguished on MR imaging. • Combined conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging improves the accuracy of diagnosis. • A decision tree is descriptive and predictive in differentiating between clinical entities. • A decision tree can reliably differentiate Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy.

  6. Altered α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin isoform levels in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2016-01-01

    Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease-specific transcript......Together with Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a member of a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies. Previously, it has been shown that α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 display disease......-specific transcription patterns in frontal cortex in PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and MSA, and thus may mediate the development of α-synucleinopathies. In this study, the differential expression of α-synuclein isoforms on transcriptional and translational levels was ascertained in MSA patients in comparison with PD......-synuclein in the brain. We report differential expression of α-synuclein, parkin, and synphilin-1 isoforms in multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus Parkinson's disease and normal control brains. We have focused on brain regions that are severely affected by α-synuclein pathology and neurodegeneration in MSA. The reported...

  7. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. High seasonal variation in entomologic inoculation rates in Eritrea, a semi-arid region of unstable malaria in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shililu, Josephat; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Mengistu, Solomon; Fekadu, Helen; Zerom, Mehari; Mbogo, Charles; Githure, John; Novak, Robert; Brantly, Eugene; Beier, John C

    2003-12-01

    Entomologic studies were conducted in eight villages to investigate the patterns of malaria transmission in different ecologic zones in Eritrea. Mosquito collections were conducted for 24 months between September 1999 and January 2002. The biting rates of Anopheles arabiensis were highly seasonal, with activity concentrated in the wet season between June and October in the highlands and western lowlands, and between December and March in the coastal region. The biting rates in the western lowlands were twice as high as in the western escarpment and 20 times higher than in the coastal region. Sporozoite rates were not significantly different among villages. The risk of infection ranged from zero on the coast to 70.6 infective bites per year in the western lowlands. The number of days it would take for an individual to receive an infective bite from an infected An. arabiensis was variable among villages (range = 2.8-203.1 days). The data revealed the presence of only one main malaria transmission period between July and October for the highlands and western lowlands. Peak inoculation rates were recorded in August and September (range = 0.29-43.6 infective bits/person/month) at all sites over the two-year period. The annual entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs) varied greatly depending on year. The EIR profiles indicated that the risk of exposure to infected mosquitoes is highly heterogeneous and seasonal, with high inoculation rates during the rainy season, and with little or no transmission during the dry season. This study demonstrates the need to generate spatial and temporal data on transmission intensity on smaller scales to guide targeted control of malaria operations in semi-arid regions. Furthermore, EIR estimates derived in the present study provide a means of quantifying levels of exposure to infected mosquitoes in different regions of the country and could be important for evaluating the efficacy of vector control measures, since Eritrea has made

  9. Regional differences in treatment rates for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Philip Vutien

    Full Text Available Treatment rates with interferon-based therapies for chronic hepatitis C have been low. Our aim was to perform a systematic review of available data to estimate the rates and barriers for antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis searching MEDLINE, SCOPUS through March 2016 and abstracts from recent major liver meetings for primary literature with available hepatitis C treatment rates. Random-effects models were used to estimate effect sizes and meta-regression to test for potential sources of heterogeneity.We included 39 studies with 476,443 chronic hepatitis C patients. The overall treatment rate was 25.5% (CI: 21.1-30.5% and by region 34% for Europe, 28.3% for Asia/Pacific, and 18.7% for North America (p = 0.008. On multivariable meta-regression, practice setting (tertiary vs. population-based, p = 0.04, region (Europe vs. North America p = 0.004, and data source (clinical chart review vs. administrative database, p = 0.025 remained significant predictors of heterogeneity. The overall treatment eligibility rate was 52.5%, and 60% of these received therapy. Of the patients who refused treatment, 16.2% cited side effects, 13.8% cited cost as reasons for treatment refusal, and 30% lacked access to specialist care.Only one-quarter of chronic hepatitis C patients received antiviral therapy in the pre-direct acting antiviral era. Treatment rates should improve in the new interferon-free era but, cost, co-morbidities, and lack of specialist care will likely remain and need to be addressed. Linkage to care should even be of higher priority now that well-tolerated cure is available.

  10. The analysis of a case rate a skin melanoma in the Samara region for 1999-2009

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    Kozlov S.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In article one of oncology problems — a skin melanoma is surveyed. The theme urgency proves to be true that annually the case rate of patients with an oncologic pathology is constantly enlarged. One of oncology problems still has a skin melanoma. The work purpose is studying of a case rate by a skin melanoma in large industrial area on an example of the Samara region over the last 10 years. In article one of oncology problems — a skin melanoma is surveyed. For the task in view decision following materials and methods were used: primary registration documentation for 11 years (1999-2009 About for the first time taped disease a skin melanoma, annual reports of the Samara regional clinical oncologic dispensary, annual statistical reports of the State statistical committee, bureau MSE annual reports. At processing and the forecast of results of research following statistical methods — an extrapolation method, model of linear regress were used. Reliability of the taped pattern of dynamics was defined by means of an error of regress with the subsequent definition t and p. The received results testify to growth of a case rate of all population of the Samara region at the expense of the senior age groups. According to the analysis the invalid population is more often is ill. Conclusions are drawn on appreciable influence on occurrence of this pathology occurring in an organism involutes processes, necessity of carrying out of sanitary-educational work, carrying out of additional profound inspection among the population with high level of a case rate

  11. Muscle atrophy reversed by growth factor activation of satellite cells in a mouse muscle atrophy model.

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    Simon Hauerslev

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength.

  12. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  13. Consensus classification of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Murray, Melissa; Snowden, Julie S; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Vandenberghe, Rik; Ahmed, Samrah; Bak, Thomas H; Boeve, Bradley F; Butler, Christopher; Cappa, Stefano F; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Dubois, Bruno; Felician, Olivier; Galasko, Douglas; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Hof, Patrick R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Magnin, Eloi; Mendez, Mario F; Nestor, Peter J; Onyike, Chiadi U; Pelak, Victoria S; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Primativo, Silvia; Rossor, Martin N; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Suárez González, Aida; Tang-Wai, David F; Yong, Keir X X; Carrillo, Maria; Fox, Nick C

    2017-08-01

    A classification framework for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is proposed to improve the uniformity of definition of the syndrome in a variety of research settings. Consensus statements about PCA were developed through a detailed literature review, the formation of an international multidisciplinary working party which convened on four occasions, and a Web-based quantitative survey regarding symptom frequency and the conceptualization of PCA. A three-level classification framework for PCA is described comprising both syndrome- and disease-level descriptions. Classification level 1 (PCA) defines the core clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging features and exclusion criteria of the clinico-radiological syndrome. Classification level 2 (PCA-pure, PCA-plus) establishes whether, in addition to the core PCA syndrome, the core features of any other neurodegenerative syndromes are present. Classification level 3 (PCA attributable to AD [PCA-AD], Lewy body disease [PCA-LBD], corticobasal degeneration [PCA-CBD], prion disease [PCA-prion]) provides a more formal determination of the underlying cause of the PCA syndrome, based on available pathophysiological biomarker evidence. The issue of additional syndrome-level descriptors is discussed in relation to the challenges of defining stages of syndrome severity and characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity within the PCA spectrum. There was strong agreement regarding the definition of the core clinico-radiological syndrome, meaning that the current consensus statement should be regarded as a refinement, development, and extension of previous single-center PCA criteria rather than any wholesale alteration or redescription of the syndrome. The framework and terminology may facilitate the interpretation of research data across studies, be applicable across a broad range of research scenarios (e.g., behavioral interventions, pharmacological trials), and provide a foundation for future collaborative work. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  14. Age-related brain atrophy and mental deterioration - a study with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, M.; Hatazawa, J.; Yamaura, H.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    The relation of brain atrophy measured with computed tomography (CT) to mental deterioration on living people was studied. A newly improved technique for quantitative measurement of brain atrophy was developed. The pixels inside the head slices were divided into three parts; brain skull, and cerebrospinal fluid according to their CT number. The volume of brain, CSF, and cranial cavity were calculated by counting the number of pixels of each tissue. Results from 130 normal brains showed that the CSF volume was constant at about 16 ml through 20-39 years old. After 40 years the mean CSF volume increased drastically and reached 71 ml in the seventies. The volume of the brain was standardized for comparison between different-sized heads (brain volume index: BVI). The mean BVI decreased with statistical significance after 40 years of age. Mental function of these persons were evaluated using Hasegawa's dementia rating scale for the elderly. Progression of brain atrophy accompanied loss of mental activities (p<0.01). (author)

  15. The declining rates of hepatitis B carriage among adolescents and young people in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jubran, Khalid. M.; Al-Dossary, Mohamed. A.; Elsafi, Salah H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study age specific rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia following a 24 year immunization program. Methods: Hepatitis B surveillance data between January 2004 and December 2013 were analyzed in a retrospective study, which included 24,504,914 patients. Seropositive cases of hepatitis B were reported by laboratory personnel as part of various investigations. Hepatitis B cases including acute and chronic carriers were identified upon serological positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Results: The study shows that the overall prevalence rate decreased from 18.8 to 9.9/100,000 population between 2004 and 2013 (p=0.01). It was also found that the prevalence rate increased with age. For instance, the highest prevalence of hepatitis B was seen among patients >15 years of age and the lowest was seen among children 0.05). Another significant reduction in the prevalence rate occurred among age groups 5-14 years old (p=0.00). An insignificant decrease in the rate by 43% was also seen among older patients of 15-44 years old and 35% in >45 years old. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B is significantly higher in men than in women (p=0.00). Conclusion: There is a particular decreased trend in the prevalence of HBV infection in different age groups over a decade of surveillance following more than 20 years of the universal HBV vaccination program. PMID:27464863

  16. Age-related decline in cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    Using computed tomography, the authors studied brain atrophy during aging in 536 men and 529 women with no neurologic disturbances. They measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space volume and cranial cavity volume above the level of the tentorium cerebelli and calculated a brain atrophy index. CFS space volume strated to increase significantly in the group aged from 45 to 54 years, while the BAI started to increase significantly in the group aged from 35 to 44 years in both men and women. The BAI increased exponentially with the increasing age after 25 years, continuing to increase until 75 years or more in both men and women: log BAI = -0.260 + 0.0150 x age, r = 0.707, n = 493, p < 0.001 in men; log BAI = -0.434 + 0.0162 x age, r = 0.757, n = 504, p < 0.001 in women. Using the xenon-133 inhalation method, the authors studied age-related decline in regional cerebral blood flow (regional initial slope index; rISI) in 197 men and 238 women with no neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 19 to 88 years. The rISI values in women declined almost linearly with the advancing age from the 50s to the 80s except the 70s. The rISI values in men declined with the advancing age from the 40s to the 60s, but remained unchanged thereafter until the 80s, suggesting the existence of a threshold of rISI values. We estimated the rISI values (probable threshold of brain atrophy), the frequency under which is equivalent to the volume of brain tissues atrophying in a decade, and obtained constant values as about 32 for men and about 37 for women in the 50s, 60s and 70s. If the frequency of rISI values in the brain is distributed according to a Gaussian function and mean of rISI values decreases linearly to the increasing age, then brain tissues having rISI values below the thresholds degenerate almost exponentially with the increasing age, leading to the exponential atrophy of the brain. (J.P.N.)

  17. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  18. Rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos living in Florida: disparities by country/region of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Maddox, Lorene M

    2015-01-01

    HIV incidence in the USA is three times higher for Latinos than for non-Latino whites. Latinos differ in educational attainment, poverty, insurance coverage, and health-care access, factors that affect HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and testing. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in demographics, risk factors, and rate of new HIV diagnoses by birth country/region among Latinos in Florida to guide the targeting of primary and secondary prevention programs. Using Florida HIV/AIDS surveillance data from 2007 to 2011 and the American Community Survey, we compared demographic and risk factors, and calculated annual and five-year age-adjusted rates of new HIV diagnoses for 5801 Latinos by birth country/region. Compared to US-born Latinos, those born in Cuba and South America were significantly more likely to report the HIV transmission mode of MSM; those born in the Dominican Republic (DR) heterosexual transmission; and those born in Puerto Rico injection drug use. Mexican- and Central American-born Latinos were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS within a month of HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos declined 33% from 2007 to 2011. HIV diagnoses over time decreased significantly for Latinos born in Mexico and increased nonsignificantly for those born in the DR. Although this study was limited to Latinos living in Florida, results suggest that tailoring HIV primary prevention and testing initiatives to specific Latino groups may be warranted.

  19. Glucose hypometabolism is highly localized, but lower cortical thickness and brain atrophy are widespread in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Scott; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Goffaux, Philippe; Whittingstall, Kevin; Lepage, Martin; Paquet, Nancy; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that glucose hypometabolism may be present in specific brain regions in cognitively normal older adults and could contribute to the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. However, certain methodological shortcomings, including a lack of partial volume effect (PVE) correction or insufficient cognitive testing, confound the interpretation of most studies on this topic. We combined [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantify cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRg) as well as cortical volume and thickness in 43 anatomically defined brain regions from a group of cognitively normal younger (25 ± 3 yr old; n = 25) and older adults (71 ± 9 yr old; n = 31). After correcting for PVE, we observed 11-17% lower CMRg in three specific brain regions of the older group: the superior frontal cortex, the caudal middle frontal cortex, and the caudate (P ≤ 0.01 false discovery rate-corrected). In the older group, cortical volumes and cortical thickness were 13-33 and 7-18% lower, respectively, in multiple brain regions (P ≤ 0.01 FDR correction). There were no differences in CMRg between individuals who were or were not prescribed antihypertensive medication. There were no significant correlations between CMRg and cognitive performance or metabolic parameters measured in fasting plasma. We conclude that highly localized glucose hypometabolism and widespread cortical thinning and atrophy can be present in older adults who are cognitively normal, as assessed using age-normed neuropsychological testing measures. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine single-photon emission tomography in patients with Joseph disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kunio

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in five Japanese patients who were clinically diagnosed as having Joseph disease, also called Machado-Joseph disease or Azorean disease, using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Cerebellar atrophy was evaluated by a five-step rating scale as defined on X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Compared with ten age-matched normal controls (mean cerebellar CBF ± SD: 66.9 ± 6.6 ml/100 g/min), rCBF in patients with Joseph disease was significantly decreased in the cerebellum (mean ± SD: 50.2 ± 7.3 ml/100 g/min). No significant relationship, however, was found between the decrease in rCBF in the cerebellum and the degree of cerebellar atrophy on X-CT. rCBF in the cerebellum was minimally decreased in one patient who had severe cerebellar atrophy and in two patients with moderate atrophy. These data may support the findings that Purkinje cells in the cerebellum are almost normal in Joseph disease, and that the granular and molecular layers remain intact in spite of cortical atrophy of the cerebellum. It is concluded that [ 123 I]-IMP SPET is able to identify pathological and metabolic changes in the cerebellum that do not appear on X-CT or magnetic resonance imaging, and thus is useful for the diagnosis of Joseph disease. (orig.)

  1. Measuring the prevalence of regional mutation rates: an analysis of silent substitutions in mammals, fungi, and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuch Brian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.

  2. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. III. Calibration of Measurement and Techniques of Star Formation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    Through an extensive set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I), we assess in this part of the paper series (Paper III) how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs) in star-forming regions. We test the accuracy of commonly used techniques and construct new methods to extract the SFR, so that these findings can be applied to measure the SFR in real regions throughout the Milky Way. We investigate diffuse infrared SFR tracers such as those using 24 μ m, 70 μ m and total infrared emission, which have been previously calibrated for global galaxy scales. We set up a toy model of a galaxy and show that the infrared emission is consistent with the intrinsic SFR using extra-galactic calibrated laws (although the consistency does not prove their reliability). For local scales, we show that these techniques produce completely unreliable results for single star-forming regions, which are governed by different characteristic timescales. We show how calibration of these techniques can be improved for single star-forming regions by adjusting the characteristic timescale and the scaling factor and give suggestions of new calibrations of the diffuse star formation tracers. We show that star-forming regions that are dominated by high-mass stellar feedback experience a rapid drop in infrared emission once high-mass stellar feedback is turned on, which implies different characteristic timescales. Moreover, we explore the measured SFRs calculated directly from the observed young stellar population. We find that the measured point sources follow the evolutionary pace of star formation more directly than diffuse star formation tracers.

  3. Comparison of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism between Possible and Probable Multiple System Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyum-Yil Kwon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the relationship between presenting clinical manifestations and imaging features of multisystem neuronal dysfunction in MSA patients, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET. Methods: We studied 50 consecutive MSA patients with characteristic brain MRI findings of MSA, including 34 patients with early MSA-parkinsonian (MSA-P and 16 with early MSA-cerebellar (MSA-C. The cerebral glucose metabolism of all MSA patients was evaluated in comparison with 25 age-matched controls. 18F-FDG PET results were assessed by the Statistic Parametric Mapping (SPM analysis and the regions of interest (ROI method. Results: The mean time from disease onset to 18F-FDG PET was 25.9±13.0 months in 34 MSA-P patients and 20.1±11.1 months in 16 MSA-C patients. Glucose metabolism of the putamen showed a greater decrease in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P (p=0.031. Although the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS score did not differ between possible MSA-P and probable MSA-P, the subscores of rigidity (p=0.04 and bradykinesia (p= 0.008 were significantly higher in possible MSA-P than in probable MSA-P. Possible MSA-C showed a greater decrease in glucose metabolism of the cerebellum than probable MSA-C (p=0.016. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that the early neuropathological pattern of possible MSA with a predilection for the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system differs from that of probable MSA, which has prominent involvement of the autonomic nervous system in addition to the striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar system.

  4. Role of the Land Valuation Division in Property Rating by District Assemblies in Ghana's Upper East Region

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    Maxwell Kwotua Petio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available District Assemblies in Ghana are charged with the responsibility of developing their areas of jurisdiction mainly through internally mobilised revenue. As a consequence, the assemblies are empowered by various pieces of legislation to impose local taxes within their jurisdiction. The local taxes include property rates which are a form of tax that only the District Assemblies may levy. The study therefore looked at the levying of property rates in the Upper East Region and assessed the role and institutional capacity of the Land Valuation Division of the Lands Commission in the tax administration. Findings included limited coverage of the tax, use of flat rates due to absence of up-to-date property values, inadequate technical personnel and logistics for the Land Valuation Division (LVD and lack of political will to levy the rates fully. Relevant suggestions are made, such as the need to introduce mass valuation, widen the tax coverage, establish a fund for revaluation and revive the Valuation Training School, as well as provide requisite logistics for efficient performance of the LVD.

  5. Early and Degressive Putamen Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Julia Krämer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Putamen atrophy and its long-term progress during disease course were recently shown in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Here we investigated retrospectively the time point of atrophy onset in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. 68 patients with RRMS and 26 healthy controls (HC were admitted to 3T MRI in a cross-sectional study. We quantitatively analyzed the putamen volume of individual patients in relation to disease duration by correcting for age and intracranial volume (ICV. Patient’s relative putamen volume (RPV, expressed in percent of ICV, was significantly reduced compared to HC. Based on the correlation between RPV and age, we computed the age-corrected RPV deviation (ΔRPV from HC. Patients showed significantly negative ΔRPV. Interestingly, the age-corrected ΔRPV depended logarithmically on disease duration: Directly after first symptom manifestation, patients already showed a reduced RPV followed by a further degressive volumetric decline. This means that atrophy progression was stronger in the first than in later years of disease. Putamen atrophy starts directly after initial symptom manifestation or even years before, and progresses in a degressive manner. Due to its important role in neurological functions, early detection of putamen atrophy seems necessary. High-resolution structural MRI allows monitoring of disease course.

  6. A case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Sadanari; Komiya, Tadatoshi

    1988-01-01

    A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) was reported. We established several aspects on the basis of MRI findings and a neuro-otological study. A 47-year-old woman had gait disturbance, involuntary movements, speech disturbance, and memory disturbance at the age of 42. She was admitted to the hospital because of worsening of the gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed choreo-athetosis of the face, neck and upper extremities, mental disturbance, and scanning speech. However, she had neither ocular disturbance nor epilepsy or myoclonus. On the MRI-CT, an atrophy of midbrain and pontine tegmentum was observed. The neuro-otological study showed gaze nystagmus at the horizontal gaze, rebound nystagmus, hypometria of the saccade, saccadic pursuit, reduction of the optokinetic nystagmus, and increase in caloric nystagmus by means of visual input. A severe atrophy of the brainstem tegmentum and a mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral cortex are regarded as neuro-radiological features of DRPLA. Moreover, tegmental atrophy is related to ocular disturbance as a clinical feature. Various neuro-otological findings reveal many systems of ocular movements, i.e., a smooth pursuit system, a saccade system, and a vestibulo-ocular reflex system, involving flocculus. DRPLA can be clinically diagnosed by means of clinical features, MRI findings, and neuro-otological findings. A variety of neuro-otological abnormalities may indicate a progression of the ocular disturbance and a variety of lesions. (author)

  7. Preliminary study on computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanfu; Zhou Kangyuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the variability of normal brain volume with the sex and age, and put forward an objective standard for computer automatic quantification of brain atrophy. Methods: The cranial volume, brain volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) of 487 cases of brain atrophy (310 males, 177 females) and 1901 cases of normal subjects (993 males, 908 females) were calculated with the newly developed algorithm of automatic quantification for brain atrophy. With the technique of polynomial curve fitting, the mathematical relationship of BPF with age in normal subjects was analyzed. Results: The cranial volume, brain volume and BPF of normal subjects were (1 271 322 ± 128 699) mm 3 , (1 211 725 ± 122 077) mm 3 and (95.3471 ± 2.3453)%, respectively, and those of atrophy subjects were (1 276 900 ± 125 180) mm 3 , (1 203 400 ± 117 760) mm 3 and BPF(91.8115 ± 2.3035)% respectively. The difference of BPF between the two groups was extremely significant (P 0.05). The expression P(x)=-0.0008x 2 + 0.0193x + 96.9999 could accurately describe the mathematical relationship between BPF and age in normal subject (lower limit of 95% CI y=-0.0008x 2 +0.0184x+95.1090). Conclusion: The lower limit of 95% confidence interval mathematical relationship between BPF and age could be used as an objective criteria for automatic quantification of brain atrophy with computer. (authors)

  8. Uncertainty in the learning rates of energy technologies. An experiment in a global multi-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Ullash K.; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe; Voss, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of promising energy technologies in the market depends on their future energy production-cost development. When analyzing these technologies in an integrated assessment model using endogenous technological learning, the uncertainty in the assumed learning rates (LRs) plays a crucial role in the production-cost development and model outcomes. This study examines the uncertainty in LRs of some energy technologies under endogenous global learning implementation and presents a floor-cost modeling procedure to systematically regulate the uncertainty in LRs of energy technologies. The article narrates the difficulties of data assimilation, as compatible with mixed integer programming segmentations, and comprehensively presents the causes of uncertainty in LRs. This work is executed using a multi-regional and long-horizon energy system model based on 'TIMES' framework. All regions receive an economic advantage to learn in a common domain, and resource-ample regions obtain a marginal advantage for better exploitation of the learning technologies, due to a lower supply-side fuel-cost development. The lowest learning investment associated with the maximum LR mobilizes more deployment of the learning technologies. The uncertainty in LRs has an impact on the diffusion of energy technologies tested, and therefore this study scrutinizes the role of policy support for some of the technologies investigated. (author)

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Pain Numeric Rating Scale When Applied to Multiple Body Regions among Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the broad popularity of a numeric rating scale (NRS) its psychometric properties are not well known. The objective was to determine if there is any difference in the discrimination ability of the NRS when used for measuring pain severity separately in different body regions. Methods Cross-sectional survey study of 630 professional musicians. Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to define the psychometric properties of the NRS. Results The discrimination ability of the pain NRS was dependent on the body area to which it was applied. The discrimination was low 0.5 (95% CI 0.4. to 0.7) for the hand region and perfect for the shoulder and upper part of the neck– 3.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) and 10.5 (95% CI 10.0 to 10.9), respectively. Both shoulder and neck NRSs showed a great shift towards higher levels of pain severity meaning that the ability of the NRS to discriminate low levels of pain is poor. NRS scores obtained from all other regions did not demonstrate any discrimination ability. Conclusions The pain NRS might have different psychometric properties depending on the body area to which it is applied. Overall, the modest discrimination ability of the pain NRS implies that it should be used in screening questionnaires with some reservations. PMID:27603011

  10. Regional inequalities in self-rated health and disability in younger and older generations in Turkey: the contribution of wealth and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ergin, Isil; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    In Turkey, large regional inequalities were found in maternal and child health. Yet, evidence on regional inequalities in adult health in Turkey remains fragmentary. This study aims to assess regional and rural/urban inequalities in the prevalence of poor self-rated health and in disability among

  11. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented on the normalised mid-sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice and subdivided into five regions. Correlations between the CC areas and subjective memory complaints, mini mental state examination (MMSE......, and the CC areas were smaller in subjects with subjective gait difficulty. The correlations remained significant after correction for ARWMC grade. In conclusion, CC atrophy was independently associated with impaired global cognitive and motor function in subjects with ARWMC. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights...

  12. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Stegmann, M B

    2007-01-01

    ) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified...... subjects with ARWMC from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented on the normalised mid-sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slice and subdivided into five regions. Correlations between the CC areas and subjective memory complaints, mini mental state examination (MMSE...

  13. The utilization rate of the regional health information exchange: how it impacts on health care delivery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Tiina; Asikainen, Paula; Gissler, Mika; Siponen, Kimmo; Maass, Marianne; Saranto, Kaija; Suominen, Tarja

    2012-01-01

    Interest in improving quality and effectiveness is the primary driver for health information exchange efforts across a health care system to improve the provision of public health care services. The aim here was to describe and identify the impact of a regional health information exchange (HIE) using quantitative statistics for 2004-2008 in one hospital district in Finland. We conducted a comparative, longitudinal 5-year follow-up study to evaluate the utilization rates of HIE, and the impact on health care delivery outcomes. The selected outcomes were total laboratory tests, radiology examinations, appointments, emergency visits, and referrals. The HIE utilization rates increased annually in all 10 federations of municipalities, and the viewing of reference information increased steadily in each professional group over the 5-year study period. In these federations, a significant connection was found to the number of laboratory tests and radiology examinations, with a statistically significant increase in the number of viewed references and use of HIE. The higher the numbers of emergency visits and appointments, the higher the numbers of emergency referrals to specialized care, viewed references, and HIE usage among the groups of different health care professionals. There is increasing interest in HIE usage through regional health information system among health professionals to improve health care delivery regionally and bring information on the patient directly to care delivery. It will be important to study which changes in working methods in the service system are explained by RHIS. Also, the experiences of the change that has taken place should be studied among the different stakeholders, administrative representatives, and patients.

  14. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Folstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M.

    1989-01-01

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  15. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  16. [Regional blood flow and bone uptake of methylene-diphosphonate-technetium-99m].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Martini, G; Pisani, M

    1983-05-30

    Sudeck's atrophy of the foot is an acute, patchy osteoporosis that, on bone scan, shows an increase in both bone blood flow and local bone uptake of bone-seeking radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between bone uptake of 99mTc-MDP and local bone blood flow. In some patients with Sudeck's atrophy of one foot we measured local bone blood flow and bone uptake of 99mTc-MDP. External counting of radioactivity, with a count-rate of 1 second was performed for 60 minutes after i.v. injection of a known dose of 99mTc-MDP in some patients with Sudeck's atrophy of the foot. The regions of interest (ROI) were selected on the basis of a bone scan performed 24 hours earlier. We assumed that the data recorded during the first seconds (7-10) reflect local blood flow and the data at 60 minutes reflect the bone uptake. The ratio between the local blood flow in the involved and healthy foot was higher than the local bone uptake ratio. The ratio between bone uptake and local bone blood flow was higher in the normal foot than in the affected one. These results suggest that the bone avidity for bone-seeking radionuclides is lower in Sudeck's atrophy than in normal bone.

  17. A comparison between decomposition rates of buried and surface remains in a temperate region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais-Werner, Anátulie; Myburgh, J; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted on decomposition patterns and rates of surface remains; however, much less are known about this process for buried remains. Understanding the process of decomposition in buried remains is extremely important and aids in criminal investigations, especially when attempting to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI). The aim of this study was to compare the rates of decomposition between buried and surface remains. For this purpose, 25 pigs (Sus scrofa; 45-80 kg) were buried and excavated at different post mortem intervals (7, 14, 33, 92, and 183 days). The observed total body scores were then compared to those of surface remains decomposing at the same location. Stages of decomposition were scored according to separate categories for different anatomical regions based on standardised methods. Variation in the degree of decomposition was considerable especially with the buried 7-day interval pigs that displayed different degrees of discolouration in the lower abdomen and trunk. At 14 and 33 days, buried pigs displayed features commonly associated with the early stages of decomposition, but with less variation. A state of advanced decomposition was reached where little change was observed in the next ±90-183 days after interment. Although the patterns of decomposition for buried and surface remains were very similar, the rates differed considerably. Based on the observations made in this study, guidelines for the estimation of PMI are proposed. This pertains to buried remains found at a depth of approximately 0.75 m in the Central Highveld of South Africa.

  18. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help...

  19. Congenital contractural arachnodactyly with neurogenic muscular atrophy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scola Rosana Herminia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 3-1/2-year-old girl with hypotonia, multiple joint contractures, hip luxation, arachnodactyly, adducted thumbs, dolichostenomelia, and abnormal external ears suggesting the diagnosis of congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA. The serum muscle enzimes were normal and the needle electromyography showed active and chronic denervation. The muscle biopsy demonstrated active and chronic denervation compatible with spinal muscular atrophy. Analysis of exons 7 and 8 of survival motor neuron gene through polymerase chain reaction did not show deletions. Neurogenic muscular atrophy is a new abnormality associated with CCA, suggesting that CCA is clinically heterogeneous.

  20. Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome with crossed cerebellar atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M. Khaladkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome is a rare condition with classical, clinical and radiological changes – mental retardation, hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, seizures and cerebral hemiatrophy with calvarial changes. Contralateral cerebellar atrophy is rare and occurs if insult occurs after 1 month of age. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with right-sided hemiparesis, convulsions and left cerebral hemiatrophy with an old infarct in left middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, ipsilateral calvarial thickening and right (crossed cerebellar atrophy.

  1. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2009 with trends since 1995: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Stanton, Cynthia; Chou, Doris; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Steinhardt, Laura; Creanga, Andreea A; Tunçalp, Ozge; Balsara, Zohra Patel; Gupta, Shivam; Say, Lale; Lawn, Joy E

    2011-04-16

    Stillbirths do not count in routine worldwide data-collating systems or for the Millennium Development Goals. Two sets of national stillbirth estimates for 2000 produced similar worldwide totals of 3·2 million and 3·3 million, but rates differed substantially for some countries. We aimed to develop more reliable estimates and a time series from 1995 for 193 countries, by increasing input data, using recent data, and applying improved modelling approaches. For international comparison, stillbirth is defined as fetal death in the third trimester (≥1000 g birthweight or ≥28 completed weeks of gestation). Several sources of stillbirth data were identified and assessed against prespecified inclusion criteria: vital registration data; nationally representative surveys; and published studies identified through systematic literature searches, unpublished studies, and national data identified through a WHO country consultation process. For 2009, reported rates were used for 33 countries and model-based estimates for 160 countries. A regression model of log stillbirth rate was developed and used to predict national stillbirth rates from 1995 to 2009. Uncertainty ranges were obtained with a bootstrap approach. The final model included log(neonatal mortality rate) (cubic spline), log(low birthweight rate) (cubic spline), log(gross national income purchasing power parity) (cubic spline), region, type of data source, and definition of stillbirth. Vital registration data from 79 countries, 69 nationally representative surveys from 39 countries, and 113 studies from 42 countries met inclusion criteria. The estimated number of global stillbirths was 2·64 million (uncertainty range 2·14 million to 3·82 million) in 2009 compared with 3·03 million (uncertainty range 2·37 million to 4·19 million) in 1995. Worldwide stillbirth rate has declined by 14·5%, from 22·1 stillbirths per 1000 births in 1995 to 18·9 stillbirths per 1000 births in 2009. In 2009, 76·2% of

  2. Quantitative evaluation of tongue atrophy on midsagittal magnetic resonance images (MRIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Akio; Oishi, Tomonari; Murai, Yoshiyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Masato

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken mainly to establish the quantitative parameter to evaluate the tongue atrophy on midsagittal MRIs and to show the clinical usefulness of such quantitative evaluation. Midsagittal MRIs of the tongue of consecutive 103 patients were analyzed. They were classified into 67 patients showing normal size (group without atrophy), 11 patients showing atrophy (group with atrophy) and 25 patients showing unsatifactory MRIs with artifacts based on the routine evaluation. The patients in the group without atrophy did not show any pathologic processes to produce tongue atrophy on clinical findings. The area and perimeter of tongue and oral cavity, and the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area and the ratio of tongue perimeter to oral cavity perimeter on midsagittal MRIs were obtained in each patient of groups with and without atrophy by using quantitative image analysis system. In the group without atrophy, regression analysis of the data on age was made and the 95% confidence interval of the data for age was obtained. No evidence that the tongue becomes atrophic with aging was obtained in the group without atrophy. Patients in the group with atrophy were best separated from those in the group without atrophy statistically when the ratio of tongue area to oral cavity area was regressed on age. Among 11 patients in the group with atrophy, 6 patients were not regarded as having tongue atrophy on clinical neurological examinations. Therefore, the evaluation of midsagittal MRIs is clinically useful. (author)

  3. CH(+) Destruction by Reaction with H: Computing Quantum Rates To Model Different Molecular Regions in the Interstellar Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S; Grassi, T; Gianturco, F A

    2015-12-17

    A detailed analysis of an ionic reaction that plays a crucial role in the carbon chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) is carried out by computing ab initio reactive cross sections with a quantum method and by further obtaining the corresponding CH(+) destruction rates over a range of temperatures that shows good overall agreement with existing experiments. The differences found between all existing calculations and the very-low-T experiments are discussed and explored via a simple numerical model that links these cross section reductions to collinear approaches where nonadiabatic crossing is expected to dominate. The new rates are further linked to a complex chemical network that models the evolution of the CH(+) abundance in the photodissociation region (PDR) and molecular cloud (MC) environments of the ISM. The abundances of CH(+) are given by numerical solutions of a large set of coupled, first-order kinetics equations that employs our new chemical package krome. The analysis that we carry out reveals that the important region for CH(+) destruction is that above 100 K, hence showing that, at least for this reaction, the differences with the existing laboratory low-T experiments are of essentially no importance within the astrochemical environments discussed here because, at those temperatures, other chemical processes involving the title molecule are taking over. A detailed analysis of the chemical network involving CH(+) also shows that a slight decrease in the initial oxygen abundance might lead to higher CH(+) abundances because the main chemical carbon ion destruction channel is reduced in efficiency. This might provide an alternative chemical route to understand the reason why general astrochemical models fail when the observed CH(+) abundances are matched with the outcomes of their calculations.

  4. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Parrenin, Frédéric; Urbini, Stefano; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF), which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice-bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km × 130 km area, with a N-S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m-2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  5. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Passalacqua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF, which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice–bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km  ×  130 km area, with a N–S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m−2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  6. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Kuji, Ichiei; Seto, Akira; Ito, Kimiteru; Kikuta, Daisuke; Yamada, Minoru; Shimano, Yasumasa; Sato, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to SPECT. After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99m Tc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99m Tc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  7. Evaluation of both perfusion and atrophy in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type using brain SPECT alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial volume effects in atrophied areas should be taken into account when interpreting brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of neurodegenerative diseases. To evaluate both perfusion and atrophy using brain SPECT alone, we developed a new technique applying tensor-based morphometry (TBM to SPECT. Methods After linear spatial normalization of brain perfusion SPECT using 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD to a Talairach space, high-dimension-warping was done using an original 99mTc-ECD template. Contraction map images calculated from Jacobian determinants and spatially normalized SPECT images using this high-dimension-warping were compared using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 between two groups of 16 multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C patients and 73 age-matched normal controls. This comparison was also performed in conventionally warped SPECT images. Results SPM2 demonstrated statistically significant contraction indicating local atrophy and decreased perfusion in the whole cerebellum and pons of MSA-C patients as compared to normal controls. Higher significance for decreased perfusion in these areas was obtained in high-dimension-warping than in conventional warping, possibly due to sufficient spatial normalization to a 99mTc-ECD template in high-dimensional warping of severely atrophied cerebellum and pons. In the present high-dimension-warping, modification of tracer activity remained within 3% of the original tracer distribution. Conclusions The present new technique applying TBM to brain SPECT provides information on both perfusion and atrophy at the same time thereby enhancing the role of brain perfusion SPECT

  8. Groundwater age, mixing and flow rates in the vicinity of large open pit mines, Pilbara region, northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Dogramaci, Shawan; McCallum, James; Hedley, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Determining groundwater ages from environmental tracer concentrations measured on samples obtained from open bores or long-screened intervals is fraught with difficulty because the sampled water represents a variety of ages. A multi-tracer technique (Cl, 14C, 3H, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF6) was used to decipher the groundwater ages sampled from long-screened production bores in a regional aquifer around an open pit mine in the Pilbara region of northwest Australia. The changes in tracer concentrations due to continuous dewatering over 7 years (2008-2014) were examined, and the tracer methods were compared. Tracer concentrations suggest that groundwater samples are a mixture of young and old water; the former is inferred to represent localised recharge from an adjacent creek, and the latter to be diffuse recharge. An increase in 14C activity with time in wells closest to the creek suggests that dewatering of the open pit to achieve dry mining conditions has resulted in change in flow direction, so that localised recharge from the creek now forms a larger proportion of the pumped groundwater. The recharge rate prior to development, calculated from a steady-state Cl mass balance, is 6 mm/y, and is consistent with calculations based on the 14C activity. Changes in CFC-12 concentrations with time may be related to the change in water-table position relative to the depth of the well screen.

  9. Studies of cell kinetics in vital and necrotic tumor regions: Measurement of loss rate using 125iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porschen, R.

    1981-01-01

    The method of determining cell losses in situ from the decrease in radioactivity after a single i.p. injection of the thymidine-analogue, 125 iododeoxyuridine was tested for its applicability in different development stages of the solid mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 on male C57 N1/6J mice. Invasive studies on activity distributions in vital and necrotic tumour regions were carried out after injection of Light Green SF. The following results were obtained: 1) External measurement of activity loss register the removal of labelled cells and decay products rather than cell death. The total activity of the tumour at any time following injection corresponds to the sum of radioactivity in the proliferating, non-growing and necrotic compartments. 2) In solid tumours, there are regions with differing transport capacity. 3) The method using 125 J-UdR does not allow determination of loss rates as a function of a given volume but rather yields an averaged value. 4) Activity losses of vital tumour cells largely correspond to the cell loss. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  11. Brain atrophy and lesion load predict long term disability in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Veronica; Agosta, Federica; Hulst, Hanneke E

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS).......To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  12. Global gray matter changes in posterior cortical atrophy: A serial imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, M.; Barnes, J.; Ridgway, G.R.; Ryan, N.S.; Warrington, E.K.; Crutch, S.J.; Fox, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative condition predominantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Cross-sectional imaging studies have shown different atrophy patterns in PCA patients compared with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients,

  13. Operation of a RPC with low resistivity bakelite for the endcap region of CMS in a high-rate environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Kang, D H; Kim, T J; Lee, K S; Park, S; Park, W J; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Youn, S W; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Nam, S K; Jung, S R; Lee, Y L; Rhee, J T; Lee, S J; Koo, D G; Bahk, S Y

    2002-01-01

    We present the beam-test results for a real-size prototype resistive plate chamber (RPC) for the endcap region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chamber built with relatively low resistivity bakelite was tested at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN under a high photon-flux environment with an effective cluster rate up to about 1.2 kHz/cm/sup 2/. The characteristics of the present chamber are compatible with the previous results for the muon detection efficiency, time resolution, mean travel time, and rate capability, which were obtained using a higher resistivity bakelite. The present beam-test results ensure that the RPC made of relatively low resistivity bakelite is also suitable for the CMS muon trigger detector. In addition, we study the position resolution of the endcap RPC of the CMS. By using the median position of the cluster strips, the position resolution can be reduced to only half of the strip width. (15 refs).

  14. Interdependence and Exchange Rate Regimes in East Asia: Intra-regional Transmissions of Exchange Rate Policies after the Crisis (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OHNO Sanae; FUKUDA Shin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Since the onset of the Asian crisis, what characterizes the East Asian exchange rates has been a topic of considerable discussion. In the pre-crisis period, the de facto pegs to the U.S. dollar sometimes destabilized the real "effective" exchange rates of these currencies. Several economists have, thus, proposed the desirability of intermediate exchange rate regimes in East Asia that might stabilize their effective exchange rates. The post-crisis experience in East Asia, however, taught us th...

  15. Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Wenning, Gregor K; Gilman, Sid; Low, Phillip A; Giladi, Nir; Barone, Paolo; Sampaio, Cristina; Eyal, Eli; Rascol, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a complex neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective treatment exists. We aimed to assess the effect of rasagiline on symptoms and progression of the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial between Dec 15, 2009, and Oct 20, 2011, at 40 academic sites specialised in the care of patients with multiple systemic atrophy across 12 countries. Eligible participants aged 30 years or older with possible or probable parkinsonian variant multiple system atrophy were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block size of four), to receive either rasagiline 1 mg per day or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by study centre. The investigators, study funder, and personnel involved in patient assessment, monitoring, analysis and data management were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to study end in total Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) score (parts I and II). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00977665. We randomly assigned 174 participants to the rasagiline group (n=84) or the placebo group (n=90); 21 (25%) patients in the rasagiline group and 15 (17%) in the placebo group withdrew from the study early. At week 48, patients in the rasagiline group had progressed by an adjusted mean of 7·2 (SE 1·2) total UMSARS units versus 7·8 (1·1) units in those in the placebo group. This treatment difference of -0·60 (95% CI -3·68 to 2·47; p=0·70) was not significant. 68 (81%) patients in the rasagiline group and 67 (74%) patients in the placebo group reported adverse events, and we recorded serious adverse events in 29 (35%) versus 23 (26%) patients. The most common adverse events in the rasagiline group were dizziness (n=10 [12%]), peripheral oedema (n=9 [11%]), urinary tract infections (n=9 [11%]), and orthostatic

  16. Attitudes and stigma in relation to help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in low and high suicide rate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, A; Kerkhof, A J F M; Molenberghs, G; Van Audenhove, C

    2014-02-01

    Accessibility and availability of mental health care services are necessary but not sufficient for people to seek help for psychological problems. Attitudes and stigma related to help seeking also determine help seeking intentions. The aim of this study is to investigate how cross-national differences in attitudes and stigma within the general population are related to professional and informal help seeking intentions in low and high suicide rate regions. By means of a postal structured questionnaire, data of 2999 Dutch and Flemish respondents between 18 and 65 years were gathered. Attitudes toward help seeking, perceived stigma, self-stigma, shame and intention to seek help were assessed. People in the Netherlands, where suicide rates are low, have more positive attitudes toward help seeking and experience less self stigma and shame compared to the people in Flanders, where suicide rates are relatively high. These attitudinal factors predicted professional as well as informal help seeking intentions. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with informal help seeking. Shame was positively associated with higher intention to use psychotropic drugs and perceived stigma was negatively associated with the intention to seek help from a psychotherapist in Flanders but not in the Netherlands. Help seeking for psychological problems prevent these problems to aggravate and it is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. Our results stress the importance of the promotion of positive attitudes and the reduction of stigma within the general population to facilitate help seeking from professional providers and informal networks. Focusing on these attitudinal factors is believed to be a key aspect of universal mental health and suicide prevention policies.

  17. [Chemical denudation rates and carbon dioxide sink in Koxkar glacierised region at the south slope of Mt. Tianshan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Jun-li; Zhang, Shi-qiang; Liu, Shi-yin; Han, Hai-dong

    2010-04-01

    Chemical denudation rates and carbon dioxide sink were from water samples from ice-melt water, precipitation and river water were collected daily from June 21st to September 10th in 2004 in the Koxkar glacier region, south slope of Mt. Tianshan, China. The law of conservation of mass was applied for calculating chemical denudation fluxes and transient carbon dioxide sink. It is found that: 1) There were average of 60.7 kg x (km2 x d)(-1) and 60.2 kg x (km2 x d)(-1) solutes supplied by precipitation and ice melt-water respectively which accounted for about 7.7% and 7.6% of the total solutes of bulk river water [791.2 kg x (km2 x d)(-1)]. Consequently, the rate of chemical denudation derived from the crustal flux was 558.0 kg x (km2 x d)(-1), accounting for 70.5%. 2) Carbonation weathering was 308.9 kg x (km2 x d)(-1), and heavier than that of the other chemical denudations. The crustal concentration of bicarbonates (HCO3-) is attributed chiefly to the carbonation of carbonates (limestone and dolomite) and aluminosilicates/silicates. A further important source of bicarbonates and sulphates is pyrite oxidation coupled with limestone/dolomite dissolution. The transient carbon dioxide sink can be estimated by ion balance law, which is 81.0 kg x (km2 x d)(-1), accounting for 14.2%. 3) The chemical denudation rates was 641.1 kg x (km2 x d)(-1) with relationship of specific conductivity to concentrations of dissolved carbonate in water, which is only 4.4% less than that obtained from mass balance method without regard to carbon dioxide sink. The study also implied important to evaluate chemical denudation fluxes of poor data in western mountain area, China. However, because of without chemical analysis and ion partitioning, the transient CO2 drawdown cannot be established.

  18. Multiple systems atrophy: Differentiation and findings by Magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Velez, Sergio Alberto; Alzate Betancur, Catalina Maria

    2006-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neuro degenerative disorder of undetermined cause, characterized clinically by Parkinson's, autonomic, cerebellar or pyramidal sing and symptoms. lts differentiation from Parkinson's disease may be difficult, mainly in the early stages owing to overlapping features. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated usefulness in MSA diagnosis and in differentiation with Parkinson's disease. One case with magnetic resonance findings is described

  19. Clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    Deletion;. Chromosome 5;. Mutations. Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by progressive hypotonia and muscular weakness because of progressive degeneration of alpha motor neuron from anterior horn cells in the spinal cord. It is inherited by an autosomal recessive pattern. The precise frequency of ...

  20. Axonal loss occurs early in dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Sander, Birgit; Wegener, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to investigate retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in relation to age in healthy subjects and patients with OPA1 autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional investigation of RNFL...

  1. Skeletal muscle training for spinal muscular atrophy type 3 (Protocol).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, B.; Montes, J.; Pol, W.L. van der; Groot, J.F. de

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a genetic mutation in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene (5q11.2-q13.3) (Lefebvre 1995). With an incidence of one in 10,000 live births, it is the leading genetic cause of infant death (Lunn 2008;

  2. Acylated and unacylated ghrelin impair skeletal muscle atrophy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, and several other disease states. It is characterized by weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, and skeletal muscle atrophy and is associated with poor patient prognosis, making it an important treatment target. Ghreli...

  3. Novel in vitro platform to investigate myotube atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, Christopher; Horn, Katharina; Makert, Gustavo R; Schubert, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The electrical current exclusion (ECE) principle provides an alternative to common methods of cell diameter measurement and especially in atrophy and cancer associated cachexia research. C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated into myotubes and treated with 100 μM dexamethasone to induce atrophy in vitro. Subsequently, they were incubated for 24 h with media containing different concentrations of curcumin and/or branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in order to counteract atrophy. After treatment with curcumin, an increase in cell diameter was detectable; the highest increase with 13.9 ± 0.4% was seen with 10 μM curcumin. The combination of curcumin and BCAAs showed an increase of 13.4 ± 1.2 %. Cell diameter measurement via the ECE showed that curcumin, and curcumin in combination with BCAAs, were able to restore atrophic C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, the application of ECE in muscle atrophy and also cancer-associated cachexia research allows rapid screening of novel compounds in order to test their efficacy in vitro. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls ( P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy ( P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline ( R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Anaesthetic management of a patient with multiple system atrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Symptoms vary from autonomic dysfunction to Parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, in any combination. MSA affects many organ systems with many possible complications and makes perioperative management of a patient with this condition ...

  6. Prefrontal involvement related to cognitive impairment in progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Tol, M.J. van; Groot, P.F.M.; Altena, E.; Werf, Y.D. van der; Majoie, C.B.; Kooi, A.J. van der; Berg, L.H. van den; Schmand, B.A.; Visser, M de; Veltman, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine brain activation patterns during verbal fluency performance in patients with progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: fMRI was used to examine the blood oxygen level-dependent response during letter and category fluency performance in

  7. Prefrontal involvement related to cognitive impairment in progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, Joost; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Groot, Paul F. C.; Altena, Ellemarije; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Majoie, Charles B.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Schmand, Ben; de Visser, Marianne; Veltman, Dick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine brain activation patterns during verbal fluency performance in patients with progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: fMRI was used to examine the blood oxygen level-dependent response during letter and category fluency performance in

  8. Prefrontal involvement related to cognitive impairment in progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, Joost; van Tol, Marie-José; Groot, Paul F. C.; Altena, Ellemarije; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Majoie, Charles B.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Schmand, Ben; de Visser, Marianne; Veltman, Dick J.

    2014-01-01

    To examine brain activation patterns during verbal fluency performance in patients with progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). fMRI was used to examine the blood oxygen level-dependent response during letter and category fluency performance in 18 patients with

  9. Mandibular atrophy and metabolic bone loss. Endocrinology, radiology and histomorphometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, L. L.; Bras, J.; Borgmeyer-Hoelen, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    In 11 edentulous patients with a severe atrophy of the mandible and submitted for ridge augmentation, endocrinological, radiological and histomorphometrical studies were carried out. The results showed that metabolic bone loss, histologically in nearly all patients characterized as a disturbance in

  10. Causative mutations for progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in the dog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jaromír; Horák, Pavel; Bechyňová, Renata; Přibáňová, M.; Stratil, Antonín; Schröffelová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2008), s. 55-58 ISSN 1803-4403. [Genetické dny /23./. České Budějovice, 10.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : progressive retinal atrophy * dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brînzan, Daniela; Pǎiuşan, Lucian; Daşcǎu, Voicu; Furǎu, Gheorghe

    2011-08-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a one year period. The methods used for objectifying vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions were history taking, local clinical exam and PAP smear. From this group, 40 patients had vaginal atrophy with sexual dysfunctions. They have been treated differently, being included in four groups: patients treated with local estrogens, patients treated with intravaginal laser therapy, patients treated with both laser therapy and estrogens, patients treated with estrogens and placebo laser therapy. Therapeutic benefit, improvement of vaginal atrophy and quality of sexual life, were objectified by anamnesis (questionnaire), local and general clinical examination and PAP smear. The best results have been obtained, by far, in the 3rd group, followed by the women treated only with laser. In conclusion, we can say that laser therapy is the best way for solving the sexual inconveniences of menopause.

  12. Physical complaints in ageing persons with spinal muscular atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, I.J.M. de; Witte, L.P de

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While life expectancy is improving for persons with spinal muscular atrophy, new physical complaints may arise. To investigate this, we studied persons with a long duration and severe course (high functional limitations) of the disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study.

  13. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  14. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gatti, R.; Bingham, P.; Berry, G.T.; Sullivan, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  15. Ethnic Variations in Duodenal Villous Atrophy Consistent With Celiac Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigel, Anna; Turner, Kevin O; Makharia, Govind K; Green, Peter H R; Genta, Robert M; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Celiac disease is a common disorder with a worldwide distribution, although the prevalence among different ethnicities varies. We aimed to measure the prevalence of duodenal villous atrophy among patients of different ethnicities throughout the United States. We performed a cross-sectional study of all patients who had duodenal biopsies submitted to a national pathology laboratory between January 2, 2008 and April 30, 2015. The prevalence of villous atrophy was calculated for the following ethnicities by using a previously published algorithm based on patient names: North Indian, South Indian, East Asian, Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Jewish, and other Americans. Among all patients (n = 454,885), the median age was 53 years, and 66% were female. The overall prevalence of celiac disease was 1.74%. Compared with other Americans (n = 380,163; celiac disease prevalence, 1.83%), celiac disease prevalence was lower in patients of South Indian (n = 177, 0%; P = .08), East Asian (n = 4700, 0.15%; P ≤ .0001), and Hispanic (n = 31,491, 1.06%; P ≤ .0001) ethnicities. Celiac disease was more common in patients from the Punjab region (n = 617, 3.08%) than in patients from North India (n = 1195, 1.51%; P = .02). The prevalence of celiac disease among patients of Jewish (n = 17,806, 1.80%; P = .78) and Middle Eastern (n = 1903, 1.52%; P = .33) ethnicities was similar to that of other Americans. Among Jewish individuals (n = 17,806), the prevalence of celiac disease was 1.83% in Ashkenazi persons (n = 16,440) and 1.39% in Sephardic persons (n = 1366; P = .24). Among patients undergoing duodenal biopsy, individuals from the Punjab region of India constitute the ethnic group in the United States with the highest prevalence of villous atrophy consistent with celiac disease. Compared with other Americans, villous atrophy prevalence on duodenal biopsy is significantly lower among U.S. residents of South Indian, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. Copyright © 2016 AGA

  16. Characterization of disuse skeletal muscle atrophy and the efficacy of a novel muscle atrophy countermeasure during spaceflight and simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea Marie

    Humans are an integral part of the engineered systems that will enable return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars. Major advancements in countermeasure development addressing deleterious effects of microgravity and reduced gravity on the musculoskeletal system need to be made to ensure mission safety and success. The primary objectives of this dissertation are to advance the knowledge and understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy, and support development of novel countermeasures for disuse atrophy to enable healthy long-duration human spaceflight. Models simulating microgravity and actual spaceflight were used to examine the musculoskeletal adaptations during periods of unloading. Myostatin inhibition, a novel anti-atrophy drug therapy, and exercise were examined as a means of preventing and recovering from disuse atrophy. A combination of assays was used to quantify adaptation responses to unloading and examine efficacy of the countermeasures. Body and muscle masses were collected to analyze systemic changes due to treatments. Hindlimb strength and individual muscle forces were measured to demonstrate functional adaptations to treatments. Muscle fiber morphology and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression was examined to identify adaptations at the cellular level. Protein synthesis signals insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Akt, and p70s6 kinase; and the degradation signals Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 were examined to identify adaptations at the molecular level that ultimately lead to muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. A time course study provided a thorough characterization of the adaptation of skeletal muscle during unloading in C57BL/6 mice, and baseline data for comparison to and evaluation of subsequent studies. Time points defining the on-set and endpoints of disuse muscle atrophy were identified to enable characterization of rapid vs. long-term responses of skeletal muscle to hindlimb suspension. Unloading-induced atrophy primarily resulted from increased protein

  17. Measuring brain atrophy with a generalized formulation of the boundary shift integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Leung, Kelvin K; Cash, David M; Modat, Marc; Fox, Nick C; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Brain atrophy measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used as an imaging biomarker for disease diagnosis and tracking of pathologic progression in neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we present a generalized and extended formulation of the boundary shift integral (gBSI) using probabilistic segmentations to estimate anatomic changes between 2 time points. This method adaptively estimates a non-binary exclusive OR region of interest from probabilistic brain segmentations of the baseline and repeat scans to better localize and capture the brain atrophy. We evaluate the proposed method by comparing the sample size requirements for a hypothetical clinical trial of Alzheimer's disease to that needed for the current implementation of BSI as well as a fuzzy implementation of BSI. The gBSI method results in a modest but reduced sample size, providing increased sensitivity to disease changes through the use of the probabilistic exclusive OR region. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Calculation of brain atrophy using computed tomography and a new atrophy measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Yang, Andrew Il; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine if brain atrophy can be calculated by performing volumetric analysis on conventional computed tomography (CT) scans in spite of relatively low contrast for this modality. Materials & Method: CTs for 73 patients from the local Veteran Affairs database were selected. Exclusion criteria: AD, NPH, tumor, and alcohol abuse. Protocol: conventional clinical acquisition (Toshiba; helical, 120 kVp, X-ray tube current 300mA, slice thickness 3-5mm). Locally developed, automatic algorithm was used to segment intracranial cavity (ICC) using (a) white matter seed (b) constrained growth, limited by inner skull layer and (c) topological connectivity. ICC was further segmented into CSF and brain parenchyma using a threshold of 16 Hu. Results: Age distribution: 25-95yrs; (Mean 67+/-17.5yrs.). Significant correlation was found between age and CSF/ICC(r=0.695, pautomated software and conventional CT. Compared to MRI, CT is more widely available, cheaper, and less affected by head motion due to ~100 times shorter scan time. Work is in progress to improve the precision of the measurements, possibly leading to assessment of longitudinal changes within the patient.

  19. Standardized deceased donor kidney donation rates in the UK reveal marked regional variation and highlight the potential for increasing kidney donation: a prospective cohort study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Hudson, A. J.; Collett, D.; Murphy, P.; Watson, C. J. E.; Neuberger, J. M.; Bradley, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK has implemented a national strategy for organ donation that includes a centrally coordinated network of specialist nurses in organ donation embedded in all intensive care units and a national organ retrieval service for deceased organ donors. We aimed to determine whether despite the national approach to donation there is significant regional variation in deceased donor kidney donation rates. Methods The UK prospective audit of deaths in critical care was analysed for a cohort of patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with kidney donation. The logistic regression model was then used to produce risk-adjusted funnel plots describing the regional variation in donation rates. Results Of the 27 482 patients who died in a critical care setting, 1528 (5.5%) became kidney donors. Factors found to influence donation rates significantly were: type of critical care [e.g. neurointensive vs general intensive care: OR 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.75, P69 vs age 18–39 yr: OR 0.2, 0.15–0.25, Pdonation rates for the 20 UK kidney donor regions showed marked variation. The overall standardized donation rate ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. Four regions had donation rates of >2 standard deviations (sd) from the mean (two below and two above). Regional variation was most marked for donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney donors with 9 of the 20 regions demonstrating donation rates of >2 sd from the mean (5 below and 4 above). Conclusions The marked regional variation in kidney donation rates observed in this cohort after adjustment for factors strongly associated with donation rates suggests that there is considerable scope for further increasing kidney donation rates in the UK, particularly DCD. PMID:24335581

  20. Comparison of Technical and Economical Effect of Different Planters using Varied Seed Rates on Canola Yield in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important agricultural crops is rape seed oil as its special features can play an important role in the agricultural region. Due to the presence of more than 40% oil and 25% protein in the grain can play an important role in the supply of edible oil. After determining of various factors such as uniformity of planting depth, evenness between shrub, plant height and grain yield concluded that Nordsten drill along the seeding density of 75 cm for mechanized planting is acceptable yield. Afzali nia et al. (1999 in one study aimed to assess the performance of common grain drills in Iran in Zarghan area in Fars Province showed that differences between treatments in terms of seed distribution uniformity factor, plant population per unit area and yield product is not significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and select the most suitable types of canola planter and variable seed rate planting density and aims to increase the canola cultivated area by the highest yield. Materials and Methods Moghan Plain, located in the north areas of Ardebil province, is considered as an important areas of canola planting in Iran. This study was performed in the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province (Moghan (39°39´N; 48°88´E; 78 m a.s.l. in Northwest of Iran. To evaluate different planters with varied seed rates on canola yield. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with strip splits (varied seed rates 6, 8 and10 kg per hectare and different drills consist of B1: Barzagar Hamadani drill (conventional method B2: Amazon drill pals teeth harrow, B3: Gaspardo drill pals teeth harrow and B4: Agromaster drill and four replications. To investigatethe different treatments in the experiment, various parameters such as percent germination, seeding uniformity of width and depth intervals, plant establishment, effective field capacity, fuel consumption rate andgrain yield were measured

  1. Renal Atrophy Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy of Abdominal Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Gary Y.; May, Kilian Salerno; Iyer, Renuka V.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela M.A.; Wilding, Gregory E.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Yendamuri, Saikrishna S.; Gibbs, John F.; Fakih, Marwan; Thomas, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors predictive of renal atrophy after chemoradiotherapy of gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods and Materials: Patients who received chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy (RT) between 2002 and 2008 were identified for this study evaluating change in kidney size and function after RT. Imaging and biochemical data were obtained before and after RT in 6-month intervals. Kidney size was defined by craniocaudal measurement on CT images. The primarily irradiated kidney (PK) was defined as the kidney that received the greater mean kidney dose. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to predict risk for renal atrophy. Results: Of 130 patients, median age was 64 years, and 51.5% were male. Most primary disease sites were pancreas and periampullary tumors (77.7%). Median follow-up was 9.4 months. Creatinine clearance declined 20.89%, and size of the PK decreased 4.67% 1 year after completion of chemoradiation. Compensatory hypertrophy of the non-PK was not seen. Percentage volumes of the PK receiving ≥10 Gy (V 10 ), 15 Gy (V 15 ), and 20 Gy (V 20 ) were significantly associated with renal atrophy 1 year after RT (p = 0.0030, 0.0029, and 0.0028, respectively). Areas under the ROC curves for V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 to predict >5% decrease in PK size were 0.760, 0.760, and 0.762, respectively. Conclusions: Significant detriments in PK size and renal function were seen after abdominal RT. The V 10 , V 15 , and V 20 were predictive of risk for PK atrophy 1 year after RT. Analyses suggest the association of lower-dose renal irradiation with subsequent development of renal atrophy.

  2. Clinical and MRI correlation in multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, Kiyoshi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we studied 11 patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA): 5 olivo-pontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), 2 Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and 4 striatonigral degeneration (SND). The diagnoses of OPCA, SDS and SND were clinically made. The MR images were performed on 1.5 tesla MRI unit (Siemens Asahi Medical, Magnetom H15), using a T[sub 2]-weighted spin echo (SE) sequence (TR: 2000-3000 ms, TE: 80-90 ms), a T[sub 1]-weighted SE sequence (TR: 550, TE: 15), and a proton density-weighted (PD) SE sequence (TR: 2000-3000, TE: 12-22). In the patients with OPCA, MRI revealed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers more marked than in the patients with SDS and SND. T[sub 2]-weighted images showed low intensity in posterolateral putamina in one OPCA patient and all of SDS and SND patients. PD images demonstrated the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in three SND. The degree of cerebellar ataxia was not well correlated with cerebellar and brainstem atrophy and degeneration of pontine transverse fibers. There was a positive correlation between the atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem and the duration of cerebellar ataxia. In most of the patients with Parkinsonism, MRI demonstrated abnormal low signals in putamina on T[sub 2]-weighted images. There were positive correlations between the abnormal low signals putamina and the duration and severity of Parkinsonism. Though abnormal low signals in lateral putamina may be seen in normal aging and other disorders on T[sub 2]-weighted images, it is useful to evaluate Parkinsonism in MSA. We believe that the abnormal slit-like high signals in posterolateral putamina in MSA may suggest loss of neurons and gliosis. (author).

  3. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B

    2011-01-01

    ) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive......The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS...

  4. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS......) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive...

  5. Optometry-based general population survey of pupil ruff atrophy and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Ghee S; Stevenson, Peter J; Sargent, Geoff; Grimmer, Peter; Corbett, Patricia; Jourdain, Erin; Wells, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and describe the pupil ruff changes and relationship to intraocular pressure, pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma status in an optometric population in New Zealand. Prospective cross-sectional survey of an optometric population. Six hundred and twenty subjects over 50 years old routinely attending the participating optometry practices. Exclusion criteria included previous intraocular surgery, ophthalmic laser, uveitis, angle closure and secondary glaucoma. Multicentre study involving 11 optometry practices in the Wellington region, New Zealand. The pupillary ruff and associated gonioscopy findings of study participants were graded based on the previously published Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading system. Parameters evaluated include pupillary ruff absence and abnormality, pseudoexfoliation material and trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Correlations between intereye Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading differences and inter-eye intraocular pressure and cup:disc ratio differences. Six hundred and twenty subjects were included, with a mean age of 62.2 ± 9.1 years and mean intraocular pressure of 14.8 ± 3.4 mmHg. Four hundred and fourteen (66.8%) had bilateral pupil ruff changes and 12 (1.5%) had pseudoexfoliation. Inter-eye intraocular pressure asymmetry was significantly correlated with amount of missing pupillary ruff (r = 0.111; P = 0.022) and trabecular meshwork pigmentation (r = 0.147; P = 0.002). Inter-eye cup:disc ratio asymmetry was not correlated with any of the Pupil Ruff Atrophy grading parameters. Asymmetry of pupillary ruff absence and trabecular meshwork pigmentation was correlated with intraocular pressure asymmetry (but not with cup:disc ratio asymmetry) in a general optometric population setting in New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Quantitative analysis of structural variations in corpus callosum in adults with multiple system atrophy (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debanjali; Sinha, Neelam; Saini, Jitender

    2017-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, non-curable, progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects nervous system and movement, poses a considerable diagnostic challenge to medical researchers. Corpus callosum (CC) being the largest white matter structure in brain, enabling inter-hemispheric communication, quantification of callosal atrophy may provide vital information at the earliest possible stages. The main objective is to identify the differences in CC structure for this disease, based on quantitative analysis on the pattern of callosal atrophy. We report results of quantification of structural changes in regional anatomical thickness, area and length of CC between patient-groups with MSA with respect to healthy controls. The method utilizes isolating and parcellating the mid-sagittal CC into 100 segments along the length - measuring the width of each segment. It also measures areas within geometrically defined five callosal compartments of the well-known Witelson, and Hofer-Frahma schemes. For quantification, statistical tests are performed on these different callosal measurements. From the statistical analysis, it is concluded that compared to healthy controls, width is reduced drastically throughout CC for MSA group and as well as changes in area and length are also significant for MSA. The study is further extended to check if any significant difference in thickness is found between the two variations of MSA, Parkinsonian MSA and Cerebellar MSA group, using the same methodology. However area and length of this two sub-MSA group, no substantial difference is obtained. The study is performed on twenty subjects for each control and MSA group, who had T1-weighted MRI.

  7. Semantic word category processing in semantic dementia and posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebani, Zubaida; Patterson, Karalyn; Nestor, Peter J; Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Dawson, Kate; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2017-08-01

    There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions. Cohorts with (i) Semantic Dementia (SD), who have anterior temporal-lobe atrophy, and (ii) Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA), who have predominantly parieto-occipital atrophy, performed a lexical decision test on words from five different lexico-semantic categories: colour (e.g., yellow), form (oval), number (seven), spatial prepositions (under) and function words (also). Sets of pseudo-word foils matched the target words in length and bi-/tri-gram frequency. Word-frequency was matched between the two visual word categories (colour and form) and across the three other categories (number, prepositions, and function words). Age-matched healthy individuals served as controls. Although broad word processing deficits were apparent in both patient groups, the deficit was strongest for colour words in SD and for spatial prepositions in PCA. The patterns of performance on the lexical decision task demonstrate (a) general lexicosemantic processing deficits in both groups, though more prominent in SD than in PCA, and (b) differential involvement of anterior-temporal and posterior-parietal cortex in the processing of specific semantic categories of words. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Xujie [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Xiao-Ling, E-mail: lxl@mail.eye.ac.cn [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Guan, Min-Xin, E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Genetics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012 (China); Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

  9. A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan; Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui; Dong, Xujie; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Guan, Min-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. ► We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. ► We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. ► Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

  10. Factors Influencing the Rating of Regional Economic Performance or Reasons why Prague has Become the 6th Best Economically Performing Region of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Chlad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional Gross Domestic Product per capita is a key indicator for the distribution of financial resources within the Structural Funds in the EU. With regard to this fact, an increasing attention is also paid to this indicator in the Czech Republic (especially after its accession to the EU. Regional GDP per capita is often incorrectlypresented as the indicator of economic well-being of the population residing in the region. Some factors with significant impact on the value of regional GDP per capita and/or the ranking of regions in this international comparison are neglected. These factors include, for example, commuting to work, NUTS classification and/ or units of measure (PPS versus euro etc. The analysis shows the influence of these factors.

  11. [Measurement of regional cerebral metabolism rate of glucose in patients with Alzheimer's disease in different levels of severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-fu; Cao, Qiu-yun; Xue, Hai-bo; Liu, Yong-chang; Zuo, Chuan-tao; Jiang, Kai-da; Zhang, Ming-yuan

    2005-11-09

    To measure the changes of regional cerebral metabolism rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and explore their value to diagnosis of AD. 10 patients with AD who met the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and 10 normal controls (NC) were assessed with (18)F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET). The two groups were matched in age, gender and education. The mean total scores of the mini-mental status examination (MMSE) were 16.5 +/- 6.1 for AD and 28.7 +/- 1.6 for NC. The mean total memory quotient of Wechsler Memory Scales (MQ) were 32.3 +/- 19.6 for AD and 93.1 +/- 9.0 for NC. Comparing to NC, the AD groups showed statistically significant decline of rCMRglc in frontal lobe, temporal lobe and the hippocampal formation with decreased rates ranged from 3.3% to 28.4% (P upper and middle frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus, orbital gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus, in which areas the metabolism decreased over 20% compared to NC. The hypo-metabolism was correlated to the severity of dementia. Discriminant analysis demonstrated that the variables of right inferior temporal gyrus, left upper temporal gyrus, left hippocampus and right insular lobe were entered into the discriminant functions and the total discriminant accuracy reached 100%. (18)F-FDG PET is a very sensitive tool in measurement of the changes of rCMRglc in patients with AD. The findings show a frontal-temporal type of metabolism in AD patients and suggest that hypo-metabolism in hippocampal formation and temporal lobe is helpful in early detection of AD.

  12. Contribution of brain atrophy on CT and aging to intelligence level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    Decrased intellectual functions due to senility have been much discussed in connection with aging or brain atophy alternatively. But this change should be analysed under multifactorial basis. Furthermore, variations between individuals should be taken into account in dealing with an advanced age group. In these regards, the author performed multivariate analysis on intellectual changes, aging and brain arophy demonstrated on brain CT. Clonological study was also performed to reveal the individual variations. The objects were consisted of 72 people, including the patients of more than 65 years of age who were hospitalized to a geriatrics hospital because of senile dementia, and, as a control group residents in a home for the aged nearby the hospital. Average age was 75.4 years old. Intellectual level was measured through Hasegawa's dementia rating scale. Ventricular enlargement was measured on brain CT to determin