WorldWideScience

Sample records for regional air pollution

  1. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  2. Regional air pollution at a turning point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grennfelt, Peringe; Hov, Oystein

    2005-02-01

    The control of transboundary air pollution in Europe has been successful. Emissions of many key pollutants are decreasing and there are signs of improvements in damaged ecosystems. The strategies under development within the CAFE programme under the European Commission and the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), aim to take regional air pollution control a large step further, in particular with respect to small particles. In this paper we highlight the new strategies but look primarily at socioeconomic trends and climate change feedbacks that may have a significant influence on the outcome of the strategies and which so far have not been considered. In particular, we point out the influence on air quality of increased summer temperatures in Europe and of increasing emissions including international shipping, outside of Europe. Taken together the further emissions reductions in Europe and the increasing background pollution, slowly cause a greying of the Northern Hemisphere troposphere rather than the traditional picture of dominant emissions in Europe and North America ('black') with much lower emission intensities elsewhere ('white'). A hemispheric approach to further combat air pollution will become necessary in Europe and elsewhere.

  3. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  4. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Z.; Oztopal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  5. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  6. Air pollution and forest ecosystems: a regional to global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Andersen, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. Some of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affect ecological systems in general and forests in particular. The greatest concern lies with chronic levels of tropospheric ozone, cumulative deposition of hydrogen ion, nitrogen, and sulfur via wet and dry processes, a select number of airborne chemicals (e.g., mercury) that tend to bio accumulate in continental landscapes, and ultraviolet—B radiation through the loss of stratospheric ozone. Because the atmospheric residence time of most pollutants of concern to ecologists is measured on time frames extending from a few weeks to decades, pollutant distribution and effects are regional to global in dimension. We present evidence that ambient levels of some air pollutants in North America are affecting managed and unmanaged forests, and that the two most important pollutants are tropospheric ozone and chronic nitrogen loading. Further evidence indicates that while concentrations of some air pollutants have been declining over the last decade in North America, others are expected to remain unchanged or increase, including tropospheric ozone. We conclude that air pollution is affecting many North American forests and some remote forests around the globe. In the immediate future, the concern for air pollution effects on forests and associated natural resources will broaden to include interactions with changes in climate and pollution effects in the world's developing countries. There has been a rapid evolution in air pollution studies in ecology, shifting away from the agricultural paradigm of single—factor experimentation toward new methodologies that are ecologically and multidisciplinarily based. This shift has been promoted by the recognition that air pollution is one of several

  7. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  9. Regional Air Pollutions in Three Different Regions of Asia From a Transcontinental Transport Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Asia is known as one of the regions with the fastest rate of growing in industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the rapid increases of large-scale air pollution in Asia emerge as a serious concern at both domestic and international levels. Apart from the problems of air quality degradation, emission control, environmental risk, and health effect in a domestic level, evidences from scientific studies indicate that by the long-range transport, Asian air pollution is becoming a global problem. Observations and model studies confirm that air pollution from Asia could be transported to North America or farther. In this work, we investigate the Asian air pollutions, in particular ozone and some other atmospheric components such as carbon monoxide and black carbon, from the ground- based observations in the three different regions, namely 1) background region of Siberia and central Asia, 2) highly anthropogenic region in eastern China, and 3) the rim region of the Asia-Pacific. In a transcontinental transport perspective, these regions are regarded as the inflow region, source region, and outflow region of Asia, respectively. From the results, it is found that the influences from large-scale emission in East Asia are observed clearly in the source region, and to the significant extent in the outflow region. For the inflow region of Asia, our data in Siberia and Kyrgyzstan indicate that air masses in this region are mostly intact from large-scale anthropogenic emission, and remain much of the global background atmospheric pollution characteristic. When the air masses are transported to source region, the air pollutants level increased sharply and frequent episodes of extremely high pollutions have been observed. Our results show good correlation between the residence time of air masses over the source region in eastern China and the observed levels of air pollutants verifying the strong enhancements by anthropogenic emissions from industrialization and

  10. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  11. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  12. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Steyn, Douw G.

    2011-01-01

    formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate

  13. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar, M. R.; Gamez, P.; Olid, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O{sub 3} exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO{sub 2} in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  14. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, M.R.; Gamez, P.; Olid, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O3 exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO2 in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  15. Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations in a highly polluted Italian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugno, Michele; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Catelan, Dolores; Grisotto, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale; Baccini, Michela

    2016-05-01

    The Lombardy region in northern Italy ranks among the most air polluted areas of Europe. Previous studies showed air pollution short-term effects on all-cause mortality. We examine here the effects of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on deaths and hospitalizations from specific causes, including cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. We considered air pollution, mortality and hospitalization data for a non-opportunistic sample of 18 highly polluted and most densely populated areas of the region in the years 2003-2006. We obtained area-specific effect estimates for PM10 and NO2 from a Poisson regression model on the daily number of total deaths or cause-specific hospitalizations and then combined them in a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis. For cause-specific mortality, we applied a case-crossover analysis. Age- and season-specific analyses were also performed. Effect estimates were expressed as percent variation in mortality or hospitalizations associated with a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM10 or NO2 concentration. Natural mortality was positively associated with both pollutants (0.30%, 90% Credibility Interval [CrI]: -0.31; 0.78 for PM10; 0.70%, 90%CrI: 0.10; 1.27 for NO2). Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher percent variation in association with NO2 (1.12%, 90% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.14; 2.11), while the percent variation for respiratory mortality was highest in association with PM10 (1.64%, 90%CI: 0.35; 2.93). The effect of both pollutants was more evident in the summer season. Air pollution was also associated to hospitalizations, the highest variations being 0.77% (90%CrI: 0.22; 1.43) for PM10 and respiratory diseases, and 1.70% (90%CrI: 0.39; 2.84) for NO2 and cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of PM10 on respiratory hospital admissions appeared to increase with age. For both pollutants, effects on cerebrovascular hospitalizations were more evident in subjects aged less than

  16. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  17. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  18. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  19. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  20. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  1. Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenka, Kalicáková; Pavel, Danihelka; Vladimír, Mícka; Karel, Lach

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50μg.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm −560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm – 35μm in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

  2. Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.; Warinner, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutant emission values--the damage value method and the control cost method--and review 15 recent studies in which these methods were employed to estimate emission values. The reviewed studies derived emission values for only a limited number of areas; emission value estimates are needed for other US regions. Using the emission values estimated in the reviewed studies, they establish regression relationships between emission values, air pollutant concentrations, and total population exposed, and apply the established relationships to 17 US metropolitan areas to estimate damage-based and control-cost-based emission values for reactive organic gases, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter measuring less than 10 microns, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide in these areas. Their estimates show significant variations in emission values across the 17 regions.

  3. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  4. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helf, M.; Cassadou, S.

    2005-01-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  5. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  6. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10 6 compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases. Copyright

  7. Air pollution reduction and control in south asia need for a regional agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Shaheen, N.; Sherazi, A.; Shaheen, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing urbanization and economic growth, air pollution is becoming an urgent concern in South Asia. The objective of this study is to look into and discuss the socioeconomic situation of South Asia, the existing situation of air pollution in the countries of the region, resulting health impacts of air pollution on the population and the responses, if any, of national governments to combat this problem. With the increase in industrial activity and exponential growth in number of vehicles and population, the contribution of each South Asian country to the regional air pollution will increase over time. As evident from the review of the available country data, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been rising steadily over past few decades. The air pollutants can be transported across state and national boundaries, therefore, pollutants produced by one country can, as well, have adverse impacts on the environment and public health of neighboring countries. It has been reported by the country national health authorities that air pollution has pushed respiratory diseases up in the ranks as the leading cause of hospitalization. To minimize the socio-economic and health impacts, resulting from air pollution, South Asian states have developed environmental legal and regulatory frameworks in their respective countries. However, the implementation of country national environmental action plan has been limited due to lack of financial resources and technical know-how. Recommendations have been made for policy actions, including a legally binding agreement for South Asia (LBA-SA), for strengthening the framework for air pollution reduction at regional and national levels in South Asia. (author)

  8. Regional model of EKC for air pollution: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soonae; Lee, Youngmi

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a relationship between economic development and air pollution at the regional level, and further suggest energy policies for climate change mitigation. The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis analyzing annual panel data of 16 metropolitan regions in Korea over a 16-year time period. The analysis results show that there is no one-dominant shape of EKC for SO 2 and NO 2 ; each region has its own EKC. That is, although we find the potential existence of U-shaped and N-shaped curves, the region-specific coefficients are enormously heterogeneous across regions. For CO, on the other hand, the random coefficient model shows that there is a dominant U-shaped curve across regions. In addition, energy consumption appears to be the most significant variable in explaining air pollution. Based on these results, we assert that environmental policy should consider the different characteristics of each region and type of pollutant. - Highlights: → Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypotheses are tested for air pollution in Korea. → A relationship of economic growth and pollution is analyzed at the regional level. → No-dominant EKC is found for SO 2 and NO 2 , but a dominant U-shaped curve for CO. → Environmental Policy should consider different features of each pollutant and region.

  9. Regional model of EKC for air pollution: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soonae, E-mail: psoonae@snu.ac.kr [Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmi, E-mail: youngmil@usc.edu [School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This study aims to investigate a relationship between economic development and air pollution at the regional level, and further suggest energy policies for climate change mitigation. The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis analyzing annual panel data of 16 metropolitan regions in Korea over a 16-year time period. The analysis results show that there is no one-dominant shape of EKC for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}; each region has its own EKC. That is, although we find the potential existence of U-shaped and N-shaped curves, the region-specific coefficients are enormously heterogeneous across regions. For CO, on the other hand, the random coefficient model shows that there is a dominant U-shaped curve across regions. In addition, energy consumption appears to be the most significant variable in explaining air pollution. Based on these results, we assert that environmental policy should consider the different characteristics of each region and type of pollutant. - Highlights: > Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypotheses are tested for air pollution in Korea. > A relationship of economic growth and pollution is analyzed at the regional level. > No-dominant EKC is found for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, but a dominant U-shaped curve for CO. > Environmental Policy should consider different features of each pollutant and region.

  10. Identification of Regional Air Pollution Characteristic and the Correlation with Public Health in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey H. Hsieh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to classify regions with different air pollution characteristics into groups in Taiwan, and further to evaluate and compare the air quality of various groups. A selected multivariate analysis technique, cluster analysis, is applied to the pollution monitoring dataset which including PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3. The obtained results have proved that the regions with similar air pollution characteristic can be appropriately grouped by applying cluster analysis. All 22 regions are classified into six groups, and the pollution pattern for each group is characterized as: Group 1 (high SO2/NO2; low PM10, Group 2 (high PM10, Group 3 (high SO2/PM10, Group 4 (low SO2/NO2/CO; high O3, Group 5 (low CO/NO2; high O3 and Group 6 (low PM10/SO2/NO2/O3/CO. Results from air quality evaluation indicate that the regions in group 6 (Ilan, Hualien and Taitung have the best air quality while the regions in group 3 (Kaohsiung and Kaohsiung City have the worst air quality in Taiwan. The results from correlation analysis reveal that incidence of the respiratory system disease is significantly positively correlated with pollution of NO2 and CO at 99% confidence level.

  11. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  12. Quantifying regional consumption-based health impacts attributable to ambient air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxia; Qu, Shen; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Ge; Zhang, Yanxu; Lu, Xi; Sabel, Clive E; Wang, Haikun

    2018-03-01

    Serious air pollution has caused about one million premature deaths per year in China recently. Besides cross-border atmospheric transport of air pollution, trade also relocates pollution and related health impacts across China as a result of the spatial separation between consumption and production. This study proposes an approach for calculating the health impacts of emissions due to a region's consumption based on a multidisciplinary methodology coupling economic, atmospheric, and epidemiological models. These analyses were performed for China's Beijing and Hebei provinces. It was found that these provinces' consumption-based premature deaths attributable to ambient PM 2.5 were respectively 22,500 and 49,700, which were 23% higher and 37% lower than the numbers solely within their boundaries in 2007. The difference between the effects of trade and trade-related emissions on premature deaths attributable to air pollution in a region has also been clarified. The results illustrate the large and broad impact of domestic trade on regional air quality and the need for comprehensive consideration of supply chains in designing policy to mitigate the negative health impacts of air pollution across China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias, Volker, E-mail: volker.matthias@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bewersdorff, Ines [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Aulinger, Armin, E-mail: armin.aulinger@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Quante, Markus, E-mail: markus.quante@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased. - Ship emissions lead to significantly enhanced air pollution by secondary inorganic aerosols in North Sea coastal areas.

  14. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  15. Regional anomalies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; comparison with acid air pollution particulate characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winchester, J W

    1989-01-01

    Mortality rates due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for males and females in standard metropolitan statistical areas are highest in two broad regions of the U.S. One is the southeast, with age-adjusted rates high in Georgia and north Florida but decreasing toward south Florida; the other is the western plains, with rates high in Colorado and north Texas but decreasing toward south Texas. Rates are generally low in the northeast, upper midwest, and far west, as well as in the largest cities of these regions. These geographic patterns suggest that atmospheric environmental conditions may contribute to the risk of COPD. Based on measured aerosol characteristics and atmospheric chemical reasoning, it is argued that ambient air in the high COPD regions may be especially irritating to the respiratory tract because of fine particles that contain the reaction products of acid air pollutants. In the southeast, sulfuric acid aerosol concentrations are high, apparently because of a sunny warm humid climate that favors rapid oxidation of sulfur dioxide as well as the region's proximity to large primary air pollution sources further north. Particulate sulfur is also associated with soil mineral constituents. In the western plains, concentrations of alkaline dust are high because of soil erosion during windy dry conditions. Acid air pollutants can be scavenged to mineral particle surfaces and form chemical reaction products that may include solubilized mineral aluminum. These may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract so as to contribute to COPD mortality risk.

  16. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  17. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first results of the measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and outside Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. The official air pollution index near the Olympic Stadium and the data from our nearby site revealed an obvious association between air quality and meteorology and different responses of secondary and primary pollutants to the control measures. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20–45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions. A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed >34–88% to the peak ozone concentrations at the urban site in Beijing. Regional sources also contributed significantly to the CO concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv, indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate, carbon monoxide (CO, reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes sharply decreased (by 8–64% in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of

  18. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  19. Gaseous and particulate urban air pollution in the region of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinović-Milićević Slavica B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on interpretations of the temporal variations and variations between urban locations of sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and black smoke (BS during the period 2001-2008 in the Vojvodina Region of Serbia (VR_S. In this study we examined variations of pollutants concentrations during household heating and non-heating seasons and the effect of household heating, traffic, rainfall and wind speed on the air pollution levels of SO2, NO2 and BS in eight locations. The analyses showed that the annual limit values of these pollutants as recommended by the Serbian regulations and recommendations were not exceeded, unlike the daily limits. Higher SO2 concentrations during household heating season in four locations indicate the substantial impact of house­hold heating on air quality. Positive effects of the use of environmentally cleaner fuels were observed in only two locations. The growing impact of traffic on air pollution is shown by the increasing trend of NO2 during both seasons. Calm wind conditions and an absence of rainfall were found to have incremental effects on pollution levels in most locations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation i br. III 43002: Biosensing Technolo­gies and Global System for Continuous Research and Integrated Management

  20. Mapping Social Vulnerability to Air Pollution: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many frequent and severe air pollution incidents have emerged across the vast parts of China recently. The identification of factors and mapping social vulnerability has become extremely necessary for environmental management and sustainable development. However, studies associating social vulnerability with air pollution remain sparse. With reference to research achievements of social vulnerability, this study made a new trial regarding social vulnerability assessment to air pollution. With the projection pursuit cluster (PPC model, the top three factors contributing to social vulnerability index (SVI were discovered and SVI and SVI dimensions (susceptibility, exposure, and adaptability were evaluated. Results revealed that adaptability values are higher than susceptibility and exposure values. SVI is in a poor condition as, for the whole region, most values belong to the high-medium level. High SVI values mainly appear in the northern and the southern ends of study area. SVI in Shanghai is lower than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. On the scale of prefecture-level city, it can be found that the low-value centers of SVI always occurred in urban core areas. The spatial variation and inequality in social vulnerability provide policy-makers a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and sustainable management.

  1. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  3. Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone (O3 has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. We estimate the premature mortality rates and the years of human life lost (YLL caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and O3 in 2005 for epidemiological regions defined by the World Health Organization (WHO. This is based upon high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in greater detail compared to previous work. Results indicate that 69% of the global population is exposed to an annual mean anthropogenic PM2.5 concentration of >10 μg m−3 (WHO guideline and 33% to > 25 μg m−3 (EU directive. We applied an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global respiratory mortality of about 773 thousand/year (YLL ≈ 5.2 million/year, 186 thousand/year by lung cancer (YLL ≈ 1.7 million/year and 2.0 million/year by cardiovascular disease (YLL ≈ 14.3 million/year. The global mean per capita mortality caused by air pollution is about 0.1% yr−1. The highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located.

  4. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Yu, Jie; Holdaway, Jennifer; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations. PMID:29425189

  5. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Yu, Jie; Nie, Chengjing; Holdaway, Jennifer; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Krafft, Thomas

    2018-02-09

    Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations.

  6. Taking Action on Air Pollution Control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH Region: Progress, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities are affected by heavy air pollution. In order to explore progress, remaining challenges, and sustainability of air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region after 2013, a mixed method analysis was undertaken. The quantitative analysis comprised an overview of air quality management in the BTH region. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders from various levels of government and research institutions who played substantial roles either in decision-making or in research and advising on air pollution control in the BTH region. The results indicated that with the stringent air pollution control policies, the air quality in BTH meets the targets of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, improvements vary across the region and for different pollutants. Although implementation has been decisive and was at least in parts effectively enforced, significant challenges remained with regard to industrial and traffic emission control, and national air quality limits continued to be significantly exceeded and competing development interests remained mainly unsolved. There were also concerns about the sustainability of the current air pollution control measures especially for industries due to the top-down enforcement, and the associated large burden of social cost including unemployment and social inequity resulting industrial restructuring. Better mechanisms for ensuring cross-sectoral coordination and for improved central-local government communication were suggested. Further suggestions were provided to improve the conceptual design and effective implementation of respective air pollution control strategies in BTH. Our study highlights some of the major hurdles that need to be addressed to succeed with a comprehensive air pollution control management for the Chinese mega-urban agglomerations.

  7. Climatological variability in modeling of long-term regional transport and deposition of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In a growing number of emission policy analyses, regulatory proceedings, and cost/benefit assessments, numerical models of long-range transport and deposition of air pollutants have been exercised to estimate source-receptor (S-R) relationships--for the particular meteorological conditions input to the model. The representativeness of the meteorological conditions, or the variability of the model estimates with climatological input from different years or corresponding seasons from different years, is seldom evaluated. Here, two full years (1980 and 1981) of meteorological data, as well as data from January and July of 1978, are used in the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model (Shannon, 1981), one of the eight Memorandum of Intent (MOI) models, to estimate deposition for the S-R matrix combination of eleven source regions and nine receptors used in the MOI reports. (S-R matrices of dimensions 40 by 9 were also examined in the MOI reports.) Improvements in the ASTRAP model and in the emission inventory since the earlier work require recalculation of the two-month 1978 simulation in order for the comparison to isolate the effect of meteorological variability. The source regions are listed, and the receptor regions are provide. For completeness, an additional source region, the western states and provinces, has been added, as well as a total for the 48 contiguous states and 10 provinces. 4 references, 9 tables

  8. Observation of regional air pollutant transport between the megacity Beijing and the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have strong interactions with the surrounding regions through transport of air pollutants. It has been frequently addressed that the air quality of Beijing is influenced by the influx of air pollutants from the North China Plain (NCP. Estimations of air pollutant cross-boundary transport between Beijing and the NCP are important for air quality management. However, evaluation of cross-boundary transport using long-term observations is very limited. Using the observational results of the gaseous pollutants SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and CO from August 2006 to October 2008 at the Yufa site, a cross-boundary site between the megacity Beijing and the NCP, together with meteorological parameters, we explored a method for evaluating the transport flux intensities at Yufa, as part of the “Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006–2008” (CAREBeijing 2006–2008. The hourly mean ± SD (median concentration of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 15 ± 16 (9 ppb, 12 ± 25 (3 ppb, 24 ± 19 (20 ppb, 36 ± 39 (23 ppb, 28 ± 27 (21 ppb, 52 ± 24 (45 ppb, and 1.6 ± 1.4 (1.2 ppm during the observation period, respectively. The bivariate polar plots showed the dependence of pollutant concentrations on both wind speed and wind direction, and thus inferred their dominant transport directions. Surface flux intensity calculations further demonstrated the regional transport influence of Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. The net surface transport flux intensity (mean ± SD of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 6.2 ± 89.5, −4.3 ± 29.5, −0.6 ± 72.3, −4.9 ± 93.0, 14.7 ± 187.8, 14.8 ± 234.9, and 70 ± 2830 µg s−1 m−2 during the observation period, respectively. For SO2, CO, O3, and Ox the surface flux intensities from the NCP to Yufa surpassed those from Beijing to Yufa in all seasons except winter, with the strongest net fluxes largely

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION MAPS ON KEY PLOT OF KRASNOYARSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bozhilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggested the construction of a comprehensive air pollution map as an example of the key area of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. To create a map developed an original technique for limiting emissions spread zones in the atmosphere from industrial plants near the cities on the basis of climatic data. The proposed method is based on taking into account the repeatability wind speed and direction and length of time of pollutants in the atmosphere. The used methods of cartographic representation – quantitative background (emissions per unit area within the zones of the potential spread of contaminants, localized diagrams (emissions and air pollution index for the city, contour lines (the value of air pollution potential. Using an integrated map allows you to specify the impact of the transfer of pollutants in the formation of the level of pollution in the city, together with the volumes and values of emissions of air pollution potential.

  10. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  11. Development of a New Operational Air Pollution Forecast System on Regional and Urban Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado.......Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado....

  12. Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC

  13. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  14. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  15. Measurements of Background and Polluted Air in Rural Regions of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, L.; Gasore, J.; Prinn, R. G.; Potter, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Rwanda, a mountainous nation in Equatorial East Africa, is one of the least-urbanized nations in Africa. The majority of the population are subsistence farmers, and major sources of air pollution (e.g., particulates, greenhouse gases) in Rwanda include agricultural burning and cookstoves in rural areas, and older diesel vehicles and mototaxis in cities. Currently, initiatives to supply efficient cookstoves, development of cleaner-burning fuel from recycled agricultural waste, and new regulations on vehicle emissions and importation are underway. These initiatives seek to help Rwanda grow in the greenest way possible, to mitigate negative health and climate effects of development; however, little ambient data on air quality is available in different regions of Rwanda for a baseline study before and benefits study after these initiatives. The Rwanda Climate Observatory, located on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (-1.5833°, 29.5667°), a 2.5 km peak, has recently begun measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentration and O3 and CO gas concentrations. BC measurements were performed with a 7-wavelength Magee Scientific aethalometer and the aethalometer model was used to calculate the influence of fossil fuel and biomass burning sources on BC concentrations. CO and O3 measurements were used in conjunction with BC aerosol data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories were also used to help discriminate between periods of heavy burning and periods of regional influence from traffic and general cookfire emissions. Since Mt. Mugogo is in a rural area, this station captures a snapshot of regional background pollution away from high anthropogenic influence. The nearby households and fields also allow case studies of household and crop burning during localized events and help quanitfy potential daily exposure to particulates and climate-forcing emissions in remote areas of this developing country. We will present time series of the BC, O3, CO and insolation measurements at Mt. Mugogo

  16. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  17. Regional climate, local climate and ozone air pollution in Tours and Orleans cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelot, M.

    2006-10-01

    The importance of the relations between climate and the air pollution justifies the interest related to the role of the urban heat island of heat with respect to the night persistence of ozone in urban environment. When the days are favourable with important ozone concentrations, the agglomerations of the area observe a dynamics day laborer of ozone different from that observed in rural environment. The study is undertaken on the towns of Turns and Orleans where the observations of Lig'Air revealed a night persistence of ozone whereas the concentrations drop more quickly in periphery. This phenomenon is remarkable during the little broken down anticyclonic days. The region region Centre is a ground of study privileged for ozone because of its situation in the south-west of the Island of France rich in precursors of ozone. When flow is of continental origin, the Centre area is found then under the influence of the Paris area. The investigation of a study of the air pollution must take into account the notes of the regional climate and local climate. Several preliminary studies must intervene to answer our principal problems. First of all a descriptive study of the regional climate is carried out with the participation of Meteo-France. The current absence of climatic atlas as well as the many disparities of the climate related to extended from the territory partly justify the interest of our study. The regional approach of the climate is also essential for the continuation of work on a finer scale on the agglomerations of Turns and Orleans in order to detect the urban heat island of heat there. Collaboration with Meteo-France and Lig'Air made it possible to establish a satisfying network of measurement making it possible to obtain notable thermal differences between the downtown area and the surrounding rural environment. The correlation between meteorology and the proven air pollution leads us to establish the climatology of ozone. Many are the studies having

  18. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Ambient air and (2) Emission. Ambient air part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Emission and air pollution source inventory, Greenhouse gas emissions

  19. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  20. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2006-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  1. Air pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  2. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  3. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  4. Cost of near-roadway and regional air pollution-attributable childhood asthma in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Sylvia; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John; Pastor, Manuel; McConnell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that near-roadway air pollution (NRP) exposure causes childhood asthma. Associated costs are not well documented. Objective We estimated the cost of childhood asthma attributable to residential NRP exposure and regional ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Los Angeles County. We developed a novel approach to apportion the costs between these exposures under different pollution scenarios. Methods We integrated results from a study of willingness to pay to reduce the burden of asthma with studies of health care utilization and charges to estimate the costs of an asthma case and exacerbation. We applied those costs to the number of asthma cases and exacerbations due to regional pollution in 2007 and to hypothetical scenarios of a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 20% reduction or increase in the proportion of the total population living within 75m of a major roadway. Results Cost of air pollution-related asthma in Los Angeles County in 2007 was $441 million for O3 and $202 million for NO2 in 2010 dollars. Cost of routine care (care in absence of exacerbation) accounted for 18% of the combined NRP and O3 cost and 39% of the combined NRP and NO2 cost—costs not recognized in previous analyses. NRP-attributable asthma accounted for 43% (O3) to 51% (NO2) of the total annual cost of exacerbations and routine care associated with pollution. Hypothetical scenarios showed that costs from increased NRP exposure may offset savings from reduced regional pollution. Conclusions Our model disaggregates the costs of regional pollution and NRP exposure and illustrates how they might vary under alternative exposure scenarios. The cost of air pollution is a substantial burden on families and an economic loss for society. PMID:25439228

  5. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  6. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  7. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  8. Effect of air pollution on the epiphytic flora of conifers in the Stockholm region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, H

    1968-01-01

    Epiphytic flora (especially lichens) have been investigated in order to see how they respond to air pollution. The study was restricted to those occurring up to a height of 2.3 m from the ground, on trunks of the conifers Picea abies and Pinus silvestries. The area of investigation lies north of Stockholm. Wind diagrams show a slight predominance of winds from Stockholm. This means that polluted air is spread out over the area of investigation. All epiphytic vegetation on the station-trees for which the species were determined are listed. The distribution of lichen species is discussed, especially how air pollution has affected the distributions of the three lichens, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach.) Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulf) Nyl. Pseudevernia furfuraceae (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia furfuraceae (L.) Ach.). Maps of distributions have been made for the most common epiphytes.

  9. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  10. Climate Impacts of Ozone and Sulfate Air Pollution from Specific Emissions Sectors and Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N.; Koch, D. M.; Shindell, D. T.; Streets, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    The secondary air pollutants ozone (O3) and sulfate aerosol are generated by human activities and affect the Earth's climate system. The global mean radiative forcings of these short-lived species depend on the location of the precursor gas emissions, which has so far prevented their incorporation into climate-motivated policy agreements. O3 and sulfate aerosol are strongly coupled through tropospheric photochemistry and yet air quality control efforts consider each species separately. Previous modeling work to assess climate impacts of O3 has focused on individual precursors, such as nitrogen oxides, even though policy action would target a particular sector. We use the G-PUCCINI atmospheric composition-climate model to isolate the O3 and sulfate direct radiative forcing impacts of 6 specific emissions sectors (industry, transport, power, domestic biofuel, domestic fossil fuel and biomass burning) from 7 geographic regions (North America, Europe, South Asia, East Asia, North Africa and the Middle East, Central and South Africa and South America) for the near future 2030 atmosphere. The goal of the study is to identify specific source sectors and regions that present the most effective opportunities to mitigate global warming. At 2030, the industry and power sectors dominate the sulfate forcing across all regions, with East Asia, South Asia and North Africa and Middle East contributing the largest sulfate forcings (-100 to 120 mWm-2). The transport sector represents an important O3 forcing from all regions ranging from 5 mWm-2 (Europe) to 12 mWm-2 (East Asia). Domestic biofuel O3 forcing is important for the East Asia (13 mWm-2), South Asia (7 mWm-2) and Central and South Africa (10 mWm-2) regions. Biomass burning contributes large O3 forcings for the Central and South Africa (15 mWm-2) and South America (11 mWm-2) regions. In addition, the power sector O3 forcings from East Asia (14 mWm-2) and South Asia (8 mWm-2) are also substantial. Considering the sum of the O

  11. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  12. Air pollution episodes in Stockholm regional background air due to sources in Europe and their effects on human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoping (Sweden)], E-mail: camilla.andersson@smhi.se; Joensson, O. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Forsberg, B. [Umea Univ. (Sweden), Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Johansson, C. [Environmental and Health Administration, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Using air quality measurements, we categorized air pollution according to source sectors in a rural background environment in southern Sweden based on hourly air-mass backward trajectories during 1997-2010. Concentrations of fine (PM{sub 2.5}) and sum of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), accumulation mode particle number, black carbon and surface ozone were 4.0, 3.9, 4.5, 6.8 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, in air masses from the southeast as compared with those in air masses from the cleanest sector in the northwest, consistent with air-mass transport over areas with relatively high emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors. The highest ultrafine particle numbers were associated with clean air from the northwest. We estimate that almost 7.8% and 0.6% higher premature human mortality is caused by PM{sub 2.5} and ozone exposure, respectively, when air originates from the southeast as compared with that when air originates from the northwest. Reductions of emissions in eastern Europe would reduce the highest air pollution concentrations and associated health risks. However, since air masses from the southwest are more frequent, emissions in the western part of Europe are more important for annual mean premature mortality. (orig.)

  13. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  14. Air pollution over the North China Plain and its implication of regional transport: A new sight from the observed evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Baozhu; Wang, Zifa; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin; Li, Jie; Ji, Dongshen; Ma, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    High concentrations of the fine particles (PM 2.5 ) are frequently observed during all seasons over the North China Plain (NCP) region in recent years. In NCP, the contributions of regional transports to certain area, e.g. Beijing city, are often discussed and estimated by models when considering an effective air pollution controlling strategy. In this study, we selected three sites from southwest to northeast in NCP, in which the concentrations of air pollutants displayed a multi-step decreasing trend in space. An approach based on the measurement results at these sites has been developed to calculate the relative contributions of the minimal local emission (MinLEC) and the maximum regional transport (MaxRTC) to the air pollutants (e.g., SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, PM 2.5 ) in Beijing. The minimal influence of local emission is estimated by the difference of the air pollutants' concentrations between urban and rural areas under the assumption of a similar influence of regional transport. Therefore, it's convenient to estimate the contributions of local emission from regional transport based on the selective measurement results instead of the complex numerical model simulation. For the whole year of 2013, the averaged contributions of MinLEC (MaxRTC) for NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 2.5 and CO are 61.7% (30.7%), 46.6% (48%), 52.1% (40.2%) and 35.8% (45.5%), respectively. The diurnal variation of MaxRTC for SO 2 , PM 2.5 and CO shows an increased pattern during the afternoon and reached a peak (more than 50%) around 18:00, which indicates that the regional transport is the important role for the daytime air pollution in Beijing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  16. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  18. Morbidity Forecast in Cities: A Study of Urban Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2018-05-29

    In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities.

  19. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  20. An overview of the RCA/IAEA activities in the Australasian region using nuclear analysis techniques for monitoring air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via the Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) has identified air particulate matter pollution as a major transboundary environmental issue in the Australasian region. Sixteen countries in the region spanning from Pakistan to the Philippines and from China to New Zealand are participating in the regional programme RAS/7/013-Improved information of urban air quality management in the RCA region' that started in 1997. New Zealand is the lead-country for this programme in which nuclear analytical techniques, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) are used to measure key elements in PM 2.5-0 and PM 10-2.5 filters from GENT stacked samplers collected twice weekly. Major sources of air particulate matter pollution are identified using statistical source apportionment techniques. To identify transboundary air particulate matter pollution events, the data is collated in a large database. Additionally, the data is used by end-users of the participating countries in the programme. An overview is presented. (author)

  1. Air Pollution and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Miller, Mark R; Shah, Anoop S V

    2018-01-01

    The adverse health effects of air pollution have long been recognised; however, there is less awareness that the majority of the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution is due to its effects on the cardiovascular system. Evidence from epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong association between air pollution and cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Although the relative risk is small at an individual level, the ubiquitous nature of exposure to air pollution means that the absolute risk at a population level is on a par with "traditional" risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Of particular concern are findings that the strength of this association is stronger in low and middle income countries where air pollution is projected to rise as a result of rapid industrialisation. The underlying biological mechanisms through which air pollutants exert their effect on the vasculature are still an area of intense discussion. A greater understanding of the effect size and mechanisms is necessary to develop effective strategies at individual and policy levels to mitigate the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

  2. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  3. Meteorological conditions during a severe, prolonged regional heavy air pollution episode in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xueliang; Cao, Weihua; Huo, Yanfeng; Yang, Guanying; Yu, Caixia; He, Dongyan; Deng, Weitao; Fu, Wei; Ding, Heming; Zhai, Jing; Cheng, Long; Zhao, Xuhui

    2018-03-01

    A severe, prolonged and harmful regional heavy air pollution episode occurred in eastern China from December 2016 to January 2017. In this paper, the pollutant characteristics and the meteorological formation mechanism of this pollution event, including climate anomalies, surface weather conditions, planetary boundary layer structure and large-scale circulation features, were analysed based on observational pollution data, surface meteorological data, sounding data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The results are as follows. (1) Five pollution stages were identified in eastern China. The two most severe episodes occurred from December 27, 2016 to January 4, 2017 and from January 8 to 12 2017. During these two pollution episodes, fine mode particles were major contributors, and hourly PM2.5 concentrations often exceeded 150 μg/m3, reaching a maximum of 333 μg/m3 at Fuyang station. Gaseous pollutants were transformed into secondary aerosols through heterogeneous reactions on the surface of PM2.5. (2) Compared with the same period over the years 2000-2016, 2017 presented meteorological field climate anomalies in conjunction with unfavourable surface conditions (weak winds, high relative humidity, fewer hours of sunshine, high cloud cover) and adverse atmospheric circulation (weak East Asian winter monsoon and an abnormal geopotential height of 500 hPa), which caused poorer visibility in 2017 than in the other analysed years. (3) During the development of heavy pollution event, unfavourable surface weather conditions, including poorer visibility, weaker pressure, higher relative humidity, lower wind speed with unfavourable wind direction and less precipitation suppressed the horizontal diffusion ability of air pollutants. Furthermore, the unfavourable structure of the atmospheric boundary layer was the key cause of the rapid PM2.5 increase. The deep, strong temperature inversion layer and weak vertical wind velocity could have suppressed vertical motion and enhanced

  4. Considering a point-source in a regional air pollution model; Prise en compte d`une source ponctuelle dans un modele regional de pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipphardt, M.

    1997-06-19

    This thesis deals with the development and validation of a point-source plume model, with the aim to refine the representation of intensive point-source emissions in regional-scale air quality models. The plume is modelled at four levels of increasing complexity, from a modified Gaussian plume model to the Freiberg and Lusis ring model. Plume elevation is determined by Netterville`s plume rise model, using turbulence and atmospheric stability parameters. A model for the effect of a fine-scale turbulence on the mean concentrations in the plume is developed and integrated in the ring model. A comparison between results with and without considering micro-mixing shows the importance of this effect in a chemically reactive plume. The plume model is integrated into the Eulerian transport/chemistry model AIRQUAL, using an interface between Airqual and the sub-model, and interactions between the two scales are described. A simulation of an air pollution episode over Paris is carried out, showing that the utilization of such a sub-scale model improves the accuracy of the air quality model

  5. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  6. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  7. Analysing the Air: Experiences and Results of Long Term Air Pollution Monitoring in the Asia-Pacific Region Using Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanacio, Armand J.

    2015-01-01

    Particles present in the air we breathe are now recognized as a major cause of disease and premature death globally. In fact, a World Health Organization (WHO) report recently ranked ambient air pollution as one of the top 10 causes of death in the world, directly contributing annually to around 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide 65% of which occurred in the Asian region alone. Airborne particulate matter (PM) can be generated from natural sources such as windblown soil or coastal sea-spray; as well as anthropogenic sources such as power stations, industry, vehicles and domestic biomass burning. At low concentration these fine pollution particles are too small to be seen by eye, but penetrate deep into our lungs and even our blood stream as our nose and throat are inefficient at filtering them out. At large concentrations, they can also have wider regional effects including reduced visibility, acid rain and even climate variability. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2000, recognizing air pollution as a significant local, national and global challenge, initiated a collaborative air pollution study involving 14 countries across the greater Asia-pacific region from 2000 to 2015. This has amassed a database containing more than 14,000 data lines of PM mass concentration and the concentration of up to 40 elements using nuclear analytical techniques. It represents the most comprehensive and long-term airborne PM data set compiled to date for the Asia-Pacific region and as will be discussed, can be used to statistically resolve individual source fingerprints and their contributions to total air pollution using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This sort of data necessary for implementing or reviewing the effectiveness of policy level changes aimed at targeted air pollution reduction. (author)

  8. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  9. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the concern of biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various pollutants. The actions of pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. Separate analytics are included for 17 chapters.

  11. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  12. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  13. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  14. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  15. The impact of air pollution in the Southern Bohemia Region on fetuses and newborns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veleminský Jr., M.; Hanzl, M.; Šrám, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2016), s. 52-57 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * benzo[a] pyrene Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  16. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas), Director, Air, Pesticides and Toxics, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX..., Pesticides and Toxics Division, J.F.K. Federal Building, Boston, MA 02203-2211. EPA Region II (New Jersey...). Director, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, Atlanta Federal Center, 61 Forsyth Street...

  18. Estimation of health and economic costs of air pollution over the Pearl River Delta region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lin, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is the economic growth engine of China and also one of the most urbanized regions in the world. As a two-sided sword, rapid economic development causes air pollution and poses adverse health effects to the citizens in this area. This work estimated the negative health effects in the PRD caused by the four major ambient pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10) from 2010 to 2013 by using a log linear exposure-response function and the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Economic loss due to mortality and morbidity was evaluated by the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the overall possible short-term all-cause mortality due to NO2, O3 and PM10 reached the highest in 2013 with the values being 13,217-22,800. The highest total economic loss, which ranged from 14,768 to 25,305million USD, occurred in 2013 and was equivalent to 1.4%-2.3% of the local gross domestic product. The monthly profile of cases of negative health effects varied by city and the types of ambient pollutants. The ratio of mortality attributed to air pollutants to total population was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. People living in the countryside should consider the possible adverse health effects of urban areas before they plan a move to the city. The results show that the health burden caused by the ambient pollutants over this region is serious and suggest that tighter control policies should be implemented in the future to reduce the level of air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer mapping as an aid in air-pollution studies: Montreal region study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, J M

    1972-01-01

    Through the use of computer-mapping programs, an operational technique has been designed which allows an almost-instant appraisal of the intensity of atmospheric pollution in an urban region on the basis of epiphytic sensitivity. The epiphytes considered are essentially lichens and mosses growing on trees. This study was applied to the Montreal region, with 349 samplings statiions distributed nearly uniformly. Computer graphics of the findings are included in the appendix.

  20. Air pollution and its control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Jiming; HE Kebin; DUAN Lei; LI Junhua; WANG Litao

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of China's economy has led to severe air pollution characterized by acid rain,severe pollution in cities,and regional air pollution.High concentrations are found for various pollutants such as sulfur dioxides(SO2),nitrogen oxides(NOx),and fine particulates.Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.This paper discusses the development and application of appropriate technologies for reducing the major pollutants produced by coal and vehicles,and investi gates air quality modeling as an important support for policy-making.

  1. Air Pollution Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  2. Transboundary Air-Pollution Transport in the Czech-Polish Border Region between the Cities of Ostrava and Katowice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černikovský, Libor; Krejčí, Blanka; Blažek, Zdeněk; Volná, Vladimíra

    2016-12-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) estimated the transboundary transport of air pollution between the Czech Republic and Poland by assessing relationships between weather conditions and air pollution in the area as part of the "Air Quality Information System in the Polish-Czech border of the Silesian and Moravian-Silesian region" project (http://www.air-silesia.eu). Estimation of cross-border transport of pollutants is important for Czech-Polish negotiations and targeted measures for improving air quality. Direct measurement of PM 10 and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations and the direction and wind speed from measuring stations in the vicinity of the Czech-Polish state border in 2006-2012. Taking into account all the inaccuracies, simplifications and uncertainties, by which all of the measurements are affected, it is possible to state that the PM 10 transboundary transport was greater from the direction of Poland to the Czech Republic, rather than the other way around. Nevertheless, the highest share of the overall PM 10 concentration load was recorded on days with a vaguely estimated airflow direction. This usually included days with changing wind direction or days with a distinct wind change throughout the given day. A changeable wind is most common during low wind speeds. It can be assumed that during such days with an ambiguous daily airflow, the polluted air saturated with sources on both sides of the border moves from one country to the other. Therefore, we could roughly ascribe an equal level of these concentrations to both the Czech and Polish side. PM 10 transboundary transport was higher from Poland to the Czech Republic than from the opposite direction, despite the predominant air flow from the Czech Republic to Poland. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  3. Impacts of air pollutants from fire and non-fire emissions on the regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-H. Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe haze events in Southeast Asia caused by particulate pollution have become more intense and frequent in recent years. Widespread biomass burning occurrences and particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning play important roles in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. In this study, numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem to quantitatively examine the contributions of aerosols emitted from fire (i.e., biomass burning versus non-fire (including fossil fuel combustion, and road dust, etc. sources to the degradation of air quality and visibility over Southeast Asia. These simulations cover a time period from 2002 to 2008 and are driven by emissions from (a fossil fuel burning only, (b biomass burning only, and (c both fossil fuel and biomass burning. The model results reveal that 39 % of observed low-visibility days (LVDs can be explained by either fossil fuel burning or biomass burning emissions alone, a further 20 % by fossil fuel burning alone, a further 8 % by biomass burning alone, and a further 5 % by a combination of fossil fuel burning and biomass burning. Analysis of an 24 h PM2.5 air quality index (AQI indicates that the case with coexisting fire and non-fire PM2.5 can substantially increase the chance of AQI being in the moderate or unhealthy pollution level from 23 to 34 %. The premature mortality in major Southeast Asian cities due to degradation of air quality by particulate pollutants is estimated to increase from  ∼  4110 per year in 2002 to  ∼  6540 per year in 2008. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of certain missing non-fire anthropogenic aerosol sources including anthropogenic fugitive and industrial dusts in causing urban air quality degradation. An experiment of using machine learning algorithms to forecast the occurrence of haze events in Singapore is

  4. Impacts of air pollutants from fire and non-fire emissions on the regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Iraqui, Oussama; Gu, Yefu; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chulakadabba, Apisada; Yiu-Ming Tonks, Adam; Yang, Zhengyu; Wang, Chien

    2018-05-01

    Severe haze events in Southeast Asia caused by particulate pollution have become more intense and frequent in recent years. Widespread biomass burning occurrences and particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning play important roles in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. In this study, numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem) to quantitatively examine the contributions of aerosols emitted from fire (i.e., biomass burning) versus non-fire (including fossil fuel combustion, and road dust, etc.) sources to the degradation of air quality and visibility over Southeast Asia. These simulations cover a time period from 2002 to 2008 and are driven by emissions from (a) fossil fuel burning only, (b) biomass burning only, and (c) both fossil fuel and biomass burning. The model results reveal that 39 % of observed low-visibility days (LVDs) can be explained by either fossil fuel burning or biomass burning emissions alone, a further 20 % by fossil fuel burning alone, a further 8 % by biomass burning alone, and a further 5 % by a combination of fossil fuel burning and biomass burning. Analysis of an 24 h PM2.5 air quality index (AQI) indicates that the case with coexisting fire and non-fire PM2.5 can substantially increase the chance of AQI being in the moderate or unhealthy pollution level from 23 to 34 %. The premature mortality in major Southeast Asian cities due to degradation of air quality by particulate pollutants is estimated to increase from ˜ 4110 per year in 2002 to ˜ 6540 per year in 2008. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of certain missing non-fire anthropogenic aerosol sources including anthropogenic fugitive and industrial dusts in causing urban air quality degradation. An experiment of using machine learning algorithms to forecast the occurrence of haze events in Singapore is also explored in this study. All of these

  5. Regional monitoring of deposition and effects of air pollution; Regional oevervakning av nedfall och effekter av luftfoeroreningar. Sammanfattande slutrapport fraan ett samarbetsprojekt mellan IVL, laenen och Naturvaardsverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Ferm, Martin; Hallgren Larsson, Eva; Knulst, Johan; Loevblad, Gun; Malm, Gunnar; Westling, Olle

    2000-05-01

    Regional programmes in Sweden focused on deposition and effects of air pollutants have been evaluated by IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Various air quality protection associations and regional environmental authorities initiated the monitoring programmes during the period 1985 to 1990. The result of the evaluation is a revised and coordinated programme with improved methods. The new regional programme combines collection of field data with national model calculations of deposition of air pollutants. The new programme involves collection of deposition on open field (bulk) and in forest stands (throughfall), and soil solution, according to national and international standards. Improved methods for monitoring of base cation and nitrogen deposition have been developed. Ambient air concentrations are measured at some locations. The purpose is to describe environmental conditions, regional differences, and temporal changes. Data on forest stands, such as needle loss, growth, and soil chemistry, are available since most locations are permanent forest plots, established for scientific forest observations. Regional dispersion and deposition of air pollutants will be calculated with a model (SMHI-MATCH), developed for simulating the dispersion and deposition of Swedish emissions in relation to the long-range transport on a relatively fine scale (grid square 11 km). The programme also includes developed methods for data handling, interpretation, evaluation, quality assurance and demonstration of results in written reports and via Internet.

  6. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north.

  7. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  8. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  9. Uncertainties in emission estimates of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in China and India and their impacts on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, E.; Trail, M.; Young, C. L.; Zhong, M.; Avramov, A.; Kim, H.; Wu, Q.; Janssens-Maenhout, G. G. A.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Klimont, Z.; Wagner, F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Nagpure, A.; Gurjar, B.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas and air pollutant precursor emissions have been increasing rapidly in both China and India, resulting in local to regional scale effects on air quality. Modelers use emission inventories to represent the temporal and spatial distribution of impacts of air pollutant emissions on regional and global air quality. However, large uncertainties exist in emission inventories. Quantification of uncertainties in emission estimates is essential to better understand the linkages among emissions, air quality, climate, and health. We use Monte Carlo methods to assess the uncertainties of the existing carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emission estimates for both China and India. We focus on the period between 2000 and 2008. In addition to national totals, we also analyze emissions from four source sectors, including industry, transport, power, and residential. We also assess differences in the existing emission estimates within each of the subnational regions. We find large disagreements among the existing inventories at disaggregated levels. We further assess the impact of these differences in emissions on air quality using a chemical transport model. More efforts are needed to constrain emissions, especially in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and in the East and Central regions of China, where large differences across emission inventories result in concomitant large differences in the simulated concentrations of PM and ozone. Our study also highlights the importance of constraining SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions for secondary PM concentrations over China and India.

  10. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  11. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  12. Air pollution and bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, J; Goldberg, C

    1954-01-01

    Bronchitis mortality in males and females 45 to 65 or over 65 years of age was compared with air pollution in the county boroughs of England and Wales in 1950 to 1952. There was significant association between SO/sub 2/ and bronchitis mortality for men but only occasionally significant for women. Association between particulate matter and bronchitis was less consistent. Socio-economic class had no association with pollutant levels suggesting this factor does not affect bronchitis mortality significantly.

  13. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; hide

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  14. Response of SO2 and Particulate Air Pollution to Local and Regional Emission Controls: A Case Study in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay Anatoly; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer; Dickerson, RUssell R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a 40 decrease of column SO2, and a 20 decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (90 reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (60 decrease) and AOD (20 decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by 20, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 20092010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 1. Indoor Air Pollution - Danger at Home. N Pon Saravanan. General Article Volume 9 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  16. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  17. Air pollution and lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, B W; Baddeley, M S; Hawksworth, D L [eds.

    1973-01-01

    This volume reflects the particular concern of many biologists for the effects of air pollution and illustrates the special values of lichens as plants suitable for such studies. It brings together contributions from many experts in this field and includes much previously unpublished data, as well as up-to-date review chapters. Emphasis is placed on the logical progression from field observational studies to critical laboratory investigations aimed at elucidating the modes of action of various air pollutants on the living tissues of lichens. The action of such pollutants on vascular plants is also discussed. It is the editors' intention that the book be both a reference volume and an encouragement for further wor

  18. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukmirovic, Z.B.; Unkasevic, M.; Lazic, L.; Tosic, I.; Joksimovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

  19. Air pollution and health implications of regional electricity transfer at generational centre and design of compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relhan, Nemika

    India's electricity generation is primarily from coal. As a result of interconnection of grid and establishment of pithead power plants, there has been increased electricity transfer from one region to the other. This results in imbalance of pollution loads between the communities located in generation vis-a-vis consumption region. There may be some states, which are major power generation centres and hence are facing excessive environmental degradation. On the other hand, electricity importing regions are reaping the benefits without paying proper charges for it because present tariff structure does not include the full externalities in it. The present study investigates the distributional implications in terms of air pollution loads between the electricity generation and consumption regions at the state level. It identifies the major electricity importing and exporting states in India. Next, as a case study, it estimates the health damage as a result of air pollution from thermal power plants (TPPs) located in a critically polluted region that is one of the major generator and exporter of electricity. The methodology used to estimate the health damage is based on impact pathway approach. In this method, air pollution modelling has been performed in order to estimate the gridded Particulate Matter (PM) concentration at various receptor locations in the study domain. The air quality modeling exercise helps to quantify the air pollution concentration in each grid and also apportion the contribution of power plants to the total concentration. The health impacts as a result of PM have been estimated in terms of number of mortality and morbidity cases using Concentration Response Function (CRF's) available in the literature. Mortality has been converted into Years of Life Lost (YOLL) using life expectancy table and age wise death distribution. Morbidity has been estimated in terms of number of cases with respect to various health end points. To convert this health

  20. Addressing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Pan-Japan Sea Region. An Overview of Economic Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.; Kambu, A.

    2005-11-01

    The health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption are of increasing concern to countries in the Pan-Japan Sea region, where economic growth has led to increased energy consumption in recent years. Economic instruments like green taxes and emissions-trading schemes represent important tools to help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, Japan, South Korea and Russia. Over the past several years, OECD countries have made progress in the use of economic instruments to reduce atmospheric air pollution. In Europe, new environmental taxes have been used most extensively, while in the United States market creation and emissions-trading schemes are more common. In the Pan-Japan Sea region, there has been considerable experience with pollution charge and levy systems, including the longstanding Japanese sulfur levy and the Russian and Chinese pollution charge systems. Generally, tax and emissions-trading systems are only beginning to emerge in the region although China has been experimenting with SOx emissions-trading schemes for several years now and South Korea and Japan have already begun experimenting with CO2 emissions-trading schemes. Only Japan has seriously looked at a carbon tax to curb GHG emissions among the four countries while direct subsidies for cleaner technologies have been adopted in the different Pan-Japan Sea countries. The costs and benefits of different economic instruments like taxes, charges, emissions-trading schemes and subsidies vary from case to case because they all have to be financially feasible, rest on informed and competent public institutions and perform effectively in local market and economic conditions. On top of all these is the fact that their overall success depends on their political acceptability. Given the experience of Pan-Japan Sea countries with economic instruments so far vis-a-vis the lessons learned in OECD countries and the nature of current and emerging pollution problems in Pan

  1. Estimating criteria pollutant emissions using the California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE model v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Zapata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE model is developed to predict changes to criteria pollutant emissions inventories in California in response to sophisticated emissions control programs implemented to achieve deep greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reductions. Two scenarios for the year 2050 act as the starting point for calculations: a business-as-usual (BAU scenario and an 80 % GHG reduction (GHG-Step scenario. Each of these scenarios was developed with an energy economic model to optimize costs across the entire California economy and so they include changes in activity, fuels, and technology across economic sectors. Separate algorithms are developed to estimate emissions of criteria pollutants (or their precursors that are consistent with the future GHG scenarios for the following economic sectors: (i on-road, (ii rail and off-road, (iii marine and aviation, (iv residential and commercial, (v electricity generation, and (vi biorefineries. Properly accounting for new technologies involving electrification, biofuels, and hydrogen plays a central role in these calculations. Critically, criteria pollutant emissions do not decrease uniformly across all sectors of the economy. Emissions of certain criteria pollutants (or their precursors increase in some sectors as part of the overall optimization within each of the scenarios. This produces nonuniform changes to criteria pollutant emissions in close proximity to heavily populated regions when viewed at 4 km spatial resolution with implications for exposure to air pollution for those populations. As a further complication, changing fuels and technology also modify the composition of reactive organic gas emissions and the size and composition of particulate matter emissions. This is most notably apparent through a comparison of emissions reductions for different size fractions of primary particulate matter. Primary PM2.5 emissions decrease by 4 % in the GHG

  2. Estimating criteria pollutant emissions using the California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE) model v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Christina B.; Yang, Chris; Yeh, Sonia; Ogden, Joan; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    The California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE) model is developed to predict changes to criteria pollutant emissions inventories in California in response to sophisticated emissions control programs implemented to achieve deep greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Two scenarios for the year 2050 act as the starting point for calculations: a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and an 80 % GHG reduction (GHG-Step) scenario. Each of these scenarios was developed with an energy economic model to optimize costs across the entire California economy and so they include changes in activity, fuels, and technology across economic sectors. Separate algorithms are developed to estimate emissions of criteria pollutants (or their precursors) that are consistent with the future GHG scenarios for the following economic sectors: (i) on-road, (ii) rail and off-road, (iii) marine and aviation, (iv) residential and commercial, (v) electricity generation, and (vi) biorefineries. Properly accounting for new technologies involving electrification, biofuels, and hydrogen plays a central role in these calculations. Critically, criteria pollutant emissions do not decrease uniformly across all sectors of the economy. Emissions of certain criteria pollutants (or their precursors) increase in some sectors as part of the overall optimization within each of the scenarios. This produces nonuniform changes to criteria pollutant emissions in close proximity to heavily populated regions when viewed at 4 km spatial resolution with implications for exposure to air pollution for those populations. As a further complication, changing fuels and technology also modify the composition of reactive organic gas emissions and the size and composition of particulate matter emissions. This is most notably apparent through a comparison of emissions reductions for different size fractions of primary particulate matter. Primary PM2.5 emissions decrease by 4 % in the GHG-Step scenario vs

  3. Differentiating local and regional sources of Chinese urban air pollution based on the effect of the Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Qiao; Cao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Bin; He, Ling-Yan

    2017-07-01

    The emission of pollutants is extremely reduced during the annual Chinese Spring Festival (SF) in Shenzhen, China. During the SF, traffic flow drops by ˜ 50 % and the industrial plants are almost entirely shut down in Shenzhen. To characterize the variation in ambient air pollutants due to the Spring Festival effect, various gaseous and particulate pollutants were measured in real time in urban Shenzhen over three consecutive winters (2014-2016). The results indicate that the concentrations of NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosols, chloride, and nitrate in submicron aerosols decrease by 50-80 % during SF periods relative to non-Spring Festival periods, regardless of meteorological conditions. This decrease suggests that these pollutants are mostly emitted or secondarily formed from urban local emissions. The concentration variation in species mostly from regional or natural sources, however, is found to be much less, such as for bulk fine particulate matter (PM2. 5). More detailed analysis of the Spring Festival effect reveals an urgent need to reduce emissions of SO2 and VOCs on a regional scale rather than on an urban scale to reduce urban PM2. 5 in Shenzhen, which can also be useful as a reference for other megacities in China.

  4. Variable trajectory model for regional assessments of air pollution from sulfur compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.C.; McNaughton, D.J.; Wendell, L.L.; Drake, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes a sulfur oxides atmospheric pollution model that calculates trajectories using single-layer historical wind data as well as chemical transformation and deposition following discrete contaminant air masses. Vertical diffusion under constraints is calculated, but all horizontal dispersion is a funcion of trajectory variation. The ground-level air concentrations and deposition are calculated in a rectangular area comprising the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Calculations for a 29-day assessment period in April 1974 are presented along with a limited verification. Results for the studies were calculated using a source inventory comprising 61% of the anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions. Using current model parameterization levels, predicted concentration values are most sensitive to variations in dry deposition of SO/sub 2/, wet deposition of sulfate, and transformation of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate. Replacing the variable mixed-layer depth and variable stability features of the model with constant definitions of each results in increased ground-level concentration predicions for SO/sub 2/ and particularly for sulfate.

  5. A cohort study with children living in an air-polluted region--a model for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marth, E; Haselbacher-Marko, S; Schaffler, K

    1996-11-01

    Regions with heavy industry are in many ways regions of crisis. The health of the population is primarily affected by the different air pollutants. Dust, with all its organic (dioxins and furans) and inorganic (heavy metals) contents, makes up the greatest part of the air-borne pollutants. The influence on health of environmental pollution was ascertained through the determination of different parameters (functional methods and determination of physiological parameters). This influence could be observed in children over a period of 8 years with regular investigations (e.g. determination of pulmonary function by spirometry and immunological parameters). Besides this exogenous load the persons are exposed to other environmental stresses-shift work, unemployment, alcoholism and divorce-which have a particular influence on the attitude and the upbringing of the children. Sixty per cent of the children in this polluted region ate no breakfast in the morning. Consequently it could be shown that the blood sugar in 70% of the children was below 70 mg/dl. Additionally, a relatively high amount of COHb (2.5% to 3%), and an increased concentration of serum IgE (47% of children with a concentration over 100 IU/ml), could be detected. Through a change in the environmental awareness of the children and their consequent influence, an effort should be made to achieve a positive effect on the health of the whole population. The children were given a chance to participate in various sports for the whole day during a week in the mountains at 1200 m. The teachers exercised with the children for at least 8 h per day. Besides gymnastics the program consisted of downhill and cross-country skiing. In addition, the children were offered a balanced and natural diet and they were instructed accordingly. This week of activity led to a clear reduction of the concentration of COHb, but to a far less clear improvement in the concentration of blood sugar and the pulmonary function.

  6. Air pollution control in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, F.

    1988-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject, from air pollution monitoring and effects on human and animal health, on plants and materials, to pollution reduction measures, practical applications, and legal regulations. It intends to give the air pollution expert a basis for developing practicable solutions. Apart from the 'classic' pollutants, also radioactive air pollution is gone into. (DG) With 366 figs., 190 tabs [de

  7. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...The EPA has made a proposed determination that a reduction in recurring expenditures of non-Federal funds for the Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective reductions in expenditures. This determination, when final, will permit the LRAPA to continue to receive grant funding under Section 105 of the Clean Air Act for the state fiscal year (SFY) 2014. This determination will also reset the LRAPA required maintenance of effort level for SFY 2012 and 2013 to reflect the non-selective reductions made to address reductions in revenue due to adverse economic conditions in Lane County, Oregon.

  8. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest

  9. A high-resolution air pollutants emission inventory in 2013 for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zheng, Bo; Li, Meng; Yu, Fang; Chen, Chuchu; Liu, Fei; Zhou, Xiafei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2017-12-01

    We developed a high-resolution Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) regional air pollutants emission inventory for the year 2013. The inventory was established using a bottom-up approach based on facility-level activity data obtained from multiple data sources. The estimates from the BTH 2013 emission inventory show that the total emissions of SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NMVOC, NH3, BC, and OC were 2,305, 2,686, 1,090, 1,494, 20,567, 2,207, 623, 160, and 254 Gg, respectively. The industry sector is the largest emissions source for SO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NMVOC in the BTH region, contributing 72.6%, 43.7%, 59.6%, 64.7%, 60.3%, and 70.4% of the total emissions, respectively. Power plants contributed 11.8% and 23.3% of the total SO2 and NOX emissions, respectively. The transportation sector contributed 28.9% of the total NOX emissions. Emissions from the residential sector accounted for 31.3%, 21.5%, 46.6% and 71.7% of the total PM2.5, NMVOC, BC and OC emissions, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of the total NH3 emissions originate from the agriculture sector, with 44.2% from fertilizer use and 47.7% from livestock. The spatial distribution results illustrate that air pollutant emissions are mainly distributed over the eastern and southern BTH regions. Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Tangshan and Handan are the major contributors of air pollutants. The major NMVOC species in the BTH region are ethylene, acetylene, ethane and toluene. Ethylene is the biggest contributor in Tianjin and Hebei. The largest contributor in Beijing is toluene. There is relatively low uncertainty in SO2 and NOX emission estimates, medium uncertainty in PM2.5, PM10 and CO emission estimates, and high uncertainties in VOC, NH3, BC and OC emission estimates. The proposed policy recommendations, based on the BTH 2013 emission inventory, would be helpful to develop strategies for air pollution control.

  10. Air Pollution in Museum Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the main air pollutants relevant for preservation of cultural heritage objects. Air pollutants may originate from outdoor or indoor sources. Indoor sources include the emission of corrosive vapors from construction materials used for museum display settings. Air pollution may...

  11. Time-Spatial Convergence of Air Pollution and Regional Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengning Pu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The haze pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 emissions has become one of the most crucial topics of sustainable environmental governance in China. Using the average concentration of PM 2.5 in China’s key cities from 2000 to 2012, as measured by aerosol optical depth, this study tested the time-spatial convergence of fine particulate matter pollution in China. The results show that there is a trend of absolute convergence between timespan and China’s PM 2.5 emissions. At the same time, in the geographic areas divided by the east, middle and west zones, there is a significant difference in the convergence rate of PM 2.5. The growth rate of PM 2.5 in the middle and west zones is significantly higher than that of the east zone. The correlation test between regional economic growth and PM 2.5 emissions suggest a significant positive N-type Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC after considering spatial lag and spatial error effect.

  12. Air pollution: a tale of two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Budi; Franklin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing economies and continued urbanization in Asian countries have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from mobile and stationary sources. In contrast, low level of urbanization in Australia produces low level of urban air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots, have low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. Identifying the differences and similarities of air pollution levels and its impacts, between Indonesia and Australia, will provide best lesson learned to tackle air pollution problems for Pacific Basin Rim countries.

  13. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  14. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  15. Olfactometric pollution of air

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Haraslínová

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the olfactometric assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted by coating films.It describes the measurements of concentration, intensity, hedonic tone and character of odor caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOCs’ emitted in to the small-space chamber with capacity of 1 m3 were tested by dynamic olfactometric method. Paper also contains a comparison of olfactometric air pollution of two different types of coating films. The work is aimed to determine ...

  16. Dialogues on air pollution: an Asian example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Stalpers, S.I.P.

    2013-01-01

    The efficient reduction of transboundary air pollution requires dialogue on emission reduction at an international level. A model is under construction to facilitate such dialogues for Asia. This is the Regional Air pollution Information System (RAINS-Asia), developed at the International Institute

  17. Air pollution: worldwide effects on mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Andrzej Featured: Bytnerowicz

    2004-01-01

    Widespread forest decline in remote areas of the Carpathian Mountains has been linked to air pollution from urban and industrial regions. Besides injuring plant tissues directly, pollutants may deposit to soils and water, drastically changing susceptible ecosystems. Researcher Andrzej Bytnerowicz has developed effective methods for assessing air quality over wildlands...

  18. Urban structure and air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

    Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

  19. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Relevance of the EU Structural Funds’ Allocation to the Needs of Combating Air Pollution in Poland. Analysis of the Operational Programmes of Regions Threatened With Critical Air Pollution from Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarski, Marcin; Martyniuk-Pęczek, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    Recent years, the European Environmental Agency, has been reporting air quality parameters in Poland, as the poorest among all the EU countries. Despite of adoption of the EU legislation on energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings, existing legal solutions occur insufficient in reducing air pollution in Polish regions. Lack of an effective schemes supporting complex thermal renovation of buildings, exchange of inefficient boilers, developing district heating based on clean and renewable fuels results in severe health problems and 40 000 of premature deaths related to air pollution. Availability of the EU structural funds may become a tremendous opportunity, especially for the residential sector, to conduct a massive scale modernization. Nevertheless, lack of a coordinated action involving all levels of governance may put the opportunity at risk. The article aims to answer the question on the readiness of the regional governments to effectively implement energy efficiency measures mitigating the problem of air pollution. Second objective is to analyse whether the Regional Operational Programmes allocating the ERDF funds to support specific development needs of the regions, have been constructed in a way that properly addresses the problems related to energy performance of residential buildings.

  1. Assessment of the uncertainties in air mass and pollutants transboundary exchange over the continental part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey S.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the uncertainties in air mass exchange in the lower troposphere across two regions of the Russian border in Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East in 2000-2015. We use meteorological data from long-term air sound data (ASD) on mean layer winds [1] and from the ERA INTERIM re-analysis (EIR) project [2]. Using a transboundary exchange model, we estimate the total and net amounts of air crossing the boundary segments around Irkutsk (IR) and Vladivostok (VL) aerological stations. We compare transport terms derived (i) from the long-term wind statistics based on both ASD and EIR data, and (ii) from integrating 6h meteorological winds from EIR directly over the border segments cells. We find similar wind direction statistics in both meteorological datasets, however EIR favours stronger westerly winds at VL in summer, which results in more often air export from China to Russia in the Far East. There is less agreement on the wind strengths than wind directions between the datasets, with EIR often providing slower wind speeds. The resulting climatic (ASD) and directly (from EIR 6h terms) calculated non-equilibrium (net) transport terms are comparable in orders (tens of million km3/month), however may differ substantially in temporal evolution or/and magnitude. Thus, EIR net transport over the IR segment has similar annual dynamics but is higher by a factor of ˜ 4 (maxima of 3.6 vs. 12 of 106 km3/month in December, respectively). An opposite ratio is derived for the VL segment (average ˜ 6 vs. 13 of 106 km3/month), with a distinct seasonality in the ASD but not in the EIR data. We attribute this discrepancy to the variations in wind direction with altitude, which cannot be resolved in the model fed with the ASD data. Calculated transport in the boundary layer (BL, provided by the EIR) supports this inference. Thus, the BL net transport temporal dynamics differ substantially from that within the 3 km layer, owing to the BL diurnal

  2. Emissions of acidifying air pollutants in the North West region of England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Lindley, S.J.; Conlan, D.E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    1995-12-01

    Most estimates of emission are concerned with the nation state level. This paper discusses methods utilised in the estimates of emissions to the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen from a densely populated and heavily industrialised region of the United Kingdom. Data on power generation from coal, industrial plant, fuel usage, air, sea and road transportation, and human population statistics have been integrated into a method to provide regional emission estimates. The resulting emission patterns are described in terms of sources and emission density. Spatial and temporal patterns are identified and major sources of emissions discussed in terms of national control programmes. Transportation is the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen emissions whilst power generation is the dominant source of sulphur dioxide. The relative importance of the North West as an emission source within the UK is assessed. The change in the strengths of acidifying emissions between 1987 and 1992 is discussed and the rate of change in emission magnitudes between the North West region and the UK as a whole compared. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Emissions of acidifying air pollutants in the North West region of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Lindley, S.J.; Conlan, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Most estimates of emission are concerned with the nation state level. This paper discusses methods utilised in the estimates of emissions to the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen from a densely populated and heavily industrialised region of the United Kingdom. Data on power generation from coal, industrial plant, fuel usage, air, sea and road transportation, and human population statistics have been integrated into a method to provide regional emission estimates. The resulting emission patterns are described in terms of sources and emission density. Spatial and temporal patterns are identified and major sources of emissions discussed in terms of national control programmes. Transportation is the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen emissions whilst power generation is the dominant source of sulphur dioxide. The relative importance of the North West as an emission source within the UK is assessed. The change in the strengths of acidifying emissions between 1987 and 1992 is discussed and the rate of change in emission magnitudes between the North West region and the UK as a whole compared. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  4. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  5. Problem of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, H

    1964-01-01

    The effects of air pollutants on plants are dependent on and modified by climatic, orographic, edaphic, and biotic factors; the synergism of pollutants; and differences in the sensitivity of individual plants and species. Sulfur dioxide and fluorine are the most dangerous pollutants for plants, but ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, bromine, iodine, hydrocyanic acid, ethylene, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, mercaptans, asphalt and tar vapors, mercury, and selenium can also inflict damage. Young leaves, sensitive to H/sub 2/S, nitrogen oxides, Cl, HCl, HCN, mercaptans, Hg, and sulfuric acid, are more resistant to SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ethylene, and selenium than older leaves. Damage is most serious when pollutants enter leaves simultaneously or alternately through epidermis and stomata. The yellow-to-brown coloration of leaves is usually a result of the precipitation of tanning. Plasmolysis is caused by SO/sub 2/, gaseous F compounds, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, HNO/sub 3/, Br, asphalt and tar vapors, while photosynthesis is stimulated by traces of ammonia, HNO/sub 3/, and saturated hydrocarbons. Increased transpiration due to SO/sub 2/ and HCl and elevated permeability and osmosis due to SO/sub 2/ were observed. 9 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  6. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  7. Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution during implementation of pro-environmental policy in Silesia region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Slawomir; Opała, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Sławomira; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of research conducted within the project entitled "Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollutants during the implementation of pro-environmental policies in the area of Silesia" (acronym BIOPOL) is the reconstruction of climate changes and anthropogenic effects and monitoring of the influence of human activities related to industrial development and the introduction of pro-environmental policy. The analysis will concern the climatic and anthropogenic signals recorded in annual tree rings width of Scots pine and in the isotopic composition of wood and its compenents (such as alpha-cellulose and glucose). Only a few studies made a complex multiproxies analysis of the influence of industrial air pollutants on changes in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition in any selected region. In addition, research is usually for a period of industrial development, is a lack of analysis for the period of implementation of EU law and standards on air quality to Polish law. The research area are the forests close to 3 different industrial plants (chemical- nitrogen plants, steel mills, power plants), in Silesia, where operating companies have strategic importance for the region and country. By analyzing the structure of land in Silesia noted a significant advantage of forest land and agricultural land. A large percentage of forest land providing protection for residents in case of failure in any of the plants. A cloud of noxious fumes is possible in large part retained in the trees. Waste generated by the chemical industry, metallurgy and energy represent the largest proportion of waste generated in the region. Already in the beginning of 21stcentury, the Waste Management Plans for various cities in Silesia are set out various strategic objectives to 2015, including in the economic sector: the implementation of non-waste technology and less and the best available techniques (BAT), the introduction of the principles of "cleaner production". The BIOPOL

  8. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution; Bilan des plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires. Bilan des etudes d'impact de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helf, M.; Cassadou, S

    2005-07-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  9. Air Pollution in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In spite of improvements relative to air pollution, there is still much to do. more than thirty millions of European people are exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations superior to guide values for health fixed by European Union, 20% of ecosystems in Europe are above the critical charges in the area of acidification and 33% concern eutrophication. Relative to the carbon dioxide, it is not sure that European Union realize the objective to stabilize the emissions for the year 2000 at the level of the year 1990, because of the increasing of automobile traffic and the energy consumption. Four subjects are presented: the climatic change, acidification and eutrophication, tropospheric ozone and air quality. (N.C.)

  10. The Influence of Industrial Air Pollution Forest Lichens at Tomaszów Mazowiecki Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mixed gases pollution (SO2, H2S and CS2 on epiphytic and epixylic lichens growing on Pinus sylvestris in the nature conditions is the matter of consideration. In the case of some lichens, e.g. Lecanora conizaeoides, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum and Thelocarpon laureri the toxitolerant to the air pollution is proved by the authoress.

  11. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  12. A joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in china based on long-term and massive data mining of pollutant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun

    2018-02-01

    China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region suffers from the country's worst air pollution. The problem has caused widespread concern both at home and abroad. Based on long-term and massive data mining of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration, we found that these pollutants showed similar variations in four seasons, but the most severe pollution was in winter. Through cluster analysis of the winter daily average concentration (DAC) of the two pollutants, we defined regions with similar variations in pollutant concentrations in winter. For the most polluted cities in BTH, the relationship between correlation coefficients for winter DAC and the distance between cities revealed that PM2.5 has regional, large-scale characteristics, with concentrated outbreaks, whereas PM10 has local, small-scale characteristics, with outbreaks at multiple locations. By selecting the key cities with the strongest linear relationship between the pollutant's DAC of each city and the daily individual air quality index values of the BTH region and through cluster analysis on the correlations between the pollutant DACs of the key cities, we defined regional divisions suitable for Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program to control PM2.5 and PM10. Comprehensively considering the degree of influence of regional atmospheric pollution control (RAPC) on air quality in BTH, as well as the elasticity and urgency of RAPC, we defined the control grades of the JPCAP regions. We found both the regions and corresponding control grades were consistent for PM2.5 and PM10. The thinking and methods of atmospheric pollution control we proposed will have broad significance for implementation of RAPC in other regions around the world.

  13. Technical and Non-Technical Measures for air pollution emission reduction: The integrated assessment of the regional Air Quality Management Plans through the Italian national model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, I.; Bencardino, M.; Ciancarella, L.; Contaldi, M.; Vialetto, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Italian Air Quality legislation underwent sweeping changes with the implementation of the 1996 European Air Quality Framework Directive when the Italian administrative Regions were entrusted with air quality management tasks. The most recent Regional Air Quality Management Plans (AQMPs) highlighted the importance of Non-Technical Measures (NTMs), in addition to Technical Measures (TMs), in meeting environmental targets. The aim of the present work is to compile a list of all the TMs and NTMs taken into account in the Italian Regional AQMPs and to give in the target year, 2010, an estimation of SO 2, NO x and PM 10 emission reductions, of PM 10 concentration and of the health impact of PM 2.5 concentrations in terms of Life Expectancy Reduction. In order to do that, RAINS-Italy, as part of the National Integrated Modeling system for International Negotiation on atmospheric pollution (MINNI), has been applied. The management of TMs and NTMs inside RAINS have often obliged both the introduction of exogenous driving force scenarios and the control strategy modification. This has inspired a revision of the many NTM definitions and a clear choice of the definition adopted. It was finally highlighted that only few TMs and NTMs implemented in the AQMPs represent effective measures in reaching the environmental targets.

  14. Air pollution and tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurfield, G

    1960-01-01

    The problem of air pollution is reviewed with emphasis on its origin and its effects on trees and shrubs. These effects are described from two points of view: the effects of general air pollution, and also the effects of specific pollutants. The considerable mixing, dilution and interaction that pollutants undergo in the air often renders it exceedingly difficult to assign pollution damage to any specific chemical or physical entity. Moreover, it is often impossible to assign responsibility for damage to any particular source. The constituents of general air pollution may be subdivided into those potentially incapable, and those potentially capable, of entering the plant either through the leaf stomata or indirectly by way of the soil. Specific pollutants cause damage directly, as well as indirectly from the chemical reactions that occur in the polluted atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is discussed in detail in relation to tree and shrub damage, with numerous examples of plant injuries.

  15. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respirat...

  16. Air pollution and brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  17. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  18. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  19. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  20. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies. PMID:29673227

  1. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Jianzhou; Ma, Xuejiao; Lu, Haiyan

    2018-04-17

    Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  2. Air Pollution Forecasts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task. Extensive research indicates that the methods of air pollution forecasting can be broadly divided into three classical categories: statistical forecasting methods, artificial intelligence methods, and numerical forecasting methods. More recently, some hybrid models have been proposed, which can improve the forecast accuracy. To provide a clear perspective on air pollution forecasting, this study reviews the theory and application of those forecasting models. In addition, based on a comparison of different forecasting methods, the advantages and disadvantages of some methods of forecasting are also provided. This study aims to provide an overview of air pollution forecasting methods for easy access and reference by researchers, which will be helpful in further studies.

  3. Anomalous scales of Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. (Bromeliaceae) exposed in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, SP, Brazil as air pollution markers

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaoli, Patrícia; Capelli, Natalie do Valle; Tavares, Armando Reis; Fernandes, Francine Faia; Domingos, Marisa; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2015-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides is an epiphytic bromeliad that has been used as a universal bioindicator. The species accumulates metals and presents foliar scale variations when exposed to air pollutants. This study aimed to use the variations in foliar scales as microscopic markers of pollutant effects in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), São Paulo State, Brazil. T. usneoides plants were exposed for 12 weeks during dry and wet seasons, totaling four exposures, at five sites in the MRC. Sample...

  4. Health impact of urban air pollution: the case of the metropolitan Paris area; Impact de la pollution urbaine sur la sante: le cas de la region parisienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrto, V.; Menut, L. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS UMR 8539, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Chatignoux, E. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante d' Ile de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Urban meteorology and atmospheric composition has become an issue of great public concern. Mega-cities are areas of great population density and also of high rates of gaseous and particulate matter emission. The health of the residents of such large agglomerations will potentially be influenced by the local air-pollution, its formation and dispersion. Efforts are made to link air-pollution and health. Several questions are open: what is the relative contribution of the ambient air-pollution compared to all other exposure factors? What is the 'real' level of exposure reaching the individuals of a population? Can we distinguish the health effects of multiple- pollutants? To answer to these questions we have developed a modeling framework that maps the exposure of the Parisian population to ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particles at hourly resolution. This integrated model incorporates a meteorological model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air-quality model and a human exposure module. The first results of this modeling effort suggest new epidemiological evidence of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels and mortality over the city of Paris. (authors)

  5. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  6. Air Pollution and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  7. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  8. Allergic diseases and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing rapidly, especially in developing countries. Various adverse health outcomes such as allergic disease can be attributed to rapidly increasing air pollution levels. Rapid urbanization and increased energy consumption worldwide have exposed the human body to not only increased quantities of ambient air pollution, but also a greater variety of pollutants. Many studies clearly demonstrate that air pollutants potently trigger asthma exacerbation. Evidence that transportation-related pollutants contribute to the development of allergies is also emerging. Moreover, exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide contributes to the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. This article focuses on the current understanding of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on allergic disease including exacerbation to the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema as well as epigenetic regulation.

  9. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  10. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  11. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Neurotoxicity of traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Cole, Toby B; Coburn, Jacki; Chang, Yu-Chi; Dao, Khoi; Roqué, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    The central nervous system is emerging as an important target for adverse health effects of air pollution, where it may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Air pollution comprises several components, including particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM), gases, organic compounds, and metals. An important source of ambient PM and UFPM is represented by traffic-related air pollution, primarily diesel exhaust (DE). Human epidemiological studies and controlled animal studies have shown that exposure to air pollution, and to traffic-related air pollution or DE in particular, may lead to neurotoxicity. In particular, air pollution is emerging as a possible etiological factor in neurodevelopmental (e.g. autism spectrum disorders) and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) disorders. The most prominent effects caused by air pollution in both humans and animals are oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation. Studies in mice acutely exposed to DE (250-300μg/m 3 for 6h) have shown microglia activation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuro-inflammation in various brain regions, particularly the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. An impairment of adult neurogenesis was also found. In most cases, the effects of DE were more pronounced in male mice, possibly because of lower antioxidant abilities due to lower expression of paraoxonase 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Responses of plants to air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudd, J. Brian; Kozlowski, T. T

    1975-01-01

    .... KOZLOWSKI Pollution, 1975 ELROY L. RICE. Allelopathy, (Eds.). Fire and Ecosystems, 1974 (Eds.). Responses of Plants to Air Responses of Plants to Air PollutionRESPONSES OF PLANTS TO AIR POLLUTION E...

  14. Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnerova, Andrea; Spatova, Milada; Pastorkova, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Veleminsky, Milos; Balascak, Ivan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic damage in human lymphocytes measured using automated image analysis of micronuclei (MN) in a group of 178 mothers and their newborns from two locations in the Czech Republic. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter comparison with Ceske Budejovice: 1.9 ± 0.5ng/m³ vs. 3.2 ± 0.2ng/m³ (pmothers was 31 years (range, 18-49 years). The frequencies of MN per 1000 binucleated cells were 8.35 ± 3.06 vs. 6.47 ± 2.35 (pmothers from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively, and 2.17 ± 1.32 vs. 3.82 ± 2.43 (pmothers and the impact of the mothers' and fathers' ages were analyzed in our study. The results suggest that the different sensitivity of the study groups to various mixtures of carcinogenic pollutants could be affected by significant differences in lifestyle factors. Possible higher genetic damage was analyzed in newborns of smoking mothers, and the birth weight of this group was 7.4% lower (pcomparison with the newborns of nonsmoking mothers. No impact of the age of the mothers or fathers on MN frequency in the newborns was observed. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Air pollution control regulation. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, K

    1975-05-01

    The Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control is reviewed. The fundamental ideology of pollution control, range of pollution control, environmental standards, and national policy concerning pollution control are discussed. The content of the Air Pollution Control Law is summarized. The purpose of the Air Pollution Control Law, a list of substances regulated by the law, the type of facilities regulated by the law, control standards, type of control means, and emission standards for flue gas (sulfur oxides, particulate matters, and toxic substances) are described. The environmental standard for each pollutant and the target date for achieving the environmental standard are also given. The list of cities where the 7-rank K value control regulation for SOx is enforced is given. The procedure for registration in compliance with the law is also described.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Ozone air pollution in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg Blum; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; William Manning; Ludmila Popovicheva

    1998-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) were measured at five highland forest locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and in two lowland locations in the Kiev region during August to September 1995 by using O3 passive samplers. The ozone passive samplers were calibrated against a Thermo Environmental Model 49 ozone monitor...

  18. Impacts of Transit-Oriented Compact-Growth on Air Pollutant Concentrations and Exposures in the Tampa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    Amy L. Stuart (ORCID # 0000-0003-1229-493) The objective of this study was to model the potential impacts of alternative transit-oriented urban design scenarios on community exposures to roadway air pollution. We used a modeling framework developed p...

  19. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  20. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  1. Vegetation fires and air pollution in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Ha; Thanh Nguyen, Thi Nhat; Lasko, Kristofer; Ilavajhala, Shriram; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Justice, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires are a significant source of air pollution in Asia. In this study, we integrate satellite remote sensing data and ground-based measurements to infer fire-air pollution relationships in selected regions of Vietnam. We first characterized the active fires and burnt areas at a regional scale from MODIS satellite data. We then used satellite-derived active fire data to correlate the resulting atmospheric pollution. Further, we analyzed the relationship between satellite atmospheric variables and ground-based air pollutant parameters. Our results show peak fire activity during March in Vietnam, with hotspots in the Northwest and Central Highlands. Active fires were significantly correlated with UV Aerosol Index (UVAI), aerosol extinction absorption optical depth (AAOD), and Carbon Monoxide. The use of satellite aerosol optical thickness improved the prediction of Particulate Matter (PM) concentration significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying variation in occupational air pollution exposure within a small metropolitan region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Woodrow; Targino, Admir Créso; Gibson, Mark David; Krecl, Patricia; Cipoli, Yago; Sá, Victor

    2018-06-01

    An occupational sampling campaign was conducted in the city of Londrina, Paraná, during an eleven-week period of the dry season (spring) of 2015. To assess worker exposure, concentrations of black carbon (BC), fine particles (air mass back trajectory and satellite fire spot analyses. A total of fifteen environmental variables influencing workplace exposures were tested using multiple regression models and exposure differences between occupations were assessed using non-parametric tests. Although the environmental settings differed substantially, weekly median exposures were similar, with the exception of occupations involving significant indoor sources and those proximate to heavy traffic. Median TVOC exposure was 8 (3,351, range 17-77,530 ppb, p < 0.001) and 3.5 times higher (1,616, range 0.3-18,861 ppb, p < 0.001) at a shoe repair store and hair salon, respectively, than in a clean office environment situated directly within the city centre (414, range 0.5-4844 ppb). Similarly, median BC concentrations were 2.8 (3.7, range 1.2-27.8 μg/m3, p < 0.001) times greater inside a street canyon drug store and elevated by a factor of 3.0 (3.8, range 0.4-39.6 μg/m3, p < 0.001), on a local commuter bus, than in the office environment (1.3 μg/m3). These results hold important implications for workplace exposure and can aid in informing potential mitigation strategies, such as a review of ventilation configurations and hazardous materials used in certain occupations.

  3. Air pollution control in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    Prior to rapid spurt in industrialization in India, people were used to inhale pure air containing about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and some carbon dioxide. But afterwards this composition of pure air was disturbed as a result of increased economic activities. Air, now a days also contains sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides etc., etc. which are extremely harmful for human health. Virulence of air pollution was realised in late eighties after Bhopal Gas Tragedy (BGT) and an effective air quality management started taking shape in India afterwards. The basic components of air quality management are legislation and regulations, emission inventory, air quality standards and monitoring, air dispersion models and installation of pollution control equipment which are being discussed in this paper. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  5. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  6. Botanical indications of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1965-01-01

    This article is a survey of the knowledge current in 1965 concerning plants as bioindicators of air pollution. Discussion centers on lichens, conifers and bryophytes, and is drawn primarily from the European literature.

  7. The price of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra-Holtkamp, I.V.L.

    2006-01-01

    The mortality in the Netherlands as a result of exposure to particulates is 18,000 per year. Less known is the high number of cases of sickness cased by air pollution and related cost for the Dutch society [nl

  8. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  9. The influence of African air pollution on regional and global tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aghedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of African biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions on the tropospheric ozone over Africa and globally using a coupled global chemistry climate model. Our model studies indicate that surface ozone concentration may rise by up to 50 ppbv in the burning region during the biomass burning seasons. Biogenic emissions yield between 5–30 ppbv increase in the near surface ozone concentration over tropical Africa. The impact of lightning on surface ozone is negligible, while anthropogenic emissions yield a maximum of 7 ppbv increase in the annual-mean surface ozone concentration over Nigeria, South Africa and Egypt. Our results show that biogenic emissions are the most important African emission source affecting total tropospheric ozone. The influence of each of the African emissions on the global tropospheric ozone burden (TOB of 384 Tg yields about 9.5 Tg, 19.6 Tg, 9.0 Tg and 4.7 Tg for biomass burning, biogenic, lightning and anthropogenic emissions emitted in Africa respectively. The impact of each of these emission categories on African TOB of 33 Tg is 2.5 Tg, 4.1 Tg, 1.75 Tg and 0.89 Tg respectively, which together represents about 28% of the total TOB calculated over Africa. Our model calculations also suggest that more than 70% of the tropospheric ozone produced by each of the African emissions is found outside the continent, thus exerting a noticeable influence on a large part of the tropical troposphere. Apart from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, Latin America experiences the largest impact of African emissions, followed by Oceania, the Middle East, Southeast and south-central Asia, northern North America (i.e. the United States and Canada, Europe and north-central Asia, for all the emission categories.

  10. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  11. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  12. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region.. [air pollution control studies in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.

    1975-01-01

    Past research projects for the year 1974-1975 are listed along with future research programs in the area of air pollution control, remote sensor analysis of smoke plumes, the biosphere component, and field experiments. A detailed budget analysis is presented. Attachments are included on the following topics: mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques, and use of LARS system for the quantitative determination of smoke plume lateral diffusion coefficients from ERTS images of Virginia.

  13. [Adsorption Capacity of the Air Particulate Matter in Urban Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-kang; Wang, Bing; Niu, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Urban landscape plants, as one of the important factors of the urban ecosystem, play an important role in stagnating airborne particulates and purifying urban atmospheric environment. In this article, six kinds of common garden plants were studied, and aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I) was used to measure the ability of their leaves to stagnate atmospheric particulates (TSP and PM2.5) in different polluted regions. Meanwhile, environmental scanning electron microscope was used to observe changes in the leaf structure of the tested tree species. The results showed: (1)Among the tested tree species, the ability of coniferous species to stagnate atmospheric particulates was higher than that of broad-leaved species per unit leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis stagnated the highest volume of (3. 89± 0. 026) µg . m-2, followed by Pinus bungeana of (2. 82 ± 0. 392) µg . cm-2, and Populus tomentosa stagnated the minimum of (2. 00 ± 0. 118) µg . cm-2; (2) Through observing the leaf microstructure morphology, coniferous species were found to have tightly packed stomas, stoma density and surface roughness higher than those of broad-leaved species, and they could also secrete oil; (3) In different polluted regions, the leaves of the same tree species showed significant difference in stagnating TSP. Per unit leaf area, the tree species leaves situated around the 5th Ring Road had higher ability to absorb TSP than the tree species leaves at Botanical Garden, while their abilities to absorb PM2.5 showed no significant difference; (4) In different polluted regions, significantly adaptive changes were found in leaf structure. Comparing to the region with light pollution, the outer epidermal cells of the plant leaves in region with heavy pollution shrank, and the roughness of the leaf skin textures as well as the stomatal frequency and villous length increased. In spite of the significant changes in plant leaves exposed to the heavy pollution, these plants could still maintain normal

  14. Air pollution and human mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Economics; Seskin, E P [Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (USA). Environmental and Nonmarket Economics Div.

    1979-11-01

    Investigations have been made on the quantitative relationship between air pollution and human mortality. While primary focus has been on suspended particulates and sulfates from stationary sources of pollution, the evidence relating to air pollutants attributed to mobile sources was also examined. Using statistical analyses for a large number of US metropolitan areas, it was concluded that the benefits associated with a substantial abatement of air pollution from stationary sources are greater than the costs of such abatement. In contrast, the situation for mobile sources-chiefly cars and trucks is less clear-cut. That is, the costs of implementing the currently mandated US standards for automobile emissions probably exeed their potential health benefits.

  15. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Overview Learn about pollutants from vehicles and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Key issues, ...

  16. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  17. Urban Form, Air Pollution, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    Urban form can impact air pollution and public health. We reviewed health-related articles that assessed (1) the relationships among urban form, air pollution, and health as well as (2) aspects of the urban environment (i.e., green space, noise, physical activity) that may modify those relationships. Simulation and empirical studies demonstrate an association between compact growth, improved regional air quality, and health. Most studies are cross-sectional and focus on connections between transportation emissions and land use. The physical and mental health impacts of green space, public spaces that promote physical activity, and noise are well-studied aspects of the urban environment and there is evidence that these factors may modify the relationship between air pollution and health. Urban form can support efforts to design clean, health-promoting cities. More work is needed to operationalize specific strategies and to elucidate the causal pathways connecting various aspects of health.

  18. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  19. Human Exposure Assessment for Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Hu, Li-Wen; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of human exposure to air pollution is a fundamental part of the more general process of health risk assessment. The measurement methods for exposure assessment now include personal exposure monitoring, indoor-outdoor sampling, mobile monitoring, and exposure assessment modeling (such as proximity models, interpolation model, air dispersion models, and land-use regression (LUR) models). Among these methods, personal exposure measurement is considered to be the most accurate method of pollutant exposure assessment until now, since it can better quantify observed differences and better reflect exposure among smaller groups of people at ground level. And since the great differences of geographical environment, source distribution, pollution characteristics, economic conditions, and living habits, there is a wide range of differences between indoor, outdoor, and individual air pollution exposure in different regions of China. In general, the indoor particles in most Chinese families comprise infiltrated outdoor particles, particles generated indoors, and a few secondary organic aerosol particles, and in most cases, outdoor particle pollution concentrations are a major contributor to indoor concentrations in China. Furthermore, since the time, energy, and expense are limited, it is difficult to measure the concentration of pollutants for each individual. In recent years, obtaining the concentration of air pollutants by using a variety of exposure assessment models is becoming a main method which could solve the problem of the increasing number of individuals in epidemiology studies.

  20. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  1. A regional high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2012 for Beijing and the surrounding five provinces of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjia; Wu, Bobo; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Xue, Yifeng; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Yan; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-05-01

    A high resolution regional emission inventory of typical primary air pollutants (PAPs) for the year 2012 in Beijing and the surrounding five provinces (BSFP) of North China is developed. It is compiled with the combination of bottom-up and top-down methods, based on city-level collected activity data and the latest updated specific emission factors for different sources. The considered sources are classified into 12 major categories and totally 36 subcategories with respect to their multi-dimensional characteristics, such as economic sector, combustion facility or industrial process, installed air pollution control devices, etc. Power plant sector is the dominant contributor of NOX emissions with an average contribution of 34.1%, while VOCs emissions are largely emitted from industrial process sources (33.9%). Whereas, other stationary combustion sources represent major sources of primary PM2.5, PM10 and BC emissions, accounting for 22.7%, 30.0% and 33.9% of the total emissions, respectively. Hebei province contributes over 34% of the regional total CO emissions because of huge volume of iron and steel production. By comparison, Shandong province ranks as the biggest contributor for NOX, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, VOCs and OC. Further, the BSFP regional total emissions are spatially distributed into grid cells with a high resolution of 9 km × 9 km using GIS tools and surrogate indexes, such regional population, gross domestic product (GDP) and the types of arable soils. The highest emission intensities are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Jinan-Laiwu-Zibo area and several other cities such as Shijiazhuang, Handan, and Zhengzhou. Furthermore, in order to establish a simple method to estimate and forecast PAPs emissions with macroscopic provincial-level statistical parameters in China, multi-parameter regression equations are firstly developed to estimate emissions outside the BSFP region with routine statistics (e.g. population, total final coal consumption

  2. Fundamentals of air pollution engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics. Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within the last several years. Nonetheless, the development of combus...

  3. Geostatistical models for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Almeida, J.; Branquinho, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present geostatistical models applied to the spatial characterisation of air pollution phenomena. A concise presentation of the geostatistical methodologies is illustrated with practical examples. The case study was conducted in an underground copper-mine located on the southern of Portugal, where a biomonitoring program using lichens has been implemented. Given the characteristics of lichens as indicators of air pollution it was possible to gather a great amount of data in space, which enabled the development and application of geostatistical methodologies. The advantages of using geostatistical models compared with deterministic models, as environmental control tools, are highlighted. (author)

  4. Diurnal variations of wildfire emissions in Europe: analysis of the MODIS and SEVIRI measurements in the framework of the regional scale air pollution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Beekmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Shudyaev, Anton A.; Yurova, Alla; Kuznetsova, Irina N.

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires episodically provide a major contribution to air pollution in many regions of the world. For example, the extreme air pollution level and strongly reduced visibility were observed in the Central European region of Russia during the intensive wildfire events in summer of 2010. Such episodes provide a strong impetus for further developments in air pollution modeling, aimed at improving the ability of chemistry transport models to simulate and predict evolution of atmospheric composition affected by wildfires. The main goals of our study are (1) to investigate the diurnal cycles of air pollutant emissions from wildfires in several European regions, taking into account the fire radiative power (FRP) satellite measurements for different vegetation land cover types and (2) to examine the possibilities of improving air pollution simulations by assimilating the diurnal variability of the FRP measurements performed by the polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (SEVIRI) satellite instruments into a chemistry transport model. These goals are addressed for the case of wildfires occurred in summer 2010. The analysis of both the MODIS and SEVIRI data indicate that air pollutant emissions from wildfires in Europe in summer 2010 were typically much larger during daytime than during nighttime. The important exception is intensive fires around Moscow, featuring an almost "flat" diurnal cycle. These findings confirm the similar results reported earlier [1] but also extend them by attributing the flat diurnal cycle only to forest fires and by examining a hypothetical association of the "abnormal" diurnal cycle of FRP with peat fires. The derived diurnal variations of wildfire emissions have been used in the framework of the modeling system employed in our previous studies of the atmospheric effects of the 2010 Russian wildfires [2, 3]. The numerical experiments reveal that while the character of the diurnal variation of wildfire emissions has a rather small impact on the

  5. Modeling indoor air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepper, D. W; Carrington, David B

    2009-01-01

    ... and ventilation from the more popular textbooks and monographs. We wish to especially acknowledge Dr. Xiuling Wang, who diligently converted many of our old FORTRAN codes into MATLAB files, and also developed the COMSOL example files. Also we thank Ms. Kathryn Nelson who developed the website for the book and indoor air quality computer codes. We are grateful to ...

  6. Implementation and testing of a simple data assimilation algorithm in the regional air pollution forecast model, DEOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frydendall

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple data assimilation algorithm based on statistical interpolation has been developed and coupled to a long-range chemistry transport model, the Danish Eulerian Operational Model (DEOM, applied for air pollution forecasting at the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI, Denmark. In this paper, the algorithm and the results from experiments designed to find the optimal setup of the algorithm are described. The algorithm has been developed and optimized via eight different experiments where the results from different model setups have been tested against measurements from the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme network covering a half-year period, April–September 1999. The best performing setup of the data assimilation algorithm for surface ozone concentrations has been found, including the combination of determining the covariances using the Hollingsworth method, varying the correlation length according to the number of adjacent observation stations and applying the assimilation routine at three successive hours during the morning. Improvements in the correlation coefficient in the range of 0.1 to 0.21 between the results from the reference and the optimal configuration of the data assimilation algorithm, were found. The data assimilation algorithm will in the future be used in the operational THOR integrated air pollution forecast system, which includes the DEOM.

  7. Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Factors of Air Pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Dongsheng; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhang, Wenzhong; Wang, Shaojian; Yu, Jianhui

    2017-12-08

    In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Based on ground monitoring air quality data collected in 2015 in Chinese cities above the prefectural level, this study identifies the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution and its associated driving factors in China using descriptive statistics and geographical detector methods. The results show that the average air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio across Chinese cities in 2015 were 23.1 ± 16.9% and 16.2 ± 14.8%. The highest levels of air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio were observed in northern China, especially in the Bohai Rim region and Xinjiang province, and the lowest levels were found in southern China. The average and maximum levels of continuous air pollution show distinct spatial variations when compared with those of the continuous air pollution ratio. Monthly changes in both air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio have a U-shaped variation, indicating that the highest levels of air pollution occurred in winter and the lowest levels happened in summer. The results of the geographical detector model further reveal that the effect intensity of natural factors on the spatial disparity of the air pollution ratio is greater than that of human-related factors. Specifically, among natural factors, the annual average temperature, land relief, and relative humidity have the greatest and most significant negative effects on the air pollution ratio, whereas human factors such as population density, the number of vehicles, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) witness the strongest and most significant positive effects on air pollution ratio.

  8. Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Factors of Air Pollution in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Zhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Based on ground monitoring air quality data collected in 2015 in Chinese cities above the prefectural level, this study identifies the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution and its associated driving factors in China using descriptive statistics and geographical detector methods. The results show that the average air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio across Chinese cities in 2015 were 23.1 ± 16.9% and 16.2 ± 14.8%. The highest levels of air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio were observed in northern China, especially in the Bohai Rim region and Xinjiang province, and the lowest levels were found in southern China. The average and maximum levels of continuous air pollution show distinct spatial variations when compared with those of the continuous air pollution ratio. Monthly changes in both air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio have a U-shaped variation, indicating that the highest levels of air pollution occurred in winter and the lowest levels happened in summer. The results of the geographical detector model further reveal that the effect intensity of natural factors on the spatial disparity of the air pollution ratio is greater than that of human-related factors. Specifically, among natural factors, the annual average temperature, land relief, and relative humidity have the greatest and most significant negative effects on the air pollution ratio, whereas human factors such as population density, the number of vehicles, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP witness the strongest and most significant positive effects on air pollution ratio.

  9. Air pollution in the Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area: Numerical simulations with a multi-scale regional chemistry-transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Jakobs, H. J.; Wurzler, S.; Friese, E.; Piekorz, G.; Ebel, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Rhine-Ruhr area is a strongly industrialized region with about 10 Million inhabitants. It is one of the regions in Europe, which has the characteristics of a megacity with respect to population density, traffic, industry and environmental issues. The main centre of European steel production and the biggest inland port of the world is located in Duisburg, one of the major cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area. Together with the nearby urban agglomerations in the Benelux area including Brussels, Amsterdam and in particular Rotterdam as one of the most important sea-harbours of the world together with Singapore and Shanghai, it forms one of the regions in Europe heavily loaded with air pollutants as ozone, NO2 and particulate matter. Ammonia emissions outside the urban agglomerations but within the domain are also on a quite high level due to intense agricultural usage in Benelux, North-Rhine-Westphalia and lower Saxony. Therefore this area acts also as an important source region for gaseous precursors contributing to the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. The Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area therefore has been selected within the framework of the recently established FP7 research project CityZen as one hot spot for detailed investigations of the past and current status of air pollution and its future development on different spatial and temporal scales. Some examples from numerical simulations with the regional multi-scale chemistry transport model EURAD for Central Europe and the Rhine-Ruhr area will be presented. The model calculates the transport, chemical transformations and deposition of trace constituents in the troposphere from the surface up to about 16 km using MM5 as meteorological driver, the RACM-MIM gas-phase chemistry and MADE-SORGAM for the treatment of particulate matter. Horizontal grid sizes are in the range of 100 km down to 1 km for heavily polluted urbanized areas within Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr. The planetary boundary layer is resolved by 15

  10. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  11. Integrating a street-canyon model with a regional Gaussian dispersion model for improved characterisation of near-road air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah-Shorshani, Masoud; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    The development and use of dispersion models that simulate traffic-related air pollution in urban areas has risen significantly in support of air pollution exposure research. In order to accurately estimate population exposure, it is important to generate concentration surfaces that take into account near-road concentrations as well as the transport of pollutants throughout an urban region. In this paper, an integrated modelling chain was developed to simulate ambient Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in a dense urban neighbourhood while taking into account traffic emissions, the regional background, and the transport of pollutants within the urban canopy. For this purpose, we developed a hybrid configuration including 1) a street canyon model, which simulates pollutant transfer along streets and intersections, taking into account the geometry of buildings and other obstacles, and 2) a Gaussian puff model, which resolves the transport of contaminants at the top of the urban canopy and accounts for regional meteorology. Each dispersion model was validated against measured concentrations and compared against the hybrid configuration. Our results demonstrate that the hybrid approach significantly improves the output of each model on its own. An underestimation appears clearly for the Gaussian model and street-canyon model compared to observed data. This is due to ignoring the building effect by the Gaussian model and undermining the contribution of other roads by the canyon model. The hybrid approach reduced the RMSE (of observed vs. predicted concentrations) by 16%-25% compared to each model on its own, and increased FAC2 (fraction of predictions within a factor of two of the observations) by 10%-34%.

  12. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    1999-01-01

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  13. Air pollution test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, E; Sugano, S; Fukui, S

    1974-06-01

    Vanadium exists in heavy oil as a chelate with mesoporphiline methyl ester, and the combustion ash of the oil may contain up to 80 percent of its oxides. Air is sampled in a standard way and to each 50 ml of the sample and blank solutions, add 5 ml of phosphoric acid and 2 ml of 10 percent ammonium sulfamate solution. After 10 min, the solution is titrated with potassium permanganate until it becomes purple. Two ml of hydrochloric acid and 10 ml of N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine benzene solution are added and shaken for 30 sec. The benzene layer is washed with several portions of 2 ml HCl until no coloration of the HCl solution is visible. The benzene layer is transferred to a colorimetric tube and dried with granular calcium chloride. The absorbance is measured near 530 nm and the concentration is determined from a calibration curve previously prepared.

  14. Spatio-temporal modelling of atmospheric pollution based on observations provided by an air quality monitoring network at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to the spatio-temporal modelling of air pollution at a regional scale using a set of statistical methods in order to treat the measurements of pollutant concentrations (NO 2 , O 3 ) provided by an air quality monitoring network (AIRPARIF). The main objective is the improvement of the pollutant fields mapping using either interpolation methods based on the spatial or spatio-temporal structure of the data (spatial or spatio-temporal kriging) or some algorithms taking into account the observations, in order to correct the concentrations simulated by a deterministic model (Ensemble Kalman Filter). The results show that nitrogen dioxide mapping based only on spatial interpolation (kriging) gives the best results, while the spatial repartition of the monitoring sites is good. For the ozone mapping it is the sequential data assimilation that leads us to a better reconstruction of the plume's form and position for the analyzed cases. Complementary to the pollutant mapping, another objective was to perform a local prediction of ozone concentrations on a 24-hour horizon; this task was performed using Artificial Neural Networks. The performance indices obtained using two types of neural architectures indicate a fair accuracy especially for the first 8 hours of prediction horizon. (author)

  15. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  16. Methods for Online Monitoring of Air Pollution Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel, Ioana; Popescu, Francisc

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global environmental problem that represents a measure of the potential of the climate change rate influenced by local pollution sources, although its scale has a strong regional or local orientation. Improvements in technology supported by policy measures have lead to reduced pollution levels, but still, especially in new member states, more activity is needed. In developed countries advanced low pollution technique is applied in order to reduce the pollution levels Howeve...

  17. Implementation and testing of a simple data assimilation algorithm in the regional air pollution forecast model, DEOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendall, Jan; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple data assimilation algorithm based on statistical interpolation has been developed and coupled to a long-range chemistry transport model, the Danish Eulerian Operational Model (DEOM), applied for air pollution forecasting at the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Denmark....... In this paper, the algorithm and the results from experiments designed to find the optimal setup of the algorithm are described. The algorithm has been developed and optimized via eight different experiments where the results from different model setups have been tested against measurements from the EMEP...... (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) network covering a half-year period, April-September 1999. The best performing setup of the data assimilation algorithm for surface ozone concentrations has been found, including the combination of determining the covariances using the Hollingsworth method...

  18. Verification of a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model for year-long predictions in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, P.J.; Blockley, A.; Rayner, K.

    2001-01-01

    A prognostic air pollution model (TAPM) has been used to predict meteorology and sulphur dioxide concentration in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia for 1997, with a view to verifying TAPM for use in environmental impact assessments and associated air pollution studies. The regulatory plume model, DISPMOD, developed for the Kwinana region has also been run using both an observationally based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-O) and using a TAPM-based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-T). TAPM predictions of the meteorology for 1997 compare well with the observed values at each of the five monitoring sites. Root mean square error and index of agreement values for temperature and winds indicate that TAPM performs well at predicting the meteorology, compared to the performance of similar models from other studies. The yearly average, 99.9 percentile, maximum and mean of the top 10 ground-level sulphur dioxide concentrations for 1997 were predicted well by all of the model runs, although DISPMOD-O and DISPMOD-T tended to overpredict extreme statistics at sites furthest from the sources. Overall, TAPM performed better than DISPMOD-O, which in turn performed better than DISPMOD-T, for all statistics considered, but we consider that all three sets of results are sufficiently accurate for regulatory applications. The mean of the top ten concentrations is generally considered to be a robust performance statistic for air pollution applications, and we show that compared to the site-averaged observed value of 95μgm -3 , TAPM predicted 94μgm -3 , DISPMOD-O predicted 111μgm -3 and DISPMOD-T predicted 125μgm -3 . The results indicate that the prognostic meteorological and air pollution approach to regulatory modelling used by TAPM, gives comparable or better results than the current regulatory approach used in the Kwinana region (DISPMOD), and also indicates that the approach of using a currently accepted regulatory model with a prognostically

  19. Air pollution in Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyger, H.; Palmgren Jensen, F.; Kemp, K.

    1976-03-01

    Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)

  20. Air pollution and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Lave, Lester B

    2013-01-01

    Upon competition of a ten year research project which analyzes the effect of air pollution and death rates in US cities, Lester B. Lave and Eugene P. Seskin conclude that the mortality rate in the US could shrink by seven percent with a similar if not greater decline in disease incidence if industries followed EPA regulations in cutting back on certain pollutant emissions. The authors claim that this reduction is sufficient to add one year to average life expectancy. Originally published in 1977.

  1. Air pollution effects on Quercus Ilex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavone, P.; Salmeri, C.; Spampinato, G.; Fallico, R.; Ferrante, M.

    1996-01-01

    To test air pollution effects on natural forest vegetation, the soil chemistry and the floristic composition of two Quercus ilex L. woods in the Hyblean region (S-E Sicily), unequally exposed to air pollutants are compared. Acidification phenomena are investigated by the soil chemical changes between the trunk base areas, affected by stem flow water, and the surrounding soil, only influenced by canopy drip. Soil chemical changes, floristic poorness and direct damage to the Q. ilex leaves are only detected in the Climiti Mountains holm-oak woods, located near the Siracusa petrochemical complex, while they do not appear at Cava d'Ispica, sited far from any industry and seldom exposed to winds carrying pollutants

  2. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Qiang; Gouldson, Andy; He, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO 2 , 28% of NO x , 26% of PM 2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM 2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM 2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m −3 , the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies. (letter)

  3. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  4. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  5. QUANTIFYING SUBGRID POLLUTANT VARIABILITY IN EULERIAN AIR QUALITY MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to properly assess human risk due to exposure to hazardous air pollutants or air toxics, detailed information is needed on the location and magnitude of ambient air toxic concentrations. Regional scale Eulerian air quality models are typically limited to relatively coar...

  6. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  7. Impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost: A crucial way to communicate the health risks of air pollution to the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Guo, Xinbiao; Li, Guoxing

    2018-04-01

    Limited studies have explored the impacts of exposure to sustained high levels of air pollution (air pollution wave) on mortality. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of air pollution wave has been increasing in highly polluted regions recently, understanding the impacts of air pollution wave is crucial. In this study, air pollution wave was defined as 2 or more consecutive days with air pollution index (API) > 100. The impacts of air pollution wave on years of life lost (YLL) due to non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory deaths were evaluated by considering both consecutive days with high levels of air pollution and daily air pollution levels in Tianjin, China, from 2006 to 2011. The results showed the durational effect of consecutive days with high levels of air pollution was substantial in addition to the effect of daily air pollution. For instance, the durational effect was related to an increase in YLL of 116.6 (95% CI: 4.8, 228.5) years from non-accidental deaths when the air pollution wave was sustained for 4 days, while the corresponding daily air pollution's effect was 121.2 (95% CI: 55.2, 187.1) years. A better interpretation of the health risks of air pollution wave is crucial for air pollution control policy making and public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Air pollution and motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzi, L.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the effects of fuel chemical composition and fuel-air mixture on the composition of combustion exhaust gases produced by automotive spark ignition and diesel engines. This analysis considers several aspects: the merits of unleaded gasolines, Italian legal limits on the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline, limits on the sulfur content of diesel fuels, and proposed European Communities limits on automobile air pollution. The paper concludes with an assessment of the cost effective performance of different types of catalytic converters now available on the market

  9. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  10. Air pollution impacts on forests in changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lorenz; N. Clarke; E. Paoletti; A. Bytnerowicz; N. Grulke; N. Lukina; H. Sase; J. Staelens

    2010-01-01

    Growing awareness of air pollution effects on forests has, from the early 1980s on, led to intensive forest damage research and monitoring. This has fostered air pollution control, especially in Europe and North America, and to a smaller extent also in other parts of the world. At several forest sites in these regions, there are first indications of a recovery of...

  11. Air Pollution Manual, Part 1--Evaluation. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giever, Paul M., Ed.

    Due to the great increase in technical knowledge and improvement in procedures, this second edition has been prepared to update existing information. Air pollution legislation is reviewed. Sources of air pollution are examined extensively. They are treated in terms of natural sources, man-made sources, metropolitan regional emissions, emission…

  12. The impact of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" on PM2.5 concentrations in Jing-Jin-Ji region during 2012-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Siyi; Wang, Yangjun; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Chang, Xing; Hao, Jiming

    2017-02-15

    In order to cope with heavy haze pollution in China, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan including phased goals of the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was issued in 2013. In this study, China's emission inventories in the baseline 2012 and the future scenarios of 2017 and 2020 have been developed based on this Action Plan. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the most polluted regions in China, was taken as a case to assess the impact of phased emission control measures on PM 2.5 concentration reduction using WRF-CMAQ model system. With the implementation of the Action Plan, the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ) , PM 2.5 , non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH 3 ) in 2017 will decrease by36%, 31%, 30%,12%, and -10% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. In 2020, the emissions of SO 2 , NO X, PM 2.5 , NMVOC, and NH 3 will decrease by 40%, 44%, 40%, 22%, and -3% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. Consequently, the ambient annual PM 2.5 concentration under the scenarios of 2017 and 2020 will be 28.3% and 37.8% lower than those in 2012, respectively. The Action Plan provided an effective approach to alleviate PM 2.5 pollution level in Jing-Jin-Ji region. However, emission control of NMVOC and NH 3 should be paid more attention and be strengthened in future. Meanwhile, emission control of NO x , SO 2 , NH 3 and NMVOC synergistically are highly needed in the future because multiple pollutants impact on PM 2.5 and O 3 concentrations nonlinearly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerosol optical properties in the mega-cities Beijing and Guangzhou: Measurements and implications for regional air pollution, aerosol sources and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Yang, H.; Schmid, O.; Rose, D.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured in two mega-city regions in China. The first site (Backgarden) was in a rural area approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in south China and was part of the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta" intensive campaign in July 2006 (PRIDE-PRD2006). The second site (Yufa) was in a suburban area approximately 40 km south of Beijing and was part of "Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing" (CAREBeijing-2006) in August 2006. Both sites were designed to measure the regional pollution of the mega-cities. The optical parameters determined with a nephelometer and photoacoustic spectrometer include absorption and scattering coefficients, single scattering albedos and Angstrom exponents at multiple wavelengths (450-700 nm). In both measurement campaigns, we observed pronounced diurnal cycles in absorption and scattering coefficients and single scattering albedo, which can be explained by boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced light absorbing carbon emissions from traffic activity during the nighttime and early morning, respectively (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic). In Beijing both the extensive and the intensive properties were highly dependent upon the origin of the air mass, which indicates that not only does the aerosol concentration change with air mass origin, but so do the chemical composition and sources. When the measured air masses originated in the north and passed over Beijing, the single scattering albedo was generally low (transported into the city from the south. The scattering and absorption coefficients measured in the outflow of the Guangzhou area during PRIDE-PRD2006 were ~2 times smaller than the southerly inflow into Beijing during CARBeijing-2006, which indicates that the sources of particulate pollution south of Beijing are even stronger than those in the Pearl River Delta. In both mega-city regions the Angstrom exponent exhibited a

  14. A modeling study of the nonlinear response of fine particles to air pollutant emissions in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region has been suffering from the most severe fine-particle (PM2. 5 pollution in China, which causes serious health damage and economic loss. Quantifying the source contributions to PM2. 5 concentrations has been a challenging task because of the complicated nonlinear relationships between PM2. 5 concentrations and emissions of multiple pollutants from multiple spatial regions and economic sectors. In this study, we use the extended response surface modeling (ERSM technique to investigate the nonlinear response of PM2. 5 concentrations to emissions of multiple pollutants from different regions and sectors over the BTH region, based on over 1000 simulations by a chemical transport model (CTM. The ERSM-predicted PM2. 5 concentrations agree well with independent CTM simulations, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.99 and mean normalized errors less than 1 %. Using the ERSM technique, we find that, among all air pollutants, primary inorganic PM2. 5 makes the largest contribution (24–36 % to PM2. 5 concentrations. The contribution of primary inorganic PM2. 5 emissions is especially high in heavily polluted winter and is dominated by the industry as well as residential and commercial sectors, which should be prioritized in PM2. 5 control strategies. The total contributions of all precursors (nitrogen oxides, NOx; sulfur dioxides, SO2; ammonia, NH3; non-methane volatile organic compounds, NMVOCs; intermediate-volatility organic compounds, IVOCs; primary organic aerosol, POA to PM2. 5 concentrations range between 31 and 48 %. Among these precursors, PM2. 5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC + IVOC, and POA. The sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NOx and decrease slightly for POA and NMVOC + IVOC with the increase in the emission reduction ratio, which illustrates the nonlinear relationships between precursor emissions and PM

  15. A modeling study of the nonlinear response of fine particles to air pollutant emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Shuxiao; Xing, Jia; Chang, Xing; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Gu, Yu; Jang, Carey; Fu, Joshua S.; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Jiandong; Lin, Yan; Hao, Jiming

    2017-10-01

    The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region has been suffering from the most severe fine-particle (PM2. 5) pollution in China, which causes serious health damage and economic loss. Quantifying the source contributions to PM2. 5 concentrations has been a challenging task because of the complicated nonlinear relationships between PM2. 5 concentrations and emissions of multiple pollutants from multiple spatial regions and economic sectors. In this study, we use the extended response surface modeling (ERSM) technique to investigate the nonlinear response of PM2. 5 concentrations to emissions of multiple pollutants from different regions and sectors over the BTH region, based on over 1000 simulations by a chemical transport model (CTM). The ERSM-predicted PM2. 5 concentrations agree well with independent CTM simulations, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.99 and mean normalized errors less than 1 %. Using the ERSM technique, we find that, among all air pollutants, primary inorganic PM2. 5 makes the largest contribution (24-36 %) to PM2. 5 concentrations. The contribution of primary inorganic PM2. 5 emissions is especially high in heavily polluted winter and is dominated by the industry as well as residential and commercial sectors, which should be prioritized in PM2. 5 control strategies. The total contributions of all precursors (nitrogen oxides, NOx; sulfur dioxides, SO2; ammonia, NH3; non-methane volatile organic compounds, NMVOCs; intermediate-volatility organic compounds, IVOCs; primary organic aerosol, POA) to PM2. 5 concentrations range between 31 and 48 %. Among these precursors, PM2. 5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC + IVOC, and POA. The sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NOx and decrease slightly for POA and NMVOC + IVOC with the increase in the emission reduction ratio, which illustrates the nonlinear relationships between precursor emissions and PM2. 5 concentrations. The contributions of primary

  16. Decomposing Air Pollutant Emissions in Asia: Determinants and Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaj, P.; Amann, M.

    2018-01-01

    High levels of air pollution pose an urgent social and public health challenge in many Asian regions. This study evaluates the role of key factors that determined the changes in emission levels in China, India and Japan over the past 25 years. While emissions of air pollutants have been declining in Japan since the 1990s, China and India have experienced a rapid growth in pollution levels in recent years. Around 2005, control measures for sulfur emissions started to deliver expected reduction...

  17. Air pollution and mortality in Barcelona.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyer, J; Castellsagué, J; Sáez, M; Tobias, A; Antó, J M

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Studies conducted in Barcelona reported a short term relation between daily air pollutant values and emergency department admissions for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Air pollution in Barcelona is mainly generated by vehicle exhaust and is below the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. The acute relation between air pollution and mortality was assessed. DESIGN: Daily variations in total mortality, mortality in subjects older ...

  18. The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality: A case study in South Africa. ... the significance of air quality, to value the benefits of air pollution control ... Key words: Air pollution, air quality, workdays lost, mitigating cost.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Traffic Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, modeling of traffic air pollution is discussed with special reference to infrastructures. A number of subjects related to health effects of air pollution and the different types of pollutants are briefly presented. A simple model for estimating the social cost of traffic related air...... and using simple Monte Carlo techniques to obtain a stochastic estimate of the costs of traffic air pollution for infrastructures....... pollution is derived. Several authors have published papers on this very complicated subject, but no stochastic modelling procedure have obtained general acceptance. The subject is discussed basis of a deterministic model. However, it is straightforward to modify this model to include uncertain parameters...

  20. Air pollution from motor vehicle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some aspects of air pollution from motor vehicle emissions as: characteristic primary and secondary pollutants, dependence of the motor vehicle emission from the engine type; the relationship of typical engine emission and performance to air-fuel ratio, transport of pollutants from mobile sources of emissions, as well as some world experiences in the control approaches for exhaust emissions. (author)

  1. Urban Air Pollution Climates Throughout the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditio...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management....

  2. Air pollution modifies floral scent trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S.; Kathilankal, James C.; Fuentes, Jose D.

    Floral hydrocarbons provide essential signals to attract pollinators. As soon as they are emitted to the atmosphere, however, hydrocarbons are destroyed by chemical reactions involving pollutants such as ozone. It is therefore likely that increased air pollution interferes with pollinator attracting hydrocarbon signals. To test this hypothesis, a Lagrangian diffusion model was used to determine the position of air parcels away from hydrocarbon sources and to estimate the rate of chemical destruction of hydrocarbons as air parcels moved across the landscape. The hydrocarbon compounds linalool, β-myrcene, and β-ocimene were chosen because they are known to be common scents released from flowers. The suppressed ambient abundances of volatile organic compounds were determined in response to increased regional levels of ozone, hydroxyl, and nitrate radicals. The results indicate that the documented increases in air pollution concentrations, from pre-industrial to present times, can lead to reductions in volatile compound concentrations insects detect as they pollinate flowers. For highly reactive volatiles the maximum downwind distance from the source at which pollinators can detect the scents may have changed from kilometers during pre-industrial times to scent signals may mean that pollinators spend more time searching for patches and less time foraging. This decrease in pollinator foraging efficiency will simultaneously decrease the pollinator's reproductive output and the amount of pollen flow in flowering plants.

  3. Global and regional trends in particulate air pollution and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, E. W.; Turnock, S. T.; Rigby, R.; Reddington, C. L.; Yoshioka, M.; Johnson, J. S.; Regayre, L. A.; Pringle, K. J.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of air quality has changed rapidly. Here we used the HadGEM3-UKCA coupled chemistry-climate model, integrated exposure-response relationships, demographic and background disease data to provide the first estimate of the changes in global and regional ambient PM2.5 concentrations and attributable health burdens over the period 1960 to 2009. Over this period, global mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations increased by 38%, dominated by increases in China and India. Global attributable deaths increased by 89% to 124% over the period 1960 to 2009, dominated by large increases in China and India. Population growth and ageing contributed mostly to the increases in attributable deaths in China and India, highlighting the importance of demographic trends. In contrast, decreasing PM2.5 concentrations and background disease dominated the reduction in attributable health burden in Europe and the United States. Our results shed light on how future projected trends in demographics and uncertainty in the exposure-response relationship may provide challenges for future air quality policy in Asia.

  4. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  5. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1994-01-01

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  6. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  7. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air pollution with wind and topography in local conditions. An authentic context was provided to the students based on daily up-to-date meteorological data via the Internet in order to estimate air pollution. The results are encouraging given that PET can correlate wind and concentration of air pollutants through reading specialized angular diagrams and weather maps, can recognize the correlation of topography in the concentration of air pollutants, and can describe temperature inversion. However, the PET demonstrated clear difficulties in ability of orientation, in wind naming, and in interpretation of symbols on weather map. Finally, the implications on teaching air pollution are discussed.

  8. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  9. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D

    2008-09-01

    Air pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of gases, liquids and PM (particulate matter). In the modern urban world, PM is principally derived from fossil fuel combustion with individual constituents varying in size from a few nanometres to 10 microm in diameter. In addition to the ambient concentration, the pollution source and chemical composition may play roles in determining the biological toxicity and subsequent health effects. Nevertheless, studies from across the world have consistently shown that both short- and long-term exposures to PM are associated with a host of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischaemia and infarctions, heart failure, arrhythmias, strokes and increased cardiovascular mortality. Evidence from cellular/toxicological experiments, controlled animal and human exposures and human panel studies have demonstrated several mechanisms by which particle exposure may both trigger acute events as well as prompt the chronic development of cardiovascular diseases. PM inhaled into the pulmonary tree may instigate remote cardiovascular health effects via three general pathways: instigation of systemic inflammation and/or oxidative stress, alterations in autonomic balance, and potentially by direct actions upon the vasculature of particle constituents capable of reaching the systemic circulation. In turn, these responses have been shown to trigger acute arterial vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, arrhythmias and pro-coagulant/thrombotic actions. Finally, long-term exposure has been shown to enhance the chronic genesis of atherosclerosis. Although the risk to one individual at any single time point is small, given the prodigious number of people continuously exposed, PM air pollution imparts a tremendous burden to the global public health, ranking it as the 13th leading cause of morality (approx. 800,000 annual deaths).

  10. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 3: Data set for Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. [air pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, A.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Data tables and maps are presented which include background information and experimental data on the Craney Island oil refinery installation experiment. The experiment was to investigate air pollution effects.

  11. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chelyabinsk region (Ural mountains, Russia) through trace-elements and radionuclides: Temporal and spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchintsev, V.D.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Smirnov, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the first results on the analysis of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi which were used to study heavy metal atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk, the center of the iron steel industry of Russia. Moss samples were collected along Bannoe Lake, located 30 km north-west of Magnitogorsk, and were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithernal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna, and by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) at the Geological Institute of RAS, Moscow. Results for a total of 38 elements were obtained, including Pb, Cd, and Cu determined by AAS. The element concentrations in moss samples from this area were compared with those available for the so-called 'Black Triangle' (the territory bordering Poland, Czechia and Slovakia), obtained by the same moss biomonitoring technique. The level of the concentrations of Fe, Cr, and V in the vicinity of Magnitogorsk was found to be 2-2.5 times higher than that of the mean values determined for the 'Black Triangle'; the level of Ni and Cd is of the same order as in the most polluted area of Europe. The concentrations of Zn and Cu tend to be higher in the 'Black Triangle'. The level of As is about 3 times higher in the Urals, whereas concentration of Pb is higher in Europe by a factor of 5. It appeared that concentration of Sb in the examined area has the highest ever published for levels in mosses from atmospheric deposition. The scanning electron microscope adjacent to the XRF analyzer (SEM-XRF) was used to examine the surface of the moss samples. Photographs of identified iron spherulas along with other aerosol particles were made at magnification of 3,500 to 5,000 times. Information on fieldwork in the northern part of the Chelyabinsk region in July, 1998 is reported. (author)

  12. Is air pollution causing landslides in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; McSaveney, Mauri J.

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in China often exceeds "unhealthy" levels, but Chinese air is not only a threat from being breathed: the pollutants may also be causing fatal landslides. Very acid rain from severe air pollution falls widely in southwest China, where coal is a major energy source. We discuss where acid rain may provide an unsuspected link between mining and the fatal 2009 Jiweishan landslide in southwest China; it may have reduced the strength of a thin, calcareous, black sapropelic shale in Jiweishan Mountain by removing cementing carbonate minerals and sapropel matrix. Mining beneath the potential slide mass may not have directly triggered the landslide, but collapse of abandoned adits drained a perched aquifer above a regional black-shale aquiclude. Inflow of acid, oxygenated water and nutrients into the aquiclude may have accelerated the reduction of strength of the weakest rocks and consequently led to rapid sliding of a large rock mass on a layer of weathered shale left composed largely of soft, and slippery talc.

  13. Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse

  14. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  15. Investigation of spatial and historical variations of air pollution around an industrial region using trace and macro elements in tree components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odabasi, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.odabasi@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Forestry Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, 34470 Sariyer, Istanbul (Turkey); Kara, Melik; Ozgunerge Falay, Ezgi; Tuna, Gizem; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Elbir, Tolga [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-15

    Several trace and macro elements (n = 48) were measured in pine needle, branch, bark, tree ring, litter, and soil samples collected at 27 sites (21 industrial, 6 background) to investigate their spatial and historical variation in Aliaga industrial region in Turkey. Concentrations generally decreased with distance from the sources and the lowest ones were measured at background sites far from major sources. Spatial distribution of anthropogenic trace elements indicated that their major sources in the region are the iron-steel plants, ship-breaking activities and the petroleum refinery. Patterns of 40 elements that were detected in most of the samples were also evaluated to assess their suitability for investigation of historical variations. Observed increasing trends of several trace and macro elements (As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, V, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Hg) in the tree-ring samples were representative for the variations in anthropogenic emissions and resulting atmospheric concentrations in Aliaga region. It was shown that lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb) could also be used for the investigation of historical variations due to specific industrial emissions (i.e., petroleum refining). Results of the present study showed that tree components, litter, and soil could be used to determine the spatial variations of atmospheric pollution in a region while tree rings could be used to assess the historical variations. - Highlights: • Iron-steel plants and refinery are the major trace element emitters in Aliaga region. • Tree components, litter and soil reflected the spatial variations of trace elements. • Elements in tree rings represented the historical variations in air pollution.

  16. Reducing Air Pollution from International Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of both traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases.

  17. Long-term Changes in Extreme Air Pollution Meteorology and the Implications for Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei; Wu, Shiliang

    2016-03-31

    Extreme air pollution meteorological events, such as heat waves, temperature inversions and atmospheric stagnation episodes, can significantly affect air quality. Based on observational data, we have analyzed the long-term evolution of extreme air pollution meteorology on the global scale and their potential impacts on air quality, especially the high pollution episodes. We have identified significant increasing trends for the occurrences of extreme air pollution meteorological events in the past six decades, especially over the continental regions. Statistical analysis combining air quality data and meteorological data further indicates strong sensitivities of air quality (including both average air pollutant concentrations and high pollution episodes) to extreme meteorological events. For example, we find that in the United States the probability of severe ozone pollution when there are heat waves could be up to seven times of the average probability during summertime, while temperature inversions in wintertime could enhance the probability of severe particulate matter pollution by more than a factor of two. We have also identified significant seasonal and spatial variations in the sensitivity of air quality to extreme air pollution meteorology.

  18. Evaluating the capability of regional-scale air quality models to capture the vertical distribution of pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solazzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted in the framework of the Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII and aims at the operational evaluation of an ensemble of 12 regional-scale chemical transport models used to predict air quality over the North American (NA and European (EU continents for 2006. The modelled concentrations of ozone and CO, along with the meteorological fields of wind speed (WS and direction (WD, temperature (T, and relative humidity (RH, are compared against high-quality in-flight measurements collected by instrumented commercial aircraft as part of the Measurements of OZone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC programme. The evaluation is carried out for five model domains positioned around four major airports in NA (Portland, Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Dallas and one in Europe (Frankfurt, from the surface to 8.5 km. We compare mean vertical profiles of modelled and measured variables for all airports to compute error and variability statistics, perform analysis of altitudinal error correlation, and examine the seasonal error distribution for ozone, including an estimation of the bias introduced by the lateral boundary conditions (BCs. The results indicate that model performance is highly dependent on the variable, location, season, and height (e.g. surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL or free troposphere being analysed. While model performance for T is satisfactory at all sites (correlation coefficient in excess of 0.90 and fractional bias ≤ 0.01 K, WS is not replicated as well within the PBL (exhibiting a positive bias in the first 100 m and also underestimating observed variability, while above 1000 m, the model performance improves (correlation coefficient often above 0.9. The WD at NA airports is found to be biased in the PBL, primarily due to an overestimation of westerly winds. RH is modelled well within the PBL, but in the free troposphere large

  19. Combined air and water pollution control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  20. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Wibowo, Firmanul Catur; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-01-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research and Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator. (paper)

  1. Catalytic control of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, J.E.; Summers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Improving the quality of our environment has become a growing concern in this country and around the globe. Research efforts in this field have recently been accelerated by the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act. This book reports on a symposium that is part of a continuing series on the surface science of catalysis. Including stationary and mobile source chapters alike in one volume allows the reader to note the similarities and differences between the two fields and possibly to apply ideas from one area to the other. The coverage is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to serve as a survey of some of the most current topics of interest in this field. The intended audience for this book is the chemist or engineer interested in pollution control, or prevention, or both in the automotive, chemical, petroleum, and other industries, or otherwise involved in the environmental applications of catalysts

  2. An inexact bi-level simulation–optimization model for conjunctive regional renewable energy planning and air pollution control for electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yizhong; He, Li; Li, Jing; Cheng, Xi; Lu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed model developed for power generation and pollutants mitigation. • Dynamic integration of bi-level programming with uncertainty analyses. • Application of the novel bi-level model for EPS in Fengtai District. • Development of renewable energy under different probability levels. - Abstract: In this study, an IBSOM (inexact bi-level simulation–optimization model) is developed for conjunctive regional renewable energy planning and air pollution control for EPS (electric power systems) under uncertainty. The IBSOM integrates techniques of CFMTVW (combined forecasting model with time-varying weights), ILP (interval linear programming), MIP (mixed integer programming), CCP (chance-constrained programming), as well as BLP (bi-level programming) into a general framework. In the IBSOM, uncertainties expressed as interval and stochastic parameters within multi-period and multi-option contexts can be effectively tackled. In addition, a leader-follower decision strategy is incorporated into the optimization process where two non-competitive objectives are sequentially proposed, with the environmental sector dominating the upper-level objective (leader’s one) and the energy sector providing the lower-level objective (follower’s one). To solve the proposed model, an improved bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for balancing to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. Then, the IBSOM is applied to a real-world case study of EPS in Fengtai District, Beijing, China. Interval solutions associated with renewable energy development, electricity generation, facility-expansion scheme, as well as pollutants mitigation can be obtained under different system-violation risk. Results indicate that a higher violation risk would lead to a decreased strictness of the constraints or an expanded decision space, which results in the decreased system

  3. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  4. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  5. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  6. Selected Malaysia air quality pollutants assessment using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of PCA, FA, KMO and Bartlett's test were done on five main air quality pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, CO and PM10) from all around Malaysia. From the data analysis obtained, the concentrations of air quality pollutants all around Malaysia starting from 2008 to 2011 were acceptable and the most dominant major ...

  7. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizioli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  8. Measurement of Air Pollutants in the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemitshaw, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the principles, applications and performances of methods to measure gas-phase air pollutants that either utilise passive or active sampling with subsequent laboratory analysis or involve automated "in situ" sampling and analysis. It focuses on air pollutants that have adverse impacts on human health (nitrogen…

  9. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ control of hospitals plays a critical role in protecting both hospital staffs and patients, particularly those who are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of indoor noxious hazards. However, moxibustion in outpatient departments (OPDs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM may be a source of indoor air pollution in hospitals. Some studies have investigated indoor air pollution during moxibustion in Chinese medicine clinics (CMCs and moxibustion rooms, demonstrating elevated air pollutants that pose a threat to the health of medical staff and patients. Our study investigated the indoor air pollutants of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, airborne particulate matter with a diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10 and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5 during moxibustion in an acupuncture and moxibustion room of the OPD in a hospital in Taipei. To evaluate the different control strategies for indoor air pollution from moxibution, a comparison of air pollutants during moxibution among the methods of using alternative old moxa wools, local exhaust ventilation and an air cleaner was conducted. In this study, burning alternative old moxa wools for moxibustion obviously reduced all gaseous pollutants except for aerosols comparing burning fresh moxa wools. Using local exhaust ventilation reduced most of the aerosols after burning moxa. We also found that using an air cleaner was inefficient for controlling indoor air pollutants, particularly gaseous pollutants. Therefore, combining replacing alternative old moxa wools and local exhaust ventilation could be a suitable design for controlling indoor air pollution during moxibustion therapy.

  10. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advance planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, G L

    1972-11-01

    An air quality management program for nitric acid plants emitting pollutants which include nitrogen oxides is proposed. The program consists of the following five phases: an inventory of the handling equipment within the plant, including the identification of potential emission sources in terms of process material balances; source testing (if required); ambient air quality measurements; emission control analysis; and the development of a complete air management plan which includes a balance between air exhausted from buildups and processes and air supplied in a controlled economical manner. Typical NOx air pollution problems associated with nitric acid plants are reviewed along with various approaches to control and by-product recovery.

  12. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  13. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  14. The Interplay of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, H; Ebi, K L; Forsberg, B

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution significantly affects health, causing up to 7 million premature deaths annually with an even larger number of hospitalizations and days of sick leave. Climate change could alter the dispersion of primary pollutants, particularly particulate matter, and intensify the formation of secondary pollutants, such as near-surface ozone. The purpose of the review is to evaluate the recent evidence on the impacts of climate change on air pollution and air pollution-related health impacts and identify knowledge gaps for future research. Several studies modelled future ozone and particulate matter concentrations and calculated the resulting health impacts under different climate scenarios. Due to climate change, ozone- and fine particle-related mortalities are expected to increase in most studies; however, results differ by region, assumed climate change scenario and other factors such as population and background emissions. This review explores the relationships between climate change, air pollution and air pollution-related health impacts. The results highly depend on the climate change scenario used and on projections of future air pollution emissions, with relatively high uncertainty. Studies primarily focused on mortality; projections on the effects on morbidity are needed.

  15. Air pollution: UNCED convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, M.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to United Nations papers delineating the Organization's convention on climate change and strategies concerning the protection of the earth's atmosphere, this booklet presents four papers expressing the views of Italian and American strategists. The central theme is the establishment of current global air pollution trends, the determination of suitable air pollution limits, and the preparation of feasible socio-economic strategies to allow industrialized and developing countries to work together effectively to achieve the proposed global air quality goals

  16. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  17. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, H.R.; Memon, A.A.; Behan, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  18. AQMEII3: the EU and NA regional scale program of the Hemispheric Trasport of Air Pollution Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation builds on the work presented last year at the 14th CMAS meeting and it is applied to the work performed in the context of the AQMEII-HTAP collaboration. The analysis is conducted within the framework of the third phase of AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation Inte...

  19. Persistent organic pollutants (PCBs and OCP in air and soil from Ulaanbaatar and the Lake Hovsgol region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Mamontova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of POPs in soil and air in three urban and rural sites of the Mongolia are presented. The POPs distribution in air repeats the POPs distribution in soil on the area investigated. The POPs levels in soil and air are lower than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC and preliminary permissible concentrations (PPC of PCBs and OCP accepted in Russia. POPs levels in Mongolian soil obtained in the investigation are comparable with those from background areas of the world. POPs levels in Mongolian air are in the frame of concentrations found in the world. The PCB homological pattern in soil near electric power station in Ulaanbaatar is close to homological pattern in PCB technical mixture (Sovol or Arochlor 1254. The homological patterns in soil from other sites changed due to the redistribution of PCB congeners in the environment. The ratio of DDT and its metabolites indicates fresh entrance of DDT in the environment of Mongolia due to the atmospheric transboundary transport from countries using DDT (China, India or from local agricultural sources. Hazard indexes in result from human exposure with POPs in soil and air are lower by 2-4 orders than 1 that denotes the possible default of disturbances in target organ and system. CR under the same scenario corresponds to the first diapason that is taken by population as negligible risk, not differ from usual everyday risks. Such risks don’t require additional measures for the reducing of risks and their levels are a subject of periodical control. The necessity of additional investigation of POPs distribution and the fate in Mongolian environment is indicated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.176 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 69-77

  20. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  2. Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models, a Symmetrical Air Pollution. Model ... process is in compliance with air pollution regula- ..... Ground simulation is achieved through MATLAB package which is based on least-.

  3. Danger in the Air: Air Pollution and Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Borin, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement for human health and well-being. To examine the relationship between cognitive performance and ambient pollution exposure. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Air pollution is a multifaceted toxic chemical mixture capable of assaulting the central nervous system. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on cognitive function in both adults and children. Consistent evidence showed that exposure to air pollution, specifically exposure to particulate matter, caused poor age-related cognitive performance. Living in areas with high levels of air pollution has been linked to markers of neuroinflammation and neuropathology that are associated with neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease-like brain pathologies.

  4. Monitoring an air pollution episode in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-07-01

    Urban air pollution is influenced not only by local emission sources including industry and vehicles, but also greatly by regional atmospheric pollutant transportation from the surrounding areas, especially in developed city clusters, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Taking an air pollution episode in Shenzhen as an example, this paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of the pollution episode and identifies the transport pathways of air pollutants in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Results show that this pollution episode is mainly caused by the local emission of pollutants in PRD and oceanic air masses under specific weather conditions.

  5. RESEARCH AREA -- ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONTROL (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has conducted several research projects for evaluating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the control of pollution control systems an...

  6. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strefler, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar; Meinshausen, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  7. Outdoor air pollution and sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Rafael; García-Blàquez, Núria; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-15

    Exposure to air pollution has been clearly associated with a range of adverse health effects, including reproductive toxicity, but its effects on male semen quality are still unclear. We performed a systematic review (up to June 2016) to assess the impact of air pollutants on sperm quality. We included 17 semi-ecological, panel, and cohort studies, assessing outdoor air pollutants, such as PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, and O3, and their effects on DNA fragmentation, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. Thirteen studies assessed air pollution exposure measured environmentally, and six used biomarkers of air pollution exposure (two did both). We rated the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and assessed with the exposure method. Taking into account these factors and the number of studies finding significant results (positive or negative), the evidence supporting an effect of air pollution on DNA fragmentation is weak but suggestive, on sperm motility is limited and probably inexistent, on lower sperm count is inconclusive, and on sperm morphology is very suggestive. Because of the diversity of air pollutants and sperm parameters, and the studies' designs, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. In summary, most studies concluded that outdoor air pollution affects at least one of the four semen quality parameters included in the review. However, results lack consistency, and furthermore, studies were not comparable. Studies using standardized air pollution and semen measures are required to obtain more reliable conclusions. CRD42015007175. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  9. The role of micronutrients in the response to air pollutants ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    People living in regions of low socioeconomic status are thought to be prone to higher exposures to environmental pollutants, poor nutrition, and numerous preventable diseases and infections. Poverty correlates with pollution and malnutrition, however limited studies examined their interrelationship. The well-studied, deleterious health effects attributed to environmental pollutants and poor nutrition may act in combination to produce more severe adverse health outcomes than any one factor alone. Deficiency in specific nutrients render the body more susceptible to injury which may influence the pathways that serve as the mechanistic responses to air pollutants. This review (1) explores specific micronutrients that are of global concern, (2) explains how these nutrients may impact the body’s response to ambient air pollution, and (3) provides guidance on designing animal models of nutritional deficiency. It is likely that those individuals who reside in regions of high ambient air pollution are similarly malnourished. Therefore, it is important that research identifies specific nutrients of concern and their impact in identified regions of high ambient air pollution. The purpose of the current paper is to (1) provide an understanding of the known nutrients of concern worldwide. Selected nutrients will be discussed in depth in the following sections based on information from the World Health Organization, World Food Programme data, and also demonstrate risk of

  10. Air pollution monitoring - a methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkovska Trpevska, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Methodology for monitoring the emission of polluters in the air is a complex concept that in general embraces following fazes: sampling, laboratory treatment, and interpretation of results. In Company for technological and laboratory investigation and environmental protection - Mining Institute Skopje, the control of emission of polluters in the air is performing according methodology based in general on the recommendation of standard VDI 2.066 prescribe from Ministry of Ecology in Germany, because adequate legislation in our country does not exist. In this article the basic treatment of methodology for the air polluters emission control is presented. (Original)

  11. Influence of air pollution upon plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, E

    1963-01-01

    This talk, which was given at a symposium concerned with pollution of the air, arranged by the Societas Biochemica Biophysica et Microbiologica of Finland, deals with the influence exerted by air pollution upon plants, and upon trees in particular. Mention is made of the gases which have in Finland caused pollution of the air and have damaged plants (SO/sub 2/, Cl, gases containing chlorates, and the smoke from coal and liquid fuel). The effect of these substances, and of their varying concentrations, is reported, together with the effect of forms of dirt, especially with respect to coniferous trees.

  12. Surface ozone and carbon monoxide levels observed at Oki, Japan: regional air pollution trends in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Helena Akhter; Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2011-03-01

    Simultaneous ground-based measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide were performed at Oki, Japan, from January 2001 to September 2002 in order to investigate the O(3) and CO characteristics and their distributions. The observations revealed that O(3) and CO concentrations were maximum in springtime and minimum in the summer. The monthly averaged concentrations of O(3) and CO were 60 and 234 ppb in spring and 23 and 106 ppb in summer, respectively. Based on direction, 5-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis was carried out to determine the transport path of air masses, preceding their arrival at Oki. Comparison between classified results from present work and results from the year 1994-1996 was carried out. The O(3) and CO concentration results of classified air masses in our analysis show similar concentration trends to previous findings; highest in the WNW/W, lowest in N/NE and medium levels in NW. Moreover, O(3) levels are higher and CO levels are lower in the present study in all categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  14. Spatial-temporal Variations and Source Apportionment of typical Heavy Metals in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China Based on Localized Air Pollutants Emission Inventory and WRF-CMAQ modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Liu, S.; Zhu, C.; Liu, H.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of air pollutants have caused worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available emission factors for varied source categories, we established the comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of hazardous air pollutants including 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of China for the period of 2012 for the first time. The annual emissions of these pollutants were allocated at a high spatial resolution of 9km × 9km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Notably, the total heavy metal emissions from this region represented about 10.9% of the Chinese national total emissions. The areas with high emissions of heavy metals were mainly concentrated in Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Tianjin. Further, WRF-CMAQ modeling system were applied to simulate the regional concentration of heavy metals to explore their spatial-temporal variations, and the source apportionment of these heavy metals in BTH region was performed using the Brute-Force method. Finally, integrated countermeasures were proposed to minimize the final air pollutants discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China. Keywords: heavy metals; particulate matter; emission inventory; CMAQ model; source apportionment Acknowledgment. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21377012 and 21177012) and the Trail Special Program of Research on the Cause and Control Technology of Air Pollution under the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0201501).

  15. Epiphytic lichens and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, T

    1978-01-01

    The WHEN workgroup has made an inventory of the epiphytic lichens on freestanding trees in The Netherlands, using a 5 km square-grid as a basis. On the basis of the number of lichen species per tree species per square, the squares were divided into six classes of epiphyte richness. The data for the west of the country were analyzed in more detail, resulting in a zone map. It appeared possible to construct a descriptive model of the correlation between SO/sub 2/ concentrations and epiphyte richness. At median winter SO/sub 2/ concentrations higher than 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ only a few insensitive species occur. At lower concentrations winter peak values (98 percentile) are more important than median ones. The extent to which a species is restricted to epiphyte-rich squares is used as a measure for ranking the species according to sensitivity. The more sensitive species have disappeared from large areas of The Netherlands. Comparison of the present situation with data from around 1950 reveals a decline almost everywhere in the country. The southern and western parts of the country are impoverished, the area between Rotterdam and Den Haag and the area between Arnhem and Nijmegen in particular have become very poor. A further decline of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, in particular of the relatively rich areas, is expected. In fumigation experiments, using HF, SO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, O/sub 3/ and O/sub 3/ combined with SO/sub 2/ at realistic concentrations and prolonged exposition it was found that these air pollutants cause (under glasshouse conditions) significant morphological damage to all or some of the tested lichen species.

  16. Air pollution studies in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions) using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, E.V.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Povtorejko, E.A.; Steinnes, E.; Cheremisina, Ye.N.

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived

  17. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  18. Measurements of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons at Chichi-jima island, a remote island in the western Pacific: long-range transport of polluted air from the Pacific rim region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shungo; Pochanart, Pakpong; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    Chichi-jima island is located in the Pacific about 1000 km from the Japanese main island and is an ideal remote observatory from which to assess the long-range transport of polluted air from East Asia. The ozone concentration was measured from August 1997 to August 1998. Owing to the air mass change, the seasonal variation of ozone shows a distinct character: low concentration (about 13 ppbv) for the maritime air mass during the summer, and high concentration (about 40 ppbv) for the continental air mass during the winter. To assess the contribution of the long-range transport of polluted air during winter, nonmethane hydrocarbons were also measured in December 1999. Using backward trajectory analysis, the transport time of the air mass from the source area in the Pacific rim region was calculated for each sample. The concentration of hydrocarbons shows a clear negative correlation against the transport time. This analysis clearly shows the transport of polluted air, emitted in East Asia, to the Pacific during the winter. The plots of suitable hydrocarbon pairs showed that the decrease of hydrocarbon concentrations during winter is mainly caused by the mixing with clean background air.

  19. Air Pollution Control and Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue addresses air pollution control and waste management, two environmental problems that are usually considered separately. Indeed, one of the challenges of environmental protection is that problems are addressed in 'media-specific' ways. In reality, these problem...

  20. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  1. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  2. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111: 1861- ... error: function() { console.log("An error occurred while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> ... LUNG HEALTH INFORMATION Lung Disease List Warning Signs of Lung Disease ...

  3. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how emissions reductions, advancements in fuels and fuel economy, and working with industry to find solutions to air pollution problems benefit human and environmental health, create consumer savings and are cost effective.

  4. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, air pollutants can induce respiratory mortality and morbidity by leading to airway and lung inflammation and impairing the airway defence system against noxious agents and microorganisms such as mycobacteria TB.

  5. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  6. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  7. Climate, air pollution, and chronic bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawther, P J

    1958-01-01

    Air pollution (SO/sub 2/ and smoke) was correlated with simple, 4-degree diary records of a group of 180 bronchitic patients for the winter of 1955 to 1956. Obvious connection during the winter months disappears in the spring with the decrease in pollution levels.

  8. Pattern recognition methods in air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, S

    1978-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition methods for predicting air pollution developments is discussed. Computer analysis of historical pollution data allows comparison in graphical form. An example of crisis prediction for carbon monoxide concentrations, using the pattern recognition method of analysis, is presented. Results of the analysis agreed well with actual CO conditions. (6 graphs, 4 references, 1 table)

  9. Air Pollution Tracking using PDEs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    they can be used to predict the impact of polluting industrial plants on, e.g., ... describes where the pollutant material is generated and its power. Besides the time .... where [ , ], is a vector (or vector valued function) representing the wind- speed ...

  10. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otra, C.; Sala, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  11. Passive air sampling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and emerging compounds in Kolkata megacity and rural mangrove wetland Sundarban in India: An approach to regional monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Estellano, Victor H; Mitra, Soumita; Audi, Ondrej; Kukucka, Petr; Přibylová, Petra; Klánová, Jana; Corsolini, Simonetta

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed concurrently at five sites across Kolkata megacity and the rural mangrove wetland of Sundarban (UNESCO World Heritage Site) between January-March in 2014. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltricholoroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derived air concentrations (pg/m 3 ) for Kolkata ranged: for ∑α- and γ-HCH between 70 and 207 (114 ± 62), ∑ 6 DDTs: 127-216 (161 ± 36), ∑ 7 PCBs: 53-213 (141 ± 64), and ∑ 10 PBDEs: 0.30-23 (11 ± 9). Low values for all the studied POPs were recorded in the remote area of the Sundarban site (with the exception of DDTs: o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), where ∑ 4 DDTs was 161 ± 36. In particular, the site of Ballygunge, located in the southern part of Kolkata, showed the highest level of all the metabolites/congeners of POPs, suggesting a potential hot spot of usage and emissions. From HCHs, α-/γ-HCH isomers ratio was low (0.67-1.96) indicating a possible sporadic source of lindane. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal (at 3 sites) reflecting wide spread use of lindane both in Kolkata and the Sundarban region; however, isomeric composition in Kolkata also suggests potential technical HCHs use. Among DDT metabolites, both o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT shared the dominant percentages accounting for ∼26-46% of total DDTs followed by p,p'-DDE (∼12-19%). The PCB congener profile was dominated by tri- and tetra-Cl at the southern and eastern part of Kolkata. These results are one of the few contributions that reports air concentrations of POPs, concurrently, at urban and remote villages in India. These data are useful to assess atmospheric pollution levels and to motivate local and regional authorities to better understand the potential human exposure risk associated to urban areas in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  13. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  14. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  15. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone (O3) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions. PMID:27941665

  16. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-12-09

    With China's significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China's air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) During 2006-2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground level ozone (O₃) emerged and worsened; (3) After the winter-long PM 2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  17. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1 The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2 During 2006–2012, new instruments which interact with political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, and the national goal of reducing total sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions by 10% was achieved. However, regional compound air pollution problems dominated by fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ground level ozone (O3 emerged and worsened; (3 After the winter-long PM2.5 episode in eastern China in 2013, air pollution control policies have been experiencing significant changes on multiple fronts. In this work we analyze the different policy changes, the drivers of changes and key factors influencing the effectiveness of policies in these three stages. Lessons derived from the policy evolution have implications for future studies, as well as further reforming the management scheme towards air quality and health risk oriented directions.

  18. Legal aspects of transfrontier air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution deals with the technical developments and the necessary adaptation of the legal and social systems in the various states. The author first discusses provisions of international law with regard to giving proof of environmental pollution caused by a neighbour state. He then deals with the legal aspects of long-distance air pollution. Finally, the Federal German substantial air pollution control law and relevant licensing provisions are taken as an example to show how the Federal Republic of Germany comes up to the obligations set by international law, to provide for due protection of the environment in neighbour states. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.

    1999-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  20. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium. As we consider the potential health impacts of a warming planet, the relationships between climate change and air pollutants become increasingly important to understand. These relationships are complex and highly variable, causing a variety of environmental impacts at local, regional and global scales. Human exposures and health impacts for air pollutants have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures to these pollutants. Research on this topic will provide both state and local governments with the tools and scientific knowledge base to undertake any necessary adaptation of the air pollution regulations and/or public health management systems in the face of climate change.

  1. Monitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Gouveia, M.A.; Prudencio, M.I.; Ferreira, P.; Morgado, I.; Amaro, A.; Fernandes, T.; Dionisio, I.; Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    With this project, a biomonitoring survey will be carried out with epiphytic lichens. The lichens Parmelia sulcata (or caperata) will be collected from olive trees about 1-2 m above the ground, using a 10x10 km grid or 50x50 km gird. In total, about 300 sampling sites will be set up. Within one sampling site, variations in elemental concentrations of lichen material taken from several trees of the same species will be analyzed to obtained the local variation for each element (made in 10% of the grid). In addition some typical soil samples will be collected so that the contribution of soil suspended in air particulate matter can be recognized. The samples will be analyzed for ∼50 elements by NAA and PIXE. The expected results will be integrated data sets, which will be used in the next step for application of a statistical procedure to identify particular pollution sources. The project also consists of exposure experiments with lichen transplant samples at several sampling sites, which are representative for the regions under study. In addition at each sampling site air particular matter and total deposition will be collected monthly, during 1 year. The aim is to establish a quantitative relationship between results obtained with the lichen transplant samples and with air particulate matter and total deposition. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  3. Air Pollution Potential from Electroplating Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Philip

    Measurements were made of emission rates from electroplating operations considered to have maximum air pollution potential. Sampling was performed at McClellan and additional data from a previous survey at Hill Air Force Base was used. Values obtained were extremely low. Based on existing Federal standards, no collectors are specifically required…

  4. Redox Toxicology of Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air pollution is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Millions of Americans live in areas in which levels of tropospheric ozone exceed air quality standards, while exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) alone results in 3.2 million excess deaths annually wor...

  5. [Air pollution, cardiovascular risk and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldevila Bacardit, N; Vinyoles Bargalló, E; Agudo Ugena, J; Camps Vila, L

    2018-04-24

    Air pollution is a worrying factor and has an impact on public health. Multiple studies relate exposure to air pollutants with an increase in cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and mortality for all causes. A relationship has also been demonstrated between increased pollution and high blood pressure, as well as a higher prevalence of hypertension. Pollutants that play a more relevant role in this association are particulate matters, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. The objective of this review is to understand the mechanisms involved in this increase and to find the most recent publications that relate pollution, cardiovascular risk and hypertension. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Traffic-related air pollution - the health effects scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. Air pollution is acknowledged as a public health risk and air quality regulations are set for specific air pollutants to protect human health. A major pollutant, well known for its adverse health

  7. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  8. Effects of air pollution on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1961-01-01

    An appreciable amount of knowledge exists about the effects of community air pollution upon human health. This knowledge comes in part from direct studies of the air pollution health problem and in part from investigations done for other purposes. It is equally apparent that there are many aspects of the subject of the health effects of air pollution on which sound information is lacking. Many years undoubtedly will pass before we have the answers to all the questions involved. Man-made air pollution could be entirely eliminated, but the price that civilization would be required to pay for this would be exorbitant by any standards, whether monetary or otherwise. It is unreasonable to contemplate that we could put a stop to all combustion, the chief source of man-made air pollution. It is logical, however, to consider that the clarification of the air on a qualitatively and quantitatively selective basis is feasible, and in some cases, highly desirable. This can be done, for example, by selectively arresting the contaminants at their source. 404 references.

  9. Air Pollution Episodes Associated with Prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M.; Di Virgilio, G.; Jiang, N.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution events associated with wildfires have been associated with extreme health impacts. Prescribed burns are an important tool to reduce the severity of wildfires. However, if undertaken during unfavourable meteorological conditions, they too have the capacity to trigger extreme air pollution events. The Australian state of New South Wales has increased the annual average area treated by prescribed burn activities by 45%, in order to limit wildfire activity. Prescribed burns need to be undertaken during meteorological conditions that allow the fuel load to burn, while still allowing the burn to remain under control. These conditions are similar to those that inhibit atmospheric dispersion, resulting in a fine balance between managing fire risk and managing ambient air pollution. During prescribed burns, the Sydney air shed can experience elevated particulate matter concentrations, especially fine particulates (PM2.5) that occasionally exceed national air quality standards. Using pollutant and meteorological data from sixteen monitoring stations in Sydney we used generalized additive model and CART analyses to profile the meteorological conditions influencing air quality during planned burns. The insights gained from this study will help improve prescribed burn scheduling in order to reduce the pollution risk to the community, while allowing fire agencies to conduct this important work.

  10. Air pollution impacts from demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.C.; Sandii Win, M.; Hall, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

  11. Air pollution and mortality: A history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. R.

    Mortality is the most important health effect of ambient air pollution and has been studied the longest. The earliest evidence relates to fog episodes but with the development of more precise methods of investigation it is still possible to discern short-term temporal associations with daily mortality at the historically low levels of air pollution that now exist in most developed countries. Another early observation was that mortality was higher in more polluted areas. This has been confirmed by modern cohort studies that account for other potential explanations for such associations. There does not appear to be a threshold of effect within the ambient range of concentrations. Advances in the understanding of air pollution and mortality have been driven by the combined development of methods and biomedical concepts. The most influential methodological developments have been in time-series techniques and the establishment of large cohort studies, both of which are underpinned by advances in data processing and statistical analysis. On the biomedical side two important developments can be identified. One has been the application of the concept of multifactorial disease causation to explaining how air pollution may affect mortality at low levels and why thresholds are not obvious at the population level. The other has been an increasing understanding of how air pollution may plausibly have pathophysiological effects that are remote from the lung interface with ambient air. Together, these advances have had a profound influence on policies to protect public health. Throughout the history of air pollution epidemiology, mortality studies have been central and this will continue because of the widespread availability of mortality data on a large population scale and the weight that mortality carries in estimating impacts for policy development.

  12. Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

  13. Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Arctic is a sentinel of global change. This region is influenced by multiple physical and socio-economic drivers and feedbacks, impacting both the natural and human environment. Air pollution is one such driver that impacts Arctic climate change, ecosystems and health but significant uncertainties still surround quantification of these effects. Arctic air pollution includes harmful trace gases (e.g. tropospheric ozone and particles (e.g. black carbon, sulphate and toxic substances (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can be transported to the Arctic from emission sources located far outside the region, or emitted within the Arctic from activities including shipping, power production, and other industrial activities. This paper qualitatively summarizes the complex science issues motivating the creation of a new international initiative, PACES (air Pollution in the Arctic: Climate, Environment and Societies. Approaches for coordinated, international and interdisciplinary research on this topic are described with the goal to improve predictive capability via new understanding about sources, processes, feedbacks and impacts of Arctic air pollution. Overarching research actions are outlined, in which we describe our recommendations for 1 the development of trans-disciplinary approaches combining social and economic research with investigation of the chemical and physical aspects of Arctic air pollution; 2 increasing the quality and quantity of observations in the Arctic using long-term monitoring and intensive field studies, both at the surface and throughout the troposphere; and 3 developing improved predictive capability across a range of spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  15. Pollutant dispersion models for issues of air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    14 papers entered separately into the data base were presented at the meeting for application-oriented dispersion models for issues of air pollution control. These papers focus on fields of application, availability of required input data relevant to emissions and meteorology, performance and accuracy of these methods and their practicability. (orig./PW) [de

  16. Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D

    2009-11-01

    The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure. We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income. Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.

  17. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  18. Cordon Pricing Considering Air Pollutants Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of air pollutants emission for the optimal and sustainable determination of cordon location, toll level, and price of park and ride (P&R. Although air pollutants emission decreases within the cordon by the implementation of cordon pricing scheme, it may increase outside the cordon and the whole network. Hence, air pollutants emission may only transfer from inside of the cordon to its outside. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-objective bi-level optimization model is developed. A solution algorithm is also presented based on the second version of strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2. The results reveal that this multi-objective model can be a useful tool for the sustainable and optimal design of the cordon and P&R scheme. In addition, cordon pricing is a multi-objective problem. Therefore, it is necessary to consider air pollutants emission. By choosing another non-dominated result in the solution space, air pollutants emission outside the cordon and the whole network can be reduced without a significant reduction in social welfare.

  19. The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    Our results demonstrate the economic impact of air pollution which will provide information that could be used to ... health effects of air pollution in developing countries was used as a basis to design ... Standards for Ambient Air Quality, 2010).

  20. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  1. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1996-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  2. Air pollution epidemiology. Assessment of health effects and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsouyanni, K. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Hygiene and Epidemiology

    1995-12-31

    Air pollution epidemiology is the study of the occurrence and distribution of health outcomes in association with community air pollution exposure. It is therefore specific in the exposure variable. Air pollution health effects became evident during high air pollution episodes which occurred in the first decades of our century. Since then, legal and other control measures have led to lower air pollution levels. However, recent results from several studies indicate that lower levels of air pollution than the previously considered safe have serious adverse health effects. Although, there is increasingly agreement that air pollution, at levels measured today, affects health, there is still a lot to be understood concerning specific causal pollutants, biologic mechanisms involved and sensitive groups of individuals. The extent of potential confounding, time-considerations in air pollution effects, individual variation in air pollution exposure and exposure misclassification are some factors which complicate the study of these issues. (author)

  3. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A.; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA—and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort—MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology. PMID:27741981

  4. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2003-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2002 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases.

  5. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2005-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2004 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  6. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Szemesova, J.; Pukancikova, K.

    2004-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2003 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of rainfall waters; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases

  7. Report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitosinkova, M.; Kozakovic, L.; Zavodsky, D.; Sajtakova, E.; Mareckova, K.; Pukancikova, K.

    2002-01-01

    A report on air quality and contribution of individual sources on its pollution in the Slovak Republic in 2001 is presented. This report consists of two parts: (1) Pollutants part and (2) Emission part. Pollutants part is divided into the following chapters: Regional air pollution and quality of precipitation; Local air pollution; Atmospheric ozone. Emission part is divided into the following chapters: Inventory control of emissions and sources of pollution, Emission of greenhouse gases. Emission limits are included

  8. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G. [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1995-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  9. Air pollution control policy in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutert, G [Forests and Landscape, Berne (Switzerland). Federal Office of Environment

    1996-12-31

    The legal basis of the Swiss air pollution control policy is set by the Federal Law on the Protection of the Environment, which came into force in 1985. It aims to protect human beings, animals and plants, their biological communities and habitats against harmful effects or nuisances and to maintain the fertility of the soil. The law is source-oriented (by emission standards) as well as effect-oriented (by ambient air quality standards). To link both elements a two-stage approach is applied. In the first stage preventive measures are taken at the emitting sources, irrespective of existing air pollution levels. Emissions have to be limited by early preventive measures as much as technical and operational conditions allow and as far as economically acceptable (prevention principle). By this, air pollution shall be kept as low as possible as a matter of principle, without the environment having to be in danger first. In a second stage the measures are strengthened or backed up by additional measures if ambient air quality standards laid down in the Ordinance on Air Pollution Control are exceeded. At this second stage, protection of man and his environment has priority over economic considerations. (author)

  10. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  11. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  12. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  13. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  14. The state of transboundary air pollution: Effects and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This fifth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies, published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention of Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the sixth session of the Executive Body held at Sofia (Bulgaria) from 31 October to 4 November 1988. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country-by-country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two summarizes the results of the third phase (1984-1986) of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP). Part three is an executive summary of the 1987 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. This survey covered more than 50 per cent of all coniferous forests and about 40 per cent of the broadleaved forests in Europe. Part four describes the current geographical extent of acidification in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the ECE region. Part five contains guidelines for determining the cost of emission control activities. The guidelines aim at harmonizing cost estimates and cost accounts for anti-pollution measures at the level of individual plants or companies. The proposed calculation scheme includes cost items related to investment, material and energy consumption, manpower and other costs, taking into account depreciation and revenues from by-product utilization. Refs

  15. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  16. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    (TLBW, restriction (IUGR), and suggest that some subgroups of pregnant women who are smoking, of low or high body-mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status (SES) or asthma are more vulnerable towards...... on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite...... direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women...

  17. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1968-01-01

    There are indications that the fluorine analyses of the leaf tips of tulips grown in glasshouses supply more reliable information about the intensity of HF air pollution than those of the tulips grown in the open. Tomato plants were fumigated just at the start of flowering with ethylene in concentrations of about 0.1-0.2 ppm during 14 days. The plants reacted mainly with flower drop; only a slight epinasty occurred. Continuous attention is paid to the air pollution of an aluminium factory causing leaf injury to trees and shrubs in the surroundings of the industry. Agricultural crops were not affected. Dust and soot deposits on fruit in orchards, originating respectively from the stacks of a cement factory and the stacks of heavy oil heated glasshouses were also investigated. The deposit of these materials caused a lower quality of the fruit, respectively at great distance and in the vicinity of the sources of the air pollution.

  18. the role of industry in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kdeih, Naji

    1998-01-01

    Industry is among the main sources of air pollution in Lebanon. Industrial plants emits dangerous effluents affecting on human health and on population living in industrial zones. Personnel within industries ignore the dangerous effect of substances they use in their work and the toxic effect of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes produced and their impact on health and on environment. A major attention should be paid by Lebanese government to avoid the increasing of atmospheric pollution and must encourage the monitoring of air pollution and its effect on human target organs in the influenced zones. Within industries air is contaminated by gases, vapor, dusts in high rates. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to breathing diseases, Asbestos, arterial high blood pressure, stress, digestive diseases and other

  19. Ambient Air Pollution and Morbidity in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Lawrence, Wayne R; Liu, Yimin; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The rapid economic growth in China is coupled with a severe ambient air pollution, which poses a huge threat to human health and the sustainable development of social economy. The rapid urbanization and industrialization over the last three decades have placed China as one of countries with the greatest disease burden in world. Notably, the prevalence rate of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CND), including respiratory diseases, CVD, and stroke, in 2010 reaches 16.9%. The continuous growth of the incidence of CND urgent needs for effective regulatory action for health protection. This study aims to evaluate the impact of rapid urbanization on status of ambient air pollution and associated adverse health effects on the incidence and the burden of CND and risk assessment. Our findings would be greatly significant in the prediction of the risk of ambient air pollution on CND and for evidence-based policy making and risk management in China.

  20. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhodub, L.S.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2001-01-01

    The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial soluti...

  2. Air pollution and asthma severity in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rage, Estelle; Siroux, Valérie; Künzli, Nino; Pin, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives There is evidence that exposure to air pollution affects asthma, but the effect of air pollution on asthma severity has not been addressed. The aim was to assess the relation between asthma severity during the past 12 months and home outdoor concentrations of air pollution. Methods Asthma severity over the last 12 months was assessed in two complementary ways among 328 adult asthmatics from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) examined between 1991 and 1995. The 4-class severity score integrated clinical events and type of treatment. The 5-level asthma score is based only on the occurrence of symptoms. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were assigned to each residence using two different methods. The first was based on the closest monitor data from 1991–1995. The second consisted in spatial models that used geostatistical interpolations and then assigned air pollutants to the geo-coded residences (1998). Results Higher asthma severity score was significantly related to the 8-hour average of ozone during April-September (O3-8hr) and the number of days (O3-days) with 8-hour ozone averages above 110 μg.m−3 (for a 36-day increase, equivalent to the inter quartile range, in O3-days, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.22 (1.61–3.07) for one class difference in score). Adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, occupational exposure, and educational level did not alter results. Asthma severity was unrelated to NO2. Both exposure assessment methods and severity scores resulted in very similar findings. SO2 correlated with severity but reached statistical significance only for the model based assignment of exposure. Conclusions The observed associations between asthma severity and air pollution, in particular O3, support the hypothesis that air pollution at levels far below current standards increases asthma severity. PMID:19017701

  3. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  4. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in Trondheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannsåker, Bård; Vikan, Torkel; Holme, Jonas

    2004-05-20

    There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway. We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease. In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) on days with NO and NO2 levels above the 80 th percentile (57.6 microg/m3 and 43.1 microg/m3, respectively) than on days with pollutant levels below the 20th percentile (11.3 microg/m3 and 16.9 microg/m3, respectively). Time series analysis did not show any statistically significant correlation between day-to-day variations in air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. The findings regarding NO2 and NO indicate that exposure to gases and/or ultra-small particles from diesel exhaust may influence cardiovascular morbidity.

  5. Air pollutants and the leaf cuticle. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; Jagels, R.; Simpson, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The leaf surface forms the interface between plants and a deteriorating atmospheric environment. It is, therefore, the first point of contact between plants and air pollutants and presents an effective barrier to pollutant entry. Outermost surfaces of leaves are covered by a thin, lipoidal, non-living membrane called a cuticle. Cuticle integrity is essential to plant survival and has many essential functions, including the prevention of excessive water loss, regulation of solute uptake and protection of sensitive underlying photosynthetic tissues against harmful irradiation such as enhanced UV-B resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion. The physicochemical properties of the cuticle vary greatly between and within species. They are known to be sensitive to change through natural and anthropogenic influences. This book comprises contributions made to a NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop ''Air Pollutants and the Leaf Cuticle'' held October 4-9, 1993 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The objective of the ARW was to bring together for the first time international expertise on the subject of air pollutant interactions with the cuticle. In order to facilitate a state-of-science review, the ARW was structured around four themes. They were as follows: 1. Cuticular physicochemical characteristics, physiological, regulatory, and protective roles. 2. Effects, mechanisms, and consequences of air pollutant interaction with leaf cuticles. 3. Non-anthropogenic and environmental influences on the cuticle and potential of the cuticle for biomonitoring and critical levels mapping. 4. New developments in experimental methodology and analytical techniques. (orig./vhe)

  6. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  7. Air Pollution and Other Environmental Modulators of Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, Matthew W; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2017-09-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed regions and a worldwide health concern. Multiple external causes of CVD are well known, including obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, age, and sedentary behavior. Air pollution has been linked with the development of CVD for decades, though the mechanistic characterization remains unknown. In this comprehensive review, we detail the background and epidemiology of the effects of air pollution and other environmental modulators on the heart, including both short- and long-term consequences. Then, we provide the experimental data and current hypotheses of how pollution is able to cause the CVD, and how exposure to pollutants is exacerbated in sensitive states. Published 2017. Compr Physiol 7:1479-1495, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Air pollution hazards in brick kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, M; Srivastava, R S; Minocha, A K; Gupta, R G [Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee (India)

    1994-02-01

    Three types of brick kiln - Bull's trench kiln of movable chimney type, Bull's trench kiln of fixed chimney type, and high draught kiln of normal capacity (25,000-30,000 bricks/day) fed manually with slack coal and other local fuels - were investigated for stack emissions. Dust and hydrocarbons were identified as chief pollutants. Particle size analysis of dust emitted from movable chimney kiln and its impact on ambient air quality were also studied. Based on these studies, recommendations have been drawn on their comparative pollution hazard and need for optimization of operational parameters to improve their thermal performance and reduce pollution emission. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  10. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Cohen, David D.; Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Ni Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Thu Bac Vuong

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  11. Biomass energy, air pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This article reports the negative effects on human health due to the use of biomass for energy. In addition to the emission of nitrogen oxides and of metals, these effects result largely from an incomplete combustion, generating various air pollutants: fine particles, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Four situations are discussed: indoor air pollution due to cooking in developing countries, residential wood combustion for heating, the use of biofuels, and waste incineration. In all cases, negative health effects have been demonstrated, but they can be prevented by appropriate strategies. (author)

  12. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2017-04-20

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  13. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Diane; Solomon, Gina

    2004-01-01

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  14. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaban, Farid

    1998-01-01

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  15. Symposium on turbulence, diffusion, and air pollution, 4th, Reno, NV, January 15-18, 1979, preprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Papers on turbulence, diffusion and air pollution are presented. Major topics include point-source air quality models, point-source air quality studies, geothermal energy and cooling tower studies, wind energy studies, complex terrain diffusion models, complex terrain diffusion studies, the effects of air pollution on visibility, chemical transformations of pollutants, regional air quality studies, urban air quality studies, boundary layer models and experiments, air pollution removal, air quality studies using remote sensing techniques, large-scale and lakeshore air quality studies, the effects of buildings and terrain features on diffusion, and general air quality and diffusion studies

  16. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  17. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmirović, Zorka B.; Unkašević, Miroslava; Lazić, Lazar; Tošić, Ivana

    During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pančevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pančevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

  18. Air pollution monitoring in downtown Rome, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocco, D; Petricca, M; Polesi, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico Assessorato Ambiente, Rome (Italy). Amministrazione Provinciale

    1992-09-01

    This paper tables air pollution data indicating concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMTHC) and particulate matter measured in downtown Rome during the period, April 1990 - March 1991. These data are analyzed according to National Air Quality Standards. Correlations are developed for nitrous oxide, NMTHC and ozone concentration trends as a function of solar radiation intensity. Analysis of the data reveals that the concentrations of the primary pollutants, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide, were very high in the winter months when building heating systems were operating under stable weather conditions. In many cases, the concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeded ambient air quality standards. The paper also discusses the need for the development of limits for NMTHC concentrations and including these limits in the Air Quality Standards.

  19. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliani, E.

    2001-01-01

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO 2 , CO and O 3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  20. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  1. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  2. Controlling Air Pollution; A Primer on Stationary Source Control Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This companion document to "Air Pollution Primer" is written for the nonexpert in air pollution; however, it does assume a familiarity with air pollution problems. This work is oriented toward providing the reader with knowledge about current and proposed air quality legislation and knowledge about available technology to meet these standards for…

  3. Multicontaminant air pollution in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward Ta; Li, Weifeng; Qian, Yuguo

    2018-04-01

    To investigate multicontaminant air pollution in Chinese cities, to quantify the urban population affected and to explore the relationship between air pollution and urban population size. We obtained data for 155 cities with 276 million inhabitants for 2014 from China's air quality monitoring network on concentrations of fine particulate matter measuring under 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), coarse particulate matter measuring 2.5 to 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Concentrations were considered as high, if they exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guideline limits. Overall, 51% (142 million) of the study population was exposed to mean annual multicontaminant concentrations above WHO limits - east China and the megacities were worst affected. High daily levels of four-contaminant mixtures of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 and O 3 and PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 occurred on up to 110 days in 2014 in many cities, mainly in Shandong and Hebei Provinces. High daily levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 and SO 2 occurred on over  146 days in 110 cities, mainly in east and central China. High daily levels of mixtures of PM 2.5 and PM 10 , PM 2.5 and SO 2 , and PM 10 and SO 2 occurred on over  146 days in 145 cities, mainly in east China. Surprisingly, multicontaminant air pollution was less frequent in cities with populations over 10 million than in smaller cities. Multicontaminant air pollution was common in Chinese cities. A shift from single-contaminant to multicontaminant evaluations of the health effects of air pollution is needed. China should implement protective measures during future urbanization.

  4. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  5. Air pollution and floristic biodiversity; Pollution atmospherique et biodiversite floristique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grub, A.; Bungener, P.; Contat, F.; Nussbaum, S.; Endtner, V.; Fuhrer, J. [Station Federale de Recherches en Agroecologie et Agriculture (FAL), Liebefeld-Berne (Switzerland). Institut de Recherches en Protection de l' Environnement et en Agriculture (IUL)

    1999-06-01

    The number of reports on negative effects of air pollution on biodiversity is increasing. Here, examples from the literature are presented which concern effects of fluoride, deposition of nitrogen, and ozone. Today, nitrogen loads and levels of tropospheric ozone seem to be most relevant forms of air pollution affecting species diversity of the flora. Results from recent investigations of ozone effects at Liebefeld indicate that the loss of floristic diversity in permanent meadows is possible because of the high relative sensitivity of some typical species. Further studies will be necessary to validate the results obtained from experiment with single plants at the level of the intact plant community in the field, and to identify the critical level of ozone to protect the floristic biodiversity of meadows. (authors)

  6. A primer on motor vehicle air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This primer presents a brief state-of-the art review of motor vehicle air pollution. Its purpose is to aid highway personnel in understanding the nature of this environmental problem on our highways and to present possible solutions for its abatement...

  7. Air pollution control at a DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curn, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium production program Produced some of the greatest scientific and engineering accomplishments of all time. It is remarkable to consider the accomplishments of the Manhattan Project. The Reactor on the Hanford Site, the first production reactor in the world, began operation only 13 months after the start of construction. The DOE nuclear production program was also instrumental in pioneering other fields such as health physics an radiation monitoring. The safety record of these installations is remarkable considering that virtually every significant accomplishment was on the technological threshold of the time. One other area that the DOE Facilities pioneered was the control of radioactive particles and gases emitted to the atmosphere. The high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) was a development that provided high collection efficiencies of particulates to protect workers and the public. The halogen and noble gases also were of particular concern. Radioactive iodine is captured by adsorption on activated carbon or synthetic zeolites. Besides controlling radioncuclide air pollution, DOE facilities are concerned with other criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutant emissions. The Hanford Site encompasses all those air pollution challenges

  8. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  9. Change of inhabitants consciousness on air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, N; Abe, K; Komuro, K; Oda, M

    1972-11-01

    The consciousness of inhabitants in Isogo Ward, Yokohama City about air pollution was surveyed in 1969 and 1973. A group of industrial factories was partly in operation in 1969 but was in full operation by 1973. Fortunately there was very slight difference in sex ratio, age, occupation, health condition, and smoking habits of the objects between 1969 and 1973. The survey was performed by questionnaires consisting of 43 items. The percentage of positive answers to human impairments in 1969 and 1973 were: 38.7 and 34.2 experience of health damage; 8.1 and 5.4 of eye-irritation; 16.1 and 14.5 of throat-irritation; 5.8 and 13.6 of sneeze; 4.2 and 2.3 of snivel; 9.2 and 10.2 of cough; 3.6 and 17.1 of dyspnea; 5.4 and 7.4 of asthma; and 22.2 and 5.7 of odor. Generally, the largest source of air pollution in this area was auto exhaust followed by factory-exhaust, and the change of inhabitants consciousness about air pollution pointed out the situation. Most inhabitants were pessimistic about the future status of air pollution in the surveys in 1969 and also in 1973.

  10. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

  11. Managing air pollution impacted forests of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Arbaugh; Trent Proctor; Annie Esperanza

    2009-01-01

    Fuel treatments (prescribed fire and mechanical removal) on public lands in California are critical for reducing fuel accumulation and wildfire frequency and severity and protecting private property located in the wildland–urban interface. Treatments are especially needed in forests impacted by air pollution and subject to climate change. High ambient ozone (O

  12. Air pollution exposure modeling of individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  13. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  14. Teaching Air Pollution in an Authentic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Stavrou, Dimitrios; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) about air pollution and the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers (PET) currently undergraduate students of the Department of Primary Education in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The TLS focused on the relation of air…

  15. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  17. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O 3 ), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  18. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Nikolić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  19. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    Slovak air protection legislation is fully identical with the relevant EU legislation. The results of air pollution monitoring in Slovakia in 2004 are summarised in the presented report. The territory of Slovakia was partitioned into 8 zones (identical with administrative counties) and 2 agglomerations (the largest towns Bratislava and Kosice). In 2004 were specified 17 areas with controlled air quality, which totally include 2 774 km 2 and 1 460 000 inhabitants (27 % of population). The Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) maintains national air pollution monitoring network in Slovakia. In 2004, it consisted of 29 real-time monitoring stations, 6 real-time ground level ozone monitoring stations only and 5 regional background stations. The monitoring network was built in accordance with the rules given in EU directives. Only reference or equivalence measuring methods are used. (authors))

  20. Land survey map of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1996-01-01

    The first step toward finding a solution to the problems with air pollution is the realization of a land survey map of polluters and a constant acquisition of data from periodical controls of emission of harmful materials, which will be carried out with a determined dynamic. Such a land survey map is not a project which should be finished within a strict time limit, but is intended to create all conditions for a periodical monitoring of emission of harmful materials from registered polluters in order to make a periodical, exact picture of the quantity of harmful materials, which are conveyed by polluters in certain city, a part of the state or the whole country. (author). 4 ills

  1. Urban Climate and Air Pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Jenny

    2011-05-15

    Africa has recently been singled out by UN Habitat as the fastest urbanizing continent in the world. The most extreme case was found in the Sahelian city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, where the population is expected to almost double over the next ten years. It is well known that the rapid growth of an urban area is among the most important anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and that it has a profound impact on both the urban climate and air quality. Few studies have been focused on cities in the Sahel region, and the lack of information may consequently hinder adaptation to the extreme urbanization rates of these often heavily polluted cities. The main objective of this thesis was to study the nature of, and relationship between, urban climate and air pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Specific objectives were to; examine spatial variations in daily temperature and humidity patterns during early dry season with focus on effects of different land cover; to examine the influence of atmospheric stability on the intra-urban air temperature patterns, the urban wind field and on air pollution levels; and to examine spatial variations in air pollution levels. An additional objective was to document the status and potential development of synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso. Empirical data used in analyses were collected during five field studies between 2003 and 2010. Meteorological and air pollution parameters were measured at fixed sites and through car traverses in areas of different land cover, activity, traffic density and road surface. The most distinct features in thermal patterns found in Ouagadougou were strong intra-urban nocturnal cool islands in vegetated areas, caused by evening evaporative cooling by the vegetation. Extremely stable nocturnal atmospheric conditions were observed during 80 % of days examined in early dry season, during which spatial patterns in temperature and humidity as well as in air pollution were most pronounced

  2. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  3. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  4. Endothelial damage due to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dei Cas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

  5. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  7. Lichens as litmus for air pollution: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L

    1971-01-01

    The literature on the relationships between lichens and air pollution is reviewed, with particular reference to the development of the concepts governing their use as indicators of air pollution levels. Lichens are particularly sensitive to sulfur dioxide which acts by the destruction of chlorophyll. By considering both the species present and their abundance, zones indicative of mean air pollution levels can be quickly mapped. The way in which some species respond in different regions varies and so zonal scales can only be reliably applied in the areas where they were devised. Only in a few cases has it been possible to correlate lichen zones with particular sulfur dioxide concentrations, principally because of a lack of physico-chemical measurements; but even where such correlations are not possible, lichen zones provide a rapid qualitative means of assessing the effects of air pollution. Maps showing the type of data obtained by this method are presented, and a table summarizes the published work on major cities, towns, industrial plants, and in larger geographical regions. 119 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Air pollution in China: Status and spatiotemporal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Congbo; Wu, Lin; Xie, Yaochen; He, Jianjun; Chen, Xi; Wang, Ting; Lin, Yingchao; Jin, Taosheng; Wang, Anxu; Liu, Yan; Dai, Qili; Liu, Baoshuang; Wang, Ya-Nan; Mao, Hongjun

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, China has experienced severe and persistent air pollution associated with rapid urbanization and climate change. Three years' time series (January 2014 to December 2016) concentrations data of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and gaseous pollutants (SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, and O 3 ) from over 1300 national air quality monitoring sites were studied to understand the severity of China's air pollution. In 2014 (2015, 2016), annual population-weighted-average (PWA) values in China were 65.8 (55.0, 50.7) μg m -3 for PM 2.5 , 107.8 (91.1, 85.7) μg m -3 for PM 10 , 54.8 (56.2, 57.2) μg m -3 for O 3 _8 h, 39.6 (33.3, 33.4) μg m -3 for NO 2 , 34.1 (26, 21.9) μg m -3 for SO 2 , 1.2 (1.1, 1.1) mg m -3 for CO, and 0.60 (0.59, 0.58) for PM 2.5 /PM 10 , respectively. In 2014 (2015, 2016), 7% (14%, 19%), 17% (27%, 34%), 51% (67%, 70%) and 88% (97%, 98%) of the population in China lived in areas that meet the level of annual PM 2.5 , PM 10 , NO 2 , and SO 2 standard metrics from Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards-Grade II. The annual PWA concentrations of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O 3 _8 h, NO 2 , SO 2 , CO in the Northern China are about 40.4%, 58.9%, 5.9%, 24.6%, 96.7%, and 38.1% higher than those in Southern China, respectively. Though the air quality has been improving recent years, PM 2.5 pollution in wintertime is worsening, especially in the Northern China. The complex air pollution caused by PM and O 3 (the third frequent major pollutant) is an emerging problem that threatens the public health, especially in Chinese mega-city clusters. NOx controls were more beneficial than SO 2 controls for improvement of annual PM air quality in the northern China, central, and southwest regions. Future epidemiologic studies are urgently required to estimate the health impacts associated with multi-pollutants exposure, and revise more scientific air quality index standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  10. Sampling and identification of gaseous and particle bounded air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettrup, A.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollutants are gaseous, components of aerosols or particle bounded. Sampling, sample preparation, identification and quantification of compounds depend from kind and chemical composition of the air pollutants. Quality assurance of analytical data must be guaranted. (orig.) [de

  11. Aircraft noise, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.; Spoerri, A.; Egger, M.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myocardial infarction has been associated with both transportation noise and air pollution. We examined residential exposure to aircraft noise and mortality from myocardial infarction, taking air pollution into account. METHODS: We analyzed the Swiss National Cohort, which includes

  12. Effects of air pollution on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasadle, J K.A.

    1959-01-01

    The environment for plant growth is affected in three ways by the presence of coal smoke (1) by a reduction in the amount of light available to the plants, (2) by an alteration in soil conditions, and (3) by the contamination of the air by foreign gases. The smoke haze in or near industrial areas reduced the light available to plants for photosynthesis, thus reducing their growth rate. The tarry deposit on leaves further reduced the light available to the plant, and lowered the assimilation rate. It was generally thought that rain falling in or near industrial areas dissolved the predominantly acidic polluting gases from the air and leached bases from the soil. Rainwater collected showed a reduced number of soil bacteria, resulting in a reduction in the availability of plant nutrients. The most common and abundant gaseous pollutant in Britain was sulfur dioxide formed from the sulfur contained in coal. Concentrations of 0.5 parts per million induced symptoms of leaf scorch in many species. Results showed the yield of Aberystwyth 523 ryegrass was reduced when plants were grown continuously in air polluted with coal smoke. This affected the processes involving cell division. Coal smoke and sulfur also increased the rate of leaf senescence. This rate increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide increased, or as the length of exposure per day to a standard concentration was increased. The leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs also aged more rapidly in conditions of pollution. 14 references.

  13. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  14. The Interplay of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Orru, H.; Ebi, K. L.; Forsberg, B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: Air pollution significantly affects health, causing up to 7 million premature deaths annually with an even larger number of hospitalizations and days of sick leave. Climate change could alter the dispersion of primary pollutants, particularly particulate matter, and intensify the formation of secondary pollutants, such as near-surface ozone. The purpose of the review is to evaluate the recent evidence on the impacts of climate change on air pollution and air pollution-relat...

  15. Air pollution and respiratory infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J W.B.; Waller, R E

    1966-01-01

    Air pollution, as estimated by domestic coal consumption was categorized into 4 groups; very low, low, moderate, and high. The predicted pollution categories were later compared with measured smoke and SO/sub 2/ concentrations and found to be as expected. The smoke concentration was found to be 67, 138, 217, and 281 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ while the SO/sub 2/ concentration was 90, 130, 191, and 257 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in the very low, low, moderate, and high pollution groups respectively. These values excluded the greater London area which had somewhat lower smoke but similar SO/sub 2/ concentrations. The air pollution had no effect on upper-respiratory illness in British children but had a highly significant effect on lower-respiratory illness. The percent of children experiencing the first lower-respiratory tract infection during the first 9 months of life in the 4 pollution groups were 7.2 in the very low, 11.4 in the low, 16.5 in the moderate and 17.1 in the high.

  16. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  17. Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  19. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution and population health” is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still...

  20. The role of regional pollution conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last 12 years a number of regional pollution conventions and action plans have been negotiated to protect the world's seas from pollution. This paper traces the development of this activity and points out the specific role of regional, as opposed to global, pollution conventions. Chief among the functions of regional conventions is the specific legal framework they provide for a particular geographical region. They also provide a forum for neighboring states to develop a coherent policy for a particular regional sea, as well as being the means of establishing regional control over potentially polluting activities. Regional agreements also constitute a suitable framework for monitoring the input of pollutants to the marine environment and assessing their effects. In addition, they provide a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information and for developing cooperation between states. The paper concludes by summarizing the most important functions of a regional convention and suggesting that, with increasing industrialization and pollution stress, there will continue to be a need for action to be taken at the regional level

  1. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  2. Health risk assessment of China’s main air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid development of China’s economy, air pollution has attracted public concern because of its harmful effects on health. Methods The source apportioning of air pollution, the spatial distribution characteristics, and the relationship between atmospheric contamination, and the risk of exposure were explored. The in situ daily concentrations of the principal air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were obtained from 188 main cities with many continuous air-monitoring stations across China (2014 and 2015. Results The results indicate positive correlations between PM2.5 and SO2 (R 2 = 0.395/0.404, P  0.05 for both 2014 and 2015. Additionally, a significant relationship between SO2, NO2, and CO was discovered using regression analysis (P < 0.0001, indicating that the origin of air pollutants is likely to be vehicle exhaust, coal consumption, and biomass open-burning. For the spatial pattern of air pollutants, we found that the highest concentration of SO2, NO2, and CO were mainly distributed in north China (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, Shandong, Shanxi and Henan provinces, part of Xinjiang and central Inner Mongolia (2014 and 2015. Conclusions The highest concentration and risk of PM2.5 was observed in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei economic belts, and Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Nevertheless, the highest concentration of O3 was irregularly distributed in most areas of China. A high-risk distribution of PM10, SO2 and NO2 was also observed in these regions, with the high risk of PM10 and NO2 observed in the Hebei and Shandong province, and high-risk of PM10 in Urumchi. The high-risk of NO2 distributed in Beijing-Yangtze River Delta region-Pearl River Delta region-central. Although atmospheric contamination slightly improved in 2015 compared to 2014, humanity faces the challenge of reducing the environmental and public health effects of air pollution by altering the present

  3. [Air pollution and cardiovascular toxicity: known risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa, A; Filleul, L; Eilstein, D; Harrabi, I; Tessier, J F

    2004-03-01

    Review of studies about epidemiological and physiopathological knowledge of ambient air particles short-term cardio-vascular effects. CURRENTS AND STRONG POINTS: Many studies, in contrasted countries for pollution's sources, meteorological conditions or socio-demographical characteristics, have shown health effects due to ambient air particles. After having studied mainly the respiratory effects of particulate air pollution, epidemiologists are now interested in the cardio-vascular effects of ambient air particles. In fact, serious effects seem to exist in fragile people which can get to emergency department visits, hospitalisation and even death. In addition, studies have shown less serious effects, but likely to be frequent (cardiac symptoms, and stoppages for cardio-vascular causes, notably). The exact mechanism by which particles have cardio-vascular adverse health effects is unknown, but experimental and epidemiological studies have led to several hypotheses: local pulmonary effects seem to be followed by systemic effects, which would be responsible for effects on the electrical activity of the heart through cardiac autonomic dysfunction and effects on the blood supply to the heart. The objective of this work is to summarise epidemiological and physiopathological knowledge about the cardio-vascular effects of ambient air particles. To evaluate the real importance of cardio-vascular effects due to particulate air pollution and to identify their exact mechanism, a more precise knowledge of detailed causes of deaths and hospitalisations and a better knowledge of less serious effects, but likely to be frequent, is necessary. Equally, a detailed identification of fragile people is essential for developing preventive actions.

  4. Air pollutants, meteorology and plant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukammal, E I; Brandt, C S; Neuwirth, R; Pack, D H; Swinbank, W C

    1968-01-01

    The study of the effect of air pollutants on plant growth inevitably involves meteorological factors, and the World Meteorological Organization has therefore been giving much attention to this matter for some time. Within the Organization, responsibility for this work naturally fell to the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM), and following the time-honored procedure in such cases, the Commission established in 1962 a small international group of acknowledged experts to study plant injury and reduction of yield by non-radioactive air pollutants, and charged it with the specific task of preparing a review of present knowledge of the subjects involved. After several years' work, the group fulfilled its appointed task and the resulting report is now published in this WMO Technical Note. 95 references.

  5. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  6. Introduction to the DAPPLE Air Pollution Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.J.; ApSimon, H.; Colvile, R.N.; Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Wang, H. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Royal school of Mines Building, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Rd., South Kensington, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.; Belcher, S.; Dobre, A. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Bell, M.; Tate, J. [Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Boddy, J.W.; Smalley, R.J.; Tomlin, A.S. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Britter, R.; Neophytou, M. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Cheng, H.; Lawton, T.; Robins, A. [EnFlo, Department of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Clark, R.; Walsh, P. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Dimitroulopoulou, S. [BRE, Environmental Engineering Centre, Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Greally, B.; Knights, A.; Makepeace, A.; Martin, D.; Nickless, G.; Price, C.; Shallcross, D.; Simmonds, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Neville, S. [Environmental Sciences, Westminster City Council House, Marylebone Rd, London, NW1 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    The Dispersion of Air Pollution and its Penetration into the Local Environment (DAPPLE) project brings together a multidisciplinary research group that is undertaking field measurements, wind tunnel modelling and computer simulations in order to provide better understanding of the physical processes affecting street and neighbourhood-scale flow of air, traffic and people, and their corresponding interactions with the dispersion of pollutants at street canyon intersections. The street canyon intersection is of interest as it provides the basic case study to demonstrate most of the factors that will apply in a wide range of urban situations. The aims of this paper are to introduce the background of the DAPPLE project, the study design and methodology for data collection, some preliminary results from the first field campaign in central London (28 April-24 May 2003) and the future for this work. Updated information and contact details are available on the web site at http://www.dapple.org.uk.

  7. Air Pollution In The Mountain - Urban Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).

  8. Fighting corrosion in air pollution control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that materials is the name of the game for corrosion prevention in air pollution control equipment. Whether the system is already in place, a retrofit, are specified for a new power pant, preventing corrosion is critical, because such deterioration easily undermines reliability. Hence, materials can heavily influence power plant compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, perhaps the most vulnerable area to corrosion, are expected to be the method of choice for sulfur removal in many power plants in the near term. Components of these systems have various degrees of susceptibility to corrosion and related problems

  9. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  10. Opportunities for using spatial property assessment data in air pollution exposure assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller C Peter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies examining the relationships between adverse health outcomes and exposure to air pollutants use ambient air pollution measurements as a proxy for personal exposure levels. When pollution levels vary at neighbourhood levels, using ambient pollution data from sparsely located fixed monitors may inadequately capture the spatial variation in ambient pollution. A major constraint to moving toward exposure assessments and epidemiological studies of air pollution at a neighbourhood level is the lack of readily available data at appropriate spatial resolutions. Spatial property assessment data are widely available in North America and may provide an opportunity for developing neighbourhood level air pollution exposure assessments. Results This paper provides a detailed description of spatial property assessment data available in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, and provides examples of potential applications of spatial property assessment data for improving air pollution exposure assessment at the neighbourhood scale, including: (1 creating variables for use in land use regression modelling of neighbourhood levels of ambient air pollution; (2 enhancing wood smoke exposure estimates by mapping fireplace locations; and (3 using data available on individual building characteristics to produce a regional air pollution infiltration model. Conclusion Spatial property assessment data are an extremely detailed data source at a fine spatial resolution, and therefore a source of information that could improve the quality and spatial resolution of current air pollution exposure assessments.

  11. Wildfire air pollution hazard during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Wolfgang; Dentener, Frank; Lamarque, Jean-François; Jiang, Leiwen; Arneth, Almut

    2017-07-01

    Wildfires pose a significant risk to human livelihoods and are a substantial health hazard due to emissions of toxic smoke. Previous studies have shown that climate change, increasing atmospheric CO2, and human demographic dynamics can lead to substantially altered wildfire risk in the future, with fire activity increasing in some regions and decreasing in others. The present study re-examines these results from the perspective of air pollution risk, focussing on emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM2. 5), combining an existing ensemble of simulations using a coupled fire-dynamic vegetation model with current observation-based estimates of wildfire emissions and simulations with a chemical transport model. Currently, wildfire PM2. 5 emissions exceed those from anthropogenic sources in large parts of the world. We further analyse two extreme sets of future wildfire emissions in a socio-economic, demographic climate change context and compare them to anthropogenic emission scenarios reflecting current and ambitious air pollution legislation. In most regions of the world, ambitious reductions of anthropogenic air pollutant emissions have the potential to limit mean annual pollutant PM2. 5 levels to comply with World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for PM2. 5. Worst-case future wildfire emissions are not likely to interfere with these annual goals, largely due to fire seasonality, as well as a tendency of wildfire sources to be situated in areas of intermediate population density, as opposed to anthropogenic sources that tend to be highest at the highest population densities. However, during the high-fire season, we find many regions where future PM2. 5 pollution levels can reach dangerous levels even for a scenario of aggressive reduction of anthropogenic emissions.

  12. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.

    1958-01-01

    In an area, where tulips had been damaged, experimental plots with tulip varieties of different sensitivities to HF were laid out in the open and in greenhouses. It was proven that the injury decreased with increasing distance from the factory. In the same area irises were injured. But in this case the cause of the damage proved to be SO2 derived from the stove in the greenhouse. In an industrial area, where fruit trees were damaged last year, potatoes were injured in a very typical way. Varieties of this crop also showed differences in sensitivity to air pollution. During another period of 1958 air pollution of high intensity occurred in the same area, so that several crops were severely damaged. The damage of the fruit and vegetables turned out to be caused by HF. In several other areas of air pollution the cause of the damage proved to be HF or SO2. Shrubs surrounding the fields were able to prevent the spread of the gases to a small extent. In an area, where the concentration of HF in the atmosphere proved to be too low to cause damage, a conifer species, Chamaecyparis, showed a rather high content of F in the leaves. It is possible that this tree species, which keeps its green color during the whole year, continuously absorbs small quantities of fluorine and may become injured. In an area surrounding an enamel industry plants were damaged by HF. Several new cases of air pollution were investigated. In two of these, the cause of the damage to the plants proved to be hydrochloric acid.

  13. Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Tong, Y F; Cui, L; Kong, X M; Sheng, Y N; Chen, L; Li, Y P

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection. A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties. Based on the contribution of an index of population-production-pollution, a hybrid PPP-based AMP model that considers employment structure, industrial layout pattern, production mode, pollutant purification efficiency and a pollution mitigation scheme have been applied in Beijing. Results of the adjustment of employment structure, pollution mitigation scheme, and green gross domestic product under various environmental regulation scenarios are obtained and analyzed. This study can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  15. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  16. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    modulated gene expressions. In addition, gene expressions in both children and adults were investigated for associations with micronuclei frequencies. Both analysis approaches returned considerably more genes or gene groups and pathways that significantly differed between children from both regions than......Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...

  17. Relationship between Air Pollution and Weather Conditions under Complicated Geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues all over the world, especially in megacities with constrained geographical conditions for air pollution diffusion. However, the dynamic mechanism of air pollution diffusion under complicated geographical conditions is still be confused. Researches to explore relationship between air pollution and weather conditions from the perspective of local atmospheric circulations can contribute more to solve such problem. We selected three megacities (Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) under different geographical condition (mountain-plain transition region, coastal alluvial plain and coastal hilly terrain) to explore the relationship between air pollution and weather conditions. RDA (Redundancy analysis) model was used to analyze how the local atmospheric circulation acts on the air pollutant diffusion. The results show that there was a positive correlation between the concentration of air pollutants and air pressure, while temperature, precipitation and wind speed have negative correlations with the concentration of air pollutants. Furthermore, geographical conditions, such as topographic relief, have significant effects on the direction, path and intensity of local atmospheric circulation. As a consequence, air pollutants diffusion modes in different cities under various geographical conditions are diverse from each other.

  18. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  19. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Goncalves, L.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  1. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J; Reuter, U [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1996-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  2. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  3. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  4. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  5. Indoor Air Pollution in Non Ac Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Husna, Iksiroh; Unzilatirrizqi, Rizal D. Yan El; Karyanto, Yudi; Sunoko, Henna R.

    2018-02-01

    Passenger buses have been one of favorite means of transportation in Indonesia due to its affordability and flexibility. Intensity of human activities during the trip in the buses have a potential of causing indoor air pollution (polusi udara dalam ruang; PUDR). The indoor air pollution has an impact of 1000-time bigger than outdoor air pollution (polusi udara luar ruang; PULR) on lung. This study aimed to find out indoor air pollution rate of non air conditioned buses using an approach to biological agent pollutant source. The study applied an analysis restricted to microorganisms persistence as one of the sources of the indoor air pollution. The media were placed in different parts of the non AC buses. This study revealed that fungs were found in the non AC buses. They became contaminants and developed pathogenic bacteria that caused air pollution.

  6. Indoor Air Pollution in Non Ac Passenger Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Husna Iksiroh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger buses have been one of favorite means of transportation in Indonesia due to its affordability and flexibility. Intensity of human activities during the trip in the buses have a potential of causing indoor air pollution (polusi udara dalam ruang; PUDR. The indoor air pollution has an impact of 1000-time bigger than outdoor air pollution (polusi udara luar ruang; PULR on lung. This study aimed to find out indoor air pollution rate of non air conditioned buses using an approach to biological agent pollutant source. The study applied an analysis restricted to microorganisms persistence as one of the sources of the indoor air pollution. The media were placed in different parts of the non AC buses. This study revealed that fungs were found in the non AC buses. They became contaminants and developed pathogenic bacteria that caused air pollution.

  7. Utilization of bromeliad Tillandsia Usneoides L. in biomonitoring of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil; Utilizacao da bromelia Tillandsia Usneoides L. no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica na Regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo - SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Caroline R.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Barbara C. da; Ticianelli, Regina B., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: aportellar@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Nievola, Catarina C.; Alves, Edenise S.; Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: ccnievola@uol.com.br, E-mail: ealves@ibot.sp.gov.br, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br [Instituto de Botanica (IBt-SMA/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: andrezp@uninove.br [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, it was determined the metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sb in plant Tillandsia Usneoides L., an epiphyte species popularly known as old beard and able to absorb water and nutrients directly from air, aiming to estimate the contribution of human activities in atmospheric metal pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. The samples were collected at five different points, located near the South West and stretches of highway Mario Covas (SP-21). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Optical Emission Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES) were the analytical techniques used in the quantification of metals of interest.

  8. Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2016-01-01

    With China’s significant role on pollution emissions and related health damage, deep and up-to-date understanding of China’s air pollution policies is of worldwide relevance. Based on scientific evidence for the evolution of air pollution and the institutional background of environmental governance in China, we examine the development of air pollution control policies from the 1980s and onwards. We show that: (1) The early policies, until 2005, were ineffective at reducing emissions; (2) Duri...

  9. New directions: Air pollution challenges for developing megacities like Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Khare, Mukesh; Harrison, Roy M.; Bloss, William J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Coe, Hugh; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-12-01

    Most major cities around the world experience periods of elevated air pollution levels, which exceed international health-based air quality standards (Kumar et al., 2013). Although it is a global problem, some of the highest air pollution levels are found in rapidly expanding cities in India and China. The sources, emissions, transformations and broad effects of meteorology on air pollution are reasonably well accounted in air quality control strategies in many developed cities; however these key factors remain poorly constrained in the growing cities of countries with emerging economies. We focus here on Delhi, one of the largest global population centres, which faces particular air pollution challenges, now and in the future.

  10. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  11. Oil sands development and its impact on atmospheric wet deposition of air pollutants to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynam, Mary M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Barres, James A.; Morishita, Masako; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of air pollutant deposition resulting from Athabasca oil sands development is necessary to assess risk to humans and the environment. To investigate this we collected event-based wet deposition during a pilot study in 2010–2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest upgrading facility in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium deposition was (kg/ha) 1.96, 1.60 and 1.03, respectively. Trace element pollutant deposition ranged from 2 × 10"−"5 - 0.79 and exhibited the trend Hg < Se < As < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < S. Crustal element deposition ranged from 1.4 × 10"−"4 – 0.46 and had the trend: La < Ce < Sr < Mn < Al < Fe < Mg. S, Se and Hg demonstrated highest median enrichment factors (130–2020) suggesting emissions from oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires were deposited. High deposition of the elements Sr, Mn, Fe and Mg which are tracers for soil and crustal dust implies land-clearing, mining and hauling emissions greatly impacted surrounding human settlements and ecosystems. - Highlights: • Atmospheric event wet deposition was collected during a 21 month pilot study. • Major ion, anthropogenic and crustal element wet deposition was characterized. • Low precipitation depths attenuated major ion and anthropogenic element deposition. • Oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires contributed to deposition. - In the vicinity of oil sands, monitoring revealed that wet deposition of major ions (SO_4"2"−, NO_3"-, NH_4"+) was highest followed by S and Mg, the latter is a tracer for soil/crustal dust.

  12. Interactions of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM 2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures. The reactions that form ozone occur faster with greater sunlight and higher temperatures. Weather systems influence the movement and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere through the action of winds, vertical mixing, and precipitation, all of which are likely to alter in a changing climate. Recent studies indicate that, holding anthropogenic air pollution emissions constant, ozone concentrations in populated regions will tend to increase in future climate scenarios. For the USA, the climate impact on ozone is most consistently seen in north-central and north-eastern states, with the potential for many thousands of additional ozone-related deaths. The sensitivity of anthropogenic PM 2.5 to climate is more variable across studies and regions, owing to the varied nature of PM constituents, as well as to less complete characterization of PM reaction chemistry in available atmospheric models. However, PM emitted by wildland fires is likely to become an increasing health risk in many parts of the world as climate continues to change. The complex interactions between climate change and air quality imply that future policies to mitigate these twin challenges will benefit from greater coordination. Assessing the health implications of alternative policy approaches towards climate and pollution mitigation will be a critical area of future work.

  13. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.C.; Selte, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM 1 0), while the associations with SO 2 and NO 2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  14. Health aspects of air pollution in Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevany, J; Rooney, M; Kennedy, J

    1975-01-01

    A study of the relationship between air pollution and specific health indicators in Dublin from 1970 to 1973 was undertaken using partial correlation analysis. Smoke and sulfur dioxide, accepted as indicators of general pollution conditions, were measured in the study. The indicators of health were deaths and hospital admissions of elderly and chronically ill people due to cardiovascular and respiratory illness, other than influenza and tonsillitis. Because temperature is also known to affect cardiovascular and respiratory illness, maximum daily temperature was chosen as the controlled weather variable. Mortality for cardiovascular disease was significantly correlated with SO/sub 2/ levels within the same 24 hr. Ischemic heart disease was the major component of this correlation. There is a progressive positive correlation at increasing threshold levels. These correlations were not sustained with a lag period of two days nor in relation to smoke indicators at any lag period or threshold level. Mortality for respiratory disease was less consistently associated with air pollution than cardiovascular disease. Levels of SO/sub 2/ up to 75 micrograms/cu m did not produce any significant response in terms of mortality. From 100 micrograms/cu m upwards there is a strong correlation with details from acute respiratory disease, principally acute bronchitis. At 150 micrograms/cu m threshold there is also a strong correlation with deaths from chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. No significant correlations existed for smoke at any threshold or lag period. Implications for community health are discussed.

  15. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasaan, A.A.; Dann, T.F.; Brunet, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  16. Influence of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ten Houten, J G

    1967-01-01

    The history of plant poisoning from gaseous air pollutants in the Netherlands goes back 60 years; the first incident of this kind was damage caused by fluorine in the vicinity of a superphosphate plant. The effects of hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are briefly summarized. Hydrogen fluoride, when present in quantities as low as a few parts per billion, can cause damage to the leaves of plants. Lichens are so sensitive to sulfur dioxide that they cannot exist in the vicinity of large cities and industrial centers where the SO/sub 2/ concentration is higher than .35 parts per billion. PAN, sometimes known as photochemical smog, was considered an American phenomenon until October 1965, when abnormal weather conditions in western Europe caused serious damage from this pollutant to spinach and lettuce. Damage to the leaves of certain species and varieties of plants makes them valuable as indicators, but they are less accurate than chemical analyses, due to the fact that the symptoms are not entirely specific for higher concentrations. The mechanism of plant damage from air pollutants is not completely understood, although it is known for certain that fluorine, ozone, and PAN act at the cellular level, functioning as inhibitors of the plant enzymes. Fluorine also affects the metabolism of carbohydrates.

  17. Air pollution related to sea transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massin, J.M.; Hertz, O.

    1993-01-01

    Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO 2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO 2 emissions. In addition, NO x emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO 2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NO x emissions for about 10% and CO 2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

  18. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  19. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality...

  20. Geospatial Modeling of Asthma Population in Relation to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kethireddy, Swatantra R.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Young, John H.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Current observations indicate that asthma is growing every year in the United States, specific reasons for this are not well understood. This study stems from an ongoing research effort to investigate the spatio-temporal behavior of asthma and its relatedness to air pollution. The association between environmental variables such as air quality and asthma related health issues over Mississippi State are investigated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools and applications. Health data concerning asthma obtained from Mississippi State Department of Health (MSDH) for 9-year period of 2003-2011, and data of air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5) collected from USEPA web resources, and are analyzed geospatially to establish the impacts of air quality on human health specifically related to asthma. Disease mapping using geospatial techniques provides valuable insights into the spatial nature, variability, and association of asthma to air pollution. Asthma patient hospitalization data of Mississippi has been analyzed and mapped using quantitative Choropleth techniques in ArcGIS. Patients have been geocoded to their respective zip codes. Potential air pollutant sources of Interstate highways, Industries, and other land use data have been integrated in common geospatial platform to understand their adverse contribution on human health. Existing hospitals and emergency clinics are being injected into analysis to further understand their proximity and easy access to patient locations. At the current level of analysis and understanding, spatial distribution of Asthma is observed in the populations of Zip code regions in gulf coast, along the interstates of south, and in counties of Northeast Mississippi. It is also found that asthma is prevalent in most of the urban population. This GIS based project would be useful to make health risk assessment and provide information support to the administrators and decision makers for establishing satellite clinics in future.

  1. Air pollution prevention at the Hanford Site: Status and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    With the introduction of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other air and pollution prevention regulations, there has been increased focus on both pollution prevention and air emissions at US DOE sites. The Pollution Prevention (P2) Group of WHC reviewed the status of air pollution prevention with the goal of making recommendations on how to address air emissions at Hanford through pollution prevention. Using the air emissions inventory from Hanford's Title V permit, the P2 Group was able to identify major and significant air sources. By reviewing the literature and benchmarking two other DOE Sites, two major activities were recommended to reduce air pollution and reduce costs at the Hanford Site. First, a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P2OA) should be conducted on the significant painting sources in the Maintenance group and credit should be taken for reducing the burning of tumbleweeds, another significant source of air pollution. Since they are significant sources, reducing these emissions will reduce air emission fees, as well as have the potential to reduce material and labor costs, and increase worker safety. Second, a P2OA should be conducted on alternatives to the three coal-fired powerhouses (steam plants) on-site, including a significant costs analysis of alternatives. This analysis could be of significant value to other DOE sites. Overall, these two activities would reduce pollution, ease regulatory requirements and fees, save money, and help Hanford take a leadership role in air pollution prevention

  2. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  3. Perimenarchal air pollution exposure and menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, S; Missmer, S E; Cheng, J J; Chavarro, J; Laden, F; Hart, J E

    2018-01-25

    What is the association between perimenarchal exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP) in air, menstrual irregularity phenotypes and time to menstrual cycle regularity? Exposures to TSP during high school are associated with slightly increased odds of menstrual irregularity and longer time to regularity in high school and early adulthood. The menstrual cycle is responsive to hormonal regulation. Particulate matter air pollution has demonstrated hormonal activity. However, it is not known if air pollution is associated with menstrual cycle regularity. Cross sectional study of 34 832 of the original 116 430 women (29.91%) enrolled in 1989 from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). The follow-up rate for this analytic sample was 97.76% at the 1991 survey. Annual averages of TSP were available for each year of high school attendance. We created three case definitions including high school menstrual irregularity and androgen excess. The time to menstrual cycle regularity was reported by participants as air pollution in the adolescent and early adulthood window may be especially important, given its association with phenotypes of menstrual irregularity. The data from this study agrees with existing literature regarding air pollution and reproductive tract diseases. Shruthi Mahalingaiah: Reproductive Scientist Development Program HD000849, and a research grant from the Boston University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stacey Missmer: R01HD57210 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Environmental Health Sciences Translational Pilot Project Program, R01CA50385 from the National Cancer Institute, Jaime Hart and Francine Laden: 5R01ES017017 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Jaime Hart: P30 ES00002 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences at the National Institute of Health, The Nurses' Health Study II is supported by

  4. Acute effect of ambient air pollution on stroke mortality in the China air pollution and health effects study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhang, Yuhao; Yang, Chunxue; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Xiaohui; Kan, Haidong

    2013-04-01

    There have been no multicity studies on the acute effects of air pollution on stroke mortality in China. This study was undertaken to examine the associations between daily stroke mortality and outdoor air pollution (particulate matter air pollution with daily stroke mortality. Air pollution was associated with daily stroke mortality in 8 Chinese cities. In the combined analysis, an increase of 10 μg/m(3) of 2-day moving average concentrations of particulate matter air pollution and risk of stroke mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in China, or even in other developing countries, to report the acute effect of air pollution on stroke mortality. Our results contribute to very limited data on the effect of air pollution on stroke for high-exposure settings typical in developing countries.

  5. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  6. Impact of intercontinental pollution transport on North American ozone air pollution: an HTAP phase 2 multi-model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent update on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the ground-level ozone (O3/ can benefit from a better understanding of its source contributions in different US regions during recent years. In the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution experiment phas...

  7. Developing a Clinical Approach to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Michael B; Baumgartner, Jill; Vedanthan, Rajesh

    2018-02-13

    Nearly 3 billion people are exposed to household air pollution emitted from inefficient cooking and heating stoves, and almost the entire global population is exposed to detectable levels of outdoor air pollution from traffic, industry, and other sources. Over 3 million people die annually of ischemic heart disease or stroke attributed to air pollution, more than from traditional cardiac risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, or smoking. Clinicians have a role to play in reducing the burden of pollution-attributable cardiovascular disease. However, there currently exists no clear clinical approach to this problem. Here, we provide a blueprint for an evidence-based clinical approach to assessing and mitigating cardiovascular risk from exposure to air pollution. We begin with a discussion of the global burden of pollution-attributable cardiovascular disease, including a review of the mechanisms by which particulate matter air pollution leads to cardiovascular outcomes. Next, we offer a simple patient-screening tool using known risk factors for pollution exposure. We then discuss approaches to quantifying air pollution exposures and cardiovascular risk, including the development of risk maps for clinical catchment areas. We review a collection of interventions for household and outdoor air pollution, which clinicians can tailor to patients and populations at risk. Finally, we identify future research needed to quantify pollution exposures and validate clinical interventions. Overall, we demonstrate that clinicians can be empowered to mitigate the global burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to air pollution. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The assessment of ambient air pollution pattern in Shah Alam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study implements the statistical analysis to establish the association between air pollution trends with the industrial activities in Shah Alam, Selangor. PCA used to identify most significant parameters contributing to air pollution and it sources of pollutions, whereas SPC used to determine the pattern and contribution ...

  9. Air pollution tolerance indices of some plants around Ama industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Table 1. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of some plant species around some industries in Ama, Enugu State, Nigeria. Plant specie. Site .... these receive most impact from the pollution load in the environment. APTI is an inherent quality of plants to encounter air pollution stress (Rai et al., 2013). These.

  10. An interprovincial cooperative game model for air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhao, Laijun; Fan, Longzhen; Qian, Ying

    2015-07-01

    The noncooperative air pollution reduction model (NCRM) that is currently adopted in China to manage air pollution reduction of each individual province has inherent drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a cooperative air pollution reduction game model (CRM) that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distribute the economic benefit of the cooperation (i.e., pollution reduction cost saving) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. We applied the CRM to the case of SO2 reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China. The results, based on the data from 2003-2009, show that cooperation helps lower the overall SO2 pollution reduction cost from 4.58% to 11.29%. Distributed across the participating provinces, such a cost saving from interprovincial cooperation brings significant benefits to each local government and stimulates them for further cooperation in pollution reduction. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed using the year 2009 data to test the parameters' effects on the pollution reduction cost savings. China is increasingly facing unprecedented pressure for immediate air pollution control. The current air pollution reduction policy does not allow cooperation and is less efficient. In this paper we developed a cooperative air pollution reduction game model that consists of two parts: (1) an optimization model that calculates the optimal pollution reduction quantity for each participating province to meet the joint pollution reduction goal; and (2) a model that distributes the cooperation gains (i.e., cost reduction) among the provinces in the cooperation based on the Shapley value method. The empirical case shows that such a model can help improve efficiency in air pollution reduction. The result of the model can serve as a reference for Chinese government

  11. Are Changing Emission Patterns Across the Northern Hemisphere Influencing Long-range Transport Contributions to Background Air Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emissio...

  12. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO 2 , anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  13. Mortality and air pollution: lessons from statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Cross sectional studies which attempt to link persistent geographic differences in mortality rates with air pollution are reviewed. Some early studies are mentioned and detailed results are given for seven major contemporary studies, two of which are still in the publication process. Differences among the studies are discussed with regard to statistical techniques, trends in the results over time (1959 to 1974), and interpretation and use of the results. The analysis concludes that there are far too many problems with this technique to allow causality to be firmly established, and thus the results should not be used for cost benefit or policy analysis

  14. Hazardous air pollutants; Yugai taiki osen busshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, A

    2000-02-14

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are chemical substances listed up since those have a fear of increasing carcinogenic danger even in a small quantity by a long-term exposure. In Europe and Japan, approximately 200 names of substances are known. Concretely, they are particulate substnaces such as floating dusts, gaseous inorganics such as fluorine compound and chroline gas, volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Among those, especially, 22 substances are cited as those that Japan tackles in priority. HAPs explained in this paper mean mostly VOCs such as benzene, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene among those. (NEDO)

  15. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, M.N.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ), Ozone (O 3 ), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O x , SO 2 , and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts

  16. Degradation of air polluted by organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo O, E.L.; Lizama S, B.E.; Vazquez A, O.; Luna C, P.C.; Arredondo H, S.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Mexican standard NOM-010-STPS-1994 it has been established concentrations of maximum permissible levels in workable air for styrene in the range 420-1710 mg/m 3 and for xylene between 218-870 mg/m 3 . In this work it is studied a biological treatment (bio filtration) for air polluted by xylene and styrene where the microorganisms are adhered at synthetic fiber, these degrade to the organic compounds that across in gaseous state and they are mineralized toward CO 2 and H 2 O. The characteristics of temperature, p H, concentration of organic compound and mineral parameters, as well as, the biomass quantity have been optimized for that bio filters efficiency were greater than those reported in other works. (Author)

  17. The changing face of urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alastair C.

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric chemistry that leads to photochemical smog and climate-active aerosols requires the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (1, 2). The VOCs in urban air typically derive from the prevailing energy and transport technologies as well as the use of petrochemical-derived products. On page 760 of this issue, McDonald et al. (3) report that a notable change in emissions may be underway in U.S. cities, with effects on secondary pollutants such as organic aerosols. Shifting from an urban atmosphere dominated by transport-related VOCs to one dominated by VOCs from coatings, adhesives, and consumer products would alter predictions of urban air quality and challenge the existing policy framework for emissions control.

  18. Nitrogenous air pollutants: Chemical and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on the health effects and chemistry of gaseous and particulate nitrogenous air pollutants are presented. Specific topics include Fourier transform infrared studies of nitrogenous compounds, the mechanism of peroxynitric acid formation, N-nitroso compounds in the air, the chemical transformations of nitrogen oxides during the sampling of combustion products, the atmospheric chemistry of peroxy nitrates, and the effects of nitrogen dioxide on lung metabolism. Attention is also given to the interaction of nitrogen oxides and aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions, the characterization of particulate amines, the role of ammonia in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, the relationship between sulfates and nitrates and tropospheric measurements of nitric acid vapor and particulate nitrates

  19. Elemental bioaccumulators in air pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    K 0 -Based instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 INAA) was used to determine the concentrations of Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Sb and Hg in the vascular plants Cistus salvifolius and Inula viscosa and in the lichen Parmelia sulcata. The samples were collected in the neighbourhood of industrial complexes. The elemental accumulation in the vascular plants and the lichen are compared to optimize the choice of the bioaccumulator. It is concluded that P.sulcata seems to be the best accumulator of the three species for the element studied; Cistus salvifolius is sensitive to the contents of Zn, Fe, Cr and Sb in the air; Inula viscosa seems to accumulate Fe, Sb, Co, Cr and Zn. Nevertheless, it is concluded that lichen is a good air pollution indicator, while the vascular plants are not due to the large seasonal variations found in the elemental concentrations. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. An Overview of Air Pollution Problem in Megacities and City Clusters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.

    2007-05-01

    China has experienced the rapid economic growth in last twenty years. City clusters, which consist of one or several mega cities in close vicinity and many satellite cities and towns, are playing a leading role in Chinese economic growth, owing to their collective economic capacity and interdependency. However, accompanying with the economic boom, population growth and increased energy consumption, the air quality has been degrading in the past two decades. Air pollution in those areas is characterized by concurrent occurrence of high concentrations of multiple primary pollutants leading to form complex secondary pollution problem. After decades long efforts to control air pollution, both the government and scientific communities have realized that to control regional scale air pollution, regional efforts are needed. Field experiments covering the regions like Pearl River Delta region and Beijing City with surrounding areas are critical to understand the chemical and physical processes leading to the formation of regional scale air pollution. In order to formulate policy suggestions for air quality attainment during 2008 Beijing Olympic game and to propose objectives of air quality attainment in 2010 in Beijing, CAREBEIJING (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region) was organized by Peking University in 2006 to learn current air pollution situation of the region, and to identify the transport and transformation processes that lead to the impact of the surrounding area on air quality in Beijing. Same as the purpose for understanding the chemical and physical processes happened in regional scale, the fall and summer campaigns in 2004 and 2006 were carried out in Pearl River Delta. More than 16 domestic and foreign institutions were involved in these campaigns. The background, current status, problems, and some results of these campaigns will be introduced in this presentation.

  1. Air pollution control technologies and their interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandian, H. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    A large number of coal-fired power stations have been fitted/retrofitted with dedicated air pollutant control technologies. Experience shows that these technologies can have complex interactions and can impact each other as well as balance of plant, positively and/or negatively. Particulate matter (PM) is usually captured with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and fabric filters (FF). These technologies are efficient and reliable but their performance may be affected by modifying operating conditions and introducing primary measures for NOx reduction. Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems for SO{sub 2} control have been installed in many facilities with the most popular technology being the wet limestone/gypsum scrubber. FGD use can decrease particulate matter and mercury emissions which is a major issue in the USA, cause an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and in solids by-product. Primary measures such as low NOx burners (LNBs) and overfire air (OFA) minimise NOx formation but can increase carbon in ash (CIA) which can cause problems with fly ash sales but may also improve mercury capture. Reducing NOx emissions with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can result in a decrease in particulate matter, an increase in SO{sub 3} emissions and trace increase in NH{sub 3}. This can cause fouling and loss of performance of the air preheater, due to the formation of ammonium sulphates. One way of alleviating this is improved soot-blowing and other cleaning capabilities. This report studies these and other interactions between existing air pollution control technologies in pulverised coal fired power plants. 249 refs., 13 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Atmospheric corrosion effects of air pollution on materials and cultural property in Asia and Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This project is part of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida) funded Program on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries (RAPIDC). The Program is managed on Sida's behalf by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI...

  3. Monitoring Gaseous and Particulate Air Pollutants near Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High traffic volume and traffic congestion on Nigerian roads have led to increase in the concentration of pollutants in the air t posing health risks for human population. This study investigates air quality due to vehicular emissions in some busy roads in Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. Air pollutants such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, ...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 Section 52.274 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the...

  6. Impacts of air pollutants on vegetation in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Emberson, LD

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted increases in emissions of primary pollutants in many rapidly industrializing countries may have severe consequences for the health and productivity of forest trees and agricultural crops. A review of air pollution and its impact...

  7. Effects of Air Pollution on Health Outcomes (1985 and 1987)

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports pursue two objectives: to examine the health effects of air pollution on a general population in moderately polluted cities, and to apply a battery of disparate analytical approaches to an especially attractive set of health insurance data.

  8. Reducing Air Pollution from Passenger Cars and Trucks (Text Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the text explanation of an infographic about reducing air pollution viaTier 3 Vehicles & fuel standards. Tier 3 vehicle and fuel standards will provide substantial pollution reduction at lower cost.

  9. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Suksamran, C.; Sirinuntavid, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  10. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1967-01-01

    An investigation repeated for the third time on susceptibility for SO/sub 2/ of 7 varieties of lettuce resulted in a reliable difference between the most and least susceptible variety; the others produced differences between individual plants within the varieties. Ethylene fumigations of tomato plants during five to six hours at concentrations of 0.5 to 3 ppm caused no visible reaction. A fumigation with 3 ppm for 23 hours resulted in a strong epinastic reaction at the base of the leaf petioles and curling of the young growing leaves. An apparatus was constructed to fumigate herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees in their natural environment and under normal climatic conditions. With this apparatus daffodil, tulip and Ixia were fumigated for 3 hours with HF in a concentration of 0.030 ppm. The most susceptible varieties showed leaf tip damage to an extent of 2 to 4 cm. Some time after an aluminium factory came into operation, injury to trees and shrubs occurred in the neighborhood; farm crops were not affected. For some factories the opportunity was given to carry out measurements on the amount of air pollution in the neighborhood of these factories before production starts, to estimate how much extra air pollution may be caused by the new factory.

  11. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  12. [Indoor air pollution in southeast Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, P; Oyarzún, M; Walter, T; von Baer, D; Romieu, I

    1998-04-01

    Indoor air pollution could play an important role in the susceptibility to respiratory diseases of vulnerable individuals, such as elders and infants. To evaluate indoor air pollution in a low income population of South East Santiago. A domiciliary survey of contaminant sources was carried out in the bouses of a cohort of 522 children less than one year old. Using a case-control design, 121 children consulting for respiratory diseases were considered as cases and 131 healthy infants of the same age and sex were considered as controls. In the houses of both groups, active monitors for particulate matter (PM10) and passive monitors for NO2 were installed. Forty two percent of fathers and 30% of mothers were smokers, and in two thirds of the families there was at least one smoker. Eighty five percent used portable heaters in winter. Of these, 77% used kerosene as fuel. Only 27% had water heating appliances. The rest heated water on the kitchen store or on bonfires. Most kitchen stoves used liquid gas as fuel. Twenty four hour PM10 was 109 +/- 3.2 micrograms/m3. Mean indoor and outdoor NO2 in 24 h was 108 +/- 76.3 and 84 +/- 53.6 micrograms/m3 respectively. Indoor NO2 levels were related to the use of heating devices and smoking. No differences in PM10 and NO2 levels were observed between cases and controls. There is a clear relationship between indoor pollution and contaminating sources. Indoor NO2 levels are higher than outdoors.

  13. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  14. Effect of air and water pollutants on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondia, D.

    1973-01-01

    Toxicological and epidemiological studies on the effects of air pollutants on human health are reviewed. The epidemiological approach is based on the study of the human population actually exposed to air pollutants in daily life. Levels of increasing toxicity were established for the commonest air pollutants such as lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and various allergens. The effects of pollution on immunology and adaptation, of carbon monoxide on carboxyhemoglobin levels, of sulfur dioxide on mortality and morbidity in urban areas, of nitrogen oxides on electrolytes and glutathion, of ozone and NO/sub x/ on respiratory diseases, and of pollutants on chronic bronchitis are reviewed.

  15. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M.

    2007-11-01

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  16. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Suraya, F

    2015-12-01

    Environmental air pollution has become a leading health concern especially in the developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and rapidly growing population. Prolonged exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental air pollution on progression of cardiovascular problems. In this study, we identified 6880 published articles through a systematic database including ISI-Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. The allied literature was searched by using the key words such as environmental pollution, air pollution, particulate matter pollutants PM 2.5 μm-PM 10 μm. Literature in which environmental air pollution and cardiac diseases were discussed was included. Descriptive information was retrieved from the selected literature. Finally, we included 67 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Environmental pollution can cause high blood pressure, arrhythmias, enhanced coagulation, thrombosis, acute arterial vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and even heart failure. Environmental air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Environmental pollution exerts its detrimental effects on the heart by developing pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic changes. Environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Amann, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carmichael, G.; Chadwick, M.; Cinderby, S.; Haugland, T.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Hordijk, L.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Shah, J.; Shrestha, R.; Streets, D.; Zhao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Europe and North America, air pollution in Asia is increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air quality problems and higher acidic depositions. In 1989, an east-west group of scientists initiated a multi-institutional research project on Acid Rain and Emissions Reduction in Asia, funded for the past two years by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Phase I, covering 23 countries of Asia, focused on the development of PC-based software called the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation Model (RAINS-ASIA). A 94-region Regional Energy Scenario Generator was developed to create alternative energy/emission scenarios through the year 2020. A long-range atmospheric transport model was developed to calculate dispersion and deposition of sulfur, based upon emissions from area and large point sources, on a one-degree grid of Asia. The resulting impacts of acidic deposition on a variety of vegetation types were analyzed using the critical loads approach to test different emissions management strategies, including both energy conservation measures and sulfur abatement technologies. 14 refs., 7 figs

  18. Impact of ambient air pollution on obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Ji, Mengmeng; Yan, Hai; Guan, Chenghua

    2018-05-24

    Over 80% of the global populations living in urban areas are exposed to air quality levels that exceed the World Health Organization limits. Air pollution may lead to unhealthy body weight through metabolic dysfunction, chronic disease onset, and disruption of regular physical activity. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles published until September 2017 that assessed the relationship between air pollution and body weight status. A standardized data extraction form was used to collect methodological and outcome variables from each eligible study. Sixteen studies met the selection criteria and were included in the review. They were conducted in seven countries, including the US (n = 9), China (n = 2), Canada (n = 1), Italy (n = 1), The Netherlands (n = 1), Serbia (n = 1), and South Korea (n = 1). Half of them adopted a longitudinal study design, and the rest adopted a cross-sectional study design. Commonly examined air pollutants included PM, NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 , and overall air quality index. Among a total of 66 reported associations between air pollution and body weight status, 29 (44%) found air pollution to be positively associated with body weight, 29 (44%) reported a null finding, and the remaining eight (12%) found air pollution to be negatively associated with body weight. The reported associations between air pollution and body weight status varied by sex, age group, and type of air pollutant. Three pathways hypothesized in the selected studies were through increased oxidative stress and adipose tissue inflammation, elevated risk for chronic comorbidities, and insufficient physical activity. Concurrent evidence regarding the impact of air pollution on body weight status remains mixed. Future studies should assess the impact of severe air pollution on obesity in developing countries, focus on a homogenous population subgroup, and elucidate the biomedical and psychosocial

  19. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  20. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols