WorldWideScience

Sample records for region size locally

  1. Adaptations to "Thermal Time" Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-21

    Adaptations to "thermal time" (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the "converse of Bergmann's size Rule", with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3-4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general "voltinism/size/D-day" model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local "climatic cold pockets" in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these "cold pockets" are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal transect for P. glaucus

  2. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  3. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritslew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size......Optimal jurisdiction size is a cornerstone of government design. A strong tradition in political thought argues that democracy thrives in smaller jurisdictions, but existing studies of the effects of jurisdiction size, mostly cross-sectional in nature, yield ambiguous results due to sorting effects...

  4. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics...

  5. Adaptations to “Thermal Time” Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J. Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations to “thermal time” (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the “converse of Bergmann’s size Rule”, with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3–4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general “voltinism/size/D-day” model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local “climatic cold pockets” in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these “cold pockets” are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal

  6. Regional power and local ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, D.; Philip, G.; Wilkinson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological data tend to be gathered at the local level: human agency also operates at this scale. By combining data from multiple surveys conducted within a larger area, it is possible to use local datasets to obtain a perspective on regional trends in settlement, population, and human activity...... and climate are then examined side by side in order to assess long-term human interactions. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  8. Corruption, regionalization and local governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is old almost as human societies and it was developed simultaneously with enlargement of social and political power, bureaucracy and involvement of the state into market transactions. Specific conditions that are characteristic of Serbian society and that have favorably influenced the growth of corruption are: dissolution/break up of Yugoslavia war in surroundings, economic sanctions and NATO bombing. Besides these basic causes of corruption in Serbia are state control over the economy, lack of the rule of law, and breakdown of social values, that is, anomy and poverty. The lack of the rule of law and the state control of economy, which often occur together, are older conditions, while distorted social values, that is, moral crisis and poverty are newer. Subordination of judicial system to the executive authorities enabled different sorts of bribe and corruption to be tolerated. Therefore, the corruption has spread and became contemporary method of conducting business and almost a common thing, regardless of the party composition of the authorities. This thesis is confirmed by the empirical data: 17.9% of citizens claim that all local officials and corrupted and 48.4% claim that majority of them are. On the other side, only 27.5% of citizens claim that local party officials (all of them or majority accept bribe, and 31.1% claim that only some do. Therefore, we are faced with higher interest in political engagement, because it is becoming a highly profitable occupation and posts in local government are highly appreciated because corruption profit is calculated in advance.

  9. Localized scleroderma and regional inflammatory myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Saša A; Freiberg, William; Lacomis, David; Domsic, Robyn T; Medsger, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory myopathy is rare in localized scleroderma. We report 2 new cases of regional inflammatory myopathy associated with localized scleroderma and review 10 reported cases of localized scleroderma associated with an inflammatory myopathy with regional muscle involvement, more often in the upper extremities. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated or normal. Histopathology often showed perimysial inflammation and plasma cell infiltration. These cases demonstrate that inflammatory myopathy should be considered in patients with localized scleroderma and regional muscle weakness, pain or atrophy. Muscle biopsy can confirm the diagnosis of myositis, which if identified, will require anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive therapy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Martin; Laprise, René

    2009-05-01

    Regional climate models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBC). It is well known that the limited area over which a model is integrated must be large enough to allow the full development of small-scale features. On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large scale nudging is applied. The issue of domain size is studied here by using the “perfect model” approach. This method consists first of generating a high-resolution climatic simulation, nicknamed big brother (BB), over a large domain of integration. The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter emulating the usual coarse-resolution LBC. The filtered nesting data (FBB) are hence used to drive a set of four simulations (LBs for Little Brothers), with the same model, but on progressively smaller domain sizes. The LB statistics for a climate sample of four winter months are compared with BB over a common region. The time average (stationary) and transient-eddy standard deviation patterns of the LB atmospheric fields generally improve in terms of spatial correlation with the reference (BB) when domain gets smaller. The extraction of the small-scale features by using a spectral filter allows detecting important underestimations of the transient-eddy variability in the vicinity of the inflow boundary, which can penalize the use of small domains (less than 100 × 100 grid points). The permanent “spatial spin-up” corresponds to the characteristic distance that the large-scale flow needs to travel before developing small-scale features. The spin-up distance tends to grow in size at higher levels in the atmosphere.

  11. Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, Martin [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics (CRCMD) Network, ESCER Centre, Montreal (Canada); UQAM/Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada); Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canadian Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics (CRCMD) Network, ESCER Centre, Montreal (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Regional climate models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBC). It is well known that the limited area over which a model is integrated must be large enough to allow the full development of small-scale features. On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large scale nudging is applied. The issue of domain size is studied here by using the ''perfect model'' approach. This method consists first of generating a high-resolution climatic simulation, nicknamed big brother (BB), over a large domain of integration. The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter emulating the usual coarse-resolution LBC. The filtered nesting data (FBB) are hence used to drive a set of four simulations (LBs for Little Brothers), with the same model, but on progressively smaller domain sizes. The LB statistics for a climate sample of four winter months are compared with BB over a common region. The time average (stationary) and transient-eddy standard deviation patterns of the LB atmospheric fields generally improve in terms of spatial correlation with the reference (BB) when domain gets smaller. The extraction of the small-scale features by using a spectral filter allows detecting important underestimations of the transient-eddy variability in the vicinity of the inflow boundary, which can penalize the use of small domains (less than 100 x 100 grid points). The permanent ''spatial spin-up'' corresponds to the characteristic distance that the large-scale flow needs to travel before developing small-scale features. The spin-up distance tends to grow in size at higher levels in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  12. Local field in finite-size metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The theory of the optical response of a metamaterial slab which is represented by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix is developed. It is demonstrated that the account of the reflections from the slab boundaries essentially modifies the local field in the slab and leads...

  13. Localized plexiform neurofibromatosis of the lumbar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhang W

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy had a localized plexiform neurofibroma situated on a large cafe-au-lait spot in the lumbo-sacral region. Histopathology was characteristic, The result of surgical excision was satisfactory.

  14. Local/regional policies: Acting globally by thinking locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from present levels will require changes in local and regional decision making as well as decisions made at national and multinational scales. A number of cities and states have taken action to reduce emissions either directly or as a byproduct of solving local problems such as air quality. These initiatives represent a potential resource to be mobilized in national policy. A series of case studies is under way to understand the decision making involved and its implications, and to identify ways that national policy might support and benefit from local efforts. Preliminary results from the first of these case studies indicate that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may be greater when set as a direct target than when resulting as a byproduct of other local problem solving

  15. Size and local democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has be...

  16. Local and regional greenhouse gas management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.D.; Webber, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of local government, working at both the local and regional level, to achieve substantial (greater than 20%) greenhouse gas emissions reductions. It identifies many different funding regimes and organisations supporting greenhouse gas emissions reductions and a lack of data with which to measure progress. The work in the East Midlands and in the City of Leicester are summarised and an evaluation of progress towards Leicester's target of 50% carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission reduction by 2025 based on 1990 is presented. Leicester's initiatives to reduce carbon emissions for the domestic and non-domestic sectors between 1996 and 1999 are analysed. Progress has been made in reducing the rate of rise in energy demand in Leicester and where energy efficiency activities have been concentrated, savings of 20-30% have been obtained. Significant CO 2 savings are achievable at the local and regional level, but the streamlining of support mechanisms for local authorities and a clearer national framework to support implementation are needed to enable all, rather than a few, UK local authorities to make progress

  17. Desarrollo multinivel: Implicaciones macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  18. Size and Local Democracy: the Case of Czech Municipal Representatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšavý, D.; Bernard, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2013), s. 833-852 ISSN 0300-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1779 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : local councillors * size of municipality * incumbents Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2013 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03003930.2012.675329

  19. Regional statistical and economic analysis of small and medium-sized businesses development in Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Pavlova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized businesses play an important role in the development of the regional economic system in particular and in solving a number of the following local problems: developing competition, developing the market for goods and services, providing jobs for the able-bodied population, raising living standards and improving the social environment in society. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state and development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Zhytomyr region, to analyze its contribution to the economic development of the region, and to identify the main problems existing in the region. According to the indicators of state statistics, the author presents the general characteristics of enterprises in the Zhytomyr region from 2012 to 2016 in the context of indicators of the number of enterprises, the number of employed workers and the volume of the products sold, highlighting the activities of small enterprises and assessing their share in general levels. In addition, the paper provides the description of the activities of individual entrepreneurs. The structural comparison for the above-listed indicators of the distribution of influence on the economic system of the Zhytomyr region in terms of enterprises by size is presented. In terms of quantity 93,5 % are small enterprises that provide 31,4 % of the total number of employees with work and make up 23,1 % of the total volume of sales. Average enterprises in these indicators have 6,4 %, 62,0 % and 54,8 % respectively. The statistical and economic analysis of the structure of small enterprises by types of economic activity, by indicators of the number of registered enterprises, and by the volumes of sold products is carried out. The uniformity of the distribution is estimated using the index of the concentration coefficient. The indicators of revenues to budgets of different levels from small and medium-sized businesses are set. The paper presents and summarizes the

  20. Construction of local and regional identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Butina Watson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To many people’s deep regret, almost everywhere seems to be getting more and more like everywhere else. This problem is especially evident in new housing areas, frequently described as anonymous “anywhere” environments, lacking in any distinguishable character. The same criticism is applied to many shopping precincts and town centres where the long existing qualities of traditional townscapes are gradually being eroded. Since about 1970, there has been an increasing and widespread interest in ways of reversing this process. Architects, planners and urban designers have been searching for methods and design approaches in order to construct new local and regional identity and create places to be proud of because of their unique character. Different theoretical schools have put forward their own methodological propositions, evidence of which can be found in many urban design and architectural schemes across many continents and cultural regions. Of particular interest to architects and urban designers today is the ability to use and appropriate methodologies already developed and tested through built projects.

  1. Prognosis in aphasia and CT localization and lesion size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirofumi.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of CT localization and lesion size on the prognosis of aphasia was studied in 76 right-handed aphasic patients who had had a cerebrovascular accident. On the basis of the results of the accumulated lesions with many Broca and Wernicke aphasics, the highly involved sites were determined to be the Broca area and the Wernicke area. The CT lesions of 76 aphasics were traced in the total area, the Broca area, and the Wernicke area; these were termed the total lesion, the Broca lesion, and the Wernicke lesion respectively. The digitizer program was used to determine the size of the lesions by tracing them onto standardized martrices, which were divided into 3000 points and which corresponded to the CT slices. The recovery rates were determined by comparing the scores of 2 SLTA (Standard Language Test of Aphasia) tests given at 3-month intervals in order to coincide with the clinical impressions. These recovery rates were used as an indication of the prognosis. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Negative correlations between the sizes of the total area and the Broca area and the recovery rates were observed, while no correlation was observed between the size of the Wernicke area and the recovery rates. These findings indicate that the larger the lesions in the total area and the Broca area, the less overall recovery occurs in the total language deficit. (2) Negative correlations between the size of each area and the recovery rates in expressive aspects, namely, ''speaking'' and ''writing,'' were observed, but not in the receptive aspects, namely, ''hearing'' and ''reading,'' or in ''calculation.'' (author)

  2. Does FDI promote regional development? Evidence from local and regional productivity spillovers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis MONASTIRIOTIS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the productivity spillovers of FDI have concentrated on the nationalsectoral level. As a result, little is known about the impact of FDI on absolute and relative regional economic performance. In this paper we examine this issue by relying on a unique dataset of over 20,000 Greek firms for the period 2002-2006 covering all sectors of economic activity. We examine the spatial distribution of foreign-owned firms in the country and analyse the effect that their presence – at the local, regional and national levels – has on the productivity of domestic firms. We find strong evidence suggesting that foreignowned firms self-select into regions and sectors of high productivity. Net of this selection effect, the impact of foreign presence on domestic productivity is negative – although at the very local level some positive spillover effects are identifiable. The bulk of the effects concentrate in non-manufacturing activities, high-tech sectors, and medium-sized high-productivity firms. Importantly, this effect is not constant across space however. Productivity spillovers tend to be negative in the regions hosting the main urban areas in the country but positive in smaller and more peripheral regions. In this way, despite the tendency of FDI to concentrate in a limited number of areas within the country – those of the highest level of development – the externalities that FDI activity generates to the local economies appear to be of a rather equilibrating character.

  3. Geographic Region, Size, and Program Type in Family Practice Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene K.; Garrard, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Research on residency education in family practice is discussed. Programmatic variables are examined: geographic region, size, and type of program. Definitions of these variables are provided, the current distribution of family practice residency programs across each of these variables is described, and data for use by other researchers is…

  4. Computer tomographic localization and lesion size in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei

    1985-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions demonstrated on CT were superimposed on standardized matrices in 127 cases with various types of aphasia, to investigate the relationship between location of the lesions and types of aphasia. Main results were as follows. 1. Broca aphasics: The lesions involved rather large areas in the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus, the insula and the lenticular nucleus. Therefore, the finding was regarded as being of little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: At least 70 % of the patients had superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and the subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. The site of the lesion corresponded roughly with that in the previous clinico-pathological reports but was indicated in a little deeper area. 3. Amnestic aphasics: The size of the lesion was smaller than any other type but the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic asphasia was thought to be the least localizable. 4. Conduction aphasics: Most patients had lesions in the posterior speech area involving part of Wernicke's area. In particular, in more than 80 % of the conduction aphasics the lesions were revealed in the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. 5. Global aphasics: In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70 % of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were some patients showing small and confined lesions. (author)

  5. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Assessment of local and regional isotopic equilibrium in the mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, A W; Hart, S R [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1978-02-01

    The assumption of local equilibrium during partial melting is fundamental to the interpretation of isotope and trace element data for mantle-derived rocks. If disequilibrium melting is significant, the scale of the chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle indicated by the data could be as small as the grain size of the mantle rock, and the isotope data themselves are then of doubtful value to the understanding of mantle processes. To assess the scale of isotopic heterogeneity in a partially molten asthenosphere the authors review the Sr isotopic data of volcanic rocks from oceanic regions and the available experimental data on diffusion kinetics in minerals and melts similar to those existing in the mantle. Although diffusion data are scarce and afflicted with uncertainties, most of the diffusion coefficients for cations in mantle minerals at temperatures of 1000 to 1200/sup 0/C appear to be greater than 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/. Struntium diffusion in liquid basalt is more rapid, with diffusion coefficients of D = 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ near 1300/sup 0/C. Simple model calculations show that, with these D values, a fluid-free mantle can maintain a state of disequilibrium on a centimeter scale for periods of 10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ years. The state of disequilibrium found in many mantle-derived xenoliths is thus easily explained. A partially molten mantle, on the other hand, will tend to equilibrate locally in less than 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ years. The analytical data on natural rocks likewise indicate that the inhomogeneities are both old (> 1.5 b.y.) and regional in character and that the consistent isotopic differences between ocean island and ocean floor volcanics cannot be explained by small-scall hetorogeneity of the source rock.

  7. Estimating the Local Size and Coverage of Interaction Network Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Michael; Barnes, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Interactive problem solving environments, such as intelligent tutoring systems and educational video games, produce large amounts of transactional data which make it a challenge for both researchers and educators to understand how students work within the environment. Researchers have modeled the student-tutor interactions using complex network…

  8. Local and regional low carbon scenarios methodology, challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this report discusses the emergence of local climate and energy policy in Europe, the implementation of nationally imposed but regionally anchored energy scenarios (i.e. in France, the Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes or SRCAE). Then it addresses the methodological and political aspects of local and regional low emission scenarios: methodologies and typologies of energy scenarios, ways to define an appropriate emission reduction and energy consumption objective, ways to deal with emission or carbon gaps, ways to make local emission inventories, ways to gather local data, ways to deal with special emission sources, ways to assess and develop local energy efficiency and renewable energy potentials, ways to take energy sufficiency into account, and the evolution from energy autonomy to 100% renewable energy territories. The last part addresses the issues of stake holder and citizen participation in the definition of long term strategies

  9. Multiple leakage localization and leak size estimation in water networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, N.; Habibi, H.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Klabbers, M.D.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Water distribution networks experience considerable losses due to leakage, often at multiple locations simultaneously. Leakage detection and localization based on sensor placement and online pressure monitoring could be fast and economical. Using the difference between estimated and measured

  10. Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the habitat of many species is fragmented, resulting in small local populations with individuals occasionally dispersing between the remaining habitat patches. In a solitary bee metapopulation, extinction probability was related to both local bee population sizes and pollen resources measured as host plant population size. Patch size, on the other hand, had no additional predictive power. The turnover rate of local bee populations in 63 habitat patches over 4 years was high, with 7...

  11. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V. S.

    2004-01-01

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  12. Regional reanalysis without local data: Exploiting the downscaling paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Storch, Hans; Feser, Frauke; Geyer, Beate; Klehmet, Katharina; Li, Delei; Rockel, Burkhardt; Schubert-Frisius, Martina; Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    This paper demonstrates two important aspects of regional dynamical downscaling of multidecadal atmospheric reanalysis. First, that in this way skillful regional descriptions of multidecadal climate variability may be constructed in regions with little or no local data. Second, that the concept of large-scale constraining allows global downscaling, so that global reanalyses may be completed by additions of consistent detail in all regions of the world. Global reanalyses suffer from inhomogeneities. However, their large-scale componenst are mostly homogeneous; Therefore, the concept of downscaling may be applied to homogeneously complement the large-scale state of the reanalyses with regional detail—wherever the condition of homogeneity of the description of large scales is fulfilled. Technically, this can be done by dynamical downscaling using a regional or global climate model, which's large scales are constrained by spectral nudging. This approach has been developed and tested for the region of Europe, and a skillful representation of regional weather risks—in particular marine risks—was identified. We have run this system in regions with reduced or absent local data coverage, such as Central Siberia, the Bohai and Yellow Sea, Southwestern Africa, and the South Atlantic. Also, a global simulation was computed, which adds regional features to prescribed global dynamics. Our cases demonstrate that spatially detailed reconstructions of the climate state and its change in the recent three to six decades add useful supplementary information to existing observational data for midlatitude and subtropical regions of the world.

  13. Regional legislation in Italy for the protection of local varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertacchini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the consequences of regional legislation in Italy on protecting local and autochthonous varieties. In accordance with the objectives of the FAO treaty on plant genetic resources (ITPGRFA, these laws have emerged as one of the most interesting institutional attempts at Italian and European level towards enhancing and protecting agricultural biodiversity. A description of the regional laws and their implementation highlights the importance of supporting farming systems that are close relationship with the territory and local communities, creating sufficient juridical space for the varieties that are not part of the ‘formal’ seed system.

  14. Regional Autonomy and Local Democracy: Independent Candidates Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the efforts to achieve local democracy is through the participation of independent candidates in the Direct General Election in the region. The presence of independent candidates in the Direct General Election gives a great hope to change the political structure of the shackles of the old forces. This paper aims to discuss the implication of regional heads coming from independent candidates on the effectiveness of local governance and the implementation of substantive democracy in the region. The method used is a qualitative approach using descriptive research method. The data collection is done through literature approach. Processing data uses Milles and Huberman interactive models, which includes data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The study concluded three things: First, the presence of independent candidates in the Direct General Election gives the opportunities to achieve local democracy that is getting bigger, Second, Regional Heads elected from independent candidates face the challenges of the ineffectiveness of regional government, and Third, within certain limits, the power of elected regional heads from independent lane leads to the realization of democracy that is not substantial.

  15. Life-history strategies associated with local population variability confer regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Stanislav; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2003-07-07

    A widely held ecological tenet is that, at the local scale, populations of K-selected species (i.e. low fecundity, long lifespan and large body size) will be less variable than populations of r-selected species (i.e. high fecundity, short lifespan and small body size). We examined the relationship between long-term population trends and life-history attributes for 185 bird species in the Czech Republic and found that, at regional spatial scales and over moderate temporal scales (100-120 years), K-selected bird species were more likely to show both large increases and decreases in population size than r-selected species. We conclude that life-history attributes commonly associated with variable populations at the local scale, confer stability at the regional scale.

  16. Locally specific measures for employment aimed at regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development

  17. VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niewolny, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This document is a chart illustrating the Virginia Cooperative Extension model for food systems at the community, local and regional level. This chart shows an interrelationship between basic and applied research, leveraging of resources and opportunities, communication and marketing, assessment, evaluation and impact, knowledge, skills, and social change, facilitation of partnerships, and also teaching.

  18. [The contributions of local authorities to regional public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Maria, Florence; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Local authorities in France are key players in shaping public health policy by their action on the determinants of health and through their actions aimed at specific population groups. Since the public health act of 9 August 2004 establishing the first regional public health plans, their level of involvement and role continues to grow as coordinators, funders and project managers within the greater Paris metropolitan region. Their active participation in regional policy to improve population health and reduce inequalities in health has led to a better organization of the public health programs implemented (in terms of visibility, dialogue, coordination, transparency, and better awareness of context and integration of local issues). Their participation is also a source of innovation resulting in the proposal and use of new approaches (such as the development of health surveillance and observation for advising the local decision-making process). Within the current context of the "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" bill, which entrusts the governance of regional health policy to a specific agency, the role given to local authorities in this new organizational structure must be clearly defined to take into account all of their existing and potential contributions to public health policy.

  19. Local and Regional Spread of Primary Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shilpa J; Pruzan, Noelle L; Geske, Michael J; Jeng, Bennie H; Bloomer, Michele M; Vagefi, M Reza

    2016-04-06

    Two cases of biopsy-proven conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that developed local and regional spread are described. The cases involved a 65-year-old woman and a 79-year-old man who were initially treated at outside institutions for SCC of the conjunctiva. The patients did not have a history of immune compromise. The female patient presented with direct extension into the lacrimal gland but deferred recommended exenteration. Despite eventual exenteration, she developed metastasis to a neck node 6 months later, which was treated with radiotherapy. The male patient presented with local recurrence and a parotid node metastasis treated with exenteration, parotidectomy, selective neck dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy. Review of the outside pathology of both cases revealed positive tumor margins at the time of original resection. Local control of conjunctival SCC is of critical importance to reduce the risk of orbital extension and regional spread.

  20. Deposition and erosion in local shadow regions of TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienhold, P.; Mayer, M.; Kirschner, A.; Rubel, M.; Hildebrandt, D.; Schneider, W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon erosion and deposition were investigated on the surface of a flat target covered with an a-C:H film and exposed for 197 s in the SOL of TEXTOR-94. The target was declined by 20 with respect to the toroidal direction and partly protected by an aluminum (3 mm) plate which created an 8 mm wide local shadow. Thickness changes were measured by colorimetry after each plasma discharge. Carbon is eroded from surface areas near the plasma edge (LCFS +1 cm) and transported into the local shadow regions. Accumulation rates up to ∼7 nm/s were found. The erosion in the local shadow regions (about -0.1 nm/s) is due to charge exchange neutrals. The observations are confirmed by ion beam analyses and by preliminary calculations with the B2-EIRENE and ERO-TEXTOR code. (orig.)

  1. Controversies regarding decentralism, regionalism, and local governance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milovan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is composed from three parts. In the first part, I emphasize the importance of theoretical and sociological discussion for the design of the model of social system reforms and stress the problems that occur in Serbia with regard to this. In the second part, I discuss public controversies regarding decentralism, regionalism, and local governance in Serbia. I advocate for regionalism that is closer to local then to para-state governance and argue for the advantages of alternative model of 'functional autonomy of different tempo', that could harmonize inherited historical geopolitical, economic, and cultural differences and reconcile current political antagonisms in Serbia. In the third part I give a proposition that envisages central (Republic administration and local (municipal and city self-governance as main levels of territorial organization of governance (with original authorities, while federal and regional levels would be complementary with it, not parallel. In that sense, I propose 15 autonomous regions for Serbia, with possibility of making 4 to 6 larger regions out of them, at different pace.

  2. Local magnitude scale for Valle Medio del Magdalena region, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, John Makario; Romero, Jaime A.

    2017-12-01

    A local Magnitude (ML) scale for Valle Medio del Magdalena (VMM) region was defined by using 514 high quality earthquakes located at VMM area and inversion of 2797 amplitude values of horizontal components of 17 stations seismic broad band stations, simulated in a Wood-Anderson seismograph. The derived local magnitude scale for VMM region was: ML =log(A) + 1.3744 ∗ log(r) + 0.0014776 ∗ r - 2.397 + S Where A is the zero-to-peak amplitude in nm in horizontal components, r is the hypocentral distance in km, and S is the station correction. Higher values of ML were obtained for VMM region compared with those obtained with the current formula used for ML determination, and with California formula. With this new scale ML values are adjusted to local conditions beneath VMM region leading to more realistic ML values. Moreover, with this new ML scale the seismicity caused by tectonic or fracking activity at VMM region can be monitored more accurately.

  3. Integration of Local Hydrology into Regional Hydrologic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, R. J.; Lal, W. A.

    2002-05-01

    South Florida hydrology is dominated by the Central and South Florida (C&SF) Project that is managed to provide flood protection, water supply and environmental protection. A complex network of levees canals and structures provide these services to the individual drainage basins. The landscape varies widely across the C&SF system, with corresponding differences in the way water is managed within each basin. Agricultural areas are managed for optimal crop production. Urban areas maximize flood protection while maintaining minimum water levels to protect adjacent wetlands and local water supplies. "Natural" areas flood and dry out in response to the temporal distribution of rainfall. The evaluation of planning, regulation and operational issues require access to a simulation model that captures the effects of both regional and local hydrology. The Regional Simulation Model (RSM) uses a "pseudo-cell" approach to integrate local hydrology within the context of a regional hydrologic system. A 2-dimensional triangulated mesh is used to represent the regional surface and ground water systems and a 1-dimensional canal network is superimposed onto this mesh. The movement of water is simulated using a finite volume formulation with a diffusive wave approximation. Each cell in the triangulated mesh has a "pseudo-cell" counterpart, which represents the same area as the cell, but it is conceptualized such that it simulates the localized hydrologic conditions Protocols have been established to provide an interface between a cell and its pseudo-cell counterpart. . A number of pseudo-cell types have already been developed and tested in the simulation of Water Conservation Area 1 and several have been proposed to deal with specific local issues in the Southwest Florida Feasibility Study. This presentation will provide an overview of the overall RSM design, describe the relationship between cells and pseudo-cells, and illustrate how pseudo-cells are be used to simulate agriculture

  4. The Size of Local Government Administration at a Municipal Level as a Determinant of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusłan Harasym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This artcle’s aim is to examine a dependency between local government administraton at a municipal level and the level of local entrepreneurship. This paper atempts to answer the queston of whether the size of the local government administraton has features of stmulant or de-stmulant in the process of setng up a business. In other words, does the size of public administraton at a local level (municipal level have a positve or negatve impact on creatng new business enttes? This is important due to at least a couple of reasons. First of all, the current research achievements are not extensive, when it comes to the publicatons that link entrepreneurship and the size of local government administraton. Secondly, the problem of entrepreneurship determinants consttutes stll topical and not fully investgated (or explained aspects of local economy development. Thirdly and fnally, the authors of this artcle have proposed and copyrighted an approach to the quantfcaton of the size of local government administraton, modifying commonly used measures of local public administraton. Thus, this artcle fts not only into the explanaton of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its determinants, but also contributes to the development of knowledge about dependencies between the size of local selfgovernment and the entrepreneurship level. It expands the knowledge resource on analyzed dependencies and re-orients current approaches to similar research.

  5. Regional versus local influences on lead and cadmium loading to the Great Lakes region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohn, S.; Long, D.; Fett, J.; Patino, L. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2004-07-01

    Environmental legislation has reduced the anthropogenic loadings of Pb and Cd to the Great Lakes region over the past 3 decades. However, the accumulation rates of these metals still remain above background values. Because environmental legislation was targeted at major sources (e.g., Pb in gasoline) whose influence on the environment was on a regional scale, local sources (e.g., watershed scale) for the metals may now play a more significant role. The relative importance of regional versus local scale influences on metal inputs to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, sediment chronologies of Pb and Cd were examined from 12 inland lakes that cover the broad geographic area of the State of Michigan. These chronologies were compared temporally and spatially and to watershed population densities and metal production records to gain an understanding of local and regional influences on metal inputs to the Great Lakes region. Results show that anthropogenic Pb loading during the 1930s and 1970s was dominated by regional sources. such as coal burning and use of leaded gasoline. Current loadings are now more related to local influences such as watershed population densities, rather than atmospheric deposition. Anthropogenic Cd loadings to the Great Lakes region have been dominated by both regional and local sources over time. Lead may also have shown the influence of local sources over time, if the influence of emissions from gasoline had not been present. This work shows that Pb and Cd loadings in the Great Lakes region are strongly related to watershed population densities; however, the specific sources and pathways for the metal cycling are unclear.

  6. Deriving local demand for stumpage from estimates of regional supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent P. Connaughton; Gerard A. Majerus; David H. Jackson

    1989-01-01

    The local (Forest-level or local-area) demand for stumpage can be derived from estimates of regional supply and demand. The derivation of local demand is justified when the local timber economy is similar to the regional timber economy; a simple regression of local on nonlocal prices can be used as an empirical test of similarity between local and regional economies....

  7. Local Helioseismology of Emerging Active Regions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao, Junwei; Ilonidis, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    Local helioseismology provides a unique opportunity to investigate the subsurface structure and dynamics of active regions and their effect on the large-scale flows and global circulation of the Sun. We use measurements of plasma flows in the upper convection zone, provided by the Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline developed for analysis of solar oscillation data obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to investigate the subsurface dynamics of emerging active region NOAA 11726. The active region emergence was detected in deep layers of the convection zone about 12 hours before the first bipolar magnetic structure appeared on the surface, and 2 days before the emergence of most of the magnetic flux. The speed of emergence determined by tracking the flow divergence with depth is about 1.4 km/s, very close to the emergence speed in the deep layers. As the emerging magnetic flux becomes concentrated in sunspots local converging flows are observed beneath the forming sunspots. These flows are most prominent in the depth range 1-3 Mm, and remain converging after the formation process is completed. On the larger scale converging flows around active region appear as a diversion of the zonal shearing flows towards the active region, accompanied by formation of a large-scale vortex structure. This process occurs when a substantial amount of the magnetic flux emerged on the surface, and the converging flow pattern remains stable during the following evolution of the active region. The Carrington synoptic flow maps show that the large-scale subsurface inflows are typical for active regions. In the deeper layers (10-13 Mm) the flows become diverging, and surprisingly strong beneath some active regions. In addition, the synoptic maps reveal a complex evolving pattern of large-scale flows on the scale much larger than supergranulation

  8. Abnormalities by pulmonary regions studied with computer tomography following local or local-regional radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Pehr; Svane, Gunilla; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Svensson, Christer

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To study pulmonary radiological abnormalities with computer tomography (CT) following different radiotherapy (RT) techniques for breast cancer with respect to regions and density, and their correlation to pulmonary complications and reduction in vital capacity (VC). Methods and Materials: CT scans of the lungs were performed prior to and 4 months following RT in 105 breast cancer patients treated with local or local-regional RT. The radiological abnormalities were analyzed with a CT-adapted modification of a classification system originally proposed by Arriagada, and scored according to increasing density (0-3) and affected lung regions (apical-lateral, central-parahilar, basal-lateral). The highest density grade in each region were added together to form scores ranging from 0-9. The patients were monitored for RT-induced pulmonary complications. VC was measured prior to and 5 months following RT. Results: Increasing CT scores were correlated with both local-regional RT and pulmonary complications (p < 0.001). The mean reduction of VC for patients scoring 4-9 (-202 ml) was larger than for patients scoring 0-3 (-2 ml) (p = 0.035). The effect of confounding factors on the radiological scoring was tested in the local-regional RT group. Scores of 4-9 were less frequently seen in the patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy prior to RT. The importance of the respective lung regions on the outcome of pulmonary complications was tested. Only radiological abnormalities in the central-parahilar and apical-lateral regions were significantly correlated to pulmonary complications. Discussion: Radiological abnormalities detected on CT images and scored with a modification of Arriagada's classification system can be used as an objective endpoint for pulmonary side effects in breast cancer. The described model should, however, be expanded with information about the volume of lung affected in each region before definite conclusions can be drawn concerning each

  9. Regional Innovation System And Local Economic Development In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiwan F Aritenang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, decentralization and globalization has introduced a new spirit for localism. Since decentralisation, regions have been motivated to accelerate economic development through local endowment and resources. The democratic Indonesia government has been interested to follow economy theories and case studies develop in the advance countries. Over the years, government policies have supported and strengthen technology development through industrial clusters and national and regional innovation systems. This research aims to explore current progress of Indonesia innovation system through industrial clusters. The research found the presence of industry clustering and very limited innovation system in Indonesia. The research argues that these activities has significant impact on employment growth, but does not increase the industry's value added.

  10. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  11. Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005. The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  12. Including capabilities of local actors in regional economic development: Empirical results of local seaweed industries in Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T.J. Vredegoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stimson, et al. (2009 developed one of the most relevant and well known model for Regional Economic Development. This model covers the most important factors related to economic development question. However, this model excludes the social components of development. Local community should be included in terms of the development of a region. This paper introduced to the Stimson model “Skills” and “Knowledge” at the individual level for local actors indicating the capabilities at the individual level and introduced “Human Coordination” for the capabilities at the collective level. In our empirical research we looked at the Indonesian seaweed market with a specific focus on the region of Baubau. This region was chosen because there are hardly any economic developments. Furthermore this study focuses on the poorer community who are trying to improve their situation by the cultivation of Seaweed. Eighteen local informants was interviewed besides additional interviews of informants from educational and governmental institutions in the cities of Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta. The informants selected had a direct or indirect relationship with the region of Baubau. With the support of the empirical data from this region we can confirm that it is worthwhile to include the local community in the model for regional economic development.  The newly added variables: at the individual level; Skills and Knowledge and at the level of the collective: Human Coordination was supported by the empirical material. It is an indication that including the new variables can give regional economic an extra dimension.  In this way we think that it becomes more explicit that “endogenous” means that the people, or variables closely related to them, should be more explicitly included in models trying to capture Regional Economic Development or rephrased as Local Economic Development Keywords:Regional and endogenous development; Fisheries and seaweed

  13. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...

  14. Predicting the number and sizes of IBD regions among family members and evaluating the family size requirement for linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanling; Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Lusheng; Sham, Pak-Chung; Huang, Peng; Lau, Yu Lung

    2008-12-01

    With genotyping of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replacing that of microsatellite markers in linkage studies, it becomes possible to accurately determine the genomic regions shared identity by descent (IBD) by family members. In addition to evaluating the likelihood of linkage for a region with the underlining disease (the LOD score approach), an appropriate question to ask is what would be the expected number and sizes of IBD regions among the affecteds, as there could be more than one region reaching the maximum achievable LOD score for a given family. Here, we introduce a computer program to allow the prediction of the total number of IBD regions among family members and their sizes. Reversely, it can be used to predict the portion of the genome that can be excluded from consideration according to the family size and user-defined inheritance mode and penetrance. Such information has implications on the feasibility of conducting linkage analysis on a given family of certain size and structure or on a few small families when interfamily homogeneity can be assumed. It can also help determine the most relevant members to be genotyped for such a study. Simulation results showed that the IBD regions containing true mutations are usually larger than regions IBD due to random chance. We have made use of this feature in our program to allow evaluation of the identified IBD regions based on Bayesian probability calculation and simulation results.

  15. Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based Impact Region Imaging and Localization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123

  16. Strategic trade between two regions with partial local consumer protection - General setup and nash equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Iordan V.; Vassilev, Andrey A.

    2017-12-01

    We construct a model of the trade relations between two regions for the case when the trading entities (consumers) compete for a scarce good and there is an element of strategic interdependence in the trading process. Additionally, local consumers enjoy partial protection in the form of guaranteed access to a part of the locally-supplied quantity of the good. The model is formulated for the general asymmetric case, where the two regions differ in terms of parameters such as income, size of the local market supply, degree of protection and transportation costs. For this general model we establish the existence of Nash equilibria and obtain their form as a function of the model parameters, producing a typology of the equilibria. This is a required step in order to rigorously study various types of price dynamics for the model.

  17. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Justin M; Rastogi, Vinayak; Maccuspie, Robert I; Keene, Athena M; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2011-10-25

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles during measurements in relevant biological and environmental media is a frequent problem in nanomaterial property characterization. The primary problem is typically that any changes to the size distribution can dramatically affect the potential nanotoxicity or other size-determined properties, such as the absorbance signal in a biosensor measurement. Herein we demonstrate analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as a powerful method for measuring two critical characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates in situ in biological media: the NP agglomerate size distribution, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance spectrum of precise sizes of gold NP agglomerates. To characterize the size distribution, we present a theoretical framework for calculating the hydrodynamic diameter distribution of NP agglomerates from their sedimentation coefficient distribution. We measure sedimentation rates for monomers, dimers, and trimers, as well as for larger agglomerates with up to 600 NPs. The AUC size distributions were found generally to be broader than the size distributions estimated from dynamic light scattering and diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation theory, an alternative bulk measurement method that relies on several assumptions. In addition, the measured sedimentation coefficients can be used in nanotoxicity studies to predict how quickly the agglomerates sediment out of solution under normal gravitational forces, such as in the environment. We also calculate the absorbance spectra for monomer, dimer, trimer, and larger gold NP agglomerates up to 600 NPs, to enable a better understanding of LSPR biosensors. Finally, we validate a new method that uses these spectra to deconvolute the net absorbance spectrum of an unknown bulk sample and approximate the proportions of monomers, dimers, and trimers in a polydisperse sample of small agglomerates, so that every sample does not need to be measured by AUC. These results

  18. Meteorological Controls on Local and Regional Volcanic Ash Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P; Phillips, Jeremy C; Renfrew, Ian A; Barclay, Jenni; Hogg, Andrew; Jenkins, Susanna F; Robertson, Richard; Pyle, David M

    2018-05-02

    Volcanic ash has the capacity to impact human health, livestock, crops and infrastructure, including international air traffic. For recent major eruptions, information on the volcanic ash plume has been combined with relatively coarse-resolution meteorological model output to provide simulations of regional ash dispersal, with reasonable success on the scale of hundreds of kilometres. However, to predict and mitigate these impacts locally, significant improvements in modelling capability are required. Here, we present results from a dynamic meteorological-ash-dispersion model configured with sufficient resolution to represent local topographic and convectively-forced flows. We focus on an archetypal volcanic setting, Soufrière, St Vincent, and use the exceptional historical records of the 1902 and 1979 eruptions to challenge our simulations. We find that the evolution and characteristics of ash deposition on St Vincent and nearby islands can be accurately simulated when the wind shear associated with the trade wind inversion and topographically-forced flows are represented. The wind shear plays a primary role and topographic flows a secondary role on ash distribution on local to regional scales. We propose a new explanation for the downwind ash deposition maxima, commonly observed in volcanic eruptions, as resulting from the detailed forcing of mesoscale meteorology on the ash plume.

  19. Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G

    2010-01-07

    Currently, the habitat of many species is fragmented, resulting in small local populations with individuals occasionally dispersing between the remaining habitat patches. In a solitary bee metapopulation, extinction probability was related to both local bee population sizes and pollen resources measured as host plant population size. Patch size, on the other hand, had no additional predictive power. The turnover rate of local bee populations in 63 habitat patches over 4 years was high, with 72 extinction events and 31 colonization events, but the pollen plant population was stable with no extinctions or colonizations. Both pollen resources and bee populations had strong and independent effects on extinction probability, but connectivity was not of importance. Colonizations occurred more frequently within larger host plant populations. For metapopulation survival of the bee, large pollen plant populations are essential, independent of current bee population size.

  20. The relative importance of regional, local, and evolutionary factors structuring cryptobenthic coral-reef assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Tornabene, Luke; Smith, David J.; Pezold, Frank L.

    2018-03-01

    Factors shaping coral-reef fish species assemblages can operate over a wide range of spatial scales (local versus regional) and across both proximate and evolutionary time. Niche theory and neutral theory provide frameworks for testing assumptions and generating insights about the importance of local versus regional processes. Niche theory postulates that species assemblages are an outcome of evolutionary processes at regional scales followed by local-scale interactions, whereas neutral theory presumes that species assemblages are formed by largely random processes drawing from regional species pools. Indo-Pacific cryptobenthic coral-reef fishes are highly evolved, ecologically diverse, temporally responsive, and situated on a natural longitudinal diversity gradient, making them an ideal group for testing predictions from niche and neutral theories and effects of regional and local processes on species assemblages. Using a combination of ecological metrics (fish density, diversity, assemblage composition) and evolutionary analyses (testing for phylogenetic niche conservatism), we demonstrate that the structure of cryptobenthic fish assemblages can be explained by a mixture of regional factors, such as the size of regional species pools and broad-scale barriers to gene flow/drivers of speciation, coupled with local-scale factors, such as the relative abundance of specific microhabitat types. Furthermore, species of cryptobenthic fishes have distinct microhabitat associations that drive significant differences in assemblage community structure between microhabitat types, and these distinct microhabitat associations are phylogenetically conserved over evolutionary timescales. The implied differential fitness of cryptobenthic fishes across varied microhabitats and the conserved nature of their ecology are consistent with predictions from niche theory. Neutral theory predictions may still hold true for early life-history stages, where stochastic factors may be more

  1. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Exposing region duplication through local geometrical color invariant features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiachang; Guo, Jichang

    2015-05-01

    Many advanced image-processing softwares are available for tampering images. How to determine the authenticity of an image has become an urgent problem. Copy-move is one of the most common image forgery operations. Many methods have been proposed for copy-move forgery detection (CMFD). However, most of these methods are designed for grayscale images without any color information used. They are usually not suitable when the duplicated regions have little structure or have undergone various transforms. We propose a CMFD method using local geometrical color invariant features to detect duplicated regions. The method starts by calculating the color gradient of the inspected image. Then, we directly take the color gradient as the input for scale invariant features transform (SIFT) to extract color-SIFT descriptors. Finally, keypoints are matched and clustered before their geometrical relationship is estimated to expose the duplicated regions. We evaluate the detection performance and computational complexity of the proposed method together with several popular CMFD methods on a public database. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in detecting duplicated regions with various transforms and poor structure.

  3. PET/CT in cancer: moderate sample sizes may suffice to justify replacement of a regional gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: For certain cancer indications, the current patient evaluation strategy is a perfect but locally restricted gold standard procedure. If positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be shown to be reliable within the gold standard region and if it can be argued that PET...... of metastasized prostate cancer. RESULTS: An added value in accuracy of PET/CT in adjacent areas can outweigh a downsized target level of accuracy in the gold standard region, justifying smaller sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: If PET/CT provides an accuracy benefit in adjacent regions, then sample sizes can be reduced....../CT also performs well in adjacent areas, then sample sizes in accuracy studies can be reduced. PROCEDURES: Traditional standard power calculations for demonstrating sensitivities of both 80% and 90% are shown. The argument is then described in general terms and demonstrated by an ongoing study...

  4. Local population and regional environmental drivers of cholera in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escamilla Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional environmental factors have been shown to be related to cholera. Previous work in Bangladesh found that temporal patterns of cholera are positively related to satellite-derived environmental variables including ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC. Methods This paper investigates whether local socio-economic status (SES modifies the effect of regional environmental forces. The study area is Matlab, Bangladesh, an area of approximately 200,000 people with an active health and demographic surveillance system. Study data include (1 spatially-referenced demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population; (2 satellite-derived variables for sea surface temperature (SST, sea surface height (SSH, and OCC; and (3 laboratory confirmed cholera case data for the entire population. Relationships between cholera, the environmental variables, and SES are measured using generalized estimating equations with a logit link function. Additionally two separate seasonal models are built because there are two annual cholera epidemics, one pre-monsoon, and one post-monsoon. Results SES has a significant impact on cholera occurrence: the higher the SES score, the lower the occurrence of cholera. There is a significant negative association between cholera incidence and SSH during the pre-monsoon period but not for the post-monsoon period. OCC is positively associated with cholera during the pre-monsoon period but not for the post-monsoon period. SST is not related to cholera incidence. Conclusions Overall, it appears cholera is influenced by regional environmental variables during the pre-monsoon period and by local-level variables (e.g., water and sanitation during the post-monsoon period. In both pre- and post-monsoon seasons, SES significantly influences these patterns, likely because it is a proxy for poor water quality and sanitation in poorer households.

  5. City Size, Density and Sectoral Structure: Exploring Urban Sustainability in the Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in history, the Global population is more urban than rural and the trend is obvious at various scales. Cities do not serve just as dynamic centres of activities, jobs and consumption markets, social interactions and cultural expressions, but also carry the weight of the main environmental problems of current times and the near future. Global Warming, air and water pollution, population growth and recourse constraints, i.e. reduction of carrying capacity of the environment are among the well known ones. The overall aim of this research is to develop mitigation (at various scales) and adaptation systems, tailored to urban settlements. They should be effective at the very local as well as regional levels, assess and introduce innovative urban technologies and policies, reduce ecological footprint of cities and increase recycling efficiency. We propose the empirical method of urban sustainability assessment, that supports our hypothesis that city functioning, the changes in its population and area growth depends on the size, average and internal densities and the geographical form. The existing cities of three regions are examined: Western and Eastern Europe (incl. Russia), Latin America and China. There are fundamental urban developmental differences and also within the first region, namely between EU countries and the Eastern part of European geographical region. The cities are considered not only as some agglomerates of areas with dense population but from the ecological point of view, namely examining inflow of food and energy and outflow of waste products across the boundaries. There are major differences between the patterns of urbanisation in the studied regions, urban systems functioning and resilience. Continuous investigation of these differenced helps building regional scenarios of cities development, population allocation and pollution management for the 21st century.

  6. Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in Earth's plasma sheet. From more than 80 Cluster plasma sheet crossings (660 h data at the altitude of about 15–20 RE in the summer and fall of 2001, we have identified 116 Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and 35 Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have estimated typical values of the scale size and life time of the CLRs and the CGRs. We find that a majority of the observed ECRs are rather stationary in space, but varying in time. Assuming that the ECRs are cylindrically shaped and equal in size, we conclude that the typical scale size of the ECRs is 2 RE≲ΔSECR≲5 RE. The ECRs hence occupy a significant portion of the mid altitude plasma sheet. Moreover, the CLRs appear to be somewhat larger than the CGRs. The life time of the ECRs are of the order of 1–10 min, consistent with the large scale magnetotail MHD simulations of Birn and Hesse (2005. The life time of the CGRs is somewhat shorter than for the CLRs. On time scales of 1–10 min, we believe that ECRs rise and vanish in significant regions of the plasma sheet, possibly oscillating between load and generator character. It is probable that at least some of the observed ECRs oscillate energy back and forth in the plasma sheet instead of channeling it to the ionosphere.

  7. The Size of Narrow Line Region and [OIII] Luminosity Analyzed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we constructed a sample of 4002 quasars from. SDSS DR7 quasar catalogue to calculate the electron density and size of narrow line region. We find that the electron densities are ∼103/cm3, and the sizes are between 27 and 775 pc. We also find that, in the ionization cone, the sizes are tightly ...

  8. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  9. Automatic Extraction and Size Distribution of Landslides in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan A. Othman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the localization and size distribution of landslides using automatic remote sensing techniques in (semi- arid, non-vegetated, mountainous environments. The study area is located in the Kurdistan region (NE Iraq, within the Zagros orogenic belt, which is characterized by the High Folded Zone (HFZ, the Imbricated Zone and the Zagros Suture Zone (ZSZ. The available reference inventory includes 3,190 landslides mapped from sixty QuickBird scenes using manual delineation. The landslide types involve rock falls, translational slides and slumps, which occurred in different lithological units. Two hundred and ninety of these landslides lie within the ZSZ, representing a cumulated surface of 32 km2. The HFZ implicates 2,900 landslides with an overall coverage of about 26 km2. We first analyzed cumulative landslide number-size distributions using the inventory map. We then proposed a very simple and robust algorithm for automatic landslide extraction using specific band ratios selected upon the spectral signatures of bare surfaces as well as posteriori slope and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds. The index is based on the contrast between landslides and their background, whereas the landslides have high reflections in the green and red bands. We applied the slope threshold map to remove low slope areas, which have high reflectance in red and green bands. The algorithm was able to detect ~96% of the recent landslides known from the reference inventory on a test site. The cumulative landslide number-size distribution of automatically extracted landslide is very similar to the one based on visual mapping. The automatic extraction is therefore adapted for the quantitative analysis of landslides and thus can contribute to the assessment of hazards in similar regions.

  10. Regional aerosol emissions and temperature response: Local and remote climate impacts of regional aerosol forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinschal, Anna; Ekman, Annica; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of anthropogenic aerosols vary substantially over the globe and the short atmospheric residence time of aerosols leads to a highly uneven radiative forcing distribution, both spatially and temporally. Regional aerosol radiative forcing can, nevertheless, exert a large influence on the temperature field away from the forcing region through changes in heat transport or the atmospheric or ocean circulation. Moreover, the global temperature response distribution to aerosol forcing may vary depending on the geographical location of the forcing. In other words, the climate sensitivity in one region can vary depending on the location of the forcing. The surface temperature distribution response to changes in sulphate aerosol forcing caused by sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission perturbations in four different regions is investigated using the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). The four regions, Europe, North America, East and South Asia, are all regions with historically high aerosol emissions and are relevant from both an air-quality and climate policy perspective. All emission perturbations are defined relative to the year 2000 emissions provided for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. The global mean temperature change per unit SO2 emission change is similar for all four regions for similar magnitudes of emissions changes. However, the global temperature change per unit SO2 emission in simulations where regional SO2 emission were removed is substantially higher than that obtained in simulations where regional SO2 emissions were increased. Thus, the climate sensitivity to regional SO2 emissions perturbations depends on the magnitude of the emission perturbation in NorESM. On regional scale, on the other hand, the emission perturbations in different geographical locations lead to different regional temperature responses, both locally and in remote regions. The results from the model simulations are used to construct regional temperature potential

  11. Approximate Dynamic Programming: Combining Regional and Local State Following Approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Patryk; Rosenfeld, Joel A; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Dixon, Warren E

    2018-06-01

    An infinite-horizon optimal regulation problem for a control-affine deterministic system is solved online using a local state following (StaF) kernel and a regional model-based reinforcement learning (R-MBRL) method to approximate the value function. Unlike traditional methods such as R-MBRL that aim to approximate the value function over a large compact set, the StaF kernel approach aims to approximate the value function in a local neighborhood of the state that travels within a compact set. In this paper, the value function is approximated using a state-dependent convex combination of the StaF-based and the R-MBRL-based approximations. As the state enters a neighborhood containing the origin, the value function transitions from being approximated by the StaF approach to the R-MBRL approach. Semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) convergence of the system states to the origin is established using a Lyapunov-based analysis. Simulation results are provided for two, three, six, and ten-state dynamical systems to demonstrate the scalability and performance of the developed method.

  12. AIRPORT NOISE CHARGES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES: APPLICATION TO REGIONAL AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MANTECCHINI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.

  13. Philosophy of river problems: local to regional, static to mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, L.

    1997-01-01

    According to the statistics, thirteen of the twenty-five major river basins in Europe are basins of transboundary rivers. The Danube river basin is largest transboundary river basin in Europe. Almost in each case the local and regional problems arise, like division of fishing rights (or rights on river beds), right to claim tolls on navigation, how to adjust boundaries if the channel moves, or rights to claim duty on crossing the river, or to build bridges, weirs, etc. All the above problems on a larger scale include also rights of non-contiguous lands (i.e. not fronting on the river) to use the river for navigation, for passage of migrating fish, to exploit river (e.g. bed sediments) without damage by one country or society to another below. Similarly, pollution and large-scale removal of water, are problems on regional or national levels. Disputes usually arise from the above, more or less exacerbated by their superimposition or other non-river problems, e.g. religion, politics, historical issues, recent aggression, relative prosperity, expanding economy vs. contrasting economy. May be cause or consequence of many of these. And somewhere here is likely the case of Gabcikovo on Danube between Slovakia and Hungary, as well. (author)

  14. Size effects and strain localization in atomic-scale cleavage modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, B A M; Müller, S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the adhesion and decohesion of Cu(1 0 0) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. An upper stress to surface decohesion is obtained via the universal binding energy relation (UBER), but the model is limited to rigid separation of bulk-terminated surfaces. When structural relaxations are included, an unphysical size effect arises if decohesion is considered to occur as soon as the strain energy equals the energy of the newly formed surfaces. We employ the nudged elastic band (NEB) method to show that this size effect is opposed by a size-dependency of the energy barriers involved in the transition. Further, we find that the transition occurs via a localization of bond strain in the vicinity of the cleavage plane, which resembles the strain localization at the tip of a sharp crack that is predicted by linear elastic fracture mechanics. (paper)

  15. Size-Tuned Plastic Flow Localization in Irradiated Materials at the Submicron Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinan; Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (3D-DDD) simulations reveal that, with reduction of sample size in the submicron regime, the mechanism of plastic flow localization in irradiated materials transitions from irradiation-controlled to an intrinsic dislocation source controlled. Furthermore, the spatial correlation of plastic deformation decreases due to weaker dislocation interactions and less frequent cross slip as the system size decreases, thus manifesting itself in thinner dislocation channels. A simple model of discrete dislocation source activation coupled with cross slip channel widening is developed to reproduce and physically explain this transition. In order to quantify the phenomenon of plastic flow localization, we introduce a "deformation localization index," with implications to the design of radiation-resistant materials.

  16. The Quality of the Embedding Potential Is Decisive for Minimal Quantum Region Size in Embedding Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Martínez, Todd J

    2017-01-01

    correct description of the MM region, and that this enables the use of much smaller QM regions compared to fixed charge electrostatic embedding. Furthermore, absorption intensities converge very slowly with system size and inclusion of effective external field effects in the MM region through...

  17. Neighborhood size and local geographic variation of health and social determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emch Michael

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial filtering using a geographic information system (GIS is often used to smooth health and ecological data. Smoothing disease data can help us understand local (neighborhood geographic variation and ecological risk of diseases. Analyses that use small neighborhood sizes yield individualistic patterns and large sizes reveal the global structure of data where local variation is obscured. Therefore, choosing an optimal neighborhood size is important for understanding ecological associations with diseases. This paper uses Hartley's test of homogeneity of variance (Fmax as a methodological solution for selecting optimal neighborhood sizes. The data from a study area in Vietnam are used to test the suitability of this method. Results The Hartley's Fmax test was applied to spatial variables for two enteric diseases and two socioeconomic determinants. Various neighbourhood sizes were tested by using a two step process to implement the Fmaxtest. First the variance of each neighborhood was compared to the highest neighborhood variance (upper, Fmax1 and then they were compared with the lowest neighborhood variance (lower, Fmax2. A significant value of Fmax1 indicates that the neighborhood does not reveal the global structure of data, and in contrast, a significant value in Fmax2 implies that the neighborhood data are not individualistic. The neighborhoods that are between the lower and the upper limits are the optimal neighbourhood sizes. Conclusion The results of tests provide different neighbourhood sizes for different variables suggesting that optimal neighbourhood size is data dependent. In ecology, it is well known that observation scales may influence ecological inference. Therefore, selecting optimal neigborhood size is essential for understanding disease ecologies. The optimal neighbourhood selection method that is tested in this paper can be useful in health and ecological studies.

  18. The role of size constancy for the integration of local elements into a global shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eRennig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception depends on the visual context and is likely to be influenced by size constancy, which predicts a size and distance invariant perception of objects. However, size constancy can also result in optical illusions that allow the manipulation of the perceived size. We thus asked whether the integration of local elements into a global object can be influenced by manipulations of the visual context and size constancy? A set of stimuli was applied in healthy individuals that took advantage of the ‘Kanizsa’ illusion, in which three circles with open wedges oriented towards a center point are placed to form an illusionary perception of a triangle. In addition, a 3D-perspective view was implemented in which the global target (‘Kanizsa’ triangle was placed in combination with several distractor circles either in a close or a distant position. Subjects were engaged in a global recognition task on the location of the ‘Kanizsa’ triangle. Global recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles improved with a decreasing length of the illusory contour. Interestingly, recognition of ‘Kanizsa’ triangles decreased when they were perceived as if they were located further away. We conclude that the integration of local elements into a global object is dependent on the visual context and dominated by size constancy.

  19. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts

  20. Statistical Downscaling Of Local Climate In The Alpine Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Severin; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on the alpine region was disproportional strong in the past decades compared to the surrounding areas, which becomes manifest in a higher increase in surface air temperature. Beside the thermal changes also implications for the hydrological cycle may be expected, acting as a very important factor not only for the ecosystem but also for mankind, in the form of water security or considering economical aspects like winter tourism etc. Therefore, in climate impact studies, it is necessary to focus on variables with high influence on the hydrological cycle, for example temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity and radiation. The aim of this study is to build statistical downscaling models which are able to reproduce temperature and precipitation at the mountainous alpine weather stations Zugspitze and Sonnblick and to further project these models into the future to identify possible changes in the behavior of these climate variables and with that in the hydrological cycle. Beside facing a in general very complex terrain in this high elevated regions, we have the advantage of a more direct atmospheric influence on the meteorology of the exposed weather stations from the large scale circulation. Two nonlinear statistical methods are developed to model the station-data series on a daily basis: On the one hand a conditional classification approach was used and on the other hand a model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) was built. The latter is in focus of this presentation. One of the important steps of developing a new model approach is to find a reliable predictor setup with e.g. informative predictor variables or adequate location and size of the spatial domain. The question is: Can we include synoptic background knowledge to identify an optimal domain for an ANN approach? The yet developed ANN setups and configurations show promising results in downscaling both, temperature (up to 80 % of explained variance) and precipitation (up

  1. Carriers' localization and thermal redistribution in post growth voluntarily tuned quantum dashes' size/composition distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alouane, M.H. Hadj; Helali, A.; Morris, D.; Maaref, H.; Aimez, V.; Salem, B.; Gendry, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats the impact of post growth tuned InAs/InP quantum dashes' (QDas) size/composition distribution on carriers' localization and thermal redistribution. The spread of this distribution depends on the experimental conditions used for the phosphorus ion implantation enhanced intermixing process. Atypical temperature-dependent luminescence properties have been observed and found to be strongly dependent on the amount of QDas size/composition dispersion. The experimental results have been reproduced by a model that takes into account the width of the QDas localized states distribution and consequent thermally induced carriers' redistribution. This model gives critical temperature values marking the beginning and the end of carriers delocalization and thermal transfer processes via an intermixing induced carrier's transfer channel located below the wetting layer states. -- Highlights: • We examine optical properties of post growth tuned QDas size/composition distribution. • Carriers' localization and thermal redistribution within inhomogeneously intermixed QDas are the origin of the atypical temperature-dependent luminescence properties. • Localized states ensemble's model is successively used to interpret the experimental results. • The carriers thermal transfer processes occur via an intermixing induced channel located below the wetting layer states. • Intermixing degree strongly influence the critical temperatures marking the beginning and the end of the carriers thermal transfer processes

  2. ABUNDANCES IN THE LOCAL REGION. I. G AND K GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. Earle, E-mail: rel2@case.edu [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Parameters and abundances for 1133 stars of spectral types F, G, and K of luminosity class III have been derived. In terms of stellar parameters, the primary point of interest is the disagreement between gravities derived with masses determined from isochrones, and gravities determined from an ionization balance. This is not a new result per se, but the size of this sample emphasizes the severity of the problem. A variety of arguments led to the selection of the ionization-balance gravity as the working value. The derived abundances indicate that the giants in the solar region have Sun-like total abundances and abundance ratios. Stellar evolution indicators have also been investigated with the Li abundances and the [C/Fe] and C/O ratios, indicating that standard processing has been operating in these stars. The more salient result for stellar evolution is that the [C/Fe] data across the red-giant clump indicates the presence of mass-dependent mixing in accord with standard stellar evolution predictions.

  3. Geomagnetic secular variation in India-regional and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, B.J.; Abbas, H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the secular variation in the geomagnetic elements H, Z, F and D at Colaba (Bombay)-Alibag for the period 1848-1973, has been made. Fifth degree polynomials are fitted to the data of annual mean values of H, Z and F, and third degree to D, and the residuals discussed. The trends are also examined at the six Indian observatories using the data for 1960-1974. The increasing trend of Z at Alibag is found to decrease from about 1937, while that of H and F from 1965 at 20-30 nT/year, it being of the same order at Sabhawala and Hyderabad but smaller at the equatorial stations, particularly for Z component. The westward annual change in D swings eastward again around 1965 at all the Indian stations. This reversal of the secular variation trend in India after 1965 emerges as an important regional feature connected with a southward migration of the dip equator in India from 1968. The secular change in D at Alibag (+0.4'/year) is somewhat anomalous in the sense that it is reduced as compared to Hyderabad and other stations (+1.6'/year), probably due to the local magnetic anomaly of the Deccan lavas, and calls for detailed investigations. (auth.)

  4. Women’s local government representation in Auckland – does size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Webster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines women’s local government representation following amalgamation to form a super-sized city authority, Auckland, which covers a third of New Zealand’s population. Using a gender perspective, it analyses the promise implicit in amalgamation rhetoric that democratic gaps in representation, including the gender gap, would diminish. It examines the question of whether size has made a difference. Prior to local government amalgamation, women’s representation had not significantly increased over a period of seven election cycles. Women’s descriptive and substantive representation are examined at national and city levels and the gendered implications of local government reform are considered from the perspectives of female elected representatives at councillor and local board levels. Evidence shows that local government reform has yet to be the catalyst for improving women’s descriptive and substantive representation, although there are tentative signs of entry-level improvement at community board level which raise the prospect of a pipeline effect. Interviews with elected female representatives after amalgamation show that while they do not identify themselves as speaking for women, they see themselves as women speaking for their communities and doing it better than men. The results suggest the influence of gender backlash politics and also confirm the need to think about the performance of elected women as more than ‘articulated’ representation.

  5. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-04-20

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26-79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age.

  6. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Dani, E-mail: danib@techunix.technion.ac.il [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ayalon, Ofira [Department of Natural Resources and Environment Management, Graduate school of Management, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Kan, Iddo [Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  7. Influence of defect size and localization on the engagement of reverse Hill-Sachs lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Runer, Armin; Kraemer, Manuel; Fierlbeck, Johann; Niederberger, Alfred; Cotofana, Sebastian; Vasvari, Imre; Hettegger, Bernhard; Tauber, Mark; Hurschler, Christof; Resch, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    Reverse Hill-Sachs (RHS) lesions can cause recurrent posterior shoulder instability because of engagement with the posterior glenoid rim; however, the effect of defect size and localization have yet to be determined. Both size and localization are critical for the engagement of an RHS defect with the posterior glenoid rim. Controlled laboratory study. Ten RHS defects with predefined extent and localization were created through an anterolateral rotator cuff sparing approach in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens using a custom-made saw guide. Computed tomography scans of all specimens were completed, and standardized measurements were performed to determine the size (alpha angle) and localization (beta angle) of the defect as well as a combination of both parameters (gamma angle). Internal rotation motions were imposed on the shoulder joint in different arm positions and with varying amount of posterior translation by means of a robot-assisted shoulder simulator. The association between engagement of the defects and the defined parameters (alpha, beta, and gamma angles) was analyzed. In 0° of abduction, a cutoff value between engaging and nonengaging defects of 37.5° for the alpha angle (100% sensitivity; 75% specificity; area under the curve [AUC], 0.875; P = .055) and 36.5° for the beta angle (100% sensitivity; 25% specificity; AUC, 0.708; P = .286) was determined. The gamma angle showed the highest discriminatory power (AUC, 0.938; P = .025) with a cutoff value of 85.5° rendering 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity in the prediction of engagement. An increase in the applied posterior translation force decreased the degrees of internal rotation necessary before engagement occurred. No engagement occurred during internal rotation with the arm in 60° of abduction or 60° of flexion. The size and localization of RHS defects are both critical factors for engagement. The combination of both parameters in terms of the gamma angle measurement might be a

  8. Size, Value, and Momentum in Polish Equity Returns: Local or International Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaremba Adam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the performance of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM and the Fama-French three-factor and Carhart four-factor models on the Polish market. We use stock level data from April 2001 to January 2014 and find strong evidence for value and momentum effects, but only weak evidence for size premium. We formed portfolios double-sorted on size and book-to-market ratios, as well as on size and momentum, and we explain their returns with the above-mentioned asset pricing models. The CAPM is rejected and the three-factor and four-factor models perform well for the size and B/M sorted portfolios, but fail to explain returns on the size and momentum sorted portfolios. With the exception of the momentum factor, local Polish factors are not correlated with their European and global counterparts, suggesting market segmentation. Finally, the international value, size and momentum factors perform poorly in explaining cross-sectional variation in stock returns on the Polish market.

  9. Atomic size effects on local coordination and medium range order in molten trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlipinar, H.; Akdeniz, Z.; Pastore, G.

    1992-08-01

    Structural correlations in molten trivalent metal chlorides are evaluated as functions of the metal ion size R M across the range from LaCl 3 (R M approx. 1.4 A) to AlCl 3 (R M approx. 0.8 A), using a charged soft-sphere model and the hypernetted chain approximation. Main attention is given to trends in the local liquid structure (partial radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and bond lengths) and in the intermediate range order (first sharp diffraction peak in the number-number and partial structure factors). The trend towards fourfold local coordination of the metal ions, the stabilization of their first-neighbour chlorine cage and the growth of medium range order are found to proceed in parallel as the size of the metal ion is allowed to decrease at constant number density and temperature. A tendency to molecular-type local structure and liquid-vapour phase separation is found within the hypernetted chain scheme at small metal ion sizes corresponding to AlCl 3 and is emphasized by decreasing the number density of the fluid. The predicted molecular units are rather strongly distorted Al 2 Cl 6 dimers, in agreement with observation. The calculated structural trends for other trichlorides are compared with diffraction and transport data. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  10. Atomic size and local order effects on the high temperature strength of binary Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaspour, Saeideh, E-mail: s.abaspour78@gmail.com [ARC-Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing (AMPAM), The University of Queensland (Australia); Zambelli, Victor [ARC-Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 (Australia); Dargusch, Matthew [Queensland Centre for Advanced Materials Processing and Manufacturing (AMPAM), The University of Queensland (Australia); Cáceres, Carlos H. [ARC-Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    The solid solution strengthening introduced by Ca (0.6 and 0.9 at%) and Sn 0.5–2.5 at%) was studied through tensile, compression and stress relaxation tests at room temperature, 373 K (100 °C) and 453 K (180 °C) on solution heat-treated and quenched specimens and compared with existing data for binary alloys containing Ca, Sn, Y, Gd, Nd, Zn and Al as well as for AZ91 alloy. At room temperature the solution-hardening rate introduced by Ca and Sn was much higher than that of Al, matching those of Y, Gd and Zn. Calcium also reduced the tension/compression asymmetry. At high temperature Ca effectively prevented stress relaxation, nearly matching Y, Gd and Nd. Tin was less effective, but still outperformed Al and AZ91 at low stresses. The effects at room and high temperature introduced by Ca and Sn appeared consistent with the presence of short-range order, in line with those introduced by Y, Nd, Gd and Zn. The larger than Mg atom size of Ca, Nd, Gd and Y can be expected to intensify the local order by strengthening the atomic bonds through its effects on the local electron density, accounting for their greater strengthening at high temperature. For given difference in atomic size, the effects on the local order are expected to be lesser for smaller sized atoms like Sn and Zn, hence their more subdued effects.

  11. African and local wind-blown dist contributions at three rural sites in SE Spain: the aerosol size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Lidon, V.; Martinez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The entrainment of particulate material into the atmosphere by wind action on surface soils both disturbed and natural, as well as directly due to human activities like agricultural practices, mineral industry operations, construction works and traffic, is a significant contribution to the aerosol load in Mediterranean semi-arid areas. A further crustal contribution in the region comes from the frequent arrival of African mineral dust plumes. We summarize some of the results obtained after 4-6 month campaigns at three rural sites in SE Spain where the aerosol number size distribution (31 size bins between 0.25 and 32 μm) was continuously measured. The influence of both local wind speed and the arrival of air masses loaded with African dust on the airborne particulate distribution is assessed. Similarities and differences between the three locations give information that allows a better understanding of the influence of both local wind speed and African dust outbreaks (ADO), while highlight what is mostly related to local features. (Author)

  12. Anomalous roughness of turbulent interfaces with system size dependent local roughness exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Matamoros, Daniel Morales

    2005-01-01

    In a system far from equilibrium the system size can play the role of control parameter that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system. Accordingly, the kinetic roughness of interfaces in systems far from equilibrium may depend on the system size. To get an insight into this problem, we performed a detailed study of rough interfaces formed in paper combustion experiments. Using paper sheets of different width λ, we found that the turbulent flame fronts display anomalous multi-scaling characterized by non-universal global roughness exponent α and by the system size dependent spectrum of local roughness exponents, ζ q (λ)=ζ 1 (1)q -ω λ φ q =0.93q -0.15 . The structure factor of turbulent flame fronts also exhibits unconventional scaling dependence on λ. These results are expected to apply to a broad range of far from equilibrium systems when the kinetic energy fluctuations exceed a certain critical value.

  13. Increased Adipocyte Size, Macrophage Infiltration, and Adverse Local Adipokine Profile in Perirenal Fat in Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerink, Sean H P P; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Langenhuijsen, Johan F; Ballak, Dov B; Rooijackers, Hanne M M; d'Ancona, Frank C; van Dielen, François M; Smit, Jan W A; Plantinga, Theo S; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-08-01

    To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to adipose tissue of 10 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls with regard to adipocyte size determined by digital image analysis on hematoxylin and eosin stainings, macrophage infiltration determined by digital image analysis on CD68 stainings, and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin levels using fluorescent bead immunoassays and ELISA techniques. Compared to the controls, mean adipocyte size was larger in PR adipose tissue in patients. The percentage of macrophage infiltration of the PR adipose tissue and PR adipose tissue lysate leptin levels were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in SC and PR adipose tissue lysates in patients. The adiponectin levels were also lower in the SC adipose tissue supernatants of patients. Associations were found between the severity of hypercortisolism and PR adipocyte size. Cushing's syndrome is associated with hypertrophy of PR adipocytes and a higher percentage of macrophage infiltration in PR adipose tissue. These changes are associated with an adverse local adipokine profile. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. The role of local taxes on regional development in Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hodijah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional tax is a compulsory duty made by an individual or entity to a region without equal direct repayment that can be enforced under applicable legislation, which is used to finance the administration of local government and regional development. The role of local taxes is to assist the development of APBD (Local Government Budget activities. Local governments are also exploring new local taxes annually that can be used for regional expenditure. This research was conducted in Jambi Province. This research uses descriptive method that the data obtained then arranged in such a way and analyzed correctly based on theory relevant to the problem. From the research results obtained growth of Jambi provincial tax in 2011-2015 fluctuate and tend to increase. Local tax contribution on Jambi provincial expenditure has decreased from year to year. Keywords: Local Tax, Regional Expenditure, Regional Development

  15. Surface temperature and evapotranspiration: application of local scale methods to regional scales using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, B.; Courault, D.; Guerif, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperatures have proven useful for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) rates and crop water use because of their direct relationship with sensible and latent energy exchange processes. Procedures for using the thermal infrared (IR) obtained with hand-held radiometers deployed at ground level are now well established and even routine for many agricultural research and management purposes. The availability of IR from meteorological satellites at scales from 1 km (NOAA-AVHRR) to 5 km (METEOSAT) permits extension of local, ground-based approaches to larger scale crop monitoring programs. Regional observations of surface minus air temperature (i.e., the stress degree day) and remote estimates of daily ET were derived from satellite data over sites in France, the Sahel, and North Africa and summarized here. Results confirm that similar approaches can be applied at local and regional scales despite differences in pixel size and heterogeneity. This article analyzes methods for obtaining these data and outlines the potential utility of satellite data for operational use at the regional scale. (author)

  16. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  17. Many-body localization in disorder-free systems: The importance of finite-size constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papić, Z., E-mail: zpapic@perimeterinstitute.ca [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Stoudenmire, E. Miles [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Abanin, Dmitry A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Recently it has been suggested that many-body localization (MBL) can occur in translation-invariant systems, and candidate 1D models have been proposed. We find that such models, in contrast to MBL systems with quenched disorder, typically exhibit much more severe finite-size effects due to the presence of two or more vastly different energy scales. In a finite system, this can artificially split the density of states (DOS) into bands separated by large gaps. We argue for such models to faithfully represent the thermodynamic limit behavior, the ratio of relevant coupling must exceed a certain system-size depedent cutoff, chosen such that various bands in the DOS overlap one another. Setting the parameters this way to minimize finite-size effects, we study several translation-invariant MBL candidate models using exact diagonalization. Based on diagnostics including entanglement and local observables, we observe thermal (ergodic), rather than MBL-like behavior. Our results suggest that MBL in translation-invariant systems with two or more very different energy scales is less robust than perturbative arguments suggest, possibly pointing to the importance of non-perturbative effects which induce delocalization in the thermodynamic limit.

  18. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; van der Vegt, Arjen; Stegmaier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs) deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate

  19. Presenting a framework to analyze local climate policy and action in small and medium-sized cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, T.; van der Vegt, Arjen; Stegmaier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs) deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local

  20. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao; Zhong Gaoren

    2012-01-01

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  1. Empirical development taxanomy of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in South Moravian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bumberová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a pilot study examining entrepreneurial behavior patterns within the area of development of micro, small and medium-sized market active enterprises in South Moravian Region from the perspective of strategic management. The main aim of this article is to classify the enterprises by the character of development activities into relatively homogeneous groups and identify those activities that contribute to considerable differences between the individual groups. Empirical evidence is based on a quantitative survey in terms of a random choice of respondents obtained by means of an e-mail questionnaire. The major analytic procedure applied within this research comprises methods of Cluster Analysis and validation technique based on chi-square and G-square nonparametric tests for testing differences (independence of variables between the clusters. By means of Cluster Analysis three relatively homogenous SME groups were identified. The first cluster, called “global”, (approximately 6% of the respondents prevails in most of the strategic development aspects of the researched enterprises. Global SMEs rely on development activities in the area of product innovations and risk diversification into other activities. In terms of changes in functional strategies this involves primarily the area of new technology and human resources development, and the ability to benefit from participation in networks of cooperating organizations. The second cluster, called “transition”, (approximately 59% of the respondents is developed mainly by means of investments in business specific knowledge, and/or in technical skills of their employees. They are more conservative in the area of product innovations and risk diversification into other activities, which is then reflected in a lower level of investments in technologies and marketing. In comparison with global enterprises the major difference lies in a much lower number of activities in the area

  2. Preliminary Estimation of Local Bypass Flow Gap Sizes for a Prismatic VHTR Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Jo, Chang Keun; Lee, Won Jae

    2009-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected for the Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project. In the VHTR design, core bypass flow has been one of key issues for core thermal margins and target temperature of the core outlet. The core bypass flow in the prismatic VHTR varies with the core life due to the irradiation shrinkage/ swelling and thermal expansion of the graphite blocks, which could be a significant proportion of the total core flow. Thus, accurate prediction of the bypass flow is of major importance in assuring the core thermal margin. To predict the bypass flow, first of all, local gap sizes between graphite blocks in the core should be determined. The objectives of this work are to develop a methodology for determining the gap sizes and to perform a preliminary evaluation for a reference reactor

  3. Mild focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. The effect of local temperature on infarct size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt-Eriksen, Elisabeth S; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2002-01-01

    . The effect of local temperature at the occlusion site in this model was furthermore tested. Thirty-three Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of simultaneous common carotid artery and distal middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham treatment. Animals were magnetic resonance-scanned repeatedly between day one...... and day 14 after surgery, then sacrificed, and paraffin brain sections stained. All animals scanned 24 h after reperfusion showed an area of edema in the affected cortex, which later was identified as an infarct. Animals with a temperature of 33.9 +/- 1.5 degrees C at the MCA site (hypothermic) showed...... smaller infarcts (14.4 +/- 10 mm3) than animals with normothermic local temperature (36.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C, 57.7 +/- 26.4 mm3). Infarct size was maximal on day 3 after ischemia but decreased as edema subsided. Infarct volumes from histology and magnetic resonance imaging correlated well. The model...

  4. Small And Medium-Sized Business Development In Regions: Establishment Of Priority Directions By The Example Of Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yevgenyevich Tolmachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research of current small and medium-sized business development in Sverdlovsk region. It includes analysis of enterprise development statistics, Russian and international experience, sociological survey of entrepreneurs’ satisfaction of doing business conditions in Sverdlovsk region. The aim of the research was to develop proposals for business support system development in the long run for inclusion in the SME Development Strategy in Sverdlovsk region up to 2030. As a result, a set of strategic SME development directions was formulated. It includes measures aimed at business problems solving through the development of SME support tools and at addressing institutional problems of business support. The paper includes proposals for improvement of regional support system and implementation the priority SME development direction

  5. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  6. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-21

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  7. Model for evolution of grain size in the rim region of high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hongxing, E-mail: xiaohongxing2003@163.com; Long, Chongsheng; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    The restructuring process of the high burnup structure (HBS) formation in UO{sub 2} fuel results in sub-micron size grains that accelerate the fission gas swelling, which will raise some concern over the safety of extended the nuclear fuel operation life in the reactor. A mechanistic and engineering model for evolution of grain size in the rim region of high burnup UO{sub 2} fuel based on the experimental observations of the HBS in the literature is presented. The model takes into account dislocations evolution under irradiation and the grain subdivision occur successively at increasing local burnup. It is assumed that the original driving force for subdivision of grain in the HBS of UO{sub 2} fuel is the production and accumulation of dislocation loops during irradiation. The dislocation loops can also be annealed through thermal diffusion when the temperature is high enough. The capability of this model is validated by the comparison with the experimental data of temperature threshold of subdivision, dislocation density and sub-grain size as a function of local burnup. It is shown that the calculated results of the dislocation density and subdivided grain size as a function of local burnup are in good agreement with the experimental results. - Highlights: • A model for evolution of dislocation density and grain size in HBS is proposed. • The dislocation can also be annealed when the temperature is high enough. • Original driving force for subdivision is mostly accumulation of dislocation loops. • The temperature threshold of the subdivision is predicted at 1300–1400 K.

  8. Local politics, conflict and development in Peruvian mining regions

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Yanguas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects of a collection of policies that determine the\\ud mandatory distribution of mining, gas and oil revenues between national and subnational\\ud governments, and the greater involvement of mining companies in local\\ud development. I have labelled this set of policies, which aims to reduce social\\ud conflict and promote local development, the New Extractive Industry Strategy\\ud (NEIS).\\ud \\ud Chapter 1 describes the implementation of these policies in Peru and high...

  9. LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEST REGION THROUGH ACTIVITIES IN ITC DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela\tENACHESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic areas with high technology are key drivers in sustainable regional development, including unemployment and consequently decreasing population migration in the region. Northeast Region is the largest development region of Romania in terms of number of inhabitants and the owned area. On 01/01/2014, according to balance employment, labor resources of the region were numbered 2,428,700, which represent 49.6% of employed population. The registered unemployment rate at 31 August 2014 was 6.5%, with 82 thousand unemployed registered. In terms of participation in the main economic activities, civilian employment in agriculture, forestry and fishing is predominant (40.1% while in service, civilian employment is 37.1%, while industry and construction is 22.8%. The paper aims to analyze the situation that the potential employment and development opportunities for the Northeast region through activities in the field of ITC domain. Unfortunately, this area was the worst in most indicators, the use of computers and the internet to the turnover of companies and investments in the IT & C and unfortunately in terms of employment population that is under 50%

  10. Impact of regional special purpose local option sales tax (SPLOST) initiatives on county infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    In response to fiscal constraints on transportation funding and the need to address transportation problems and create regional solutions, Georgia is proposing a 1% regional Special-Purpose Local-Option Sales Tax (SPLOST). To accommodate this initiat...

  11. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M [Laboratoire PBM, UMR 6522, LECAP, Institut des Materiaux de Rouen, Universite de Rouen, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska street, Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)

    2009-02-18

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 A{sup 3} leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  12. Cooperative rearranging region size and free volume in As-Se glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiter, A; Saiter, J-M; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, M; Shpotyuk, O

    2009-01-01

    Glasses of the As-Se system have been used as model objects of the covalent disordered inorganic polymers to investigate the correlation between the cooperative rearranging region (CRR) size determined at the glass transition temperature and the free volume fraction in the glassy state. The CRR size has been determined using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry data according to Donth's approach, while the free volume fraction in the investigated materials has been estimated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy data. The obtained results testify that the appearance of open-volume defects greater than 80 A 3 leads to a significant decrease in the CRR size.

  13. Particles size distribution effect on 3D packing of nanoparticles in to a bounded region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzalipour Tabriz, M.; Salehpoor, P.; Esmaielzadeh Kandjani, A.; Vaezi, M. R.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of two different Particle Size Distributions on packing behavior of ideal rigid spherical nanoparticles using a novel packing model based on parallel algorithms have been reported. A mersenne twister algorithm was used to generate pseudo random numbers for the particles initial coordinates. Also, for this purpose a nano sized tetragonal confined container with a square floor (300 * 300 nm) were used in this work. The Andreasen and the Lognormal Particle Size Distributions were chosen to investigate the packing behavior in a 3D bounded region. The effects of particle numbers on packing behavior of these two Particle Size Distributions have been investigated. Also the reproducibility and the distribution of packing factor of these Particle Size Distributions were compared

  14. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

  15. Impact of radiation therapy fraction size on local control of early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Edward; Shenouda, George; Beaudet, Marie P.; Black, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Different radiotherapy fractionation schedules were used over a 10-year period to treat patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cords at McGill University. A retrospective analysis was performed to study the effect of fraction size on local control in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 previously untreated patients with T1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the true vocal cords were irradiated between January 1978 and December 1988 in the Department of Radiation Oncology at McGill University. All patients received megavoltage irradiation, 94 patients received daily fractions > 2 Gy (64 patients received 50 Gy with once-daily 2.5-Gy fractions, and 30 received 65.25 Gy in 29 fractions of 2.25 Gy each), and 32 patients were treated to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Patients' characteristics of prognostic importance were equally distributed between the two fractionation groups. Results: At a median follow-up of 84 months, the 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 76% and 93%, respectively. Local control for patients treated with > 2 Gy fraction was 84%, compared to 65.6% for those treated with 2-Gy fractions (p = 0.026). Among the prognostic factors tested, such as gender, age, stage, anterior and posterior commissure involvement, smoking history, and fraction size, the latter was the only significant predictor of local control for the whole group of patients in univariate (p = 0.041) and multivariate (p = 0.023) analysis. There was no observed difference in the incidence of complications between the two fraction groups. Conclusions: From the results of this retrospective review of patients treated with radiotherapy for T1 true vocal cord cancer, and within the range of total doses and overall treatment times used in our patients, it was found that fractionation schedules using daily fraction size > 2 Gy are associated with a better local control than schedules delivering 2 Gy

  16. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  17. Generic Regional Development Strategies from Local Stakeholders' Scenarios - an Alpine Village Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Loibl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.

  18. Regional Planning, Local Visions : Participatory Futuring in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Easton

    2000-01-01

    The note examines regional planning, and future participatory methods for economic development in West Africa, based on the work carried out by the Club du Sahel - a branch of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - responsible for coordinating northern donor agencies, in support of food security, and natural resource management in the desert-edge portions of Wes...

  19. NOTES ON OPTIMAL ALLOCATION FOR FIXED SIZE CONFIDENCE REGIONS OF THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO MULTINORMAL MEANS

    OpenAIRE

    Hyakutake, Hiroto; Kawasaki, Hidefumi

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a fixed-size confidence region of the difference of two multinormal means when the covariance matrices have intraclass correlation structure. When the covariance matrices are known, we derive an optimal allocation. A two-stage procedure is given for the problem with unknown covariance matrices.

  20. Modeling grain-size dependent bias in estimating forest area: a regional application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    A better understanding of scaling-up effects on estimating important landscape characteristics (e.g. forest percentage) is critical for improving ecological applications over large areas. This study illustrated effects of changing grain sizes on regional forest estimates in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan of the USA using 30-m land-cover maps (1992 and 2001)...

  1. Size and type of places, geographical region, satisfaction with life, age, sex and place attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Alan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article concerns the issue of place attachment and its determinants. An analysis of place attachment was performed in terms of place identity and place dependence (Williams, Vaske, 2003. Moreover, links between place attachment and selected geographical (size and type of place, geographical region, demographic (age, sex and psychological (satisfaction with life variables were investigated.

  2. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: Local, regional and global effects [Chapter 6] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven M. Ostoja; Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada’s unique landscapes and landforms provide habitat for a diversity of plant and wildlife species of conservation concern including many locally and regionally endemic species. The high population density and urbanization of the Las Vegas metropolitan area is the source of many local and regional stressors that affect these species and their habitats:...

  3. Productivity, trophic levels and size spectra of zooplankton in northern Norwegian shelf regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.; Zhu, Yiwu; Basedow, Sünnje

    2009-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted in northern Norwegian shelf regions to assess distributions and abundances of zooplankton in the last decade using towed Scanfish-conductivity, temperature and depth sensors (CTD)-optical plankton counter (OPC), and plankton nets. Significant progresses have been made in understanding dominant species, life histories and behavior, and in using size-structured data to identify dominant species in a certain size range. Using these Scanfish-CTD-OPC data, the analysis of zooplankton community size structures, compositions and their relationships with water types is made along the shelf region from Lofoten, North Cape to Varangerfjorden. From the relationships between the water types and zooplankton communities, the transports and exchanges of zooplankton communities between the Norwegian Coastal and Norwegian Atlantic Waters in regions near Malangsgrunnen and Nordvestbanken are examined. The biovolume (biomass) spectra are further analyzed for the productivity, trophic levels and seasonality of communities in these regions, indicating a steeper slope of the biovolume spectrum for a community dominated by herbivorous species in spring and a flatter slope for a community dominated by carnivorous-omnivorous species in winter. The comparison with the zooplankton biovolume spectra obtained in areas west of Antarctic Peninsula is made to examine and understand the differences in the zooplankton biovolume spectra, their trophic dynamics and potential human impacts between different regions.

  4. Universities Potential Role in Local and Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon; Rolim, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper will describe experiences from Aalborg University in Denmark on ways to support cooperation between the University and regional civic/business. Design/Methodology: Regional development is exceedingly focused in the world; and as growth is dependent on specialised knowledge...... and highly skilled and competent staff, it could be anticipated that universities should play a key role in facilitating such growth and development. At Aalborg University, such cooperation is taking place, and this paper sums up the practices and experiences gained therefrom. Findings: Universities have...... been and maybe still are seen as bodies focusing on know-how; however, they are now focusing on technology transfer, knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange, and maybe also on co-designing. From such beginnings co-operation can, and in many cases has, further developed into formal partnerships...

  5. Hypothyroidism affects differentially the cell size of epithelial cells among oviductal regions of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Martínez-Gómez, M; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Castelán, F; Cuevas, E

    2015-02-01

    Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of methimazole (MMI) for 30 days. For both groups, serum concentrations of thyroid and gonadal hormones were determined. Sections of oviductal regions were stained with the Masson's trichrome technique to analyse both epithelial and smooth muscle layers. The percentage of proliferative epithelial cells (anti-Ki67) in diverse oviductal regions was also quantified. Data were compared with Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, or Fischer's test. In comparison with the control group, the hypothyroid group showed: (i) a low concentration of T3 and T4, but a high level of TSH; (ii) similar values of serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone; (iii) a large size of ciliated cells in the ampulla (AMP), isthmus (IST) and utero-tubal junction (UTJ); (iv) a large size of secretory cells in the IST region; (v) a low percentage of proliferative secretory cells in the fimbria-infundibulum (FIM-INF) region; and (vi) a similar thickness of the smooth muscle layer and the cross-sectional area in the AMP and IST regions. Modifications in the size of the oviductal epithelium in hypothyroid rabbits could be related to changes in the cell metabolism that may impact on the reproductive functions achieved by oviduct. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Noise Parameter Analysis of SiGe HBTs for Different Sizes in the Breakdown Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-In Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise parameters of silicon germanium (SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs for different sizes are investigated in the breakdown region for the first time. When the emitter length of SiGe HBTs shortens, minimum noise figure at breakdown decreases. In addition, narrower emitter width also decreases noise figure of SiGe HBTs in the avalanche region. Reduction of noise performance for smaller emitter length and width of SiGe HBTs at breakdown resulted from the lower noise spectral density resulting from the breakdown mechanism. Good agreement between experimental and simulated noise performance at breakdown is achieved for different sized SiGe HBTs. The presented analysis can benefit the RF circuits operating in the breakdown region.

  7. Investigation of candidate regions influencing litter size in Danish Landrace sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Ditte; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, P.

    2010-01-01

    allele effect of microsatellite alleles in the region. In spite of the apparent increased historical selection pressure on chromosome 13, fairly large variation in allele effects was observed, indicating that the markers within the region may be used for marker-assisted selection. However, substantial...... and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV...... and a linear model that include both a polygenic and an allele effect. The investigated region on chromosome 13 was found to have a greater average identity by state relationship compared with the other regions, indicating that selection has taken place in this region. This is supported by an increased average...

  8. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND EMISSIVITY REDUCTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-01-01

    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.

  9. Steady State Shift Damage Localization in a Residential-Sized Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Morten Kusk; Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    methodological premise is that of mapping a model-based damage distribution to experimental vibration features from the healthy and damaged states. Damage is then localized when a postulated damage distribution yields a, under ideal conditions, perfect mapping. The S3DL method relies on a theoretical model that......, in an experimental procedure with a plate-like structure, thus the present study serves to investigate the applicability of the method for more complex structures; in this case, a residential-sized wind turbine blade, which has been designed specifically for damage identification purposes. The blade consists of two...... parts that are bolted together along the leading and trailing edges, hence enabling introduction of stiffness-related damages by untightening a number of bolts. The paper studies two damage cases: failure of the trailing edge and a mass modification....

  10. Capacity-building activities for local leadership in Egypt from the local to the national and regional levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sioufi, M

    1996-03-01

    In order to make the Sustainable Ismailia Project institutionally sustainable, the National Project Manager identified the need to build the capacity of local leadership. The Training Section, in UNCHS, proposed a capacity-building program designed to respond to this demand focusing on the skill-training and attitude formation needed for effective local leadership. The proposed program is adapted from the "Training for Elected Leadership" series widely tested and used in many regions. It combines direct training for local officials from villages in Ismailia, and indirect training for trainers from the Ministry of Local Administration (MLA). After the course, the MLA trainers would design a training program which they will implement nationally. The Minister for Local Administration decided to finance the translation and production of the manuals, while the Governor of Ismailia offered to cover the trainees' expenses. The UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section would provide technical guidance and coordinate and implement the program. Once the Arabic version of the training materials would be available, UNCHS would use it regionally to reach out to other Arab States. This example illustrates how concerned stakeholders cooperate to address capacity-building needs. The UNCHS Training Section assumes the role of facilitator and acts as a catalyst for the formulation of such activities. The feeling of ownership of the locally produced/adapted training materials enhances the propensity of their effective and extensive use. This approach has succeeded across regions, cultures, and languages with out-reaching multiplier effects. full text

  11. Local and regional air quality over 1997 based on decrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissenberg, H.A.; Warmenhoven, R.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    Eleven of the 12 Dutch provinces and 52 of the 79 municipalities (over 40.000 inhabitants) reported on their air quality for 19997. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the Directorate-General for Environmental Protection of the Ministry of VROM then combined these reports into an annual national report for 1997. The largest in several years, still 35 percent of the municipalities failed to meet their reported obligations. Most of the reports on air quality are incomplete on the contribution of large point sources and traffic to local air quality. For 1997 one province reported an exceedence of the limit value of nitrogen dioxide. In four provinces the target value of nitrogen dioxide was exceeded. The province of Zuid-Holland has to report next year on its air quality over 1998 because of exceeding of the limit value and the provinces Friesland and Utrecht have to report because they did not report (completely) over 1997. The 52 municipalities reported in total 60 exceedences of the (provisional) limit value over 1997: 20 roads with an exceedence of the nitrogen dioxide (provisional) limit value, 2 roads with an exceedence of the carbon monoxide limit value and 38 roads with an exceedance of the benzene limit value. Nine municipalities have to report on their air quality over 1998; Amsterdam, Arnhem, Breda, Den Haag, Leiden, Nijmegen, Sittard, Utrecht and Zwolle. Also the 27 municipalities which did not report over 1997 have to report over 1998; Alphen a/d Rijn, Dordrecht, Ede, Eindhoven, Enschede, Gouda, Groningen, Heerhugowaard, Heerlen, Helmond, 's Hertogenbosch, Heusden, Katwijk, Leeuwarden, Maarssen, Maastricht, Oosterhout, Oss, Purmerend, Ridderkerk, Roosendaal, Veldhoven, Smallingerland, Tilburg, Velsen, Vlaardingen and Zwijndrecht. Seven provinces and eight municipalities also reported on their policy to either maintain their air quality or improve it. Exceedance of limit values means that on a local scale air quality

  12. Regional Technolgy Policy and Factors Shaping Local Innovation Networks in Small German Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Andrea; Nam, Chang Woon; Parsche, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    Local innovation networks have been considered to be particularly important to innovation and technological change and to the growth prospects of regions and cities in Germany. Accordingly, innovation is a process that results from various (economic and social) interactions of different institutions located in a given region. Consequently, when analysing the local (or regional) innovation system, one should not only investigate the (horizontal and vertical) relations among firms but also the ...

  13. Anisotropic localized surface plasmon resonances in CuS nanoplates prepared by size-selective precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Yasushi; Yamada, Kaoru; Hirose, Tatsunori; Kuzuya, Toshihiro

    2018-05-01

    CuS nanoplates were synthesized by a colloidal method and separated into four fractions of nanoplates with different aspect ratios by a size-selective precipitation. In addition to a strong near infrared absorption band ascribed to the in-plane mode of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we found a weak absorption band on the high frequency tail of the in-plane LSPR band. The frequency of the weak absorption band was almost constant and independent of the aspect ratio, while the in-plane LSPR band exhibited a strong aspect ratio dependence. These characteristics suggested that the weak absorption band is ascribed to the out-of-plane LSPR. Although the out-of-plane LSPR was expected to be difficult to observe for CuS nanoplates due to its low intensity and overlap with the strong in-plane resonance, we could successfully identify the out-of-plane mode by reducing the width of the size distribution and spectral broadening caused thereby.

  14. Reorganization of water and waste water management in Romania : from local to regional water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne; Dinica, Valentina; Augustijn, Denie C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Romania's drinking water and wastewater sector is currently going through a process of regionalization. This process involves a replacement of a local-focused governance structure by a regional-focused governance structure. The objective of this paper is to explore and explain this regionalization

  15. Deep local and regional hyperthermia with annular phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Omagari, J.; Hata, K.

    1989-01-01

    33 refractory tumors mainly located in the pelvic cavity after definitive treatment were treated by loco-regional hyperthermia alone (n = 11) or by heat in combination with radiotherapy (n = 22) by annular phased array (APA) manufactured by BSD Corp. Tumors were heated up to more than 42 0 C in 78% of 347 total heat sessions with induction time 22 ± 1 (S.D.) minutes during which those of intra-pelvic organs were elevated up to between 41 and 42 0 C. Tumor response was CR 18%, PR 50% by heat (11.2 ± 1.5 S.D. fractions) combined with radiotherapy (43.8 ± 12.5 S.D. Gy) and by heat alone (8.6 ± 1.3 S.D. fractions) CR 18%, PR 9%. In all heat sessions superficial pain 36%, skin burn (grade 1-2) 12% inside annular array and slight to moderate systemic heat stress 100% were the main adverse reactions we experienced. (orig.)

  16. Membrane localization and dynamics of geranylgeranylated Rab5 hypervariable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Eileen; Schulze, Eric; Stein, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 is a key regulator of endosomal trafficking processes and a marker for the early endosome. The C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) of Rab5 is post-translationally modified at residues Cys 212 and Cys 213 to accommodate two geranylgeranyl anchors (C20 carbon chain length) in order to associate Rab5 with the membrane. The structural role of the HVR regarding protein-early endosome membrane recruitment is not resolved due to its high degree of flexibility and lack of crystallographic information. Here, full-atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the truncated Rab5 HVR 206-215 in three model membranes of increasing complexity (pure phospholipid bilayer, ternary membrane with cholesterol, six-component early endosome) were performed. Specific electrostatic interactions between the HVR 206-215 Arg 209 residue and the phosphate group of the inositol ring of PI(3)P were detected. This shows that PI(3)P acts as a first contact site of protein recruitment to the early endosome. The free energy change of HVR 206-215 extraction from the bilayer was largest for the physiological negatively charged membrane. 5μs coarse-grained simulations revealed an active recruitment of PI(3)P to the HVR 206-215 supporting the formation of Rab5- and PI(3)P enriched signaling platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of a vapor bubble expanding in a superheated region of finite size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkova, E. A., E-mail: a-a-annenkova@yandex.ru [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kreider, W. [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Sapozhnikov, O. A. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Growth of a vapor bubble in a superheated liquid is studied theoretically. Contrary to the typical situation of boiling, when bubbles grow in a uniformly heated liquid, here the superheated region is considered in the form of a millimeter-sized spherical hot spot. An initial micron-sized bubble is positioned at the hot spot center and a theoretical model is developed that is capable of studying bubble growth caused by vapor pressure inside the bubble and corresponding hydrodynamic and thermal processes in the surrounding liquid. Such a situation is relevant to the dynamics of vapor cavities that are created in soft biological tissue in the focal region of a high-intensity focused ultrasound beam with a shocked pressure waveform. Such beams are used in the recently proposed treatment called boiling histotripsy. Knowing the typical behavior of vapor cavities during boiling histotripsy could help to optimize the therapeutic procedure.

  18. Retail Productivity: Investigating the Influence of Market Size and Regional Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Özge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the productivity of independent retail stores in Sweden by focusing on the impact of market size and regional hierarchy while controlling for several store and employee characteristics over time. The analysis utilizes Swedish store-level data for the years 2002–2008. To capture the urban-periphery interaction in retail markets, the analysis (i) uses an accessible market potential measure, which captures the impact of the potential demand both in clo...

  19. THE SIZE, STRUCTURE, AND IONIZATION OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN NGC 3227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy, NGC 3227, confirms previous reports that the broad Hα emission line flux is time variable, decreasing by a modest ∼11% between 1999 and 2000 in response to a corresponding ∼37% decrease in the underlying continuum. Modeling the gas distribution responsible for the broad Hα, Hβ, and Hγ emission lines favors a spherically symmetric inflow as opposed to a thin disk. Adopting a central black hole mass of 7.6 × 10 6 M ☉ , determined from prior reverberation mapping, leads to the following dimensions for the size of the region emitting the broad Hα line: an outer radius ∼90 lt-days and an inner radius ∼3 lt-days. Thus, the previously determined reverberation size for the broad-line region (BLR) consistently coincides with the inner radius of a much larger volume of ionized gas. However, the perceived size of the BLR is an illusion, a consequence of the fact that the emitting region is ionization bounded at the outer radius and diminished by Doppler broadening at the inner radius. The actual dimensions of the inflow remain to be determined. Nevertheless, the steady-state mass inflow rate is estimated to be ∼10 –2 M ☉ yr –1 which is sufficient to explain the X-ray luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in terms of radiatively inefficient accretion. Collectively, the results challenge many preconceived notions concerning the nature of BLRs in AGNs.

  20. Low-complexity atlas-based prostate segmentation by combining global, regional, and local metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Qiuliang; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    registrations, independent of atlas size, providing desirable scalability especially important for a large or growing atlas. When applied to prostate segmentation, the method achieved better performance to the state-of-the-art atlas-based approaches, with significant improvement in computation efficiency. The proposed rationale of utilizing jointly global, regional, and local metrics, based on the information characteristic and surrogate behavior for registration and fusion subtasks, can be extended naturally to similarity metrics beyond MSE, such as correlation or mutual information types.

  1. Comparison of Sedation With Local Anesthesia and Regional Anesthesia in Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aghamohammadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP is usually performed under regional or general anesthesia. An alternative to conventional anesthesia is performing of TURP under local anesthetic infiltration with sedation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and complication of sedoanalgesia in TURP. Material & Methods: In a prospective clinical trial from September 2006 to December 2007, 60 patients (30 in each group with prostate hypertrophy, candidate for TURP, were randomly assigned into two groups. In the first group, standard spinal anesthesia was done. In the second group, five minutes before the operation, 25 mgs of diazepam plus 25-50 mgs of pethedine was intravenously administered followed by injection of 10 ml lidocaine 2% gel in the urethra and the skin in the suprapubic area was anesthetized with 2 ml of 1% lidocaine. Using a 22 gauge nephrostomy needle, the suprapubic skin was punctured and the needle was directed toward prostate apex and 10-20ml of 1% lidocaine was injected at the serosal aspect of the rectal wall. For dorsal nerve block, 5-10ml of 1% lidocaine was injected at penopubic junction, and then a standard TURP was performed. Patients were switched to another anesthetic technique if the selected technique failed. Severity of pain was assessed by visual analogue scale. Results: The average prostate size was 25 grs (range10-50grs in the local anesthetic group (group 1 and 27.5 grs (range 10-50 grs in the spinal group (group2. In the local anesthetic group, 82.3% had no or mild pain while moderate to severe pain was reported in 16, 7% of the patients. In the group with spinal anesthesia, these were 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. Intolerable pain was observed in 23.3% and 13.8% of groups 1 and 2 respectively (p>0.05. Two patients in spinal group and 5 in local anesthetic group (3 due to severe pain and 2 for unsatisfaction required conversion to general anesthesia or receiving

  2. Preliminary results of local earthquake tomography around Bali, Lombok, and Sumbawa regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id; Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Global Geophysical Reserach Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, JlGanesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Kusnandar, Ridwan; Sakti, Artadi Pria [Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Bali, Sumbawa, and Lombok regions are located in active tectonic influence by Indo-Australia plate subducts beneath Sunda plate in southern part and local back-arc thrust in northern part the region. Some active volcanoes also lie from eastern part of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa regions. Previous studies have conducted subsurface seismic velocity imaging using regional and global earthquake data around the region. In this study, we used P-arrival time from local earthquake networks compiled by MCGA, Indonesia within time periods of 2009 up to 2013 to determine seismic velocity structure and simultaneously hypocenter adjustment by applying seismic tomography inversion method. For the tomographic inversion procedure, we started from 1-D initial velocity structure. We evaluated the resolution of tomography inversion results through checkerboard test and calculating derivative weigh sum. The preliminary results of tomography inversion show fairly clearly high seismic velocity subducting Indo-Australian and low velocity anomaly around volcano regions. The relocated hypocenters seem to cluster around the local fault system such as back-arc thrust fault in northern part of the region and around local fault in Sumbawa regions. Our local earthquake tomography results demonstrated consistent with previous studies and improved the resolution. For future works, we will determine S-wave velocity structure using S-wave arrival time to enhance our understanding of geological processes and for much better interpretation.

  3. Improved local and regional control with radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Tobin; Naghavi, Arash O; Messina, Jane L; Kim, Sungjune; Torres-Roca, Javier F; Russell, Jeffery; Sondak, Vernon K; Padhya, Tapan A; Trotti, Andy M; Caudell, Jimmy J; Harrison, Louis B

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that radiotherapy (RT) would improve both local and regional control with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A single-institution institutional review board-approved study was performed including 113 patients with nonmetastatic Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Postoperative RT was delivered to the primary tumor bed (71.7% cases) ± draining lymphatics (33.3% RT cases). Postoperative local RT was associated with improved local control (3-year actuarial local control 89.4% vs 68.1%; p = .005; Cox hazard ratio [HR] 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06-0.55; p = .002). Similarly, regional RT was associated with improved regional control (3-year actuarial regional control 95.0% vs 66.7%; p = .008; Cox HR = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.69; p = .02). Regional RT played an important role for both clinical node-negative patients (3-year regional control 100% vs 44.7%; p = .03) and clinical/pathological node-positive patients (3-year regional control 90.9% vs 55.6%; p = .047). Local RT was beneficial for all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck, whereas regional RT was beneficial for clinical node-negative and clinical/pathological node-positive patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 48-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 9 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Region 9 Local Road Safety Peer : Exchange held in Sacramento, California on September 17 and 18, 2013. The Federal Highway : Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety (HSA) sponsored the peer exc...

  5. The reduced local lymph node assay: the impact of group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cindy A; Chaney, Joel G; Kern, Petra S; Patlewicz, Grace Y; Basketter, David A; Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank

    2008-05-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a skin sensitization test that provides animal welfare benefits. To reduce animal usage further, a modified version (rLLNA) was proposed. Conducting the rLLNA as a screening test with a single high dose group and vehicle control differentiated accurately between skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers. This study examined whether a reduction in animal number/group is feasible. Historical data were utilized to examine the impact of conducting the rLLNA with two mice/group. To assess the effect on the stimulation index (SI) 41 datasets with individual animal data derived using five mice/group were analysed. SIs were calculated on all possible combinations of two control and two high dose group disintegrations per minute (dpm) values. For 25 of 33 sensitizer datasets, > 96% of possible dpm combinations resulted in a calculated SI > 3. The lowest percentages of positive SIs were observed with weak allergens when, in the standard LLNA, the mean SIs would have been nearer to the threshold value of 3. The results indicate that moderate, strong and extreme allergens are more likely than weak allergens to be identified as sensitizers when group sizes of two mice are used within the rLLNA. It is concluded that a rLLNA with two mice/group would display decreased sensitivity and is inappropriate for use in hazard identification. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Articaine: a review of its use for local and regional anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeck, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Marc SnoeckDepartment of Anaesthesia, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: Articaine is an intermediate-potency, short-acting amide local anesthetic with a fast metabolism due to an ester group in its structure. It is effective with local infiltration or peripheral nerve block in dentistry, when administered as a spinal, epidural, ocular, or regional nerve block, or when injected intravenously for regional anesthesia. In comparative trials, its clinical effects wer...

  7. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K.; Fordyce, James A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that...

  8. Local self-government potential in sustainable development of region providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Bobrovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing decentralization of power in Ukraine enhances abilities of each region to independently choose their development path and use their own resources. It requires reviewing and updating of mechanisms and instruments of local government and public administration projected to increase the sustainability of development. This necessitates further research of issues of this extremely complex phenomenon. The problem of sustainable development of the regions and their internal capacities over the past decades has attracted the attention of many Ukrainian scientists. They considered the question of the essence and characteristics of this phenomenon, categorical apparatus, and formed approaches to the assessment of the state etc. Existing scientific researchers provided an opportunity for better understanding and deepening of the issues of processes of development formation, becoming the basis for further research. The purpose of the article is the definition of the potential of local governments in the sustainable development of the region, finding approaches for improving management and rational use of resources to enhance the regional development. Development of regions is the scope of display of results and public nature of local self-government. However, the results which are achieved by regional development and its level of sustainability do not meet the needs of society. The results of ongoing reforms, their economic, environmental and social significance do not correspond to spent resources and efforts of society. Strategies of regions for the transition to sustainable development are not systematic. To search for answers and ways to address the issues of the article attempts to identify common root causes in the organization of local government, the underlying increase its impact in the direction of creating conditions and ensure the flow of sustainable regional development through research and their potential influential factors. It is

  9. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fedy, Brad C.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  10. Evidence for local inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. P. M. Huygen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1 is still a matter of debate. Peripheral afferent, efferent and central mechanisms are supposed. Based on clinical signs and symptoms (e.g. oedema, local temperature changes and chronic pain local inflammation is suspected.

  11. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 4 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Atlanta, Georgia on March 6th and 7th, 2013. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with Region 4 Local Te...

  12. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 7 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Denver, Colorado from May 31 to June 1, 2012. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with Region 7 Local a...

  13. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Regions 3 & 5 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Columbus, Ohio on June 12 and 13, 2013. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with the Region 3 & 5 Local...

  14. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  15. Influence of region of interest size and ultrasound lesion size on the performance of 2D shear wave elastography (SWE) in solid breast masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerl, K.; Vinnicombe, S.; Giannotti, E.; Thomson, K.; Evans, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the influence of the region of interest (ROI) size and lesion diameter on the diagnostic performance of 2D shear wave elastography (SWE) of solid breast lesions. Materials and methods: A study group of 206 consecutive patients (age range 21–92 years) with 210 solid breast lesions (70 benign, 140 malignant) who underwent core biopsy or surgical excision was evaluated. Lesions were divided into small (diameter <15 mm, n=112) and large lesions (diameter ≥15 mm, n=98). An ROI with a diameter of 1, 2, and 3 mm was positioned over the stiffest part of the lesion. The maximum elasticity (E_m_a_x), mean elasticity (E_m_e_a_n) and standard deviation (SD) for each ROI size were compared to the pathological outcome. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the chi-square test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The ROI size used has a significant impact on the performance of E_m_e_a_n and SD but not on E_m_a_x. Youden's indices show a correlation with the ROI size and lesion size: generally, the benign/malignant threshold is lower with increasing ROI size but higher with increasing lesion size. Conclusions: No single SWE parameter has superior performance. Lesion size and ROI size influence diagnostic performance. - Highlights: • Optimal cut-off for benign/malignant differentiation depends on lesion size. • Region of interest size influences measurements of mean elasticity and standard deviation. • Large lesions are stiffer than small lesions. • Optimal cut-off for benign/malignant differentiation should increase with increasing lesion size. • Region of interest of 2 mm achieved best compromise of the diagnostic performance for all SWE parameter.

  16. The Size-Luminosity Relationship of Quasar Narrow-Line Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ross; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2018-04-01

    The presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) can strongly affect its host. Due to the copious radiative power of the nucleus, the effects of radiative feedback can be detected over the entire host galaxy and sometimes well into the intergalactic space. In this paper we model the observed size-luminosity relationship of the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of AGN. We model the NLR as a collection of clouds in pressure equilibrium with the ionizing radiation, with each cloud producing line emission calculated by Cloudy. The sizes of the NLRs of powerful quasars are reproduced without any free parameters, as long as they contain massive (105M⊙ to 107M⊙) ionization-bounded clouds. At lower AGN luminosities the observed sizes are larger than the model sizes, likely due to additional unmodeled sources of ionization (e.g., star formation). We find that the observed saturation of sizes at ˜10kpc which is observed at high AGN luminosities (Lion ≃ 1046erg/s) is naturally explained by optically thick clouds absorbing the ionizing radiation and preventing illumination beyond a critical distance. Using our models in combination with observations of the [O III]/IR ratio and the [O III] size - IR luminosity relationship, we calculate the covering factor of the obscuring torus (and therefore the type 2 fraction within the quasar population) to be f = 0.5, though this is likely an upper bound. Finally, because the gas behind the ionization front is invisible in ionized gas transitions, emission-based NLR mass calculations underestimate the mass of the NLR and therefore of the energetics of ionized-gas winds.

  17. Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. New data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region. Methods We reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials to estimate a regional-specific effect of vaccine efficacy on severe rotavirus diarrhea and hospitalizations. We assessed the quality of evidence using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses where more than 1 data point was available. Results Rotavirus vaccine prevented severe rotavirus episodes in all regions; 81% of episodes in Latin America, 42.7% of episodes in high-mortality Asia, 50% of episodes in sub-Saharan Africa, 88% of episodes low-mortality Asia and North Africa, and 91% of episodes in developed countries. The effect sizes observed for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea will be used in LiST as the effect size for rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus-specific diarrhea mortality. Conclusions Vaccine trials have not measured the effect of vaccine on diarrhea mortality. The overall quality of the evidence and consistency observed across studies suggests that estimating mortality based on a severe morbidity reduction is highly plausible.

  18. Locally Targeted Delivery of a Micron-Size Radiation Therapy Source Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Seol, Dong Rim [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Mohapatra, Sucheta [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Sunderland, John J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Schultz, Michael K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lim, Tae-Hong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel radiation therapy (RT) delivery modality: locally targeted delivery of micron-size RT sources by using temperature-sensitive hydrogel (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials: Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as the radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and 3 with RT-saline. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT scans were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL was determined by comparison with that of the control datasets by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results: RT-GEL was successfully injected into the tumor by using a 30-gauge needle. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% at 24 h (44% at 48 h, respectively) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%, respectively) for RT-saline. Fused SPECT-CT images of RT-saline showed considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2886%, 261%, and 262% of RT-GEL at 0, 24, and 48 h, respectively). Conclusions: RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity: 170% (200%, respectively), than that of RT-saline at 24 h (48 h, respectively) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the

  19. Differential subcellular localization of insulin receptor substrates depends on C-terminal regions and importin β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuta, Tomohiro; Take, Kazumi; Kabuta, Chihana; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) play essential roles in signal transduction of insulin and insulin-like growth factors. Previously, we showed that IRS-3 is localized to the nucleus as well as the cytosol, while IRS-1 and 2 are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. In the present study, we found that importin β directly interacts with IRS-3 and is able to mediate nuclear transport of IRS-3. Importin β interacted with the pleckstrin homology domain, the phosphotyrosine binding domain and the C-terminal region of IRS-3; indeed all of these fragments exhibited predominant nuclear localization. By contrast, almost no interaction of importin β with IRS-1 and -2 was observed, and their C-terminal regions displayed discrete spotty images in the cytosol. In addition, using chimeric proteins between IRS-1 and IRS-3, we revealed that the C-terminal regions are the main determinants of the differing subcellular localizations of IRS-1 and IRS-3.

  20. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Siivonen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  1. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Local Development in the Lower Danube Macro Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu Tăchiciu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the result of an effort made by the authors to explore the needs of education and training in the field of local development, according to the situation in Romanian and Bulgarian Danube bordering regions, aiming at designing joint projects to address such needs between the universities to which authors are affiliated. Local development is here understood as a deliberately induced process of improving the welfare of local communities, which should be democratic, inclusive and sustainable, in particular with regard to creating competitive local economies, stimulating economic growth and ensuring better living conditions for the inhabitants. Local development is an important part of a governance process which involves complex interactions at various territorially defined levels: local, regional, national, cross-national, international. In the case of the regions considered in the present paper a historical opportunity is provided for them by the so called European Union Strategy for the Danube Region. In order to fully exploit this opportunity, the capacity to address local development issues should be strengthened in both countries, especially by well designed education and training programmes. This is why local development was considered a priority topic for the cooperation between the two universities. In the same framework, taking into consideration the challenges which are specific to the Lower Danube Region, other topics of interest were considered: logistics, tourism, consumer affairs or rural development. The authors of the present paper had to avoid overlapping with the work of the other teams. In particular, there are many common points between local development and rural development, because in both countries the regions on the border of Danube are predominately rural and significantly dependent on agriculture. Therefore, here, the needs for education and training are defined in strict correlation with the required

  2. Optimization of Domestic-Size Renewable Energy System Designs Suitable for Cold Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    Five different kinds of domestic-size renewable energy system configurations for very cold climate regions were investigated. From detailed numerical modeling and system simulations, it was found that the consumption of fuel oil for the auxiliary boiler in residential-type households can almost be eliminated with a renewable energy system that incorporates photovoltaic panel arrays for electricity generation and two storage tanks: a well-insulated electric water storage tank that services the hot water loads, and a compact boiler/geothermal heat pump tank for room heating during very cold seasons. A reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) of about 28% was achieved for this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. The near elimination of the use of fuel oil in this system makes it very promising for very cold climate regions in terms of energy savings because the running cost is not so dependent on the unstable nature of global oil prices.

  3. Sample size clay kaolin of primary in pegmatites regions Junco Serido - PB and Equador - RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.F.; Sousa, J.B.M.; Sales, L.R.; Silva, P.A.S.; Lima, A.D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Kaolin is a clay formed mainly of kaolinite resulting from feldspar weathering or hydrothermal. This study aims to investigate the way of occurrence, kaolin particle size of the pegmatites of the Borborema Province Pegmatitic in the regions of Junco do Serido-PB and Ecuador-RN. These variables were analyzed considering granulometric intervals obtained from wet sieving of samples of pegmatite mines in the region. Kaolin was received using sieves of 200, 325, 400 and 500 mesh and the sieve fractions retained by generating statistical parameters histograms. kaolin particles are extremely fine and pass in its entirety through 500 mesh sieve. The characterization of minerals in fine fractions by diffraction of X-rays showed that the relative amount of sericite in fractions retained in sieves 400 and 500 mesh impairing the whiteness and mineralogical texture kaolin production. (author)

  4. Adaptation of Locally Available Portion Sizes for Food Frequency Questionnaires in Nutritional Epidemiological Studies: How Much Difference does it Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Verma, Sonika; Singh, Abhishek; Tandon, Nikhil; Puri, Seema; Arora, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    There is need for employing strategies to minimize measurement errors while administering semi-quantitative FFQ. The current study was planned to adapt and standardize locally available portion sizes for semi-quantitative FFQ to improve its validity and document the process of standardization of portion sizes. The study was conducted in 9 villages of the INCLEN-SOMAARTH DDESS (Demographic, Development and Environmental Surveillance Site), Palwal district, Haryana, India. The subjects in these nine villages are part of a cohort study to assess the interaction between societal and household factors with food intake and physical activity of children. Systematic utensil survey was undertaken in 3 randomly chosen households per village i.e. 27 households and the portion sizes were derived from a total of 74 serving utensils. The derived sizes were classified as small (240 ml), medium (320 ml) and large (600 ml). The semi-quantitative FFQ with locally derived portion sizes was then administered to 63 children in 6-12 year age group. The volume of food measured by the reference portion sizes generally being employed in the national surveys, would have been underestimated the food consumed by the child by 55-60% as compared to what was being consumed by the children in the study area. The correlation between food intake assessed by 24-hr recall method and FFQ using derived (local) portion sizes was better as compared to that obtained with the semi-quantitative FFQ done with reference portions. In conclusion, local portion size adaptation of FFQ for semi-quantification is useful to mitigate measurement errors associated with this technique.

  5. New computer simulation technology of WSPEEDI for local and regional environmental assessment during nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Furuno, Akiko; Terada, Hiroaki; Kitabata, Hideyuki

    2002-01-01

    The increase of nuclear power plants in the Asian region necessitates the capability to predict long-range atmospheric dispersions of radionuclides and radiological impacts due to a nuclear accident. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based emergency response system WSPEEDI. This paper aims to expanding the capability of WSPEEDI so that it can be applied to simultaneous multi-scale predictions of local and regional scales in the Asian region

  6. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-22

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.

  7. Local-regional control in breast cancer patients with a possible genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Laura M.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Thames, Howard D.; Strom, Eric A.; McNeese, Marsha D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Singletary, S. Eva; Heaton, Keith M.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Local control rates for breast cancer in genetically predisposed women are poorly defined. Because such a small percentage of breast cancer patients have proven germline mutations, surrogates, such as a family history for breast cancer, have been used to examine this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate local-regional control following breast conservation therapy (BCT) in patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of all 58 patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history treated in our institution between 1959 and 1998. The primary surgical treatment was a breast-conserving procedure in 55 of the 116 breast cancer cases and a mastectomy in 61. The median follow-up was 68 months for the BCT patients and 57 months for the mastectomy-treated patients. Results: Eight local-regional recurrences occurred in the 55 cases treated with BCT, resulting in 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates of 86% and 76%, respectively. In the nine cases that did not receive radiation as a component of their BCT, four developed local-regional recurrences (5- and 10-year local-regional control rates of BCT without radiation: 49% and 49%). The 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates for the 46 cases treated with BCT and radiation were 94% and 83%, respectively. In these cases, there were two late local recurrences, developing at 8 years and 9 years, respectively. A log rank comparison of radiation versus no radiation actuarial data was significant at p = 0.009. In the cases treated with BCT, a multivariate analysis of radiation use, patient age, degree of family history, margin status, and stage revealed that only the use of radiation was associated with improved local control (Cox regression analysis p = 0.021). The 10-year actuarial rates of local-regional control following mastectomy with and without radiation were 91% and 89

  8. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  9. Local extinction and recolonization, species effective population size, and modern human origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Elise; Hawks, John; Relethford, John H

    2004-10-01

    A primary objection from a population genetics perspective to a multiregional model of modern human origins is that the model posits a large census size, whereas genetic data suggest a small effective population size. The relationship between census size and effective size is complex, but arguments based on an island model of migration show that if the effective population size reflects the number of breeding individuals and the effects of population subdivision, then an effective population size of 10,000 is inconsistent with the census size of 500,000 to 1,000,000 that has been suggested by archeological evidence. However, these models have ignored the effects of population extinction and recolonization, which increase the expected variance among demes and reduce the inbreeding effective population size. Using models developed for population extinction and recolonization, we show that a large census size consistent with the multiregional model can be reconciled with an effective population size of 10,000, but genetic variation among demes must be high, reflecting low interdeme migration rates and a colonization process that involves a small number of colonists or kin-structured colonization. Ethnographic and archeological evidence is insufficient to determine whether such demographic conditions existed among Pleistocene human populations, and further work needs to be done. More realistic models that incorporate isolation by distance and heterogeneity in extinction rates and effective deme sizes also need to be developed. However, if true, a process of population extinction and recolonization has interesting implications for human demographic history.

  10. Zone-size nonuniformity of 18F-FDG PET regional textural features predicts survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Lee, Li-yu; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Chun-Ta; Yang, Lan-Yan; Hsu, Ching-Han; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2015-03-01

    The question as to whether the regional textural features extracted from PET images predict prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains open. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of regional heterogeneity in patients with T3/T4 OPSCC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 88 patients with T3 or T4 OPSCC who had completed primary therapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were the main outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis, a standardized uptake value of 2.5 (SUV 2.5) was taken as the cut-off value for the detection of tumour boundaries. A fixed threshold at 42 % of the maximum SUV (SUVmax 42 %) and an adaptive threshold method were then used for validation. Regional textural features were extracted from pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT images using the grey-level run length encoding method and grey-level size zone matrix. The prognostic significance of PET textural features was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analysis. Zone-size nonuniformity (ZSNU) was identified as an independent predictor of PFS and DSS. Its prognostic impact was confirmed using both the SUVmax 42 % and the adaptive threshold segmentation methods. Based on (1) total lesion glycolysis, (2) uniformity (a local scale texture parameter), and (3) ZSNU, we devised a prognostic stratification system that allowed the identification of four distinct risk groups. The model combining the three prognostic parameters showed a higher predictive value than each variable alone. ZSNU is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC, and may improve their prognostic stratification.

  11. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  12. Local and Regional Partnerships in Natural Resource Management: The Challenge of Bridging Institutional Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Although collaboration and multi-stakeholder partnerships have become a common feature in natural resource management throughout the world, various problems are associated with attempts to up-scale community-based natural resource management from the local to the regional level. To analyze the reasons behind these problems, this article reports on two examples of collaboratives in Australia: local Landcare groups, and regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies. Recent government-induced changes have shifted the focus from local Landcare group action to strategic planning and implementation by regional NRM bodies. Two typologies of collaboratives are applied to analyze the characteristics of both these groups. The study uses data from 52 qualitative interviews with key informants at the local and regional level in Victoria and Tasmania, participant observation, as well as literature and document analysis. The article illustrates how the groups’ distinct characteristics can cause conflicts when the different types of collaboratives operate in parallel. In addition, the article reports how stakeholders perceive the level of community participation in decision-making processes. The key message is that the benefits of community participation and collaboration that arise at the local level can be lost when these approaches are up-scaled to the regional level unless there is an intermediary or ‘mediating structure’ to facilitate communication and create the link between different types of collaboratives.

  13. Patterns of local-regional failure after primary intensity modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Fangfang; Ying, Hongmei; Du, Chengrun; Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Junjun; Chen, Junchao; Sun, Lining; Chen, Xiaohui; Hu, Chaosu

    2014-01-01

    To analyze patterns of local-regional failure after primary intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 370 non-metastatic NPC patients consecutively treated with IMRT (with or without chemotherapy) were analyzed. Radiotherapy was administered using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique at the total prescribed dose of 66-70.4Gy (2.0-2.2Gy per fraction). The location and extent of local-regional failures were transferred to the pretreatment planning computed tomography (CT) for dosimetric analysis. The dose of radiation received by V recur (volume of recurrence) was calculated and analyzed with dose-volume histogram (DVH). Failures were classified as: 'in field' if 95% of V recur was within the 95% isodose, 'marginal' if 20% to 95% of V recur was within the 95% isodose, or 'outside' if less than 20% of V recur was inside the 95% isodose. With a median follow up of 26 months, 25 local-regional failures were found in 18 patients. The 1- and 2-year actuarial local-regional control rates for all patients were 99.7% and 95.5% respectively. Among the 22 local–regional failures with available diagnostic images, 16 (64%) occurred within the 95% isodose lines and were considered in-field failures; 3 (12%) were marginal and 3 (12%) were outside-field failures. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy provides excellent local-regional control for NPC. In-field failures are the main patterns for local-regional recurrence. Reducing the coverage of critical adjacent tissues in CTV purposefully for potential subclinical diseases was worth of study. Great attention in all IMRT steps is necessary to reduce potential causes of marginal failures. More studies about radioresistance are needed to reduce in-field failures

  14. Modeling Local Monetary Flows in Poor Regions: A Research Setup to Simulate the Multiplier Effect in Local Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk van Arkel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In poor regions, lack of local monetary circulation is one of the key elements causing underdevelopment. The more incoming money is passed from hand to hand, the more the local economy will be stimulated. However, in most poor areas money is spent outside the community before circulating locally, reducing the effectiveness of money inflow dramatically.Development programs would increase their effectiveness if knowledge was available on how spending money could lead to optimized and prolonged local circulation. To gain this knowledge a simulation tool will be created, which is able to analyze financial flows, to evaluate the potency of specific actions aimed on local development, and to monitor a development scheme during the execution phase.The basic model will be developed through a multi-agent approach, where each agent represents one (or more family/households belonging to one of several socio-economic groups. A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of the local economy will be used as a basis to set up a spendings matrix for each agent, defining its spending priorities. Artificial Intelligence techniques will be used to give the agent the possibility to make decisions on how to satisfy these spending priorities. Also, social dynamics, the simulation of strategic planning behavior, learning, and exchange in limited networks will be addressed.The simulation application will consist of a common user interface allowing the user to “play” the simulation. This user interface layer will be “pluggable” with the underlying programming layer responsible for the calculations on the simulation, so that different plug-ins may be used for different simulation techniques.

  15. Influence of region of interest size and ultrasound lesion size on the performance of 2D shear wave elastography (SWE) in solid breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerl, K; Vinnicombe, S; Giannotti, E; Thomson, K; Evans, A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of the region of interest (ROI) size and lesion diameter on the diagnostic performance of 2D shear wave elastography (SWE) of solid breast lesions. A study group of 206 consecutive patients (age range 21-92 years) with 210 solid breast lesions (70 benign, 140 malignant) who underwent core biopsy or surgical excision was evaluated. Lesions were divided into small (diameter <15 mm, n=112) and large lesions (diameter ≥15 mm, n=98). An ROI with a diameter of 1, 2, and 3 mm was positioned over the stiffest part of the lesion. The maximum elasticity (Emax), mean elasticity (Emean) and standard deviation (SD) for each ROI size were compared to the pathological outcome. Statistical analysis was undertaken using the chi-square test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The ROI size used has a significant impact on the performance of Emean and SD but not on Emax. Youden's indices show a correlation with the ROI size and lesion size: generally, the benign/malignant threshold is lower with increasing ROI size but higher with increasing lesion size. No single SWE parameter has superior performance. Lesion size and ROI size influence diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Articaine: a review of its use for local and regional anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoeck M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marc SnoeckDepartment of Anaesthesia, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: Articaine is an intermediate-potency, short-acting amide local anesthetic with a fast metabolism due to an ester group in its structure. It is effective with local infiltration or peripheral nerve block in dentistry, when administered as a spinal, epidural, ocular, or regional nerve block, or when injected intravenously for regional anesthesia. In comparative trials, its clinical effects were not generally significantly different from those of other short-acting local anesthetics like lidocaine, prilocaine, and chloroprocaine, and there is no conclusive evidence demonstrating above-average neurotoxicity. Articaine proved to be suitable and safe for procedures requiring a short duration of action in which a fast onset of anesthesia is desired, eg, dental procedures and ambulatory spinal anesthesia, in normal and in special populations.Keywords: articaine, regional anesthesia, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, tolerability, neurotoxicity

  17. Local climate determines intra- and interspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in mountain grasshopper communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, P; Illera, J C; Obeso, J R

    2013-10-01

    The climate is often evoked to explain broad-scale clines of body size, yet its involvement in the processes that generate size inequality in the two sexes (sexual size dimorphism) remains elusive. Here, we analyse climatic clines of sexual size dimorphism along a wide elevation gradient (i) among grasshopper species in a phylogenetically controlled scenario and (ii) within species differing in distribution and cold tolerance, to highlight patterns generated at different time scales, mainly evolutionary (among species or higher taxa) and ontogenetic or microevolutionary (within species). At the interspecific level, grasshoppers were slightly smaller and less dimorphic at high elevations. These clines were associated with gradients of precipitation and sun exposure, which are likely indicators of other factors that directly exert selective pressures, such as resource availability and conditions for effective thermoregulation. Within species, we found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of elevation on body size, especially on condition-dependent measures of body size (total body length rather than hind femur length) and in species inhabiting the highest elevations. In spite of a certain degree of species-specific variation, females tended to adjust their body size more often than males, suggesting that body size in females can evolve faster among species and can be more plastic or dependent on nutritional conditions within species living in adverse climates. Natural selection on female body size may therefore prevail over sexual selection on male body size in alpine environments, and abiotic factors may trigger consistent phenotypic patterns across taxonomic scales. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Inconsistent selection and definition of local and regional endpoints in breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moossdorff, M; van Roozendaal, L M; Schipper, R-J; Strobbe, L J A; Voogd, A C; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Smidt, M L

    2014-12-01

    Results in breast cancer research are reported using study endpoints. Most are composite endpoints (such as locoregional recurrence), consisting of several components (for example local recurrence) that are in turn composed of specific events (such as skin recurrence). Inconsistent endpoint selection and definition might lead to unjustified conclusions when comparing study outcomes. This study aimed to determine which locoregional endpoints are used in breast cancer studies, and how these endpoints and their components are defined. PubMed was searched for breast cancer studies published in nine leading journals in 2011. Articles using endpoints with a local or regional component were included and definitions were compared. Twenty-three different endpoints with a local or regional component were extracted from 44 articles. Most frequently used were disease-free survival (25 articles), recurrence-free survival (7), local control (4), locoregional recurrence-free survival (3) and event-free survival (3). Different endpoints were used for similar outcomes. Of 23 endpoints, five were not defined and 18 were defined only partially. Of these, 16 contained a local and 13 a regional component. Included events were not specified in 33 of 57 (local) and 27 of 50 (regional) cases. Definitions of local components inconsistently included carcinoma in situ and skin and chest wall recurrences. Regional components inconsistently included specific nodal sites and skin and chest wall recurrences. Breast cancer studies use many different endpoints with a locoregional component. Definitions of endpoints and events are either not provided or vary between trials. To improve transparency, facilitate trial comparison and avoid unjustified conclusions, authors should report detailed definitions of all endpoints. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Architecture of the local spatial data infrastructure for regional climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets (meteorological databases, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are actively used in modeling and analysis of climate change for various spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their size which might constitute up to tens terabytes for a single dataset studies in the area of climate and environmental change require a special software support based on SDI approach. A dedicated architecture of the local spatial data infrastructure aiming at regional climate change analysis using modern web mapping technologies is presented. Geoportal is a key element of any SDI, allowing searching of geoinformation resources (datasets and services) using metadata catalogs, producing geospatial data selections by their parameters (data access functionality) as well as managing services and applications of cartographical visualization. It should be noted that due to objective reasons such as big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences of various datasets, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services turns out to be quite a complex task. Those circumstances were taken into account while developing architecture of the local spatial data infrastructure as a universal framework providing geodata services. So that, the architecture presented includes: 1. Effective in terms of search, access, retrieval and subsequent statistical processing, model of storing big sets of regional georeferenced data, allowing in particular to store frequently used values (like monthly and annual climate change indices, etc.), thus providing different temporal views of the datasets 2. General architecture of the corresponding software components handling geospatial datasets within the storage model 3. Metadata catalog describing in detail using ISO 19115 and CF-convention standards datasets used in climate researches as a basic element of the

  20. The Third American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity: Executive Summary 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Joseph M; Barrington, Michael J; Fettiplace, Michael R; Gitman, Marina; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Mörwald, Eva E; Rubin, Daniel S; Weinberg, Guy

    2018-02-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine's Third Practice Advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity is an interim update from its 2010 advisory. The advisory focuses on new information regarding the mechanisms of lipid resuscitation, updated frequency estimates, the preventative role of ultrasound guidance, changes to case presentation patterns, and limited information related to local infiltration anesthesia and liposomal bupivacaine. In addition to emerging information, the advisory updates recommendations pertaining to prevention, recognition, and treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. WHAT'S NEW IN THIS UPDATE?: This interim update summarizes recent scientific findings that have enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to lipid emulsion reversal of LAST, including rapid partitioning, direct inotropy, and post-conditioning. Since the previous practice advisory, epidemiological data have emerged that suggest a lower frequency of LAST as reported by single institutions and some registries, nevertheless a considerable number of events still occur within the general community. Contemporary case reports suggest a trend toward delayed presentation, which may mirror the increased use of ultrasound guidance (fewer intravascular injections), local infiltration techniques (slower systemic uptake), and continuous local anesthetic infusions. Small patient size and sarcopenia are additional factors that increase potential risk for LAST. An increasing number of reported events occur outside of the traditional hospital setting and involve non-anesthesiologists.

  1. A Local Region of Interest Imaging Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography with Internal Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeuknam Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT is a very attractive functional imaging method despite the low sensitivity and resolution. The use of internal electrodes with the conventional reconstruction algorithms was not enough to enhance image resolution and accuracy in the region of interest (ROI. We propose a local ROI imaging method with internal electrodes developed from careful analysis of the sensitivity matrix that is designed to reduce the sensitivity of the voxels outside the local region and optimize the sensitivity of the voxel inside the local region. We perform numerical simulations and physical measurements to demonstrate the localized EIT imaging method. In preliminary results with multiple objects we show the benefits of using an internal electrode and the improved resolution due to the local ROI image reconstruction method. The sensitivity is further increased by allowing the surface electrodes to be unevenly spaced with a higher density of surface electrodes near the ROI. Also, we analyse how much the image quality is improved using several performance parameters for comparison. While these have not yet been studied in depth, it convincingly shows an improvement in local sensitivity in images obtained with an internal electrode in comparison to a standard reconstruction method.

  2. Comparison of aquifer characteristics derived from local and regional aquifer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.; Maslia, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the aquifer parameter values obtained through the analysis of a local and a regional aquifer test involving the same area in southeast Georgia is made in order to evaluate the validity of extrapolating local aquifer-test results for use in large-scale flow simulations. Time-drawdown and time-recovery data were analyzed by using both graphical and least-squares fitting of the data to the Theis curve. Additionally, directional transmissivity, transmissivity tensor, and angle of anisotropy were computed for both tests. -from Authors Georgia drawdown transmissivity regional aquifer tests

  3. Use of spatiotemporal characteristics of ambient PM2.5 in rural South India to infer local versus regional contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Kishore; Sreekanth, V; Salmon, Maëlle; Tonne, Cathryn; Marshall, Julian D

    2018-05-08

    This study uses spatiotemporal patterns in ambient concentrations to infer the contribution of regional versus local sources. We collected 12 months of monitoring data for outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in rural southern India. Rural India includes more than one-tenth of the global population and annually accounts for around half a million air pollution deaths, yet little is known about the relative contribution of local sources to outdoor air pollution. We measured 1-min averaged outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations during June 2015-May 2016 in three villages, which varied in population size, socioeconomic status, and type and usage of domestic fuel. The daily geometric-mean PM 2.5 concentration was ∼30 μg m -3 (geometric standard deviation: ∼1.5). Concentrations exceeded the Indian National Ambient Air Quality standards (60 μg m -3 ) during 2-5% of observation days. Average concentrations were ∼25 μg m -3 higher during winter than during monsoon and ∼8 μg m -3 higher during morning hours than the diurnal average. A moving average subtraction method based on 1-min average PM 2.5 concentrations indicated that local contributions (e.g., nearby biomass combustion, brick kilns) were greater in the most populated village, and that overall the majority of ambient PM 2.5 in our study was regional, implying that local air pollution control strategies alone may have limited influence on local ambient concentrations. We compared the relatively new moving average subtraction method against a more established approach. Both methods broadly agree on the relative contribution of local sources across the three sites. The moving average subtraction method has broad applicability across locations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk and size estimation of debris flow caused by storm rainfall in mountain regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Genwei

    2003-01-01

    Debris flow is a common disaster in mountain regions. The valley slope, storm rainfall and amassed sand-rock materials in a watershed may influence the types of debris flow. The bursting of debris flow is not a pure random event. Field investigations show the periodicity of its burst, but no directive evidence has been found yet. A risk definition of debris flow is proposed here based upon the accumulation and the starting conditions of loose material in channel. According to this definition, the risk of debris flow is of quasi-periodicity. A formula of risk estimation is derived. Analysis of relative factors reveals the relationship between frequency and size of debris flow. For a debris flow creek, the longer the time interval between two occurrences of debris flows is, the bigger the bursting event will be.

  5. Effects of large-scale deforestation on precipitation in the monsoon regions: remote versus local effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, N; Bala, Govindasamy; Modak, Angshuman

    2015-03-17

    In this paper, using idealized climate model simulations, we investigate the biogeophysical effects of large-scale deforestation on monsoon regions. We find that the remote forcing from large-scale deforestation in the northern middle and high latitudes shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward. This results in a significant decrease in precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere monsoon regions (East Asia, North America, North Africa, and South Asia) and moderate precipitation increases in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon regions (South Africa, South America, and Australia). The magnitude of the monsoonal precipitation changes depends on the location of deforestation, with remote effects showing a larger influence than local effects. The South Asian Monsoon region is affected the most, with 18% decline in precipitation over India. Our results indicate that any comprehensive assessment of afforestation/reforestation as climate change mitigation strategies should carefully evaluate the remote effects on monsoonal precipitation alongside the large local impacts on temperatures.

  6. Special Features of Strain Localization and Nanodipoles of Partial Disclinations in the Region of Elastic Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumentsev, A. N.; Ditenberg, I. A.; Sukhanov, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    In the zones of strain localization in the region of elastic distortions and nanodipoles of partial disclinations representing the defects of elastically deformed medium, a theoretical analysis of the elastically stressed state and the energy of these defects, including the cases of their transformation into more complex ensembles of interrelated disclinations, is performed. Using the analytical results, the mechanisms of strain localization are discussed in the stages of nucleation and propagation of the bands of elastic and plastic strain localization formed in these zones (including the cases of nanocrystalline structure formation).

  7. Internal Associations of the Acidic Region of Upstream Binding Factor Control Its Nucleolar Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueshima, Shuhei; Nagata, Kyosuke; Okuwaki, Mitsuru

    2017-11-15

    Upstream binding factor (UBF) is a member of the high-mobility group (HMG) box protein family, characterized by multiple HMG boxes and a C-terminal acidic region (AR). UBF is an essential transcription factor for rRNA genes and mediates the formation of transcriptionally active chromatin in the nucleolus. However, it remains unknown how UBF is specifically localized to the nucleolus. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms that localize UBF to the nucleolus. We found that the first HMG box (HMG box 1), the linker region (LR), and the AR cooperatively regulate the nucleolar localization of UBF1. We demonstrated that the AR intramolecularly associates with and attenuates the DNA binding activity of HMG boxes and confers the structured DNA preference to HMG box 1. In contrast, the LR was found to serve as a nuclear localization signal and compete with HMG boxes to bind the AR, permitting nucleolar localization of UBF1. The LR sequence binds DNA and assists the stable chromatin binding of UBF. We also showed that the phosphorylation status of the AR does not clearly affect the localization of UBF1. Our results strongly suggest that associations of the AR with HMG boxes and the LR regulate UBF nucleolar localization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Molecular dynamics study on microstructure of near grain boundary distortion region in small grain size nano- NiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; Wang, X.W.; Rifkin, J.; Li, D.X.

    2001-12-01

    Using the molecular dynamics simulation method, the microstructure of distortion region near curved amorphous-like grain boundary in nano-NiAl alloy is studied. The results showed that due to the internal elastic force of high energy grain boundary, distortion layer exists between grain and grain boundary. The lattice expansion and structure factor decreasing are observed in this region. Stacking fault in sample with grain size 3.8nm is clearly observed across the distortion region at the site very close to grain. The influences of different grain sizes on average distortion degree and volume fractions of distortion region, grain and grain boundary are also discussed. (author)

  9. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    ...) motivations and actions. The most effective responses are those with a holistic, integrated and lon-term approach, addressing both climate change mitigation and adaptation, based on citizen and other local stakeholder involvement...

  10. Including local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a 2-D regional-local flood modelling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2016-04-01

    Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed

  11. Local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hideya; Suzuki, Gen; Aibe, Norihiro; Masui, Koji; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Sasaki, Naomi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yamada, Kei

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer; however, the optimal treatment field remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively investigated 35 patients treated for a postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer with local field radiotherapy between December 2008 and March 2016. The median irradiation dose was 60 Gy (range: 50-67.5 Gy). Thirty-one (88.6%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range: 5-94 months). The 2-year overall survival was 55.7%, with a median survival time of 29.9 months. In the univariate analysis, the maximal diameter ≤20 mm (P = 0.0383), solitary lesion (P = 0.0352), and the complete remission after treatment (P = 0.00411) had a significantly better prognosis. A total of 27 of 35 patients (77.1%) had progressive disease (loco-regional failure [n = 9], distant metastasis [n = 7], and both loco-regional failure and distant metastasis [n = 11]). No patients had Grade 3 or greater mucositis. Local field radiotherapy is a considerable treatment option for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Regional Determinants of Efficiency Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Łuczka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs sector plays a vital role in modern economies. Therefore, the interest in its functioning among economists is in fact quite natural. This article is a part of a current research on regional factors contributing to the development of enterprises in this category. The first section examines earlier studies in this field conducted globally and in Poland. According to them, many elements enable the SME’s development. It is not surprisingly that the specified set of pro-growth factors does not exists. Next section describes the results of the author’s own studies in the fields. These studies relate to regional factors contributing to the efficiency growth of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Data used in the study was collected from GUS[1] and EUROSTAT and encompassed 16 provinces for the years 2003-2008. The model prepared included 11 independent variables on labor force, social mobility, living standard and R&D policy. The authors would have gladly considered more than 11 explanatory variable, but the inaccessibility of such data made it impossible. In the next step, using GRETL software, equations of regression were defined. On this basis it was concluded that the most important factors contributing to efficiency growth of SMEs are the amount of spending on R&D and the level of wages.

  13. Design of the first full size ATLAS ITk Strip sensor for the endcap region

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration is designing the full silicon tracker (ITk) that will operate in the HL-LHC replacing the current design. The silicon microstrip sensors for the barrel and the endcap regions in the ITk are fabricated in 6 inch, p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. The radiation tolerance and specific system issues like the need for slim edge of 450 µm have been tested with square shaped sensors intended for the barrel part of the tracker. This work presents the design of the first full size silicon microstrip sensor for the endcap region with a slim edge of 450 µm. The strip endcaps will consist of several wheels with two layers of silicon strip sensors each. The strips have to lie along the azimuthal direction, apart from a small stereo angle rotation (20 mrad on each side, giving 40 mrad total) for measuring the second coordinate of tracks. This stereo angle is built into the strip layout of the sensor and, in or...

  14. Design of the first full size ATLAS ITk Strip sensor for the endcap region

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasta, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration is designing the full silicon tracker (ITk) that will operate in the HL-LHC replacing the current design. The silicon microstrip sensors for the barrel and the endcap regions in the ITk are fabricated in 6 inch, p-type, float-zone wafers, where large-area strip sensor designs are laid out together with a number of miniature sensors. The radiation tolerance and specific system issues like the need for slim edge of 450 μm have been tested with square shaped sensors intended for the barrel part of the tracker. This work presents the design of the first full size silicon microstrip sensor for the endcap region with a slim edge of 450 μm. The strip endcaps will consist of several wheels with two layers of silicon strip sensors each. The strips have to lie along the azimuthal direction, apart from a small stereo angle rotation (20 mrad on each side, giving 40 mrad total) for measuring the second coordinate of tracks. This stereo angle is built into the strip layout of the sensor and, in or...

  15. The effects of the local fracture stress and carbides on the cleavage fracture characteristics of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels in the transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Jon; Huh, Moo Young; Roh, Sung Joo; Lee, Bong Sang; Oh, Yong Jun; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2000-01-01

    In the ductile-brittle transition temperature region of SA508 C1.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, the relationship of the local fracture stress and carbides influencing the cleavage fracture behavior was investigated. Based on the ASTM E1921-97 standard method, the reference transition temperatures were determined by three point bending fracture toughness tests. A local fracture stress σ f * , was determined from a theoretical stress distribution in front of crack tip using the cleavage initiation distance measured in each fractured specimen surface. The local fracture stress values showed a strong relationship with toughness characteristics of the materials and those were larger in the materials of smaller carbide size. Quantitative analysis of carbides showed that carbides larger than a certain size are mainly responsible for the cleavage fracture in the ductile-brittle transition temperature region. (author)

  16. Capital Humano:Su Definicion y Alcances en el Desarrollo Local y Regional Human Capital: its definition and scope in the Local and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Navarro Abarzúa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El concepto Capital Humano es descrito y analizado en este trabajo como un auxiliar metodológico que, depurado de sus definiciones mecanicistas y neoliberales, ayuda a vincular la teoría, con la práctica en el análisis específico de una realidad territorial. Se trata de superar los modelos teóricos globales del análisis social, que generalmente subutilizan los datos empíricos que provee el territorio, cayendo en generalizaciones y abstracciones que poco ayudan. Sin embargo, este análisis tampoco se queda en la casuística, sino que culmina en propuestas que buscan contribuir al desarrollo de la teoría sobre Capital Humano y su impacto en el desarrollo regional y local. This article describes and analyzes the concept of Human Capital nor in a mechanical way nor using the neo-liberal definitions, but by linking the theory with practice in an specific territorial analysis. This is about superseding global theoretical models of social analysis, which generally sub-utilize the empirical data provided by territorial analysis, often falling into unhelpful generalizations and abstractions. Furthermore, this analysis is not centered in establishing causality, and it aims to be a contribution in the development of a theory of Human Capital and its impacts in the regional and local development.

  17. Local and regional variation in the monoterpenes of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Smith; R.L. Peloquin; P.C. Passof

    1969-01-01

    A gas chromatographic analysis of the mono-terpenes of 927 ponderosa pines, representing to some degree a major portion of the species' range, showed considerable local and regional diversity in composition. Five major monoterpenes— α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and limonene—were analyzed. There is some evidence to support the...

  18. Use of survey data to define regional and local priorities for management on national wildlife refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Sauer; Jennifer Casey; Harold Laskowski; Jan D. Taylor; Jane Fallon

    2005-01-01

    National Wildlife Refuges must manage habitats to support a variety of species that often have conflicting needs. To make reasonable management decisions, managers must know what species are priorities for their refuges and the relative importance of the species. Unfortunately, species priorities are often set regionally, but refuges must develop local priorities that...

  19. Local perspectives on global tourism in the Asia-Pacific region [introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahles, H.; Meijl, A.H.M. van

    1999-01-01

    The articles brought together in this special issue of the IIAS Newsletter are centered on the question of how people at the grassroots level in the Asia-Pacific region have responded to international tourism. In view of the widespread negative view of the potential impact of tourism on local

  20. Standardizzazione e validazione dei dati della pianificazione urbanistica locale nella regione del Veneto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tomaello

    2013-06-01

    their GIS datasets using a web service so the data uploaded by Municipalities into the Central GeoDatabase of Region Veneto’s SDI will be ready for automated mosaicking , remodelling (using local data models and INSPIRE Land Use data model and SDI-sharing.

  1. Local Road Safety Peer Exchange - Region 1 : An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report provides a summary of the proceedings of the Local Road Safety Peer Exchange held in Piscataway, New Jersey October 10th and 11th, 2012. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored the Peer Exchange in coordination with Region 1 L...

  2. Modelling the impact of regional uplift and local tectonics on fluvial terrace preservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Balen, van R.T.

    2014-01-01

    A terrace formation model (TERRACE) combined with a longitudinal river profile model (FLUVER) was used to simulate fluvial terrace formation and preservation in the northwest Iberian lower Miño River basin under the influence of three tectonic conditions; namely regional vertical uplift, local basin

  3. Enhancement of bone shadow region using local phase-based ultrasound transmission maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacihaliloglu, Ilker

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being employed in different orthopedic procedures as an imaging modality for real-time guidance. Nevertheless, low signal-to-noise-ratio and different imaging artifacts continue to hamper the success of ultrasound-based procedures. Bone shadow region is an important feature indicating the presence of bone/tissue interface in the acquired ultrasound data. Enhancement and automatic detection of this region could improve the sensitivity of ultrasound for imaging bone and result in improved guidance for various orthopedic procedures. In this work, a method is introduced for the enhancement of bone shadow regions from B-mode ultrasound data. The method is based on the combination of three different image phase features: local phase tensor, local weighted mean phase angle, and local phase energy. The combined local phase image features are used as an input to an [Formula: see text] norm-based contextual regularization method which emphasizes uncertainty in the shadow regions. The enhanced bone shadow images are automatically segmented and compared against expert segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative validation was performed on 100 in vivo US scans obtained from five subjects by scanning femur and vertebrae bones. Validation against expert segmentation achieved a mean dice similarity coefficient of 0.88. The encouraging results obtained in this initial study suggest that the proposed method is promising enough for further evaluation. The calculated bone shadow maps could be incorporated into different ultrasound bone segmentation and registration approaches as an additional feature.

  4. [Regression and therapy-resistance of primary liver tumors and liver metastases after regional chemotherapy and local tumor ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H-P

    2005-05-01

    High dosage regional chemotherapy, chemoembolization and other methods of regional treatment are commonly used to treat unresectable primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. In liver malignancies of childhood neoadjuvant chemotherapy is successfully combined with surgical treatment. Chemotherapy and local tumor ablation lead to characteristic histomorphologic changes: Complete destruction of the tumor tissue and its vascular bed is followed by encapsulated necroses. After selective eradication of the tumor cells under preservation of the fibrovasular bed the tumor is replaced by hypocellular edematous and fibrotic tissue. If completely damaged tumor tissue is absorbed quickly, the tumor area is replaced by regenerating liver tissue. Obliterating fibrohyalinosis of tumor vessels, and perivascular edema or necrosis indicate tissue damage along the vascular bed. Degenerative pleomorphism of tumor cells, steatosis, hydropic swelling and Malloryhyalin in HCC can represent cytologic findings of cytotoxic cellular damage. Macroscopic type of HCC influences significantly the response to treatment. Multinodular HCC often contain viable tumor nodules close to destroyed nodules after treatment. Encapsulated uninodular tumors undergo complete necrosis much easier. Large size and a tumor capsule limitate the effect of percutaneous injection of ethanol into HCC. In carcinomas with an infiltrating border, especially in metastases of adenocarcinomas and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma cytostatic treatment damages the tumor tissue mainly in the periphery. Nevertheless the infiltrating rim, portal veins, lymphatic spaces and bile ducts as well as the angle between liver capsule, tumor nodule and bordering parenchyma are the main refugees of viable tumor tissue even after high dosage regional chemotherapy. This local resistance is caused by special local conditions of vascularization and perfusion. These residues are the source of local tumor progression and distant metastases

  5. Articaine: a review of its use for local and regional anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Articaine is an intermediate-potency, short-acting amide local anesthetic with a fast metabolism due to an ester group in its structure. It is effective with local infiltration or peripheral nerve block in dentistry, when administered as a spinal, epidural, ocular, or regional nerve block, or when injected intravenously for regional anesthesia. In comparative trials, its clinical effects were not generally significantly different from those of other short-acting local anesthetics like lidocaine, prilocaine, and chloroprocaine, and there is no conclusive evidence demonstrating above-average neurotoxicity. Articaine proved to be suitable and safe for procedures requiring a short duration of action in which a fast onset of anesthesia is desired, eg, dental procedures and ambulatory spinal anesthesia, in normal and in special populations. PMID:22915899

  6. The Conceptual Approaches to Strategic Management of Region Using the Spatially Localized Agrarian Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Natalia О.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at improving the theoretical and methodical provisions of the cluster approach to development of the spatially localized systems of the agricultural sector of Ukrainian economy at the regional level. Based on generalizing the relevant theoretical provisions, the identified characteristics of formation and development of the spatially localized systems, it has been found that, originating in the form of economic growth zones, they have been transformed into clustered and subclustered forms. It has been indicated that a prospective form of further development of the spatially localized systems is formation of subclustered structures that take account of the established specialization of localities, appropriate infrastructure, resource availability. The possibility of creating a project of developing a cluster formation was discussed on the example of the Central Economic Area. A complex of basic requirements for the intended localization of the cluster has been formulated. Proceeding from the results of the study, practical proposals for strategic management of region have been developed on the basis of development of cluster formations, using the spatially localized agrarian economic systems.

  7. SU-E-I-91: Reproducibility in Prescribed Dose in AEC CT Scans Due to Table Height, Patient Size, and Localizer Acquisition Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, J; Hurwitz, L; Christianson, O; Samei, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In CT scanners, the automatic exposure control (AEC) tube current prescription depends on the acquired prescan localizer image(s). The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect that table height, patient size, and localizer acquisition order may have on the reproducibility in prescribed dose. Methods: Three phantoms were used for this study: the Mercury Phantom (comprises three tapered and four uniform regions of polyethylene 16, 23, 30, and 37 cm in diameter), acrylic sheets, and an adult anthropomorphic phantom. Phantoms were positioned per clinical protocol by our chief CT technologist or broader symmetry. Using a GE Discovery CT750HD scanner, a lateral (LAT) and posterior-anterior (PA) localizer was acquired for each phantom at different table heights. AEC scan acquisitions were prescribed for each combination of phantom, localizer orientation, and table height; the displayed volume CTDI was recorded for each. Results were analyzed versus table height. Results: For the two largest Mercury Phantom section scans based on the PA localizer, the percent change in volume CTDI from ideal were at least 20% lower and 35% greater for table heights 4 cm above and 4 cm below proper centering, respectively. For scans based on the LAT localizer, the percent change in volume CTDI from ideal were no greater than 12% different for 4 cm differences in table height. The properly centered PA and LAT localizer-based volume CTDI values were within 13% of each other. Conclusion: Since uncertainty in vertical patient positioning is inherently greater than lateral positioning and because the variability in dose exceeds any dose penalties incurred, the LAT localizer should be used to precisely and reproducibly deliver the intended amount of radiation prescribed by CT protocols. CT protocols can be adjusted to minimize the expected change in average patient dose

  8. Assessment of the results of the strategic orientation on regional and local products in food retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pícha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess if there is a difference in food choice behaviour between regular customers of stores of the retail chain Terno and other consumers. Consequently, the paper aims to discover, if the strategy formulated by the consumer co-operative Jednota České Budějovice was a good strategy. The core of this strategy is the orientation on the region, local and regional food and food products and the co-operation with local small and medium suppliers. Another part of this strategy is also the permanent control of quality of these products and creation of the special private label – Quality food from our region. The consumer co-operative co-operates also with the regional grouping under another label – Tastes great. Southbohemian. The assessment is done by means of the analysis of a questionnaire survey that was done among consumers in the South Bohemia in 2011. The strongest factor differentiating customers of the retail chain TERNO from other consumer is the orientation on regional or local products, which explains about 41% of variability. Other differentiating factors are environment-friendly production and selling and quality of food. All these three factors explain in total 66.5% of variability of the data set.

  9. Sample size determination algorithm for fingerprint-based indoor localization systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaris, L.; Kokkinis, A.; Fortino, G.; Liotta, A.; Stavrou, S.

    2016-01-01

    Provision of accurate location information is an important task in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications and scenarios. This need has boosted the research and development of fingerprint based, indoor localization systems, since GPS information is not available in indoor environments. Performance

  10. Localization of insulinomas to regions of the pancreas by intraarterial calcium stimulation: the NIH experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettier, Jean-Marc; Kam, Anthony; Chang, Richard; Skarulis, Monica C; Cochran, Craig; Alexander, H Richard; Libutti, Steven K; Pingpank, James F; Gorden, Phillip

    2009-04-01

    Selective intraarterial calcium injection of the major pancreatic arteries with hepatic venous sampling [calcium arterial stimulation (CaStim)] has been used as a localizing tool for insulinomas at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 1989. The accuracy of this technique for localizing insulinomas was reported for all cases until 1996. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and track record of the CaStim over time and in the context of evolving technology and to review issues related to result interpretation and procedure complications. CaStim was the only invasive preoperative localization modality used at our center. Endoscopic ultrasound (US) was not studied. We conducted a retrospective case review at a referral center. Twenty-nine women and 16 men (mean age, 47 yr; range, 13-78) were diagnosed with an insulinoma from 1996-2008. A supervised fast was conducted to confirm the diagnosis of insulinoma. US, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CaStim were used as preoperative localization studies. Localization predicted by each preoperative test was compared to surgical localization for accuracy. We measured the accuracy of US, CT, MRI, and CaStim for localization of insulinomas preoperatively. All 45 patients had surgically proven insulinomas. Thirty-eight of 45 (84%) localized to the correct anatomical region by CaStim. In five of 45 (11%) patients, the CaStim was falsely negative. Two of 45 (4%) had false-positive localizations. The CaStim has remained vastly superior to abdominal US, CT, or MRI over time as a preoperative localizing tool for insulinomas. The utility of the CaStim for this purpose and in this setting is thus validated.

  11. 3-D crustal P-wave velocity tomography of the Italian region using local and regional seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Mele

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A tomographic experiment was performed in the Italian region using local and regional arrivaI times of p and S seismological phases selected from the Italian National Bulletin in the time interval 1984-1991. We deter- mined a 3-D crustal P-wave velocity model using a simultaneous inversion method that iteratively re1ocates the hypocenters and computes the unknown model parameters. A fast two-point ray tracing algorithm was adopted to compute the ray paths and travel times of P", S", P g' Sg phases with good accuracy. Synthetic tests were performed using the "true" hypocenter and station distribution to rough1y evaluate the extension of the areas most densely spanned by the ray paths; the agreement between synthetic and computed models is more satisfactory at Moho depths than in the upper crust. The qua1ity of the model resulting from inversion of real data is examined by the ca1culation of the Spread Function (Toomey and Foulger, 1989. The 3-D crustal P-wave velocity mode1 of the Italian region shows remarkab1e trends at Moho depths: the areas east of the Apennines call for positive adjustments of the initial velocity va1ue, while the west region shows negative ad- justments. The correspondence among the main features of the velocity field, the map of Moho isobaths and the map of the gravity anoma1ies is also outlined.

  12. Mission Analysis and Aircraft Sizing of a Hybrid-Electric Regional Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.

  13. Insight on invasions and resilience derived from spatiotemporal discontinuities of biomass at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Criag R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the social and ecological consequences of species invasions is complicated by nonlinearities in processes, and differences in process and structure as scale is changed. Here we use discontinuity analyses to investigate nonlinear patterns in the distribution of biomass of an invasive nuisance species that could indicate scale-specific organization. We analyze biomass patterns in the flagellate Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) in 75 boreal lakes during an 11-year period (1997-2007). With simulations using a unimodal null model and cluster analysis, we identified regional groupings of lakes based on their biomass patterns. We evaluated the variability of membership of individual lakes in regional biomass groups. Temporal trends in local and regional discontinuity patterns were analyzed using regressions and correlations with environmental variables that characterize nutrient conditions, acidity status, temperature variability, and water clarity. Regionally, there was a significant increase in the number of biomass groups over time, indicative of an increased number of scales at which algal biomass organizes across lakes. This increased complexity correlated with the invasion history of G. semen and broad-scale environmental change (recovery from acidification). Locally, no consistent patterns of lake membership to regional biomass groups were observed, and correlations with environmental variables were lake specific. The increased complexity of regional biomass patterns suggests that processes that act within or between scales reinforce the presence of G. semen and its potential to develop high-biomass blooms in boreal lakes. Emergent regional patterns combined with locally stochastic dynamics suggest a bleak future for managing G. semen, and more generally why invasive species can be ecologically successful.

  14. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout.

  15. Genetic variability and effective population size when local extinction and recolonization of subpopulations are frequent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takeo; Kimura, Motoo

    1980-01-01

    If a population (species) consists of n haploid lines (subpopulations) which reproduce asexually and each of which is subject to random extinction and subsequent replacement, it is shown that, at equilibrium in which mutational production of new alleles and their random extinction balance each other, the genetic diversity (1 minus the sum of squares of allelic frequencies) is given by 2Nev/(1 + 2Nev), where [Formula: see text] in which Ñ is the harmonic mean of the population size per line, n is the number of lines (assumed to be large), λ is the rate of line extinction, and v is the mutation rate (assuming the infinite neutral allele model). In a diploid population (species) consisting of n colonies, if migration takes place between colonies at the rate m (the island model) in addition to extinction and recolonization of colonies, it is shown that effective population size is [Formula: see text] If the rate of colony extinction (λ) is much larger than the migration rate of individuals, the effective population size is greatly reduced compared with the case in which no colony extinctions occur (in which case Ne = nÑ). The stepping-stone type of recolonization scheme is also considered. Bearing of these results on the interpretation of the level of genetic variability at the enzyme level observed in natural populations is discussed from the standpoint of the neutral mutation-random drift hypothesis. PMID:16592920

  16. Chorus source region localization in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using THEMIS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Agapitov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions, the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves observed in the Earth's radiation belts and outer magnetosphere, are thought to propagate roughly along magnetic field lines from a localized source region near the magnetic equator towards the magnetic poles. THEMIS project Electric Field Instrument (EFI and Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM measurements were used to determine the spatial scale of the chorus source localization region on the day side of the Earth's outer magnetosphere. We present simultaneous observations of the same chorus elements registered onboard several THEMIS spacecraft in 2007 when all the spacecraft were in the same orbit. Discrete chorus elements were observed at 0.15–0.25 of the local electron gyrofrequency, which is typical for the outer magnetosphere. We evaluated the Poynting flux and wave vector distribution and obtained chorus wave packet quasi-parallel propagation to the local magnetic field. Amplitude and phase correlation data analysis allowed us to estimate the characteristic spatial correlation scale transverse to the local magnetic field to be in the 2800–3200 km range.

  17. Local Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility for Arctic Petroleum in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Kelman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is promoted and critiqued by many players involved in or opposed to petroleum exploration and extraction, although a common understanding of CSR's theoretical and practical meanings rarely exists. This paper uses Arctic petroleum in the Barents region (Norway and Russia to investigate local perceptions of CSR. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews in four locations: Hammerfest, Murmansk, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO. Interviewees included the local population, regional and local authorities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and petroleum company representatives. The field research suggests that those who gain directly from the petroleum industry and do not directly experience negative impacts were more inclined to be positive about the industry, although overall, general support for petroleum activity was high. In some cases, positive economic benefits resulted in greater tolerance of environmental risk. Sometimes, the industry and government were criticised by locals for failing to support a more equitable distribution of broader economic benefits. Rather than splitting along for-profit/NGO or indigenous/non-indigenous lines, our analysis suggests that those who are closer to the petroleum industry or its benefits, termed ‘insiders’, tend to be more positive than ‘outsiders’. This study is perhaps the first of its kind in its focus on local perceptions of CSR for Arctic petroleum across the Barents region. The findings of this study not only match with that of the previous literature on Arctic petroleum but also provide further practical and theoretical insights by indicating subtleties and nuances within the localities examined.

  18. Local anaesthetic toxicity in a pregnant patient undergoing lignocaine-induced intravenous regional anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, M

    2012-02-03

    A pregnant patient at 38 weeks\\' gestation developed symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity following intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) for hand surgery, using a standard dose of lignocaine. Reports suggest that a number of factors, both physiological and pharmacological, combine to increase the likelihood of local anaesthetic (LA) toxicity in pregnancy despite employment of a conventional "safe" IVRA technique. It is suggested that for IVRA, pregnant patients are premedicated with a benzodiazepine, the tourniquet time is increased and the concentration of LA is decreased to reduce the risks of LA toxicity.

  19. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  20. C-terminal region of herpes simplex virus ICP8 protein needed for intranuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Travis J; Knipe, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ICP8, localizes initially to structures in the nucleus called prereplicative sites. As replication proceeds, these sites mature into large globular structures called replication compartments. The details of what signals or proteins are involved in the redistribution of viral and cellular proteins within the nucleus between prereplicative sites and replication compartments are poorly understood; however, we showed previously that the dominant-negative d105 ICP8 does not localize to prereplicative sites and prevents the localization of other viral proteins to prereplicative sites (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 10122). Within the residues deleted in d105 (1083 to 1168), we identified a region between amino acid residues 1080 and 1135 that was predicted by computer models to contain two α-helices, one with considerable amphipathic nature. We used site-specific and random mutagenesis techniques to identify residues or structures within this region that are required for proper ICP8 localization within the nucleus. Proline substitutions in the predicted helix generated ICP8 molecules that did not localize to prereplicative sites and acted as dominant-negative inhibitors. Other substitutions that altered the charged residues in the predicted α-helix to alanine or leucine residues had little or no effect on ICP8 intranuclear localization. The predicted α-helix was dispensable for the interaction of ICP8 with the U L 9 origin-binding protein. We propose that this C-terminal α-helix is required for localization of ICP8 to prereplicative sites by binding viral or cellular factors that target or retain ICP8 at specific intranuclear sites

  1. Local and regional smokefree and tobacco-free action in New Zealand: highlights and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-09-22

    In this viewpoint we highlight and discuss some recent local and regional level advances in tobacco control in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In this country a wide range of local actors are helping drive smokefree and tobacco-free policies, with an increasing presence of businesses in this field. There has been progress in the areas of smokefree dining, large outdoor worksites and ski fields, and parts of downtown areas such as squares and streets. In 2015 and 2016, three councils (Palmerston North, Napier and Hastings) have used pavement lease policies and bylaws to start introducing an element of requirement into smokefree outdoor dining. Elsewhere (eg, Rotorua, Ashburton, Westland and Christchurch) significant smokefree outdoor dining moves have been made by, or in conjunction with, local councils. Tobacco-free retailing continues to expand, particularly in Northland. In the absence of meaningful central government action on smokefree places in the last decade (despite the Smokefree 2025 goal), local activity is leading the way. It is particularly important in providing models for smokefree outdoor hospitality areas, where smoking normalisation and relapse are significant health risks. Nevertheless, there is a need for the local smokefree and tobacco-free activity to be nationally evaluated, particularly for assessing the prevalence of smoking in areas covered by 'smokefree' policies. Action by central government could help local actors by providing a more definite legislative basis for bylaws, by minimum outdoor smokefree laws and by the funding of effective tobacco control mass media.

  2. Size effect on local magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic molecular complexes: an XMCD investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, G.; Villain, F.; Cartier dit Moulin, C.; Arrio, M.-A.; Sainctavit, P.; Zacchigna, M.; Zangrando, M.; Finazzi, M.; Parmigiani, F.; Mathoniere, C.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular chemistry allows to synthesize new magnetic systems with controlled properties such as size, magnetization or anisotropy. The theoretical study of the magnetic properties of small molecules (from 2 to 10 metallic cations per molecule) predicts that the magnetization at saturation of each ion does not reach the expected value for uncoupled ions when the magnetic interaction is antiferromagnetic. The quantum origin of this effect is due to the linear combination of several spin states building the wave function of the ground state and clusters of finite size and of finite spin value exhibit this property. When single crystals are available, spin densities on each atom can be experimentally given by polarized neutron diffraction (PND) experiments. In the case of bimetallic MnCu powdered samples, we will show that x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy can be used to follow the evolution of the spin distribution on the Mn II and Cu II sites when passing from a dinuclear MnCu unit to a one dimensional (MnCu) n compound. (author)

  3. Geographic body size variation in the periodical cicadas Magicicada: implications for life cycle divergence and local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T; Ito, H; Kakishima, S; Yoshimura, J; Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Seven species in three species groups (Decim, Cassini and Decula) of periodical cicadas (Magicicada) occupy a wide latitudinal range in the eastern United States. To clarify how adult body size, a key trait affecting fitness, varies geographically with climate conditions and life cycle, we analysed the relationships of population mean head width to geographic variables (latitude, longitude, altitude), habitat annual mean temperature (AMT), life cycle and species differences. Within species, body size was larger in females than males and decreased with increasing latitude (and decreasing habitat AMT), following the converse Bergmann's rule. For the pair of recently diverged 13- and 17-year species in each group, 13-year cicadas were equal in size or slightly smaller on average than their 17-year counterparts despite their shorter developmental time. This fact suggests that, under the same climatic conditions, 17-year cicadas have lowered growth rates compared to their 13-years counterparts, allowing 13-year cicadas with faster growth rates to achieve body sizes equivalent to those of their 17-year counterparts at the same locations. However, in the Decim group, which includes two 13-year species, the more southerly, anciently diverged 13-year species (Magicicada tredecim) was characterized by a larger body size than the other, more northerly 13- and 17-year species, suggesting that local adaptation in warmer habitats may ultimately lead to evolution of larger body sizes. Our results demonstrate how geographic clines in body size may be maintained in sister species possessing different life cycles. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Active Contour Driven by Local Region Statistics and Maximum A Posteriori Probability for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel active contour model in a variational level set formulation for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images. An energy function is formulated based on improved Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD with likelihood ratio. According to the additive model of images with intensity inhomogeneity, we characterize the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different object in local regions as Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. Then, we use the Gaussian distribution with bias field as a local region descriptor in level set formulation for segmentation and bias field correction of the images with inhomogeneous intensities. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved by minimizing the level set formulation. Experimental results demonstrate desirable performance of the proposed method for different medical images with weak boundaries and noise.

  5. Quantifying regional changes in terrestrial carbon storage by extrapolation from local ecosystem models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A W

    1991-12-31

    A general procedure for quantifying regional carbon dynamics by spatial extrapolation of local ecosystem models is presented Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the expected value of one or more local models, explicitly integrating the spatial heterogeneity of variables that influence ecosystem carbon flux and storage. These variables are described by empirically derived probability distributions that are input to the Monte Carlo process. The procedure provides large-scale regional estimates based explicitly on information and understanding acquired at smaller and more accessible scales.Results are presented from an earlier application to seasonal atmosphere-biosphere CO{sub 2} exchange for circumpolar ``subarctic`` latitudes (64{degree}N-90{degree}N). Results suggest that, under certain climatic conditions, these high northern ecosystems could collectively release 0.2 Gt of carbon per year to the atmosphere. I interpret these results with respect to questions about global biospheric sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2} .

  6. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL BUDGETS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The central researched element in our paper is the local budgets, the basic component of local public finances. Local budgets, like any other budgets, are the most important tool for the management (of local governments planning, forecasting, implementing and monitoring the results of administrative-territorial units activity, also being an appropriate tool for enhancing performance. A budget is the government's plan regarding the use of public resources to meet the citizens' needs. The aim of this paper is to realize a research on budget transparency in local governments from the Nord-West Region of Romania, regarding the availability of the budget information on the websites of the county councils and the county residences. The key element of good governance in today global economic environment is transparency that can be defined as the openness of public authorities (central and local regarding their policy intention, formulation and implementation. For local governments budget transparency is an important issue, due to the growing role of administrative-territorial units, confirmed over time by the economic reality. The importance of local budgets has increased in recent years due to the need to improve management efficiency and accounting al the level of local governments. Not only policy makers but also the citizens need information regarding local government current activities, expenditures, development projects and policies. In this context of a growing need for information, the transparency of local budgets is a mandatory condition for any local government. The combination of budget transparency and public participation in budget processes has the potential to combat corruption, foster public accountability of government agencies and contribute to judicious use of public funds. In this context, budget transparency represents the mean through which ordinary citizens and civil society organizations can access information about the

  7. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  8. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Paprocki

    Full Text Available Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1 and 7.74 km yr(-1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally

  9. Predictors and Patterns of Local, Regional, and Distant Failure in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Uccella, Stefano; Donato, Violante Di; Casarin, Jvan; Naro, Edoardo Di; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    To identify factors predicting for recurrence in vulvar cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment. We retrospectively evaluated data of consecutive patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer treated between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2013. Basic descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis were used to design predicting models influencing outcomes. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Cox model. The study included 101 patients affected by vulvar cancer: 64 (63%) stage I, 12 (12%) stage II, 20 (20%) stage III, and 5 (5%) stage IV. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 37.6 (22.1) months, 21 (21%) recurrences occurred. Local, regional, and distant failures were recorded in 14 (14%), 6 (6%), and 3 (3%) patients, respectively. Five-year DFS and OS were 77% and 82%, respectively. At multivariate analysis only stromal invasion >2 mm (hazard ratio: 4.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-21.1]; P=0.04) and extracapsular lymph node involvement (hazard ratio: 9.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-69.5); P=0.03) correlated with worse DFS, although no factor independently correlated with OS. Looking at factors influencing local and regional failure, we observed that stromal invasion >2 mm was the only factor predicting for local recurrence, whereas lymph node extracapsular involvement predicted for regional recurrence. Stromal invasion >2 mm and lymph node extracapsular spread are the most important factors predicting for local and regional failure, respectively. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of adjuvant treatment in high-risk patients are warranted.

  10. Level set segmentation of medical images based on local region statistics and maximum a posteriori probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenchao; Wang, Yi; Lei, Tao; Fan, Yangyu; Feng, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a variational level set method for simultaneous segmentation and bias field estimation of medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the statistics of image intensities belonging to each different tissue in local regions are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. According to maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and Bayes' rule, we first derive a local objective function for image intensities in a neighborhood around each pixel. Then this local objective function is integrated with respect to the neighborhood center over the entire image domain to give a global criterion. In level set framework, this global criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, image segmentation and bias field estimation are simultaneously achieved via a level set evolution process. Experimental results for synthetic and real images show desirable performances of our method.

  11. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  12. The error analysis of field size variation in pelvis region by using immobilization device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Kang, No Hyun; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Jun Sang; Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Yong Eun; Cho, Moon June

    2000-01-01

    In radiotherapy, it may happen to radiate surrounding normal tissue because of inconsistent field size by changing patient position during treatment. We are going to analyze errors reduced by using immobilization device with Electronic Portal Imaging Device(EPID) in this study. We had treated the twenty-one patients in pelvic region with 10 MV X-ray from Aug. 1998 to Aug. 1999 at chungnam National University Hospital. All patients were treated at supine position during treatment. They were separated to two groups, 11 patients without device and 10 patients with immobilization device. We used styrofoam for immobilization device and measured the error of anterior direction for x, y axis and lateral direction for z, y axis from simulation film to EPID image using matching technique. For no immobilization device group, the mean deviation values of x axis and y axis are 0.19 mm. 0.48 mm, respectively and the standard deviations of systematic deviation are 2.38 mm, 2.19 mm, respectively and of random deviation for x axis and y axis are 1.92 mm. 1.29 mm, respectively. The mean deviation values of z axis and y axis are -3.61 mm. 2.07 mm, respectively and the standard deviations of systematic deviation are 3.20 mm, 2.29 mm, respectively and of random deviation for z axis and y axis are 2.73 mm. 1.62 mm, respectively. For immobilization device group, the mean deviation values of x axis and y axis are 0.71 mm. -1.07 mm, respectively and the standard deviations of systematic deviation are 1.80 mm, 2.26 mm, respectively and the standard deviations of systematic deviation are 1.80 mm, 2.26 mm, respectively of random deviation for x axis and y axis are 1.56 mm. 1.27 mm, respectively. The mean deviation values of z axis and y axis are -1.76 mm. 1.08 mm, respectively and the standard deviations of systematic deviation are 1.87 mm, 2.83 mm, respectively and of random deviation for x axis and y axis are 1.68 mm, 1.65 mm, respectively. Because of reducing random and systematic error

  13. Local region power spectrum-based unfocused ship detection method in synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Chong, Jinsong

    2018-01-01

    Ships on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be severely defocused and their energy will disperse into numerous resolution cells under long SAR integration time. Therefore, the image intensity of ships is weak and sometimes even overwhelmed by sea clutter on SAR image. Consequently, it is hard to detect the ships from SAR intensity images. A ship detection method based on local region power spectrum of SAR complex image is proposed. Although the energies of the ships are dispersed on SAR intensity images, their spectral energies are rather concentrated or will cause the power spectra of local areas of SAR images to deviate from that of sea surface background. Therefore, the key idea of the proposed method is to detect ships via the power spectra distortion of local areas of SAR images. The local region power spectrum of a moving target on SAR image is analyzed and the way to obtain the detection threshold through the probability density function (pdf) of the power spectrum is illustrated. Numerical P- and L-band airborne SAR ocean data are utilized and the detection results are also illustrated. Results show that the proposed method can well detect the unfocused ships, with a detection rate of 93.6% and a false-alarm rate of 8.6%. Moreover, by comparing with some other algorithms, it indicates that the proposed method performs better under long SAR integration time. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method and the way of parameters selection are also discussed.

  14. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.

  15. TRANSPARENCY OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE PUBLICATION OF PROCUREMENT PLAN WEB SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šušnjar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to determine whether there is a Procurement Plan for 2016, on the website of local and regional selfgovernment units in the Republic of Croatia. After having applied the method of analysis, the hypothesis that local and regional self-governments in the Republic of Croatia fulfilled their legal obligation to publish the procurement plan to websites, was not confirmed. The research results show that all counties except for Međimurje County have a Procurement Plan for 2016 available on their respective websites. Out of the total of 127 cities in the Republic of Croatia, ten cities (Belišće, Čabar, Donji Miholjac, Drniš, Ilok, Imotski, Nova Gradiška, Pleternica, Popovača and Vrgorac did not publish their Procurement Plans for 2016. In addition, the survey results show that 61 municipalities do not have a published Procurement Plan for 2016 on their respective websites. This study may contribute to the knowledge of the local and regional self- government units’ websites contents in the Republic of Croatia, and encourage the employees to comply with the legal obligation to publish the procurement plan on their websites for the purpose of conducting transparent procurement.

  16. Local economic development in theories of regional economies and rural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačar Bahrija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is a detailed analysis of the basics in the theory of economic development during the period from mid last century until today. It states the most significant theories, points out their ranges, offers a critical review regarding their treatment of development, especially regional, rural and local one. It observes those theories according to different classifications existing in scientific literature, primarily the ascend theory, stagnation theory, balanced economic growth theory; then, short-term and long-term development and growth theories; traditional and endogenous theories; economic growth stages theory emphasized after the WWII; structural changes theory; dependency theory, neo-classic counter-revolution theory and endogenous theory as a new growth theory. The analysis becomes wider with a study on development in regional economy theories and rural studies and it systematizes the classification of those theories according to regional economy academics. Distancing ourselves from any particular division as the most suitable and acceptable one, the theories are treated separately and in an historic context, in order to encircle the time framework which from modern theories, dealing with local level development difficulties, resulted. It asserts The Community-led Rural Development Theory, often referred to as the Community Development Theory, or marked as Bottom-up Partnership Approach. The analysis of development theories asserts that mixed exogenous - endogenous approach to development links the rural/local development to the globalization process mostly due to fast technology changes of the IT and communication sectors.

  17. High-permeability region size on perfusion CT predicts hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis in stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Puig

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability has been proposed as a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation (HT after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA administration; however, the reliability of perfusion computed tomography (PCT permeability imaging for predicting HT is uncertain. We aimed to determine the performance of high-permeability region size on PCT (HPrs-PCT in predicting HT after intravenous tPA administration in patients with acute stroke.We performed a multimodal CT protocol (non-contrast CT, PCT, CT angiography to prospectively study patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. HT was graded at 24 hours using the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II criteria. ROC curves selected optimal volume threshold, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified predictors of HT.The study included 156 patients (50% male, median age 75.5 years. Thirty-seven (23,7% developed HT [12 (7,7%, parenchymal hematoma type 2 (PH-2]. At admission, patients with HT had lower platelet values, higher NIHSS scores, increased ischemic lesion volumes, larger HPrs-PCT, and poorer collateral status. The negative predictive value of HPrs-PCT at a threshold of 7mL/100g/min was 0.84 for HT and 0.93 for PH-2. The multiple regression analysis selected HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min combined with platelets and baseline NIHSS score as the best model for predicting HT (AUC 0.77. HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min was the only independent predictor of PH-2 (OR 1, AUC 0.68, p = 0.045.HPrs-PCT can help predict HT after tPA, and is particularly useful in identifying patients at low risk of developing HT.

  18. High-permeability region size on perfusion CT predicts hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Daunis-i-Estadella, Pepus; van Eendendburg, Cecile; Carrillo-García, María; Aboud, Carlos; Hernández-Pérez, María; Serena, Joaquín; Biarnés, Carles; Nael, Kambiz; Liebeskind, David S.; Thomalla, Götz; Menon, Bijoy K.; Demchuk, Andrew; Wintermark, Max; Pedraza, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Objective Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has been proposed as a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration; however, the reliability of perfusion computed tomography (PCT) permeability imaging for predicting HT is uncertain. We aimed to determine the performance of high-permeability region size on PCT (HPrs-PCT) in predicting HT after intravenous tPA administration in patients with acute stroke. Methods We performed a multimodal CT protocol (non-contrast CT, PCT, CT angiography) to prospectively study patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. HT was graded at 24 hours using the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II criteria. ROC curves selected optimal volume threshold, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified predictors of HT. Results The study included 156 patients (50% male, median age 75.5 years). Thirty-seven (23,7%) developed HT [12 (7,7%), parenchymal hematoma type 2 (PH-2)]. At admission, patients with HT had lower platelet values, higher NIHSS scores, increased ischemic lesion volumes, larger HPrs-PCT, and poorer collateral status. The negative predictive value of HPrs-PCT at a threshold of 7mL/100g/min was 0.84 for HT and 0.93 for PH-2. The multiple regression analysis selected HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min combined with platelets and baseline NIHSS score as the best model for predicting HT (AUC 0.77). HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min was the only independent predictor of PH-2 (OR 1, AUC 0.68, p = 0.045). Conclusions HPrs-PCT can help predict HT after tPA, and is particularly useful in identifying patients at low risk of developing HT. PMID:29182658

  19. Variabilidade local e regional da evapotranspiração estimada pelo algoritmo SEBAL Local and regional variability of evapotranspiration estimated by SEBAL algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. J. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Em face da importância em conhecer a evapotranspiração (ET para uso racional da água na irrigação no contexto atual de escassez desse recurso, algoritmos de estimativa da ET a nível regional foram desenvolvidos utilizando-se de ferramentas de sensoriamento remoto. Este estudo objetivou aplicar o algoritmo SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land em três imagens do satélite Landsat 5, do segundo semestre de 2006. As imagens correspondem a áreas irrigadas, floresta nativa densa e a Caatinga do Estado do Ceará (Baixo Acaraú, Chapada do Apodi e Chapada do Araripe. Este algoritmo calcula a evapotranspiração horária a partir do fluxo de calor latente, estimado como resíduo do balanço de energia na superfície. Os valores de ET obtidos nas três regiões foram superiores a 0,60 mm h-1 nas áreas irrigadas ou de vegetação nativa densa. As áreas de vegetação nativa menos densa apresentaram taxa da ET horária de 0,35 a 0,60 mm h-1, e valores quase nulos em áreas degradadas. A análise das médias de evapotranspiração horária pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade permitiu evidenciar uma variabilidade significativa local, bem como regional no Estado do Ceará.In the context of water resources scarcity, the rational use of water for irrigation is necessary, implying precise estimations of the actual evapotranspiration (ET. With the recent progresses of remote-sensed technologies, regional algorithms estimating evapotranspiration from satellite observations were developed. This work aimed at applying the SEBAL algorithm (Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land at three Landsat-5 images during the second semester of 2006. These images cover irrigated areas, dense native forest areas and caatinga areas in three regions of the state of Ceará (Baixo Acaraú, Chapada do Apodi and Chapada do Araripe. The SEBAL algorithm calculates the hourly evapotranspiration from the latent heat flux, estimated from the surface energy

  20. Calculation of the Local Free Energy Landscape in the Restricted Region by the Modified Tomographic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun

    2016-03-31

    The free energy landscape is the most important information in the study of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. However, it is difficult to calculate. In a large collective variable space, a molecule must take a long time to obtain the sufficient sampling during the simulation. To save the calculation quantity, decreasing the sampling region and constructing the local free energy landscape is required in practice. However, the restricted region in the collective variable space may have an irregular shape. Simply restricting one or more collective variables of the molecule cannot satisfy the requirement. In this paper, we propose a modified tomographic method to perform the simulation. First, it divides the restricted region by some hyperplanes and connects the centers of hyperplanes together by a curve. Second, it forces the molecule to sample on the curve and the hyperplanes in the simulation and calculates the free energy data on them. Finally, all the free energy data are combined together to form the local free energy landscape. Without consideration of the area outside the restricted region, this free energy calculation can be more efficient. By this method, one can further optimize the path quickly in the collective variable space.

  1. Malaria vectors in ecologically heterogeneous localities of the Colombian Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Naranjo-Díaz

    Full Text Available The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5-7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region.

  2. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  3. Passive Forensics for Region Duplication Image Forgery Based on Harris Feature Points and Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased since advanced image editing software packages are widely used. Region duplication forgery is one of the most common and immediate tampering attacks which are frequently used. Several methods to expose this forgery have been developed to detect and locate the tampered region, while most methods do fail when the duplicated region undergoes rotation or flipping before being pasted. In this paper, an efficient method based on Harris feature points and local binary patterns is proposed. First, the image is filtered with a pixelwise adaptive Wiener method, and then dense Harris feature points are employed in order to obtain a sufficient number of feature points with approximately uniform distribution. Feature vectors for a circle patch around each feature point are extracted using local binary pattern operators, and the similar Harris points are matched based on their representation feature vectors using the BBF algorithm. Finally, RANSAC algorithm is employed to eliminate the possible erroneous matches. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect region duplication forgery, even when an image was distorted by rotation, flipping, blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression, and their mixed operations, especially resistant to the forgery with the flat area of little visual structures.

  4. Thickness effect on the structure, grain size, and local piezoresponse of self-polarized lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, M.; Araújo, E. B., E-mail: eudes@dfq.feis.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP—Univ. Estadual Paulista, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Shvartsman, V. V. [Institute for Materials Science, University Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen (Germany); Shur, V. Ya. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kholkin, A. L. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-08-07

    Polycrystalline lanthanum lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates to study the effects of the thickness and grain size on their structural and piezoresponse properties at nanoscale. Thinner PLZT films show a slight (100)-orientation tendency that tends to random orientation for the thicker film, while microstrain and crystallite size increases almost linearly with increasing thickness. Piezoresponse force microscopy and autocorrelation function technique were used to demonstrate the existence of local self-polarization effect and to study the thickness dependence of correlation length. The obtained results ruled out the bulk mechanisms and suggest that Schottky barriers near the film-substrate are likely responsible for a build-in electric field in the films. Larger correlation length evidence that this build-in field increases the number of coexisting polarization directions in larger grains leading to an alignment of macrodomains in thinner films.

  5. Local and Regional Authorities as Resources for Implementing Universal Design Policy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Einar

    2016-01-01

    The municipalities and regional authorities are in general resources for achieving national goals. Their management and works are crucial to the development and implementation of Universal Design. Through several programmes, national authorities have worked for activating the local and regional levels. The results are visible. We can see a long-term national strategy to help make society accessible to everyone and prevent discrimination. Participating municipalities and regional authorities are now able to create their own policy and strategies and implement solutions. The national programs have involved interested and motivated municipalities. All the 18 counties in Norway have been involved more or less in different periods and the same with up to a third of the about good 400 municipalities.

  6. Decentralization and public expenditure: Does special local autonomy affect regional economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martapina Anggai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between public expenditure within regional autonomy policy and economic growth in West Papua and Papua provinces. We distinguish two kinds of expenditure’s decentralization – operational and capital – and also private expenditures. We use an unbalanced panel data over the period of 2007-2010 to investigate those expenditures, whether they enhance regional economic growth or not. We find that the government’s operating and private expenditures have a positive effect on local economic growth, but there is no relationship between capital expenditure’s decentralization on economic growth. The findings did not conform to a-priori efficiency expectations, which suggest needing to reform regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization policy in both provinces.

  7. Environmental impact assessment: use of literature data versus use of specific local and regional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radiological impact assessment methodology includes a large number of parameters to simulate the environmental transfer and population exposure. Local and regional data are often not available, particularly for tropical regions, which leads to the use of literature data, mostly determined at temperate climate countries. Since 1993, IRD has been developing radioecological studies aiming the determination soil-plant transfer factors, which showed the possibility of finding values up to one order of magnitude higher than those found at temperate climate countries literature. This paper compares dose results for several scenarios, using regional and literature data, assessing the relevance of using site specific data for radiological impact assessments, for both practices and intervention situations. (author)

  8. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.

    2012-01-01

    pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...... of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong....

  9. Usefulness of acute myocardial infarct size and localization using Tc-99m-pyrophosphate and single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisue, Ryu; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Todo, Yasuhiro

    1985-01-01

    Tc-99m-Pyrophosphate(PYP)myocardial emission computed tomography(ECT) was performed following standard planar imaging in 45 patients(pts) with acute myocardial infarction(AMI). All of them had clinical, electrocardiographic and enzymatic evidence of AMI. The planar imaging and ECT imaging were interpreted independently by two observers who had no knowledge of the clinical findings. 10 pts(22.2 %), who showed diffuse uptake on planar imaging, revealed focal uptake on ECT imaging without cardiac blood pool imaging. And there is no disagreement as to interpretation of the infarct location by two observers on ECT imaging. We conclude that ECT imaging with Tc-99m-PYP increases interobserver agreement in the diagnosis and localization of AMI and may lead to more accurate localization and sizing of AMI, espesically in cases of diffuse cardiac activity on planar imaging. (author)

  10. WLAN versus LAN - environmental impacts of small and medium sized local area networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottenroth, H.; Quack, D. [Oeko-Inst. e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Freiburg (Germany); Sustainable Products and Material Flows Div., Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the study presented here the environmental impacts of the infrastructure and the use of wireless LAN are investigated and compared to wired LAN. In order to determine if and under which conditions WLAN shows environmental benefits a comparison with a wired LAN was drawn on the basis of three exemplary applications. The environmental impacts of the life cycle of these applications were assessed using the method of LCA. The investigated systems include the production, the operation of the networks and their end of life stage. The three applications under investigation were the following: application 1: a peer-to-peer connection of two computers; application 2: a small network consisting of three computers like it is used in households and small offices (SOHO) and application 3: an office network consisting of 20 computers. The results showed no significant differences between the two alternatives for the applications 1 and 2 taking into account cumulative energy demand, global warming potential, acidification potential and photochemical oxidation potential as impact categories. In contrast to this a significant advantage for the wireless solution could be identified for the third application. Concerning electronic waste-arise, the wireless solution is advantageous for all three applications. From the results recommendations for equipment options, net structure, and use behaviour of local area networks are derived. (orig.)

  11. A robust automated left ventricle region of interest localization technique using a cardiac cine MRI atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zikri, Yehuda Kfir; Linte, Cristian A.

    2016-03-01

    Region of interest detection is a precursor to many medical image processing and analysis applications, including segmentation, registration and other image manipulation techniques. The optimal region of interest is often selected manually, based on empirical knowledge and features of the image dataset. However, if inconsistently identified, the selected region of interest may greatly affect the subsequent image analysis or interpretation steps, in turn leading to incomplete assessment during computer-aided diagnosis or incomplete visualization or identification of the surgical targets, if employed in the context of pre-procedural planning or image-guided interventions. Therefore, the need for robust, accurate and computationally efficient region of interest localization techniques is prevalent in many modern computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy applications. Here we propose a fully automated, robust, a priori learning-based approach that provides reliable estimates of the left and right ventricle features from cine cardiac MR images. The proposed approach leverages the temporal frame-to-frame motion extracted across a range of short axis left ventricle slice images with small training set generated from les than 10% of the population. This approach is based on histogram of oriented gradients features weighted by local intensities to first identify an initial region of interest depicting the left and right ventricles that exhibits the greatest extent of cardiac motion. This region is correlated with the homologous region that belongs to the training dataset that best matches the test image using feature vector correlation techniques. Lastly, the optimal left ventricle region of interest of the test image is identified based on the correlation of known ground truth segmentations associated with the training dataset deemed closest to the test image. The proposed approach was tested on a population of 100 patient datasets and was validated against the ground truth

  12. Impact of the Local Public Hospital Reform on the Efficiency of Medium-Sized Hospitals in Japan: An Improved Slacks-Based Measure Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Tone, Kaoru; Lu, Yingzhe

    2018-04-01

    To assess the change in efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the local public hospitals in Japan after the local public hospital reform launched in late 2007, which was aimed at improving the financial capability and operational efficiency of hospitals. Secondary data were collected from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications on 213 eligible medium-sized hospitals, each operating 100-400 beds from FY2006 to FY2011. The improved slacks-based measure nonoriented data envelopment analysis models (Quasi-Max SBM nonoriented DEA models) were used to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The dynamic efficiency measure indicated an efficiency gain in the first several years of the reform and then was followed by a decrease. Malmquist Index analysis showed a significant decline in the TFP between 2006 and 2011. The financial improvement of medium-sized hospitals was not associated with enhancement of efficiency. Hospital efficiency was not significantly different among ownership structure and law-application system groups, but it was significantly affected by hospital location. The results indicate a need for region-tailored health care policies and for a more comprehensive reform to overcome the systemic constraints that might contribute to the decline of the TFP. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Constancy despite variability: Local and regional macrofaunal diversity in intertidal seagrass beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Aurélien; Legendre, Pierre; Grall, Jacques; Gauthier, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    The importance of seagrass habitat for the diversity of benthic fauna has been extensively studied worldwide. Most of the information available is, however, about α diversity while little consideration has been given to β diversity. To fill the knowledge gaps regarding the variability of epifaunal and infaunal seagrass assemblages at large spatial and temporal scales, we scrutinized an extensive dataset covering five years of monitoring of eight intertidal Zostera marina meadows around Brittany (France). High species richness arose at the regional scale from the combination of high local diversity of the meadows and substantial among-meadows β diversity. Epifauna and infauna appeared as distinct self-communities as they displayed different spatial and temporal patterns and varied in their responses to local hydrological conditions. Infauna had higher total β diversity than epifauna due to a tighter link to the great variability of local environmental conditions in the region. Both exhibited substantial variations in species composition and community structure with variations of dominant species that were accompanied by extensive change in numerous rare species. The dominant epifaunal species were all grazers. Changes in species composition were induced mostly by species replacement and rarely by richness differences between meadows. Indeed, species richness remained within a narrow range for all seagrass beds, suggesting a potential carrying capacity for species richness of the meadows. Overall, all meadows contributed equally to the regional turnover of seagrass macrofauna, emphasizing high variability and complementarity among beds at the regional scale. The implications of this substantial within-seagrass variability for the functioning of benthic ecosystems at broad scale and for conservation purposes in habitat mosaics warrant further investigations but our results clearly advocate taking into account within-habitat variation when evaluating the diversity

  14. Salvage treatment for local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Taylor, Marie; Haffty, Bruce; Strom, Eric A.; Wai, Elaine; Pierce, Lori J.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bartelink, Harry; Campana, Francois; McNeese, Marsha D.; Jhingran, Anuja; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Bijker, Nina; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage treatment for women with local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast. The study cohort consisted of

  15. 40 CFR 109.5 - Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regional oil removal contingency plans. Criteria for the development and implementation of State, local and... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans. 109.5 Section 109.5 Protection of...

  16. Undergraduate Regional Migration in the UK: Perspectives on Local Markets and Trends for Gender and International Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Robert J.; Gandy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of degree course acceptances for UK undergraduate students in 2002 and 2008. It examines student mobility between the UK regions, and the trends in their movement within local markets. Data shows a growing trend for students to study within local regions, especially women. Increases in acceptances of over 10% are…

  17. 20 CFR 661.290 - Under what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning activities? (a... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning activities? 661.290 Section 661.290 Employees' Benefits...

  18. The Perpetuation of a System of Conflicts in Darfur: Caught Between Local Violence and Regional Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Gnanguênon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En muchos casos en África, los conflictos locales armados y no armados, considerados por separado, interactúan hasta el punto de crear lo que puede llamarse "complejos" o "sistemas". Si bien algunos de los conceptos nos pueden ayudar a definir la dimensión regional de los conflictos locales, no nos proporcionan una mejor comprensión acerca de la superposición de varios conflictos. Tomando el ejemplo de Darfur en el periodo entre 2003 y 2011, este artículo contribuye a aclarar cómo la violencia y el desorden surgieron y se desarrollaron, tanto a nivel local como nacional y regional. El artículo propone una demostración empírica de la originalidad y la pertinencia del concepto de sistema de conflictos, con el objetivo de abrir un debate en la investigación actual sobre las definiciones de conflicto y guerra desde un prisma africano.

  19. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, G.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Lluberas, S.; Craiem, D.; Armentano, Rl

    2011-09-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  20. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, G; Torrado, J; Farro, I; Bia, D; Zocalo, Y; Lluberas, S; Armentano, RL; Craiem, D

    2011-01-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  1. Regional and local land subsidence at the Venice coastland by TerraSAR-X PSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tosi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence occurred at the Venice coastland over the 2008–2011 period has been investigated by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI using a stack of 90 TerraSAR-X stripmap images with a 3 m resolution and a 11-day revisiting time. The regular X-band SAR acquisitions over more than three years coupled with the very-high image resolution has significantly improved the monitoring of ground displacements at regional and local scales, e.g., the entire lagoon, especially the historical palaces, the MoSE large structures under construction at the lagoon inlets to disconnect the lagoon from the Adriatic Sea during high tides, and single small structures scattered within the lagoon environments. Our results show that subsidence is characterized by a certain variability at the regional scale with superimposed important local displacements. The movements range from a gentle uplift to subsidence rates of up to 35 mm yr−1. For instance, settlements of 30–35 mm yr−1 have been detected at the three lagoon inlets in correspondence of the MoSE works, and local sinking bowls up to 10 mm yr−1 connected with the construction of new large buildings or restoration works have been measured in the Venice and Chioggia historical centers. Focusing on the city of Venice, the mean subsidence of 1.1 ± 1.0 mm yr−1 confirms the general stability of the historical center.

  2. The Ironbridge Gorge Heritage Site and its local and regional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudny Waldemar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of heritage and its functions. Based on the existing literature, the author presents the definition of heritage, the classification of heritage resources, and its most important impacts. The aim of the article was to show the functions that may be performed by a heritage site, locally and regionally. The example used by the author is the Ironbridge Gorge Heritage Site in the United Kingdom. Most heritage functions described by other authors are confirmed in this case study. The cultural heritage of the Ironbridge Gorge creates an opportunity to undertake various local and regional activities, having first of all an educational influence on the inhabitants, school youth and tourists. We must not ignore the economicinfluences, such as financing the activity of the Ironbridge Trust (the institution administering the site, generating income for local firms providing service to tourists, or for construction companies. This income helps to preserve and conserve the tangible heritage of the Ironbridge Gorge, as well as to generate jobs in heritage management, conservation and heritage tourism. Other effects of the Ironbridge Gorge Site include a socio-cultural impact or that related to sustainable development.

  3. Indoor radon progeny aerosol size measurements in urban, suburban, and rural regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, K.W.; Knutson, E.O.; George, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    By using direct and indirect methods, the authors conducted size distribution measurements of radon progeny particles in a variety of indoor environments in urban, suburban, and rural areas. The radon progeny particle size distribution owing to indoor activities has two definable source categories: (1) gas combustion from stoves and kerosene heaters - particles were found to be smaller than 0.1 μm in diameter, mostly in the range 0.02-0.08 μm; and (2) cigarette smoking and food frying - particles were found to be larger, in the size range 0.1-0.2 μm. The radon progeny particle size distribution, without significant indoor activities, such as cooking, was found to be larger in rural areas than in urban or suburban areas. The modal diameters of the size spectra in the rural areas were two to three times larger than those in urban or suburban areas, around 0.3-0.4 bs. 0.1-0.2 μm. Results obtained by applying the attachment theory to the measured number-weighted size spectra from an electrical aerosol size analyzer support this finding. These results, if confirmed by more extensive studies, will be useful for the assessment of the risk from the inhalation of radon progeny in various indoor environments

  4. Objects but not concepts modulate the size of the attended region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Edwards, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Here we investigated the types of stimuli that modulate the size of the attentional spotlight. In particular, it has been previously shown that conceptual cues that either directly refer to or are semantically related to particular spatial locations can shift attention to that location (known as "conceptual cueing"). For example, reading the word sun or joy can shift attention upward whereas the word boot or hostile can shift attention downward. Here, therefore, we tested whether words could modulate the size of the attended area. Across five experiments, we found that words that either directly referred to, or were abstractly associated with, particular sizes (small versus large) did not change the size of the attentional spotlight, whereas the presence of differently sized stimuli did, as evidenced by faster responses to targets when the spotlight is small than when it is large. This suggests that physical but not conceptual inducers can modulate the size of the attentional spotlight. This highlights an important difference between the regulation of spotlight size and shifts of attention, supporting the notion that they are subserved by distinct mechanisms.

  5. Analysis of Thermal Structure of Arctic Lakes at Local and Regional Scales Using in Situ and Multidate Landsat-8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hongxing; Hinkel, Kenneth; Yu, Bailang; Beck, Richard; Wu, Jianping

    2017-11-01

    The Arctic coastal plain is covered with numerous thermokarst lakes. These lakes are closely linked to climate and environmental change through their heat and water budgets. We examined the intralake thermal structure at the local scale and investigated the water temperature pattern of lakes at the regional scale by utilizing extensive in situ measurements and multidate Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Our analysis indicates that the lake skin temperatures derived from satellite thermal sensors during most of the ice-free summer period effectively represent the lake bulk temperature because the lakes are typically well-mixed and without significant vertical stratification. With the relatively high-resolution Landsat-8 thermal data, we were able to quantitatively examine intralake lateral temperature differences and gradients in relation to geographical location, topography, meteorological factors, and lake morphometry for the first time. Our results suggest that wind speed and direction not only control the vertical stratification but also influences lateral differences and gradients of lake surface temperature. Wind can considerably reduce the intralake temperature gradient. Interestingly, we found that geographical location (latitude, longitude, distance to the ocean) and lake morphometry (surface size, depth, volume) not only control lake temperature regionally but also affect the lateral temperature gradient and homogeneity level within each individual lake. For the Arctic coastal plain, at regional scales, inland and southern lakes tend to have larger horizontal temperature differences and gradients compared to coastal and northern lakes. At local scales, large and shallow lakes tend to have large lateral temperature differences relative to small and deep lakes.

  6. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Klanderud

    Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  7. Policy regime and policy change: Comparing the phenomenon of local government before and after regional autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Kamaludin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the financial performance of four municipalities (Bengkulu City, Rejang Lebong Regency, South Bengkulu Regency, and North Bengkulu Regency in Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. The study also identifies the contribution of several financial variables before and after the implementation of regional autonomy. Theoretically, regional autonomy enables these four municipalities to manage their Local Own-Source Revenue (LOSR or PAD - Pendapatan Asli Daerah better because these municipalities now have to learn to manage their financial resources independently. However, the findings indicate that these four municipalities still exhibit a high financial dependency on the central government or the fiscal balance fund. Consequently, the contribution of LOSR to the total income is still low. Besides, the study finds that these four municipalities exhibit a sufficiently good efficiency ratio but a fluctuating LOSR growth ratio, especially in some municipalities before the proliferation of new municipalities. Further, the main variables of the degree of financial decentralization, local financial autonomy, efficiency, and LOSR growth do not exhibit significant differences between the pre- and post- regional autonomy implementation.

  8. Innovative potential of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Antofagasta-Chile region: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni A. Romani Chocce

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the innovative potential of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the Region of Antofagasta - Chile. The paper makes a detailed bibliographic revision on regional innovation processes and presents the results of a questionnaire applied to SMEs, considered as innovative according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE criteria. Although these results have to be carefully considered, due to the size of the sample it is possible to observe that there is an increasing awareness of the importance of innovation in the region while, at the same time, many obstacles to innovate are recognized.

  9. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  10. Do mesoscale faults in a young fold belt indicate regional or local stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokado, Akihiro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi

    2017-04-01

    The result of paleostress analyses of mesoscale faults is usually thought of as evidence of a regional stress. On the other hand, the recent advancement of the trishear modeling has enabled us to predict the deformation field around fault-propagation folds without the difficulty of assuming paleo mechanical properties of rocks and sediments. We combined the analysis of observed mesoscale faults and the trishear modeling to understand the significance of regional and local stresses for the formation of mesoscale faults. To this end, we conducted the 2D trishear inverse modeling with a curved thrust fault to predict the subsurface structure and strain field of an anticline, which has a more or less horizontal axis and shows a map-scale plane strain perpendicular to the axis, in the active fold belt of Niigata region, central Japan. The anticline is thought to have been formed by fault-propagation folding under WNW-ESE regional compression. Based on the attitudes of strata and the positions of key tephra beds in Lower Pleistocene soft sediments cropping out at the surface, we obtained (1) a fault-propagation fold with the fault tip at a depth of ca. 4 km as the optimal subsurface structure, and (2) the temporal variation of deformation field during the folding. We assumed that mesoscale faults were activated along the direction of maximum shear strain on the faults to test whether the fault-slip data collected at the surface were consistent with the deformation in some stage(s) of folding. The Wallace-Bott hypothesis was used to estimate the consistence of faults with the regional stress. As a result, the folding and the regional stress explained 27 and 33 of 45 observed faults, respectively, with the 11 faults being consistent with the both. Both the folding and regional one were inconsistent with the remaining 17 faults, which could be explained by transfer faulting and/or the gravitational spreading of the growing anticline. The lesson we learnt from this work was

  11. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  12. Disparities in the Use of Radiation Therapy in Patients With Local-Regionally Advanced Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Steve R.; Beal, Shannon H.; Chen, Steven L.; Canter, Robert J.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Chen, Allen; Bold, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is indicated for the treatment of local-regionally advanced breast cancer (BCa). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that black and Hispanic patients with local-regionally advanced BCa would receive lower rates of RT than their white counterparts. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with invasive BCa and ≥10 metastatic lymph nodes diagnosed between 1988 and 2005. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression evaluated the relationship of race/ethnicity with use of RT. Multivariate models stratified for those undergoing mastectomy or lumpectomy. Results: Entry criteria were met by 12,653 patients. Approximately half of the patients did not receive RT. Most patients were white (72%); the remainder were Hispanic (10.4%), black (10.3%), and Asian (7.3%). On univariate analysis, Hispanics (odd ratio [OR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.00) and blacks (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89) were less likely to receive RT than whites. On multivariate analysis, blacks (OR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.86) and Hispanics (OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90) were less likely than whites to receive RT. Disparities persisted for blacks (OR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85) and Hispanics (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89) who received mastectomy, but not for those who received lumpectomy. Conclusions: Many patients with local-regionally advanced BCa do not receive RT. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to receive RT. This disparity was noted predominately in patients who received mastectomy. Future efforts at improving rates of RT are warranted. Efforts at eliminating racial/ethnic disparities should focus on black and Hispanic candidates for postmastectomy RT.

  13. From Cell to Tissue Properties-Modeling Skin Electroporation With Pore and Local Transport Region Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermol-Cerne, Janja; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of tissue electroporation either describe tissue with its bulk properties or include cell level properties, but model only a few cells of simple shapes in low-volume fractions or are in two dimensions. We constructed a three-dimensional model of realistically shaped cells in realistic volume fractions. By using a 'unit cell' model, the equivalent dielectric properties of whole tissue could be calculated. We calculated the dielectric properties of electroporated skin. We modeled electroporation of single cells by pore formation on keratinocytes and on the papillary dermis which gave dielectric properties of the electroporated epidermis and papillary dermis. During skin electroporation, local transport regions are formed in the stratum corneum. We modeled local transport regions and increase in their radii or density which affected the dielectric properties of the stratum corneum. The final model of skin electroporation accurately describes measured electric current and voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with long low-voltage pulses. The model also accurately describes voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with short high-voltage pulses. However, our results indicate that during application of short high-voltage pulses additional processes may occur which increase the electric current. Our model connects the processes occurring at the level of cell membranes (pore formation), at the level of a skin layer (formation of local transport region in the stratum corneum) with the tissue (skin layers) and even level of organs (skin). Using a similar approach, electroporation of any tissue can be modeled, if the morphology of the tissue is known.

  14. Tree detection in urban regions from aerial imagery and DSM based on local maxima points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgür; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we propose an automatic approach for tree detection and classification in registered 3-band aerial images and associated digital surface models (DSM). The tree detection results can be used in 3D city modelling and urban planning. This problem is magnified when trees are in close proximity to each other or other objects such as rooftops in the scenes. This study presents a method for locating individual trees and estimation of crown size based on local maxima from DSM accompanied by color and texture information. For this purpose, segment level classifier trained for 10 classes and classification results are improved by analyzing the class probabilities of neighbour segments. Later, the tree classes under a certain height were eliminated using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). For the tree classes, local maxima points are obtained and the tree radius estimate is made from the vertical and horizontal height profiles passing through these points. The final tree list containing the centers and radius of the trees is obtained by selecting from the list of tree candidates according to the overlapping and selection parameters. Although the limited number of train sets are used in this study, tree classification and localization results are competitive.

  15. Synchronizing spatiotemporal chaos by introducing a finite flat region in the local map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Chen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to synchronize spatiotemporal chaos is proposed. It is achieved by introducing a finite flat region in the local map. By using this scheme, a number of orbits in both the drive and the response subsystems are forced to pass through a fixed point in every dimension. With only an arbitrary phase space variable as drive signal, synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos can be achieved rapidly in the response subsystem. This is an advantage when compared with other synchronization methods that require a linear combination of the original phase space variables.

  16. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  17. Context-dependent colonization dynamics: Regional reward contagion drives local compression in aquatic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Matthew R; Resetarits, William J

    2017-09-01

    Habitat selection by colonizing organisms is an important factor in determining species abundance and community dynamics at multiple spatial scales. Many organisms select habitat patches based on intrinsic patch quality, but patches exist in complex landscapes linked by dispersal and colonization, forming metapopulations and metacommunities. Perceived patch quality can be influenced by neighbouring patches through spatial contagion, wherein perceived quality of one patch can extend beyond its borders and either increase or decrease the colonization of neighbouring patches and localities. These spatially explicit colonization dynamics can result in habitat compression, wherein more colonists occupy a patch or locality than in the absence of spatial context dependence. Previous work on contagion/compression focused primarily on the role of predators in driving colonization patterns. Our goal was to determine whether resource abundance can drive multi-scale colonization dynamics of aquatic beetles through the processes of contagion and compression in naturally colonized experimental pools. We established two levels (high/low quality) of within-patch resource abundances (leaf litter) using an experimental landscape of mesocosms, and assayed colonization by 35 species of aquatic beetles. Patches were arranged in localities (sets of two patches), which consisted of a combination of two patch-level resource levels in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to assay colonization at both locality and patch levels. We demonstrate that patterns of species abundance and richness of colonizing aquatic beetles are determined by patch quality and context-dependent processes at multiple spatial scales. Localities that consisted of at least one high-quality patch were colonized at equivalent rates that were higher than localities containing only low-quality patches, displaying regional reward contagion. In localities that consisted of one high- and one low-quality patch, reward

  18. The oil industry and his environmental impacts in the Amazon region -local study: Urucu and Jurua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Junior, A.B. de.

    1991-04-01

    The oil exploration and production, from the point of view of the main interactions with the environment, in the Amazon Region considering as reference the performance of PETROBRAS in the areas of the Urucu and Jurua rivers, in the Middle Solimoes, in the State of Amazonas are described. The paper comprises basically two sections. The first one is divided into four topics that refer to the analysis of prospecting, drilling, production and oil transportation. The second section of this work is more concerned to the analysis of the local and regional repercussions and expectations in the social and economical level, after the Urucu and Jurua areas were confirmed as another Brazilian oil province. (author)

  19. Neoliberal governance, sustainable development and local communities in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tennberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently high hopes in the Barents Region for economic growth, higher employment and improved well-being, encouraged by developments in the energy industry, tourism and mining. The article discusses these prospects from the perspective of local communities in five locations in the region, which spans the northernmost counties of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Northwest Russia. The communities studied are remote, relatively small, multicultural, and dependent on natural resources. The salient dynamic illuminated in the research is how ideas of sustainability and neoliberal governance meet in community development. While the two governmentalities often conflict, they sometimes also complement one another, posing a paradox that raises concerns over the social aspect of sustainable development in particular. The article is based on international, multidisciplinary research drawing on interviews as well as statistical and documentary analysis.

  20. Energy Road-map 2050: Towards regional and local energy Road-maps. IMAGINE seminar 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillot, Herve; Pidoux, Blandine

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 IMAGINE Seminar held in Brussels on 9 November 2011 united around fifty representatives from Energy Cities network member cities as well as representatives from the European Parliament and the Commission, various industrial sectors and civil society organisations. Participants were invited to share their visions of their action by 2040-2050 in a sustainable and desirable city, having achieved its energy transition. The spontaneous and inspiring discussions that followed broached the following questions: - What is and should be the role of the local level in the EU Energy Road-map? - What if European local authorities were to develop their own 'Energy 2050' Road-maps? - What local and regional policies can social and economic players use for contributing to achieving European targets? - Under what conditions is the 'low energy cities with a high quality of life for all' concept relevant? The debate helped outline a shared, global vision as a step towards European collective dynamics giving territories a major role in energy transition. At the end of the day, participants from very different backgrounds converged on the following key points: - Like European institutions, territories must develop a long-term vision, failing which they will be unable to take meaningful action, mobilise players and make the right decisions in the short-term. - The energy-territory relationship, from efficient energy use to supply policies, is a major democratic challenge. - Although a number of technologies are already available, they still have to be integrated so that citizens can satisfy their needs and become fully accountable for their energy use. - Energy strategies must help meet a number of local challenges: social and territorial cohesion, employment and economic development, environmental protection and quality of life. To do so, they need to be designed taking those they are supposed to serve, i.e. citizens, into consideration. - The interaction between local

  1. Isolated local-regional recurrence of breast cancer following mastectomy: Radiotherapeutic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, K.J.; Perez, C.A.; Kuske, R.R.; Garcia, D.M.; Simpson, J.R.; Fineberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-four patients with their first, isolated local-regional recurrence of breast cancer were irradiated with curative intent. Patients who had previous chest wall or regional lymphatic irradiation were not included in the study. With a median follow-up of 46 months (range 24 to 241 months), the 5- and 10-year survival for the entire group were 43% and 26%, respectively. Overall, 57% of the patients were projected to be loco-regionally controlled at 5 years. The 5-year local-regional tumor control was best for patients with isolated chest wall recurrences (63%), intermediate for nodal recurrences (45%), and poor for concomitant chest wall and nodal recurrences (27%). In patients with solitary chest wall recurrences, large field radiotherapy encompassing the entire chest wall resulted in a 5- and 10-year freedom from chest wall re-recurrence of 75% and 63% in contrast to 36% and 18% with small field irradiation (p = 0.0001). For the group with recurrences completely excised, tumor control was adequate at all doses ranging from 4500 to 7000 cGy. For the recurrences less than 3 cm, 100% were controlled at doses greater than or equal to 6000 cGy versus 76% at lower doses. No dose response could be demonstrated for the larger lesions. The supraclavicular failure rate was 16% without elective radiotherapy versus 6% with elective radiotherapy (p = 0.0489). Prophylactic irradiation of the uninvolved chest wall decreased the subsequent re-recurrence rate (17% versus 27%), but the difference is not statistically significant (p = .32). The incidence of chest wall re-recurrence was 12% with doses greater than or equal to 5000 cGy compared to 27% with no elective radiotherapy, but again was not statistically significant (p = .20). Axillary and internal mammary failures were infrequent, regardless of prophylactic treatment

  2. Human impact on fluvial sediments: distinguishing regional and local sources of heavy metals contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, T.; Matys Grygar, T.; Bábek, O.; Faměra, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.

    2012-04-01

    Industrial pollution can provide a useful tool to study spatiotemporal distribution of modern floodplain sediments, trace their provenance, and allow their dating. Regional contamination of southern Moravia (the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic) by heavy metals during the 20th century was determined in fluvial sediments of the Morava River by means of enrichment factors. The influence of local sources and sampling sites heterogeneity were studied in overbank fines with different lithology and facies. For this purpose, samples were obtained from hand-drilled cores from regulated channel banks, with well-defined local sources of contamination (factories in Zlín and Otrokovice) and also from near naturally inundated floodplains in two nature protected areas (at 30 km distance). The analyses were performed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED XRF), ICP MS (EDXRF samples calibration, 206Pb/207Pb ratio), magnetic susceptibility, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and 137Cs and 210Pb activities. Enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) and magnetic susceptibility of overbank fines in near-naturally (near annually) inundated areas allowed us to reconstruct historical contamination by heavy metals in the entire study area independently on lithofacies. Measured lithological background values were then used for calculation of EFs in the channel sediments and in floodplain sediments deposited within narrow part of a former floodplain which is now reduced to about one quarter of its original width by flood defences. Sediments from regulated channel banks were found stratigraphically and lithologically "erratic", unreliable for quantification of regional contamination due to a high variability of sedimentary environment. On the other hand, these sediments are very sensitive to the nearby local sources of heavy metals. For a practical work one must first choose whether large scale, i.e. a really averaged regional contamination should be reconstructed

  3. The relationship of cranial, orbital and nasal cavity size with the morphology of the supraorbital region in modern Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Łapicka, Urszula; Cieślik, Agata; Biecek, Przemysław

    2017-09-01

    Morphological variation of the supraorbital region (SR) in human crania has been investigated and its potential sources suggested, along with the importance of the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, and orbit for the formation of this region. However, previous studies have not indicated whether facial size exhibits a stronger association with SR robusticity than neurocranial size or sex; moreover, the association between orbital volume and SR robusticity has been analysed only in non-human primate skulls. In this study we investigate whether the size of the facial skeleton, neurocranium, two measures of relative orbital size (orbital volume and estimated orbital aperture area), the relative size of the nasal cavity, and the relative estimated area of the anterior nasal cavity opening are related to SR robusticity; we also examine which of these analysed relationships is strongest, as well as independent of the influence of the other traits, in a geographically diverse modern human cranial sample. The results of Spearman's rank and partial rank correlations (encompassing models including or excluding sex and geographic origin) show a relationship between most of the above-mentioned variables and SR robusticity, with the exception of the estimated relative area of the orbital opening (in the case of the results of Spearman's rank correlations) and the traits of the nasal cavity. Of all the analysed traits, sex appears to be the most important for the formation of SR robusticity and, of two measures of cranial size, neurocranial size was the most significant. The strong relationship between SR robusticity and relative orbital volume was observed in models without the geographic origin factor. The results concerning analysed models suggest the influence of this factor on this relationship; however, to explain this influence, further studies are needed.

  4. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine plus regional hyperthermia for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Takayuki; Imada, Hajime; Yahara, Katsuya; Morioka, Tomoaki; Nakano, Keita; Korogi, Yukunori; Narisada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with gemcitabine plus regional hyperthermia (HT) for locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC). A total of 29 patients with LAPC treated with concurrent CRT using gemcitabine were retrospectively analyzed. Radiotherapy was administered with a median total dose of 61.2 Gy. Of the 29 patients, 20 (69%) also underwent regional HT during CRT (CRHT group). The remaining 9 patients did not receive regional HT (CRT group) because of a common bile duct stent placement, patient refusal, older age, or obesity. The efficacy and toxicity of the treatments and the predictors of good outcome were evaluated. The median disease progression-free and overall survival times were significantly better for the CRHT group than for the CRT group (8.8 vs. 4.9 months, P=0.02, and 18.6 vs. 9.6 months, P=0.01), respectively. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities for the CRHT group were detected in eight patients (40%) and grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity in one (diarrhea). Concurrent CRT using gemcitabine with regional HT may be a feasible and promising regimen for LAPC, and the results justified further evaluation in a large number of patients to confirm its definite benefit. (author)

  5. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-07-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  6. Analyzing the management process in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Region of South Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váchal Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The entry is aimed at analyzing the process of managing small and medium-sized enterprise, specifically in the Region of South Bohemia. The testing sample included 180 enterprises. The fundamental statistical information about SMEs is included, focusing of the numbers, the size category, and their specialization in the Region of South Bohemia. The research activities were aimed at the steepness of management structures and at their extent on all management levels. The analysis indicates that micro-enterprises prefer one management level, while small and middle-sized enterprises prefer two management levels with the statistic dependence on the size category. In regard to the number of employees on individual management levels, the top positions have from 6 employees up to 30 on the operative level. The general business trend involves a transfer to the functional management structure. With respect to the strategic management and decision- making, enterprises boost an attractive prospect of mainly their own sources. A statistical correlation was proved between the elaborated strategy, the size of the enterprise and number of management levels. A strong correlation between the number of management levels and the aim of the enterprise i.e. the type of organization structure was not proved.

  7. Local and regional anthropogenic influence on PM 2.5 elements in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Hong Kong's persistent unhealthy level of fine particulate matter is a current public health challenge, complicated by the city being located in the rapidly industrializing Pearl River Delta Region of China. While the sources of the region's fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) are still not well understood, this study provides new source information through ground measurements and statistical analysis of 24 elements associated with particulate matter collected on filters. Field measurements took place over 4 months (October 2002, December 2002, March 2003, and June 2003) at seven sites throughout the Pearl River Delta, with three sites located in Hong Kong and four sites in the neighboring province, Guangdong. The 4-month average element concentrations show significant variation throughout the region, with higher levels of nearly every species seen among the northern Guangdong sites in comparison to Hong Kong. The high correlation (Pearson r>0.8) and similar magnitudes of 11 species (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, and Pb) at three contrasting sites in Hong Kong indicate that sources external to Hong Kong dominate the regional levels of these elements. Further correlative analysis compared Hong Kong against potential source areas in Guangdong Province (Shenzhen, Zhongshan, and Guangzhou). Moderate correlation of sulfur for all pairings of Hong Kong sites with three Guangdong sites in developed areas (average Pearson r of 0.52-0.94) supports the importance of long-distance transport impacting the region as a whole, although local sources also clearly impact observed concentrations. Varying correlative characteristics for zinc when Hong Kong sites are paired with Shenzhen (average r=0.86), Guangzhou (average r=-0.65) and Zhongshan (average r=0.45) points to a source area located south of Guangzhou and locally impacting Zhongshan. The concentration distribution and correlative characteristics of bromide point to sources located within the Pearl River Delta, but the

  8. On the local and regional influence on ground-level ozone concentrations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, K.L.; Wang, T.

    2003-01-01

    It is imperative to consider regional scale emissions and dynamic transport in managing ozone pollution in Hong Kong. - Hong Kong is a densely populated city situated in the fast developing Pearl River Delta of southern China. In this study, the recent data on ozone (O 3 ) and related air pollutants obtained at three sites in Hong Kong are analyzed to show the variations of O 3 in urban, sub-urban and rural areas and the possible regional influences. Highest monthly averaged O 3 was found at a northeastern rural site and lowest O 3 level was observed at an urban site. The levels of NO x , CO, SO 2 and PM 10 showed a different spatial pattern with the highest level in the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Analysis of chemical species ratios such as SO 2 /NO x and CO/NO x indicated that the sites were under the influences of local and regional emissions to varying extents reflecting the characteristics of emission sources surround the respective sites. Seasonal pattern of O 3 is examined. Low O 3 level was found in summer and elevated levels occurred in autumn and spring. The latter appears different from the previous result obtained in 1996 indicating a single maximum occurring in autumn. Principal component analysis was used to further elucidate the relationships of air pollutants at each site. As expected, the O 3 variation in the northeastern rural area was largely determined by regional chemical and transport processes, while the O 3 variability at the southwestern suburban and urban sites were more influenced by local emissions. Despite the large difference in O 3 levels across the sites, total potential ozone (O 3 +NO 2 ) showed little variability. Cases of high O 3 episodes were presented and elevated O 3 levels were formed under the influence of tropical cyclone bringing in conditions of intense sunlight, high temperature and light winds. Elevated O 3 levels were also found to correlate with enhanced ratio of SO 2 to NO x , suggesting influence of

  9. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  10. Regional estimation of geomagnetically induced currents based on the local magnetic or electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field vector (dH/dt and geomagnetically induced currents (GIC at a nearby location in a power grid. Similarly, a high correlation exists between GIC and the local horizontal geoelectric field (E, typically modelled from a measured magnetic field. Considering GIC forecasting, it is not feasible to assume that detailed prediction of time series will be possible. Instead, other measures summarising the activity level over a given period are preferable. In this paper, we consider the 30-min maximum of dH/dt or E as a local activity indicator (|dH/dt|30 or |E|30. Concerning GIC, we use the sum of currents through the neutral leads at substations and apply its 30-min maximum as a regional activity measure (GIC30. We show that |dH/dt|30 at a single point yields a proxy for GIC activity in a larger region. A practical consequence is that if |dH/dt|30 can be predicted at some point then it is also possible to assess the expected GIC level in the surrounding area. As is also demonstrated, |E|30 and GIC30 depend linearly on |dH/dt|30, so there is no saturation with increasing geomagnetic activity contrary to often used activity indices.

  11. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  12. Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindström, Daniel; Ottosson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Many companies providing energy services are experiencing difficulties. • This research identifies key activities for the provision of energy services. • Findings are aggregated to the business-model level providing managerial insights. • This research identifies two different business model innovation paths. • Energy companies may need to renew parts of, or the entire, business model. - Abstract: Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  13. Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Walker, Christa L; Black, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. New data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region. Methods We reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials to estimate a regional-specific effect of vaccine efficacy on severe rotavirus diarrhea and hospitalizations. We assessed the quality of evidence using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses where more than 1 data point ...

  14. The Development of Regional Dialect Locality Judgments and Language Attitudes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Elizabeth A; Clopper, Cynthia G; Wagner, Laura

    2017-10-20

    The development of language attitudes and perception of talker regional background was investigated across the life span (N = 240, age range = 4-75 years). Participants rated 12 talkers on dimensions of geographic locality, status, and solidarity. Children could classify some dialects by locality by age 6-7 years and showed adult-like patterns by age 8 years. Children showed adult-like status ratings for some dialects by age 4-5 years but were not fully adult-like until age 12 years. Solidarity ratings were more variable and did not exhibit a clear developmental trajectory, although some adult-like patterns were in place by age 6-7 years. Locality ratings were a significant but modest predictor of attitude ratings, suggesting that geographic knowledge is one contributor to language attitudes throughout development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. On the Topological Changes of Local Hurst Exponent in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolini, G.; De Michelis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Geomagnetic activity during magnetic substorms and storms is related to the dinamical and topological changes of the current systems flowing in the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere. This is particularly true in the case of polar regions where the enhancement of auroral electrojet current system is responsible for the observed geomagnetic perturbations. Here, using the DMA-technique we evaluate the local Hurst exponent (H"older exponent) for a set of 46 geomagnetic observatories, widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, during one of the most famous and strong geomagnetic storm, the Bastille event, and reconstruct a sequence of polar maps showing the dinamical changes of the topology of the local Hurst exponent with the geomagnetic activity level. The topological evolution of local Hurst exponent maps is discussed in relation to the dinamical changes of the current systems flowing in the polar ionosphere. G. Consolini has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant agreement no. 313038/STORM for this research.

  16. Size-segregated concentration of heavy metals in an urban aerosol of the Balkans region (Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the heavy metals contents of the size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental area of Balkans. The distribution of nano/micron heavy metals in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer–autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges Dp ≤ 0.49 μm, 0.49 ≤ Dp ≤ 0.95 μm, 0.95 ≤ Dp ≤ 1.5 μm, 1.5 ≤ Dp ≤ 3.0 μm, 3.0 ≤ Dp ≤ 7.2 μm and Dp ≥ 7.2 μm was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (mGM and, for heavy metals analyzed by ICP/MS.

  17. An analysis of the 'costs and effectiveness' of post-mastectomy local-regional radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.B.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Hardenbergh, P.H.; Winer, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the 'cost/effectiveness' ratio for post-mastectomy local-regional radiation therapy (LR-XRT) for patients with breast cancer. As the risk of local-regional recurrence (LRR) is related to the number of positive axillary lymph nodes, the cost/effectiveness ratio of LR-XRT was assessed for a variable number of positive axillary nodes. For overall survival (OS), the cost per additional life-year is estimated as a function of follow-up duration. Methods/Assumptions: Literature data indicate that the risk of LRR is related to the number of positive axillary nodes (e.g. Fowble, Kuske). For example, the LRR rate is ∼10% for patients with negative nodes, increasing to ∼40% for patients with ≥4 positive nodes. Such data are used to linearly relate the number of positive nodes with the risk of LRR. Additional assumptions include: RT reduces the risk of LRR by 67%; local recurrences are treated with exision/biopsy, LR-XRT and systemic chemotherapy; half of the local recurrences are controlled locally and half will require additional salvage treatment with surgery or chemotherapy. The 5, 10 and 15 yr improvements in OS provided by LR-XRT are estimated to be 3, 7, and 10%, respectively, based on the literature (Overgaard, Ragaz, Klefstrom, Rutqvist). For each year following LR-XRT, the accrued life-years gained are estimated from the published survival curves. Professional and technical charges are used as a surrogate for costs, as follows (in thousands): LR-XRT-15; evaluation of recurrence-2; biopsy plus pathology-1; resection plus pathology-7, chemotherapy-10. Results: The cost per LRR prevented with the addition of routine post-mastectomy LR-XRT is shown, as a function of the number of positive axillary nodes. The cost per additional life-year gained with LR-XRT, as a function of follow-up duration, is shown. With increasing follow-up, the cost per life-year gained decreases as the additional life-years accrue. Conclusions: The cost per LRR

  18. First status report on regional and local ground-water flow modeling for Richton Dome, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Metcalfe, D.E.

    1984-03-01

    Regional and local ground-water flow within the principal hydrogeologic units in the vicinity of Richton Dome is evaluated by developing conceptual models of the flow regime within these units at three different scales and testing these models using a three-dimensional, finite-difference flow code. Semiquantitative sensitivity analysis is conducted to define the system response to changes in the conceptual model, particularly the hydrologic properties. The effects of salinity on the flow field are evaluated at the refined and local scales. Adjoint sensitivity analysis is applied to the conceptualized flow regime in the Wilcox aquifer. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data utilized in this study is summarized. The specific conceptual models, defining the areal and vertical averaging of lithologic units, aquifer properties, fluid properties, and hydrologic boundary conditions, are described in detail. The results are delineated by the simulated potentiometric surfaces and tables summarizing areal and vertical boundary fluxes, Darcy velocities at specific points, and ground-water travel paths. These results are presented at regional, refined, and local (near-dome) scales. The reported work is the first stage of an ongoing evaluation of the Richton Dome as a potential repository for high-level radioactive wastes. The results and conclusions should thus be considered preliminary and subject to modification with the collection of additional data. However, this report does provide a useful basis for describing the sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, the uncertainty of the present conceptualization of ground-water flow in the vicinity of Richton Dome. 25 references, 69 figures, 15 tables

  19. Monsoon rainfall behaviour in recent times on local/regional scale in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surender; Rao, V.U.M.; Singh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    An attempt has been made here to investigate the local/regional monsoon rainfall behaviour in the meteorological sub-division no. 13 comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of 30 years (1970-99) of different locations in the region were used for the investigation. All locations except Delhi received more rainfall in monsoon season during the decade (1990-99) showing general increasing trend in the rainfall behaviour in recent times. The mean monsoon rainfall at various locations ranged between 324.8 mm at Sirsa and 974.9 mm at Chandigarh. The major amount of monsoon rainfall occurred during the month of July and August in the entire region. Monthly mean rainfall ranged between 37.5 to 144.9 mm (June), 130.6 to 298.2 mm (July), 92.6 to 313.6 mm (August) and 44.0 to 149.4mm (September) at different locations. All the locations in the region exhibited overall increasing trend in monsoon rainfall over the period under study. All locations in the region received their lowest monsoon rainfall in the year 1987 which was a drought year and the season's rainfall ranged between 56.1 mm (Sirsa) and 290.0 mm (Delhi) during this year. Many of the locations observed clusters of fluctuations in their respective monsoon rainfall. The statistical summaries of historical data series (1970-99) gave rainfall information on various time scale. Such information acquires value through its influence on the decision making of the ultimate users. (author)

  20. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  1. Local and regional minimum 1D models for earthquake location and data quality assessment in complex tectonic regions: application to Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Kissling, E.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)

  2. Local and regional minimum 1D models for earthquake location and data quality assessment in complex tectonic regions: application to Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kissling, E. [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)

  3. SUPPORTS FOR LOCAL BREEDS IN THE EUROPEAN REGION – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Bojkovski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the incentives for conservation of local breeds in 35 European countries, with the particular reference to the situation in Slovenia. In order to collect all necessary data in different countries, detailed questionnaire was developed and sent out to National coordinators for Animal Genetic Resources in the European Region. Data were edited and analysed using MS Excel program where basic descriptive statistics was performed to show differences among countries in incentive payments. Incentives for local breeds in Slovenia were paid from the Agri-environmental payments. The amount of payment for one livestock unit was 89.38 € per year. Subsidies for adult cattle and horses of local breeds were therefore 89.38 € per animal, while for pigs there were 44.69 € per animal and for sheep and goats 13.41 € per animal. Comparing data from different countries, the highest subsides were received for cattle ranging from 45 € to 520 € for bulls. From all 35 countries, 16 countries have subsidies for horses. Despite two breeds of sheep and one breed of goat in Slovenia highly endangered, the level of subsides for sheep and goats for local breeds included in the environmental payments were equal i.e., 13.41 € per animal. Compared to 21 countries reported the financial support for sheep, only two countries had lower support than in Slovenia. The EC Regulations can explain differences in payments where the Member States are free when determining the payments level. Another reason could be since out of 35 countries, eleven are not EU members. National coordinators from all countries agreed that financial support per head is very important tool for breed conservation and such a practice should be continued. However, the current level of support does not compensate loss of income due to lower productivity.

  4. Shape, size, and robustness: feasible regions in the parameter space of biochemical networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Dayarian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of robustness of regulatory networks has received much attention in the last decade. One measure of robustness has been associated with the volume of the feasible region, namely, the region in the parameter space in which the system is functional. In this paper, we show that, in addition to volume, the geometry of this region has important consequences for the robustness and the fragility of a network. We develop an approximation within which we could algebraically specify the feasible region. We analyze the segment polarity gene network to illustrate our approach. The study of random walks in the parameter space and how they exit the feasible region provide us with a rich perspective on the different modes of failure of this network model. In particular, we found that, between two alternative ways of activating Wingless, one is more robust than the other. Our method provides a more complete measure of robustness to parameter variation. As a general modeling strategy, our approach is an interesting alternative to Boolean representation of biochemical networks.

  5. Development of a localized probabilistic sensitivity method to determine random variable regional importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millwater, Harry; Singh, Gulshan; Cortina, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There are many methods to identify the important variable out of a set of random variables, i.e., “inter-variable” importance; however, to date there are no comparable methods to identify the “region” of importance within a random variable, i.e., “intra-variable” importance. Knowledge of the critical region of an input random variable (tail, near-tail, and central region) can provide valuable information towards characterizing, understanding, and improving a model through additional modeling or testing. As a result, an intra-variable probabilistic sensitivity method was developed and demonstrated for independent random variables that computes the partial derivative of a probabilistic response with respect to a localized perturbation in the CDF values of each random variable. These sensitivities are then normalized in absolute value with respect to the largest sensitivity within a distribution to indicate the region of importance. The methodology is implemented using the Score Function kernel-based method such that existing samples can be used to compute sensitivities for negligible cost. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the method through comparisons with finite difference and numerical integration quadrature estimates. - Highlights: ► Probabilistic sensitivity methodology. ► Determines the “region” of importance within random variables such as left tail, near tail, center, right tail, etc. ► Uses the Score Function approach to reuse the samples, hence, negligible cost. ► No restrictions on the random variable types or limit states.

  6. STUDY ON PROJECTS CONTRACTED BY ROP - AXIS 2 PRIORITY - IMPROVING REGIONAL TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND LOCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceausescu Aurelian Ionut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This axis priority is to increase the main purpose of accessibility regions, the population mobility, goods and services to stimulate sustainable economic. Investment in transport infrastructure to facilitate mobility of people and goods, reducing the costs of transport of goods and passengers, improving access to the regional markets, increase the efficiency of economic activities, energy saving and time, creating conditions for expanding trade and implicitly productive investment. Developing transport networks will facilitate the cooperation interregional and will contribute significantly to increase competitiveness of enterprises/firms and the labour mobility, and, therefore, a development faster to Romania on the whole, but also of each region. The development of urban transport network will take into account the existing structure of public transportation to ensure where possible, improve the infrastructure of roads, which will contribute to use in a more efficient way of public transportation. Rehabilitation and upgrading urban streets, and construction, rehabilitation and upgrading of roads to his belt (the status of county Road will contribute to urban improve traffic, cut on the time of transport, road and face elimination in their localities crossing safely.

  7. The discrete and localized nature of the variable emission from active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Martina Belz; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Karovska, Margarita

    1994-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Spectroheliometer on Skylab, we study the empirical characteristics of the variable emission in active regions. These simultaneous multi-wavelength observations clearly confirm that active regions consist of a complex of loops at different temperatures. The variable emission from this complex has very well-defined properties that can be quantitatively summarized as follows: (1) It is localized predominantly around the footpoints where it occurs at discrete locations. (2) The strongest variability does not necessarily coincide with the most intense emission. (3) The fraction of the area of the footpoints, (delta n)/N, that exhibits variable emission, varies by +/- 15% as a function of time, at any of the wavelengths measured. It also varies very little from footpoint to footpoint. (4) This fractional variation is temperature dependent with a maximum around 10(exp 5) K. (5) The ratio of the intensity of the variable to the average background emission, (delta I)/(bar-I), also changes with temperature. In addition, we find that these distinctive characteristics persist even when flares occur within the active region.

  8. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  9. Analysis of DNA restriction fragments greater than 5.7 Mb in size from the centromeric region of human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arn, P H; Li, X; Smith, C; Hsu, M; Schwartz, D C; Jabs, E W

    1991-01-01

    Pulsed electrophoresis was used to study the organization of the human centromeric region. Genomic DNA was digested with rare-cutting enzymes. DNA fragments from 0.2 to greater than 5.7 Mb were separated by electrophoresis and hybridized with alphoid and simple DNA repeats. Rare-cutting enzymes (Mlu I, Nar I, Not I, Nru I, Sal I, Sfi I, Sst II) demonstrated fewer restriction sites at centromeric regions than elsewhere in the genome. The enzyme Not I had the fewest restriction sites at centromeric regions. As much as 70% of these sequences from the centromeric region are present in Not I DNA fragments greater than 5.7 and estimated to be as large as 10 Mb in size. Other repetitive sequences such as short interspersed repeated segments (SINEs), long interspersed repeated segments (LINEs), ribosomal DNA, and mini-satellite DNA that are not enriched at the centromeric region, are not enriched in Not I fragments of greater than 5.7 Mb in size.

  10. Estimation of (co)variances for genomic regions of flexible sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars P; Janss, Luc; Madsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    was used. There was a clear difference in the region-wise patterns of genomic correlation among combinations of traits, with distinctive peaks indicating the presence of pleiotropic QTL. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that it is possible to estimate, genome-wide and region-wise genomic (co)variances......BACKGROUND: Multi-trait genomic models in a Bayesian context can be used to estimate genomic (co)variances, either for a complete genome or for genomic regions (e.g. per chromosome) for the purpose of multi-trait genomic selection or to gain further insight into the genomic architecture of related...... with a common prior distribution for the marker allele substitution effects and estimation of the hyperparameters in this prior distribution from the progeny means data. From the Markov chain Monte Carlo samples of the allele substitution effects, genomic (co)variances were calculated on a whole-genome level...

  11. Impact of Fraction Size on Cardiac Mortality in Women Treated With Tangential Radiotherapy for Localized Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhin, Wilson; Wai, Elaine; Tyldesley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether fraction size affects the risk of cardiac mortality in women treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A population-based retrospective study of women with a diagnosis of localized breast cancer treated with adjuvant RT in British Columbia from 1984 to 2000. Cases were identified from the British Columbia Cancer Agency database. Overall and cardiac-specific survival were compared for women treated with RT for left- vs. right-sided breast cancer. We analyzed the impact of age (≤60 vs. >60 years) at diagnosis and RT fraction size (≤2 vs. >2 Gy) on risk of fatal cardiac events. Results: We identified 3,781 women with left-sided and 3,666 women with right-sided breast cancer who received adjuvant RT. Median follow-up was 7.9 years. There were 52 vs. 47 breast cancer deaths in women treated for left- and right-sided breast cancer, respectively. There was no significant difference in cardiac mortality for women ≤60 or >60 years of age who received adjuvant RT for left-sided vs. right-sided cancer. There was no difference in cardiac mortality for women who received adjuvant RT with fraction sizes ≤2 vs. >2 Gy for left- or right-sided cancer. Conclusions: There was no evidence for increased risk of cardiac mortality in women treated with adjuvant RT after a median follow-up of 7.9 years in our cohort. Hypofractionated adjuvant RT regimens did not significantly increase the risk of cardiac mortality

  12. The use of steady state neutron flux measurement to determine the size of an invaded region following fluid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    By using a combination of Monte-Carlo and diffusion theory techniques, the behaviour of the thermal neutron flux during fluid injection is studied. It is shown that the change in neutron flux induced by the fluid injection, is equal to the neutron flux due to a certain thermal neutron source distribution. Using this result, a method of estimating the size of an elliptical invaded region is given. This choice of region shape is not a necessity but a convenience and it is possible that the method may be generalised to include higher order shapes. (author)

  13. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  14. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Marn

    Full Text Available Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i two different regional subsets and (ii three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications.Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  15. The impact of smoke from forest fires on the spectral dispersion of cloud droplet size distributions in the Amazonian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J A; Silva Dias, M A F

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the main microphysical characteristics of clouds developing in polluted and clean conditions in the biomass-burning season of the Amazon region are examined, with special attention to the spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution and its potential impact on climate modeling applications. The dispersion effect has been shown to alter the climate cooling predicted by the so-called Twomey effect. In biomass-burning polluted conditions, high concentrations of low dispersed cloud droplets are found. Clean conditions revealed an opposite situation. The liquid water content (0.43 ± 0.19 g m -3 ) is shown to be uncorrelated with the cloud drop number concentration, while the effective radius is found to be very much correlated with the relative dispersion of the size distribution (R 2 = 0.81). The results suggest that an increase in cloud condensation nuclei concentration from biomass-burning aerosols may lead to an additional effect caused by a decrease in relative dispersion. Since the dry season in the Amazonian region is vapor limiting, the dispersion effect of cloud droplet size distributions could be substantially larger than in other polluted regions.

  16. Major Chromosomal Breakpoint Intervals in Breast Cancer Co-Localize with Differentially Methylated Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Tang, Man-Hung [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (United States); Department of Oncology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Varadan, Vinay; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Zhang, Michael Q. [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (United States); The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Dimitrova, Nevenka, E-mail: nevenka.dimitrova@philips.com [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Hicks, James, E-mail: hicks@cshl.edu [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (United States)

    2012-12-27

    Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple chromosomal loci (copy number variation, or CNV), and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape, the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation, but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls (Wiedswang et al., 2003), where each sample has both high-resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions (DMR), coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated “fragile sites” in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 93 regional loci called breakpoint enriched DMR (BEDMRs) characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1 Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66%), concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3 Mb (35% of the cases), and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. Furthermore, BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors, e.g., JMJD1B, which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA

  17. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37 0 C with 10 μg/ml 125 I-HDL 2 or 125 I-HDL 3 . In both depots, the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 . In obese patients, the uptake of 125 I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular 125 I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity

  18. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Diego Regional Climate Education Partnership has formed an innovative and collaborative team whose mission is to implement a research-based climate science education and communications program to increase knowledge about climate science among highly-influential leaders and their communities and foster informed decision making based on climate science and impacts. The team includes climate scientists, behavioral psychologists, formal and informal educators and communication specialists. The Partnership's strategic plan has three major goals: (1) raise public understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change; (2) identify the most effective educational methods to educate non-traditional audiences (Key Influentials) about the causes and consequences of climate change; and (3) develop and implement a replicable model for regional climate change education. To implement this strategic plan, we have anchored our project on three major pillars: (1) Local climate science (causes, impacts and long-term consequences); (2) theoretical, research-based evaluation framework (TIMSI); and (3) Key! Influentials (KI) as primary audience for messages (working w! ith and through them). During CCEP-I, the Partnership formed and convened an advisory board of Key Influentials, completed interviews with a sample of Key Influentials, conducted a public opinion survey, developed a website (www.sandiego.edu/climate) , compiled inventories on literature of climate science education resources and climate change community groups and local activities, hosted stakeholder forums, and completed the first phase of on an experiment to test the effects of different messengers delivering the same local climate change message via video. Results of 38 KI Interviews provided evidence of local climate knowledge, strong concern about climate change, and deeply held values related to climate change education and regional leadership. The most intriguing result was that while 90% of Key

  19. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyz...

  20. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Malmborg

    Full Text Available Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  1. Trust and local knowledge production: Interorganisational collaborations in the Sønderborg region, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, knowledge production has become increasingly important for the competitiveness of firms, cities and regions and as an explanatory factor of spatial economic dynamics. In an immense amount of literature in economic geography, sociology and economics it has been argued...... or an input in economic relations. The paper broaden the understanding of trust in local knowledge production by suggesting an approach to trust as an inter-personal feeling to be analysed on three different but interrelated scales depending on the socio-spatial contexts of the actors. The approach avoids...... a reification of interorganisational relations as the place for knowledge production but allows an analysis of trust to move between micro-, meso- and macro scales seeing trust as an inter-personal feeling. The conclusion is that trust in diverse socio-spatial contexts takes on different forms at different...

  2. THE PRESENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AFTER CRISES AND LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel–Lucian SANDU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual article is intended to underline the way in which crises and local and regional conflicts nowadays influence the global economic development The dependence of the small states on the actions of the more developed countries, the economic growth accelerated by the scientific-technological developments and the attitude of the geopolitical actors on global context, describe in detail the ideas extracted from the theme of this article. The economic development is necessary, convenient and unavoidable, the main problems appearing when the main raw materials and essential resources for human survival must be insured. The present international relations and the ways in which political-diplomatic differences are solved, support the need of existence and involvement of some organizations and unbiased pacifist forums wherever societies have differences of opinions.

  3. The local-regional networks of radiation protection experts: a necessary tool to strengthen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbey, P.; Boirie, G.; Barret, Ch.; Barrey, N.

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled the evolution of the legal framework concerning radioprotection and the origin, role and training of the radiation protection experts (PCR in French for Personne Competente en Radioprotection), the author describes the difficulties faced by a PCR on a daily basis. Then, he outlines the interest of a development of local-regional networks between these professionals to promote information transmission and exchange, knowledge updating and so on, and even also to break the isolation of the PCR. He indicates the main objectives of these networks and evokes perspectives, notably after the professional meetings which have been and still are organized twice a year. Two additional and short papers briefly describe the life of one of these networks (the APCRAP, Association des personnes competentes en radioprotection de l'Assistance Publique, association of radiation protection experts belonging to public care services) and briefly present the objectives of the south-western network

  4. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, Katja; Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.

  5. Mapping regional livelihood benefits from local ecosystem services assessments in rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J.

    2018-01-01

    Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel. PMID:29389965

  6. Local and regional factors affecting the chemistry of precipitation in the spanish basque country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezcurra, A.; Durana, N.; Casado, H.; Lacaux, J.P.; Pham Van Dinh; Garcia, C.

    1991-01-01

    The study deals with near 300 rain events sampled by means of a network of five automatic devices operating from January 1986 to November 1988. The results show that, on a local-scale, the rain chemistry is affected by the marine source of gases and particles. On a regional-scale, values of pH ranging from 5.5 to 4.8 are noticed. The acidity of rain has an anthropogenic origin that is mainly linked to the NO 3 - content. The acidity is reinforced by air flow from continental Europe. By contrast, rain water with a basic character is related to the air fluxes from Southern Spain that increase the rain content in Ca 2+ [fr

  7. Ultra-Wideband Geo-Regioning: A Novel Clustering and Localization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Wittneben

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB technology enables a high temporal resolution of the propagation channel. Consequently, a channel impulse response between transmitter and receiver can be interpreted as signature for their relative positions. If the position of the receiver is known, the channel impulse response indicates the position of the transmitter and vice versa. This work introduces UWB geo-regioning as a clustering and localization method based on channel impulse response fingerprinting, develops a theoretical framework for performance analysis, and evaluates this approach by means of performance results based on measured channel impulse responses. Complexity issues are discussed and performance dependencies on signal-to-noise ratio, a priori knowledge, observation window, and system bandwidth are investigated.

  8. Adaptation of junior orienteers to loads, developing local-regional and special muscular endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Abzalilov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: complex assessment of junior sport orientation athletes in conditions of concentrated training of local-regional muscular endurance and stroke loads (final part of preparation for competitions. Materials: in the research sport orientation athletes (n=34, age 13-16 years participated. The athletes were divided into tested group (n=17 and group of comparison (n=17. In every group there were 17 boys and girls. The tested group consisted of volunteers, who practiced sport orientation. Comparison group included average distance and steeplechase runners. Results: In system of junior orienteers’ training we found: gender distinctions in carbohydrates and fats consumption (in the ranges of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds; substantial physiological changes in static-kinetic balance (tests with open and closed eyes. Dynamic coefficient of balance in main stance was better in sport orienteers, comparing with runners. Conclusions: it is recommended to fulfill exercises in conditions of stretching, combined with motor actions of speed-power orientation and relaxation.

  9. Modeling prescribed burning experiments and assessing the fire impacts on local to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Baker, K. R.; Napelenok, S. L.; Elleman, R. A.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning, including wildfires and prescribed burns, strongly impact the global carbon cycle and are of increasing concern due to the potential impacts on ambient air quality. This modelling study focuses on the evolution of carbonaceous compounds during a prescribed burning experiment and assesses the impacts of burning on local to regional air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to conduct 4 and 2 km grid resolution simulations of prescribed burning experiments in southeast Washington state and western Idaho state in summer 2013. The ground and airborne measurements from the field experiment are used to evaluate the model performance in capturing surface and aloft impacts from the burning events. Phase partitioning of organic compounds in the plume are studied as it is a crucial step towards understanding the fate of carbonaceous compounds. The sensitivities of ambient concentrations and deposition to emissions are conducted for organic carbon, elemental carbon and ozone to estimate the impacts of fire on air quality.

  10. Analysis of the regional MiKlip decadal prediction system over Europe: skill, added value of regionalization, and ensemble size dependeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Mark; Moemken, Julia; Pinto, Joaquim; Feldmann, Hendrik; Kottmeier, Christoph; MiKlip Module-C Team

    2017-04-01

    some complex regions like the Mediterranean and Iberian Peninsula, while for other regions no systematic improvement is found. A clear dependence of the performance of the regional MiKlip system on the ensemble size is detected. For all variables in both hindcast generations, the skill increases when the ensemble is enlarged. The results indicate that a number of ten members is an appropriate ensemble size for decadal predictions over Europe.

  11. Carcass and meat quality determination as a tool to promote local meat consumption in outermost regions of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Moreno-Indias, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    of this study, therefore, was to evaluate local and imported carcasses and meat quality in order to promote the consumption of local breeds, using the Canary Islands (Spain) as a model for other subtropical outermost regions. For this study 20 half-carcasses from Palmera breed and 20 imported half...

  12. The influence of airflow inlet region modifications on the local efficiency of natural draft cooling tower operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hočevar, Marko; Širok, Brane; Dvoršek, Matjaž; Holeček, Nikola; Donevski, Božin

    2015-01-01

    We present the influence of the cooling tower airflow inlet region modifications at the Šoštanj 4 thermal power plant on cooling tower local efficiency. Local efficiency change was estimated based on temperature fields of drift eliminators before and after the reconstruction of the cooling tower. Temperature fields were measured with thermal vision method. The local reduction of cooling tower efficiency was analyzed based on phenomenological relations of heat transfer obtained from the select...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY IN THE REGION IN THE SERVICE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL SPATIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental prerequisite for the existence, growth and development of each social community is environmental safety. In modern conditions of environmental degradation as a global process, it is bound to increase social stratification, ethnic and even religious conflict, conflict and intolerance that threatens the safety of society. It is a notorious fact that the world of Simply is no longer in a position to deal with new shocks. The financial crisis has reduced global economic resilience, while geopolitical tensions and increased social concerns point to the fact that the state and society less able than ever to cope with global challenges, among which is the primary problem of environmental security. In modern countries, political, security and other interests of the citizens' day-to-day modeling, transform, get the content, in accordance with the general civilization changes. In this connection, sustainable local spatial development is crucial conditioned ecological without security region and aims to achieve a balance between current consumption of natural resources and the ability of the system to maintain the level at which future generations will be able to use them. The work represents a contribution to the achievement of environmental security as a new, modern forms of security, and originated from the need to once again draw attention to the evident environmental degradation as an integral part of human security. Ecological security of the region protects the basic components of the environment and determinants of the local spatial development. In fact, safety in the field of protection and preservation of the environment is one of the most important factors Security Council shall contemporary world. In doing so, it is important to emphasize, however, that environmental security has no borders and is a global problem, a task and an obligation.

  14. Moment Magnitudes of Small to Moderate Size Regional Events from Coda in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Mayeda, K. M.; Walter, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    The uneven distribution of stations and heterogeneous structure of the Middle East makes it difficult to calculate reliable moment magnitudes in the region. Such magnitudes are important for event characterization, and for yield estimation applications. The complex structure of the lithosphere in the region causes significant variation in the recorded amplitude of body and surface waves that travel along different paths. These 2-D effects are most significant for small and moderate magnitude events, which are most observable at periods 4.5) at low frequencies ( < 0.5 Hz). But even using coda waves, high frequency spectra show considerable scatter. Next, we applied tomographic inversion to the geometrical spreading corrected coda amplitudes to calculate 2-D coda Q. Coda Q results agree well with direct Lg and tectonics of the region. We observe low Q in Anatolian and Iranian plateaus and high Q in Arabian Plate. Applying the 2-D correction reduced the inter-station scatter of the higher frequency spectra, allowing us to obtain reliable moment magnitude estimates for smaller events (Mw < 4.5).

  15. Size-appropriate radiation doses in pediatric body CT: a study of regional community adoption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Katharine L.; Vajtai, Petra L.; Pettersson, David R.; Spinning, Kristopher; Beckett, Brooke R.; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Bardo, Dianna M.E.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a movement in the United States toward utilizing size-appropriate radiation doses for pediatric body CT, with smaller doses given to smaller patients. This study assesses community adoption of size-appropriate pediatric CT techniques. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) in pediatric body scans are compared between community facilities and a university children's hospital that tailors CT protocols to patient size as advocated by Image Gently. We compared 164 pediatric body scans done at community facilities (group X) with 466 children's hospital scans. Children's hospital scans were divided into two groups: A, 250 performed with established pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection; B, 216 performed with addition of iterative reconstruction technique and a 60% reduction in volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ). SSDE was calculated and differences among groups were compared by regression analysis. Mean SSDE was 1.6 and 3.9 times higher in group X than in groups A and B and 2.5 times higher for group A than group B. A model adjusting for confounders confirmed significant differences between group pairs. Regional community hospitals and imaging centers have not universally adopted child-sized pediatric CT practices. More education and accountability may be necessary to achieve widespread implementation. Since even lower radiation doses are possible with iterative reconstruction technique than with filtered back projection alone, further exploration of the former is encouraged. (orig.)

  16. Size-appropriate radiation doses in pediatric body CT: a study of regional community adoption in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Katharine L.; Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Pettersson, David R.; Spinning, Kristopher; Beckett, Brooke R. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Koudelka, Caroline W. [Oregon Health and Science University, Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Portland, OR (United States); Bardo, Dianna M.E. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-09-15

    During the last decade, there has been a movement in the United States toward utilizing size-appropriate radiation doses for pediatric body CT, with smaller doses given to smaller patients. This study assesses community adoption of size-appropriate pediatric CT techniques. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) in pediatric body scans are compared between community facilities and a university children's hospital that tailors CT protocols to patient size as advocated by Image Gently. We compared 164 pediatric body scans done at community facilities (group X) with 466 children's hospital scans. Children's hospital scans were divided into two groups: A, 250 performed with established pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection; B, 216 performed with addition of iterative reconstruction technique and a 60% reduction in volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). SSDE was calculated and differences among groups were compared by regression analysis. Mean SSDE was 1.6 and 3.9 times higher in group X than in groups A and B and 2.5 times higher for group A than group B. A model adjusting for confounders confirmed significant differences between group pairs. Regional community hospitals and imaging centers have not universally adopted child-sized pediatric CT practices. More education and accountability may be necessary to achieve widespread implementation. Since even lower radiation doses are possible with iterative reconstruction technique than with filtered back projection alone, further exploration of the former is encouraged. (orig.)

  17. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  18. Modelling stream-fish functional traits in reference conditions: regional and local environmental correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M Oliveira

    Full Text Available Identifying the environmental gradients that control the functional structure of biological assemblages in reference conditions is fundamental to help river management and predict the consequences of anthropogenic stressors. Fish metrics (density of ecological guilds, and species richness from 117 least disturbed stream reaches in several western Iberia river basins were modelled with generalized linear models in order to investigate the importance of regional- and local-scale abiotic gradients to variation in functional structure of fish assemblages. Functional patterns were primarily associated with regional features, such as catchment elevation and slope, rainfall, and drainage area. Spatial variations of fish guilds were thus associated with broad geographic gradients, showing (1 pronounced latitudinal patterns, affected mainly by climatic factors and topography, or (2 at the basin level, strong upstream-downstream patterns related to stream position in the longitudinal gradient. Maximum native species richness was observed in midsize streams in accordance with the river continuum concept. The findings of our study emphasized the need to use a multi-scale approach in order to fully assess the factors that govern the functional organization of biotic assemblages in 'natural' streams, as well as to improve biomonitoring and restoration of fluvial ecosystems.

  19. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  20. Classifying Dementia Using Local Binary Patterns from Different Regions in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Oppedal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is an evolving challenge in society, and no disease-modifying treatment exists. Diagnosis can be demanding and MR imaging may aid as a noninvasive method to increase prediction accuracy. We explored the use of 2D local binary pattern (LBP extracted from FLAIR and T1 MR images of the brain combined with a Random Forest classifier in an attempt to discern patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, Lewy body dementia (LBD, and normal controls (NC. Analysis was conducted in areas with white matter lesions (WML and all of white matter (WM. Results from 10-fold nested cross validation are reported as mean accuracy, precision, and recall with standard deviation in brackets. The best result we achieved was in the two-class problem NC versus AD + LBD with total accuracy of 0.98 (0.04. In the three-class problem AD versus LBD versus NC and the two-class problem AD versus LBD, we achieved 0.87 (0.08 and 0.74 (0.16, respectively. The performance using 3DT1 images was notably better than when using FLAIR images. The results from the WM region gave similar results as in the WML region. Our study demonstrates that LBP texture analysis in brain MR images can be successfully used for computer based dementia diagnosis.

  1. Spatial Interpolation of Daily Rainfall Data for Local Climate Impact Assessment over Greater Sydney Region

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    Xihua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial interpolation techniques to produce finer-scale daily rainfall data from regional climate modeling. Four common interpolation techniques (ANUDEM, Spline, IDW, and Kriging were compared and assessed against station rainfall data and modeled rainfall. The performance was assessed by the mean absolute error (MAE, mean relative error (MRE, root mean squared error (RMSE, and the spatial and temporal distributions. The results indicate that Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW method is slightly better than the other three methods and it is also easy to implement in a geographic information system (GIS. The IDW method was then used to produce forty-year (1990–2009 and 2040–2059 time series rainfall data at daily, monthly, and annual time scales at a ground resolution of 100 m for the Greater Sydney Region (GSR. The downscaled daily rainfall data have been further utilized to predict rainfall erosivity and soil erosion risk and their future changes in GSR to support assessments and planning of climate change impact and adaptation in local scale.

  2. Update on emerging regional techniques and novel local anesthetics in ambulatory anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafran MJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin J Szafran, Eldhose Abrahams, Tong Joo Gan Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Abstract: New regional anesthetic techniques have been incorporated into the multimodal approach to postoperative analgesia. Blocks such as the transversus abdominis plane block, adductor canal block, and pectoral nerves blocks all show promise as potential tools used in opioid-sparing techniques, but at the same time have significant limitations to their utility. Novel long-acting formulations of local anesthetics further add to the possible benefit of these blocks, but their application to peripheral nerve blocks is currently being investigated and is not well defined. This review focuses on evaluating the relevant anatomy, technique, and indications of several newer peripheral nerve blocks, the emerging evidence supporting the use of liposomal bupivacaine and SABER®-Bupivacaine, and the application of both in ambulatory anesthesia. Keywords: transversus abdominis plane (TAP block, adductor canal block, pectoral nerves block, regional anesthesia, liposomal bupivacaine, SABER®-Bupivacaine

  3. The Making of the Gdańsk Metropolitan Region. Local Discourses of Identities, Powers, and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czepczyński Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of metropolitanisation of the Gdańsk area is facilitated by public discourse involving local and regional politicians, media, and inhabitants. The discussion is based upon historical narrations, but also local ambitions, hopes and emotions, as well as infrastructural projects and investment attractiveness. Foucault suggests that modern power is a dispersed set of micro-practices, many of which operate through the normalising gaze of surveillance regimes. Gdańsk metropolitan cooperation, competition and encounters make the core of the paper; local and regional unifying initiatives and processes are accompanied by examples of separatism, identity conflicts, and political disagreements

  4. 17 years of grassland management leads to parallel local and regional biodiversity shifts among a wide range of taxonomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van C.G.E.; Baeten, Lander; Turin, Hans; Heijerman, Theodoor; Alders, Kees; Boer, Peter; Mabelis, A.A.; Siepel, Henk; Berg, Matty P.; Bonte, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Conservation management is expected to increase local biodiversity, but uniform management may lead to biotic homogenization and diversity losses at the regional scale. We evaluated the effects of renewed grazing and cutting management carried out across a whole region, on the diversity of plants

  5. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  6. The optimal on-source region size for detections with counting-type telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2017-01-15

    The on-source region is typically a circular area with radius θ in which the signal is expected to appear with the shape of the instrument point spread function (PSF). This paper addresses the question of what is the θ that maximises the probability of detection for a given PSF width and background event density. In the high count number limit and assuming a Gaussian PSF profile, the optimum is found to be at ζ{sup 2}{sub ∞}∼2.51 times the squared PSF width σ{sup 2}{sub PSF39}. While this number is shown to be a good choice in many cases, a dynamic formula for cases of lower count numbers, which favour larger on-source regions, is given. The recipe to get to this parametrisation can also be applied to cases with a non-Gaussian PSF. This result can standardise and simplify analysis procedures, reduce trials and eliminate the need for experience-based ad hoc cut definitions or expensive case-by-case Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. The optimal on-source region size for detections with counting-type telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The on-source region is typically a circular area with radius θ in which the signal is expected to appear with the shape of the instrument point spread function (PSF). This paper addresses the question of what is the θ that maximises the probability of detection for a given PSF width and background event density. In the high count number limit and assuming a Gaussian PSF profile, the optimum is found to be at ζ"2_∞∼2.51 times the squared PSF width σ"2_P_S_F_3_9. While this number is shown to be a good choice in many cases, a dynamic formula for cases of lower count numbers, which favour larger on-source regions, is given. The recipe to get to this parametrisation can also be applied to cases with a non-Gaussian PSF. This result can standardise and simplify analysis procedures, reduce trials and eliminate the need for experience-based ad hoc cut definitions or expensive case-by-case Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. The regional abundance and size distribution of lakes and reservoirs in the United States and implication for estimates of global lake extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer; Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed complete geospatial data for the 3.5 million lakes and reservoirs larger than 0.001 km2, with a combined surface area of 131,000 km2, in the contiguous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes) and identified their regional distribution characteristics. For Alaska, we also analyzed (1) incomplete data that suggest that the state contains 1–2.5 million lakes larger than 0.001 km2 covering over 50,000 km2 and (2) localized high-resolution (5 m) data that suggest that the number of very small water bodies ( 0.001 km2 in some areas. The Pareto distribution cannot accurately describe the lake abundance-size relationship across the entire size spectrum, and extrapolation of this density function to small size classes has likely resulted in the overestimation of the number of small lakes in the world. While small water bodies dominate in terms of numbers, they are not numerous enough to dominate in terms of surface area, as has been previously suggested. Extending our results to the global scale suggests that there are on the order of 64 million water bodies larger than 0.001 km2 in the world, with a total surface area of approximately 3.8 million km2.

  9. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  10. The relation of CT-determined tumor parameters and local and regional outcome of tonsillar cancer after definitive radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, Robert; Op de beeck, Katya; Bogaert, Walter van den; Rijnders, Alexis; Staelens, Lorenzo; Feron, Michel; Bellon, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of CT-derived tumor parameters as predictor of local and regional outcome of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment CT studies of 112 patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. After redigitizing the films, primary and nodal tumor volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. The nodal CT aspect was graded using a 3-point scale (homogenous, inhomogeneous, and necrotic). Mean follow-up time was 33 months. Actuarial statistical analysis of local and regional outcome was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: In the actuarial analysis, CT-determined primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (p<0.05) when all patients were considered, but primary tumor volume did not predict local control within the T2, T3, and T4 category. CT-determined nodal volume was significantly related to regional outcome (p<0.01), but nodal density was not. Total tumor volume was not significantly related to locoregional outcome (p=0.1). In the multivariate analysis, the T and N categories were the independent predictors of local and regional outcomes, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to other head-and-neck sites, primary and nodal tumor volume have only marginal predictive value regarding local and regional outcome after radiation therapy in tonsillar cancer

  11. EMERGENCE OF GRANULAR-SIZED MAGNETIC BUBBLES THROUGH THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. III. THE PATH TO THE TRANSITION REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Ada; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Pontieu, Bart De; Carlsson, Mats; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Rubio, Luis Ramón Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apdo. 3040, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz, E-mail: ada@astro.uio.no [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-10

    We study, for the first time, the ascent of granular-sized magnetic bubbles from the solar photosphere through the chromosphere into the transition region and above. Such events occurred in a flux emerging region in NOAA 11850 on 2013 September 25. During that time, the first co-observing campaign between the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spacecraft was carried out. Simultaneous observations of the chromospheric H α 656.28 nm and Ca ii 854.2 nm lines, plus the photospheric Fe i 630.25 nm line, were made with the CRISP spectropolarimeter at the Spitzer Space Telescope ( SST ) reaching a spatial resolution of 0.″14. At the same time, IRIS was performing a four-step dense raster of the emerging flux region, taking slit jaw images at 133 (C ii, transition region), 140 (Si iv, transition region), 279.6 (Mg ii k, core, upper chromosphere), and 283.2 nm (Mg ii k, wing, photosphere). Spectroscopy of several lines was performed by the IRIS spectrograph in the far- and near-ultraviolet, of which we have used the Si iv 140.3 and the Mg ii k 279.6 nm lines. Coronal images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory were used to investigate the possible coronal signatures of the flux emergence events. The photospheric and chromospheric properties of small-scale emerging magnetic bubbles have been described in detail in Ortiz et al. Here we are able to follow such structures up to the transition region. We describe the properties, including temporal delays, of the observed flux emergence in all layers. We believe this may be an important mechanism of transporting energy and magnetic flux from subsurface layers to the transition region and corona.

  12. Interaction between local and regional pollution during Escompte 2001: impact on surface ozone concentrations (IOP2a and 2b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, F.; Tulet, P.; Rosset, R.

    2005-03-01

    Escompte, a European programme which took place in the Marseille region in June-July 2001, has been designed as an exhaustive database to be used for the development and validation of air pollution models. The air quality Mesoscale NonHydrostatic Chemistry model (Meso-NH-C) is used to simulate 2 days of an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) documented during the Escompte campaign, June 23 and 24, 2001. We first study the synoptic and local meteorological situation on June 23 and 24, using surface and aircraft measurements. Then, we focus on the pollution episode of June 24. This study emphasizes the deep impact of synoptic and local dynamics on observed ozone concentrations. It is shown that ozone levels are due both to regional and local factors, with highlights of the importance of ozone layering. More generally this confirms, even in an otherwise predominant local sea-breeze regime, the need to consider larger scale regional pollutant transport.

  13. The Hawkesbury-Nepean region: has the optimum population size been exceeded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Pearson, B

    1995-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government has not included population size as an intersectoral component of the environmentally sustainable development process. The aim of this article is to show how water quality is a key indicator of environmental degradation and of declines in the quality of life. This study is an analysis of the environmental impacts of population on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River System and of the costs involved in change. Environmental degradation is viewed as the result of population size, per capita consumption, the quality of technology, and the organization of space and technology. The quantity and quality of freshwater systems are considered to be useful indicators of environmental degradation over large spatial areas because the impacts are associated with both land and water environments. The catchment area of this river system covers about 231,730 sq. km (68% bushland, 5% urban, 25% agricultural, and 0.1% industrial). About 45% of the land area is protected due to six dams, which provide 98% of water used in Sydney, Illawarra, and the Blue Mountains. Estimated population usage is 600,000-700,000 people. River flows are modified by dams, sewage discharges, water abstractions, and urban run-off from development. River use includes tourism, fishing, and recreation. The system suffers from severe eutrophication, bacterial contamination, toxic pollution, and hypoxia. The conclusion was reached after many years of concern that large-scale development should be deferred. However, housing plans continue for a 70% population increase by 2008. Sewage treatment improvements are costly. Alternatives are re-use of effluents ($2.5-3.5 billion for nonpotable use and $4-4.5 billion for potable use), diversion to the ocean ($3 billion), zero river discharge ($8400 per property for installation and $700 per annum maintenance), or inland disposal ($19 billion). Environmental protection efforts are also costly: $45 million worth of water for flushing away an algal

  14. Diagnostic value of static MR imaging of soft tissue tumours including lesion size, borders and local extend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacikowska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of MR imaging in the evaluation of the degree of soft tissue malignancy is widely discussed. The aim of this study was to analyse the diagnostic value of MR imaging in the evaluation of local progression of soft tissue tumours and to analyse the usefulness of MR imaging in the differential diagnosis (malignant versus benign lesions). One hundred and ten patients with soft tissue tumours were examined by MR imaging (60 men and 50 women, aged 16 to 84 years). MR imaging was carried out with an Elscint 2T or 0.5T unit. Surface coils (passive) or circular polarized coils (active) depending on the localisation of the lesions were used with field vision from 20x24 cm or 40x40 cm, matrices 200x256, 256x256, or 22x315, layer thickness from 3 to 10 mm, gap 20-30%. SE T1 sequences (TR = 500 - 800 ms, TE = 15 - 20 ms) and FSE T2 (Tr = 2000-4500 ms, TE = 96-104 ms) were routinely used in at least two planes: transverse, frontal or saggital, and SE T1 sequences were used after administration of gadolinium Gd-DTPA in 0.1 m - 0.2 mmol/kg body weigh doses. The tumour dimensions by MR imaging were compared with the results of histological examination of samples obtained during surgery (65 cases) - the statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, with statistically significant difference accepted at p = 0.05 or less. The borders of the lesions were assessed in the entire material and in the group of 65 patients treated surgically. The latter were compared with the results of histological examination after surgery, thus calculating MR sensitivity and specificity. Static imaging is a valuable diagnostic method for preoperative assesment of the local progression of soft tissue tumours, however it is not suitable for differentiating malignant lesions from benign according to tumour size, borders and local extent. (author)

  15. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  16. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  17. To what extent does not wearing shoes affect the local dynamic stability of walking?: effect size and intrasession repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Philippe; Reynard, Fabienne

    2014-04-01

    Local dynamic stability (stability) quantifies how a system responds to small perturbations. Several experimental and clinical findings have highlighted the association between gait stability and fall risk. Walking without shoes is known to slightly modify gait parameters. Barefoot walking may cause unusual sensory feedback to individuals accustomed to shod walking, and this may affect stability. The objective was therefore to compare the stability of shod and barefoot walking in healthy individuals and to analyze the intrasession repeatability. Forty participants traversed a 70 m indoor corridor wearing normal shoes in one trial and walking barefoot in a second trial. Trunk accelerations were recorded with a 3D-accelerometer attached to the lower back. The stability was computed using the finite-time maximal Lyapunov exponent method. Absolute agreement between the forward and backward paths was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Barefoot walking did not significantly modify the stability as compared with shod walking (average standardized effect size: +0.11). The intrasession repeatability was high (ICC: 0.73-0.81) and slightly higher in barefoot walking condition (ICC: 0.81-0.87). Therefore, it seems that barefoot walking can be used to evaluate stability without introducing a bias as compared with shod walking, and with a sufficient reliability.

  18. When local extinction and colonization of river fishes can be predicted by regional occupancy: the role of spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bergerot

    Full Text Available Predicting which species are likely to go extinct is perhaps one of the most fundamental yet challenging tasks for conservation biologists. This is particularly relevant for freshwater ecosystems which tend to have the highest proportion of species threatened with extinction. According to metapopulation theories, local extinction and colonization rates of freshwater subpopulations can depend on the degree of regional occupancy, notably due to rescue effects. However, relationships between extinction, colonization, regional occupancy and the spatial scales at which they operate are currently poorly known.And Findings: We used a large dataset of freshwater fish annual censuses in 325 stream reaches to analyse how annual extinction/colonization rates of subpopulations depend on the regional occupancy of species. For this purpose, we modelled the regional occupancy of 34 fish species over the whole French river network and we tested how extinction/colonization rates could be predicted by regional occupancy described at five nested spatial scales. Results show that extinction and colonization rates depend on regional occupancy, revealing existence a rescue effect. We also find that these effects are scale dependent and their absolute contribution to colonization and extinction tends to decrease from river section to larger basin scales.In terms of management, we show that regional occupancy quantification allows the evaluation of local species extinction/colonization dynamics and reduction of local extinction risks for freshwater fish species implies the preservation of suitable habitats at both local and drainage basin scales.

  19. When local extinction and colonization of river fishes can be predicted by regional occupancy: the role of spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerot, Benjamin; Hugueny, Bernard; Belliard, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Predicting which species are likely to go extinct is perhaps one of the most fundamental yet challenging tasks for conservation biologists. This is particularly relevant for freshwater ecosystems which tend to have the highest proportion of species threatened with extinction. According to metapopulation theories, local extinction and colonization rates of freshwater subpopulations can depend on the degree of regional occupancy, notably due to rescue effects. However, relationships between extinction, colonization, regional occupancy and the spatial scales at which they operate are currently poorly known. And Findings: We used a large dataset of freshwater fish annual censuses in 325 stream reaches to analyse how annual extinction/colonization rates of subpopulations depend on the regional occupancy of species. For this purpose, we modelled the regional occupancy of 34 fish species over the whole French river network and we tested how extinction/colonization rates could be predicted by regional occupancy described at five nested spatial scales. Results show that extinction and colonization rates depend on regional occupancy, revealing existence a rescue effect. We also find that these effects are scale dependent and their absolute contribution to colonization and extinction tends to decrease from river section to larger basin scales. In terms of management, we show that regional occupancy quantification allows the evaluation of local species extinction/colonization dynamics and reduction of local extinction risks for freshwater fish species implies the preservation of suitable habitats at both local and drainage basin scales.

  20. Regional and local meteorology influences high-resolution tropospheric ozone concentration in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzoukis, S.; Jenerette, D.; Chandler, M.; Wang, J.; Ge, C.; Ripplinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban air quality and climate directly affect resident health. The Los Angeles (LA) Basin is a highly populated metropolitan area, with widespread point sources of ozone (O3) precursors (NOx , Volatile Organic Compounds, CO) from fossil fuel combustion. The LA basin exists on a coast-to-mountain gradient, with increasing temperatures towards the Transverse Ranges, which rise to 1700m. Frequently not compliant with 8-hour O3 standards, the LA and South Coast Air Basins are designated as severe and extreme non-attainment areas. Summer weather in the LA basin is characterized by a persistent high pressure system, creating an inversion that traps air pollutants, including O3 precursors, coupled with physical geography that blocks prevailing upper atmosphere air flow. These interactions make neighborhood-level O3 levels more variable than common regional models. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated the importance of local meteorology, wind patterns and air temperature, in transporting and mixing ozone precursors from point sources along the coast-to-mountain gradient. We deployed a network of six EPA federal equivalent method ozone and meteorological sensors in three campaigns in the LA basin along the coast-to-mountain transect. Each campaign, we collaborated with citizen scientists to deploy three sensor stations in two, 4 km2 quadrats, for a total of six high-resolution 4 km2 pixels. O3 concentrations vary greatly along the transect. At the coastal sites, daily O3 ranges from 0ppm to 60ppm and the range increases at the inland sites, to 100ppm. At all sites, there was a positive relationship between wind speed, air temperature, and O3 concentration, with increasing correlation inland. The Pearson correlation coefficient between wind speed and O3 concentration doubles from the coast to inland, and triples between air temperature and O3. The site-specific relationships between O3 and wind direction and temperature vary, suggesting neighborhood-effects from local

  1. Microstimulation of the lumbar DRG recruits primary afferent neurons in localized regions of lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Christopher A; Fisher, Lee E; Gaunt, Robert A; Weber, Douglas J

    2016-07-01

    Patterned microstimulation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) has been proposed as a method for delivering tactile and proprioceptive feedback to amputees. Previous studies demonstrated that large- and medium-diameter afferent neurons could be recruited separately, even several months after implantation. However, those studies did not examine the anatomical localization of sensory fibers recruited by microstimulation in the DRG. Achieving precise recruitment with respect to both modality and receptive field locations will likely be crucial to create a viable sensory neuroprosthesis. In this study, penetrating microelectrode arrays were implanted in the L5, L6, and L7 DRG of four isoflurane-anesthetized cats instrumented with nerve cuff electrodes around the proximal and distal branches of the sciatic and femoral nerves. A binary search was used to find the recruitment threshold for evoking a response in each nerve cuff. The selectivity of DRG stimulation was characterized by the ability to recruit individual distal branches to the exclusion of all others at threshold; 84.7% (n = 201) of the stimulation electrodes recruited a single nerve branch, with 9 of the 15 instrumented nerves recruited selectively. The median stimulation threshold was 0.68 nC/phase, and the median dynamic range (increase in charge while stimulation remained selective) was 0.36 nC/phase. These results demonstrate the ability of DRG microstimulation to achieve selective recruitment of the major nerve branches of the hindlimb, suggesting that this approach could be used to drive sensory input from localized regions of the limb. This sensory input might be useful for restoring tactile and proprioceptive feedback to a lower-limb amputee. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  3. Diagnosis and fine localization of deletion region in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tao-Yun; Chia, David; Wang, Jing-Min; Wu, Ye; Li, Jie; Xiao, Jing; Jiang, Yu-Wu

    2010-07-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) results from the partial deletion of 4p. This study aimed to identify and fine map the chromosome deletion regions of Chinese children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome among the developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR) patients. We analyzed the relationship of phenotype and genotype. Inclusion criteria were: moderate to severe DD/MR, no definite perinatal brain injury, and no trauma, toxication, hypoxia, infection of central nervous system; routine karyotyping was normal, no evidence of typical inherited metabolic disorder or specific neurodegenerative disorders from cranial neuro-imaging and blood/urinary metabolic diseases screening; no mutation of FMR1 in male patients, no typical clinical manifestation of Rett syndrome in female patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 assays were applied to accurately define the exact size of subtelomeric aberration region of four WHS patients. All four WHS patients presented with severe DD, hypotonia and microcephaly, failure to thrive, 3/4 patients with typical facial features and seizures, 2/4 patients with congenital heart defects and cleft lip/palate, 1/4 patients with other malformations. The length of the deletions ranged from 3.3 Mb to 9.8 Mb. Two of four patients had "classic" WHS, 1/4 patients had "mild"-to-"classic" WHS, and 1/4 patients had "mild" WHS. WHS patients in China appear to be consistent with those previously reported. The prevalence of signs and symptoms, distribution of cases between "mild" and "classic" WHS, and the correlation between length of deletion and severity of disease of these patients were all similar to those of the patients from other populations.

  4. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  5. Three-dimensional crustal structure for the Mendocino Triple Junction region from local earthquake travel times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, D.; Zandt, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-10

    The large-scale, three-dimensional geometry of the Mendocino Triple Junction at Cape Mendocino, California, was investigated by inverting nearly 19,000 P wave arrival times from over 1400 local earthquakes to estimate the three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocentral parameters. A velocity grid 175 km (N-S) by 125 km (E-W) centered near Garberville, California, was constructed with 25 km horizontal and 5 km vertical node spacing. The model was well resolved near Cape Mendocino, where the earthquakes and stations are concentrated. At about 40.6{degrees}N latitude a high-velocity gradient between 6.5 and 7.5 km/s dips gently to the south and east from about 15 km depth near the coast. Relocated hypocenters concentrate below this high gradient which the authors interpret as the oceanic crust of the subducted Gorda Plate. Therefore the depth to the top of the Gorda Plate near Cape Mendocino is interpreted to be {approximately} 15 km. The Gorda Plate appears intact and dipping {approximately}8{degrees} eastward due to subduction and flexing downward 6{degrees}-12{degrees} to the south. Both hypocenters and velocity structure suggest that the southern edge of the plate intersects the coastline at 40.3{degrees}N latitude and maintains a linear trend 15{degrees} south of east to at least 123{degrees}W longitude. The top of a large low-velocity region at 20-30 km depth extends about 50 km N-S and 75 km E-W (roughly between Garberville and Covelo) and is located above and south of the southern edge of the Gorda Plate. The authors interpret this low velocity area to be locally thickened crust (8-10 km) due to either local compressional forces associated with north-south compression caused by the northward impingement of the rigid Pacific Plate or by underthrusting of the base of the accretionary subduction complex at the southern terminous of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. 66 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Regiones ganadoras y regiones perdedoras en el retorno de la democracia en Chile: poderes locales y desequilibrios territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Szary

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The author discusses the regional policies implemented in Chile since the 1960's, emphasizing the practices of the last governments, where an important process of transition has occurred in regional matters (Aylwin, 1990-1994; Frei, 1994- . The analysis is centered on political and economical dimensions, allowing the author to propose a new definition on the fonctionning of the region in Chile, in the frame of globalization processes, introducing a critical question on the traditional territorial equilibrium which is practiced today

  7. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation.

  8. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Baum

    Full Text Available Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers, however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation.

  9. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I.; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  10. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated that the ......The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated...... that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...

  11. Impact of radioguided occult lesion localization on the correct excision of malignant breast lesions. Effect of histology and tumor size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, J.P.P.; Garcia Vicente, A.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, B.; Delgado Portela, M.; Cordero Garcia, J.M.; Pardo Garcia, R.; Molino Trinidad, C.; Soriano Castrejon, A.M.; Cortes Romera, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in the correct location and excision of malignant breast lesions, and analyze if these results are affected by the histology and tumor size. A total of 105 patients with occult breast lesions were studied. The mean age was 55 years. An intralesional dose of 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-labeled macroaggregated human albumin (AMA) was administered using stereotaxic mammography or ultrasound. Surgical resection was carried out with the help of a gammadetector probe. In the histological study, disease-free margin was defined by a distance between the tumor lesion and the surgical margin of more than 1 mm. The possible influence of tumor histology and lesion diameter with respect to free/affected margins was analyzed. Correct radiotracer placement was achieved in 100/105 of the cases (95.2%). In the remaining 5 cases (4.8%), radiotracer placement was incorrect, with 2 of them being malignant lesions that were found by macroscopic inspection, and the other 3 having benign pathology. Among the malignant lesions (44 cases), correct placement of the radiotracer was achieved in 42 cases (95.5%). Of these 42 malignant lesions, in which the ROLL was correctly performed, free surgical margins were obtained in 24 cases (57.1%), while the other 18 (42.9%) had infiltrated surgical margins. The most common histological type among the malignant lesions was invasive ductal carcinoma (71.4%). The histological types with an increased frequency of infiltration of surgical margins were invasive and microinvasive cancer (94.4%). All the affected margins were in lesions greater than 10 mm, and the highest incidence was in those between 20 and 30 mm (55.5%). In our experience, the advantages of the ROLL technique are a precise localization of malignant breast lesions (95.5%) and an increased probability of a complete excision with free margins in more than one half of them. Nevertheless, special

  12. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  13. Actividades predominantes a nivel nacional, regional y local de las PyMEs industriales argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roark, Geraldina Yesica

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La creciente importancia e interés que han ido adquiriendo las Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (PyMEs en la actividad económica del país, ha originado la realización de diversos estudios, tanto de instituciones públicas como privadas, que a través de encuestas y registros han caracterizado diferentes temáticas para este tipo de empresas.En este contexto, el Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial de la Facultad de Ingeniería, perteneciente a la Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA, ubicado en la ciudad de Olavarría, se encuentra actualmente desarrollando un proyecto de investigación denominado "Cadena de valor e impacto de las actividades clave en la conducta competitiva de las PyMEs" con el objeto de evaluar sus cadenas de valor y generar propuestas de mejora que impacten positivamente en su competitividad y sustentabilidad en el sector al que pertenecen. Consecuentemente, la relevancia del presente estudio se focaliza en determinar las actividades predominantes de las PyMEs argentinas, a nivel nacional, regional y local, de forma tal de fundamentar la elección de la población objeto de estudio del citado proyecto.

  14. ACTIVIDADES PREDOMINANTES A NIVEL NACIONAL, REGIONAL Y LOCAL DE LAS PYMES INDUSTRIALES ARGENTINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldina Yesica Roark

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La creciente importancia e interés que han ido adquiriendo las Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (PyMEs en la actividad económica del país, ha originado la realización de diversos estudios, tanto de instituciones públicas como privadas, que a través de encuestas y registros han caracterizado diferentes temáticas para este tipo de empresas.En este contexto, el Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial de la Facultad de Ingeniería, perteneciente a la Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNCPBA, ubicado en la ciudad de Olavarría, se encuentra actualmente desarrollando un proyecto de investigación denominado ¨Cadena de valor e impacto de las actividades clave en la conducta competitiva de las PyMEs¨ con el objeto de evaluar sus cadenas de valor y generar propuestas de mejora que impacten positivamente en su competitividad y sustentabilidad en el sector al que pertenecen. Consecuentemente, la relevancia del presente estudio se focaliza en determinar las actividades predominantes de las PyMEs argentinas, a nivel nacional, regional y local, de forma tal de fundamentar la elección de la población objeto de estudio del citado proyecto.

  15. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: Implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Emma; Sandin, Leonard; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  16. THE PERCEPTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN THE REGION CRISANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ment, on the development of this economic activities. We believe that a revision of an important part of approaches that have appeared in the literature in terms of the concept of rural tourism, in terms of methods of analysis of tourism activities and, not least, requiring the use modern techniques for foresight indicators by which to make assessments on these activities.From the literature we can draw a number of conditions necessary for the development of rural tourism and a number of motivations for its support.Implement policies and travel plans is the responsibility of both the administration and the private sector entrepreneurs. The public sector is responsible for policy formulation, research and planning, development of basic infrastructure, the development of certain landmarks, establishing and managing service delivery standards, establishing management measures and recovery planning and environmental protection, setting standards for training and maintaining public health and safety. The private sector is responsible for development of accommodation services, travel agency, the specific activity of commercial enterprises with tourism development and promotion of tourist attractions through specific marketing activities, based on existing infrastructure provided by government public.In this paper we try to find the difficulties, limitations of rural tourism development in Crisana region from perspective of local government.

  17. Impact of local adaptation measures and regional climate change on perceived temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoetter, Robert; Grawe, David; Hoffmann, Peter; Kirschner, Peter; Heinke Schluenzen, K. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Graetz, Angelika [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Freiburg (Germany). Zentrum fuer Medizin-Meteorologische Forschung

    2013-04-15

    The perceived temperature (PT) is a measure for the quantification of human thermal comfort developed by the German Meteorological Service (DWD). In the present article, the sensitivity of PT on air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed, mean radiant temperature, street canyon width, and building heights is investigated. The mesoscale atmospheric model METRAS is integrated for a domain covering the city of Hamburg at 250 m horizontal resolution to calculate the meteorological input data for PT. The sensitivities of PT are determined by automatic differentiation of the basic DWD program. The sensitivities show how local adaptation measures and regional climate change can influence PT. The sensitivities also allow to estimate how accurate different input variables need to be known in order to achieve a desired accuracy in PT. The results are discussed in detail for 10 June 2007, a cloudless day with advection of warm air masses from south-east. A comparison with results obtained for different synoptic situations during summer is made. The sensitivities of PT on air temperature, water vapour pressure and mean radiant temperature are higher during warm and humid conditions than in situations with thermal comfort. The sensitivity of PT on wind speed is highest for low wind speeds. Around noon, increasing the building heights by 5 m can reduce PT up to 2.4 K due to shading effects in street canyons with aspect ratios above 0.5. After sunset, increasing the building heights by 5 m tends to moderately increase PT due to increased longwave radiation. (orig.)

  18. Zone-size nonuniformity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET regional textural features predicts survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Keelung (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Fang, Yu-Hua Dean [Chang Gung University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taiyuan (China); Lee, Li-yu [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Yang, Lan-Yan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Ching-Han [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan (China); Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2014-10-23

    The question as to whether the regional textural features extracted from PET images predict prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains open. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of regional heterogeneity in patients with T3/T4 OPSCC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 88 patients with T3 or T4 OPSCC who had completed primary therapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were the main outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis, a standardized uptake value of 2.5 (SUV 2.5) was taken as the cut-off value for the detection of tumour boundaries. A fixed threshold at 42 % of the maximum SUV (SUV{sub max} 42 %) and an adaptive threshold method were then used for validation. Regional textural features were extracted from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images using the grey-level run length encoding method and grey-level size zone matrix. The prognostic significance of PET textural features was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analysis. Zone-size nonuniformity (ZSNU) was identified as an independent predictor of PFS and DSS. Its prognostic impact was confirmed using both the SUV{sub max} 42 % and the adaptive threshold segmentation methods. Based on (1) total lesion glycolysis, (2) uniformity (a local scale texture parameter), and (3) ZSNU, we devised a prognostic stratification system that allowed the identification of four distinct risk groups. The model combining the three prognostic parameters showed a higher predictive value than each variable alone. ZSNU is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC, and may improve their prognostic stratification. (orig.)

  19. Sediment grain-size characteristics and relevant correlations to the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlai; Shen, Yaping; Li, Qing; Jia, Wenru; Li, Jiao; Wang, Xuesong

    2018-06-15

    To identify characteristics of aeolian activity and the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region, this study collected surface sediment samples from the main desert and sandy lands in this region: the Hobq Desert and the Mu Us, Otindag, Horqin, and Hulunbuir sandy lands. We analyzed the grain-size characteristics and their relationships to three key environmental indicators: drift potential, the dune mobility index, and vegetation cover. The main sediment components are fine to medium sands, with poor (Hulunbuir) to moderate (all other areas) sorting, of unimodal to bimodal distribution. This suggests that improved sorting is accomplished by the loss of both relatively coarser and finer grains. Since 2000, China's eastern desert region has generally experienced low wind energy environmental conditions, resulting in decreased dune activity. In the Hobq Desert, however, the dry climate and sparse vegetation, in conjunction with the most widely distributed mobile dune area in the eastern desert region, have led to frequent and intense aeolian activity, including wind erosion, sand transport, and deposition, resulting in conditions for good sediment sorting. In the Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin sandy lands, mosaic distribution has resulted from wind erosion-dominated and deposition-dominated aeolian environments. In the Hulunbuir Sandy Land, high precipitation, low temperatures, and steppe vegetation have resulted in well-developed soils; however, strong winds and flat terrain have created an aeolian environment dominated by wind erosion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  1. Regional climate, local climate and ozone air pollution in Tours and Orleans cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelot, M.

    2006-10-01

    The importance of the relations between climate and the air pollution justifies the interest related to the role of the urban heat island of heat with respect to the night persistence of ozone in urban environment. When the days are favourable with important ozone concentrations, the agglomerations of the area observe a dynamics day laborer of ozone different from that observed in rural environment. The study is undertaken on the towns of Turns and Orleans where the observations of Lig'Air revealed a night persistence of ozone whereas the concentrations drop more quickly in periphery. This phenomenon is remarkable during the little broken down anticyclonic days. The region region Centre is a ground of study privileged for ozone because of its situation in the south-west of the Island of France rich in precursors of ozone. When flow is of continental origin, the Centre area is found then under the influence of the Paris area. The investigation of a study of the air pollution must take into account the notes of the regional climate and local climate. Several preliminary studies must intervene to answer our principal problems. First of all a descriptive study of the regional climate is carried out with the participation of Meteo-France. The current absence of climatic atlas as well as the many disparities of the climate related to extended from the territory partly justify the interest of our study. The regional approach of the climate is also essential for the continuation of work on a finer scale on the agglomerations of Turns and Orleans in order to detect the urban heat island of heat there. Collaboration with Meteo-France and Lig'Air made it possible to establish a satisfying network of measurement making it possible to obtain notable thermal differences between the downtown area and the surrounding rural environment. The correlation between meteorology and the proven air pollution leads us to establish the climatology of ozone. Many are the studies having

  2. Local and regional species diversity of benthic Isopoda (Crustacea) in the deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George D. F.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies of deep-sea faunas considered the influence of mid-domain models in the distribution of species diversity and richness with depth. In this paper, I show that separating local diversity from regional species richness in benthic isopods clarifies mid-domain effects in the distribution of isopods in the Gulf of Mexico. Deviations from the randomised implied species ranges can be informative to understanding general patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. The isopods from the GoMB study contained 135 species, with a total of 156 species including those from an earlier study. More than 60 species may be new to science. Most families of deep-sea isopods (suborder Asellota) were present, although some were extremely rare. The isopod family Desmosomatidae dominated the samples, and one species of Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) was found in many samples. Species richness for samples pooled within sites ranged from 1 to 52 species. Because species in pooled samples were highly correlated with individuals, species diversity was compared across sites using the expected species estimator ( n=15 individuals, ES 15). Six depth transects had idiosyncratic patterns of ES 15, and transects with the greatest short-range variation in topography, such as basins and canyons, had the greatest short-range disparity. Basins on the deep slope did not have a consistent influence (i.e., relatively higher or lower than surrounding areas) on the comparative species diversity. ES 15 of all transects together showed a weak mid-domain effect, peaking around 1200-1500 m, with low values at the shallowest and deepest samples (Sigsbee Abyssal Plain); no longitudinal (east-west) pattern was found. The regional species pool was analyzed by summing the implied ranges of all species. The species ranges in aggregate did not have significant patterns across longitudes, and many species had broad depth ranges, suggesting that the isopod fauna of the Gulf of Mexico is well dispersed. The summed

  3. Finite-size effects on electronic structure and local properties in passivated AA -stacked bilayer armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiongwen; Shi, Zhengang; Xiang, Shaohua; Song, Kehui; Zhou, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Based on the tight-binding model and dual-probe scanning tunneling microscopy technology, we theoretically investigate the electronic structure and local property in the passivated AA -stacked bilayer armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (AABLAGNRs). We show that they are highly sensitive to the size of the ribbons, which is evidently different from the single-layer armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons. The ‘3 p ’ rule only applies to the narrow AABLGNRs. Namely, in the passivated 3 p - and (3 p   +  1)-AABLGNRs, the narrow ribbons are semiconducting while the medium and wide ribbons are metallic. Although the passivated (3 p   +  2)-AABLGNRs are metallic, the ‘3 j ’ rule only applies to the narrow and medium ribbons. Namely, electrons are in the semiconducting states at sites of line 3 j while they are in the metallic states at other sites. This induces a series of parallel and discrete metallic channels, consisting of lines 3 j   −  1 and 3 j   −  2, for the low-energy electronic transports. In the passivated wide (3 p   +  2)-AABLGNRs, all electrons are in the metallic states. Additionally, the ‘3 p ’ and ‘3 j ’ rules are controllable to disappear and reappear by applying an external perpendicular electric field. Resultantly, an electric filed-driven current switch can be realized in the passivated narrow and medium (3 p   +  2)-AABLGNRs. (paper)

  4. An educational international partnership responding to local needs: process evaluation of the Brazil FAIMER Regional Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, E; Campos, H H; Friedman, S; Morahan, P S; Araujo, M N T; Carvalho, P M; Bollela, V; Ribeiro, M G F; Mennin, S; Haddad, A E; Campos, F

    2012-11-01

    The Brazilian public health system requires competent professionals sensitive to the needs of the population. The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) provides a two-year faculty development programme for health professions educators, aiming to build leadership in education to improve health. A partnership with governmental initiatives and FAIMER was established for meeting these needs. This paper describes the initial process evaluation results of the Brazilian FAIMER Institute Fellowship (FAIMER BR). Data were analysed for the classes 2007-2010 regarding: application processes; innovation project themes; retrospective post-pre self-ratings of knowledge acquisition; and professional development portfolios. Seventeen of 26 Brazilian states were represented among 98 Fellows, predominantly from public medical schools (75.5%) and schools awarded Ministry of Health grants to align education with public health services (89.8%). One-third (n = 32) of Fellows' innovation projects were related to these grants. Significant increases occurred in all topic subscales on self-report of knowledge acquisition (effect sizes, 1.21-2.77). In the follow up questionnaire, 63% of Fellows reported that their projects were incorporated into the curriculum or institutional policies. The majority reported that the programme deepened their knowledge (98%), provided new ideas about medical education (90%) and provided skills for conflict management (63%). One-half of the Fellows reported sustained benefits from the programme listserv and other communications, including breadth of expertise, establishment of research collaboration and receiving emotional support. Contributors to initial programme success included alignment of curriculum with governmental initiatives, curriculum design merging educational technology, leadership and management skills and central role of an innovation educational project responding to local needs.

  5. Changes in behavioural responses to infrastructure affect local and regional connectivity – a simulation study on pond breeding amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    An extensive and expanding infrastructural network destroys and fragments natural habitat and has detrimental effect on abundance and population viability of many amphibian species. Roads function as barriers in the landscape. They separate local populations from each other or prevent access...... to necessary resources. Therefore, road density and traffic intensity in a region may have severe impact on regional as well as local connectivity. Amphibians may be able to detect and avoid unsuitable habitat. Individuals’ ability to avoid roads can reduce road mortality but at the same time road...... avoidance behaviour, can increase the barrier effect of the road and reduce connectivity. We use an individual based model to explore how changes in road mortality and road avoidance behaviour affect local and regional connectivity in a population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis). The results indicate that road...

  6. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectan...

  7. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  8. Landscape change and conservation priorities: Mexican herpetofaunal perspectives at local and regional scales Cambios en el paisaje y prioridades de conservación: una perspectiva herpetofaunística mexicana a escalas local y regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jesús Sigala-Rodríguez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have demonstrated historical human impact on biodiversity at local and regional scales, largely due to lack of baseline information and long term monitoring for most taxa. In 1958 and 1959 researchers from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ visited the Mexican state of Aguascalientes and increased its documented amphibian and reptile fauna from 21 to 30 species. Using MVZ collections, field notes, and landscape photographs taken during that expedition, we resurveyed those same localities in 2004 to document herpetofaunal changes coincident with greatly increased human activities. Despite its small area, Aguascalientes encompasses several biogeographic regions and the threat of local extinction at species' distributional limits has broader implications for regional biotas. New discoveries raise to 71 the number of species known for that state, but our comparisons suggest a gloomy future for amphibians and reptiles in Aguascalientes. Paradoxically, human impact is managed primarily at state and municipal levels, often devoid of locally relevant context. Our findings illustrate the conservation value of intensive small-scale studies, focused on the natural history of particular species and localities, as complements to large-scale biodiversity assessments on country wide and continental scales.Pocos estudios han demostrado el impacto humano histórico en la biodiversidad a escalas local y regional debido a la carencia de monitoreo para la mayoría de los grupos taxonómicos. En 1958 y 1959 investigadores del Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ visitaron Aguascalientes, México y elevaron de 21 hasta 30 el número de especies de anfibios y reptiles para el estado. Usando la colección, notas de campo y fotografías de paisaje tomadas durante esas expediciones, visitamos esas localidades en 2004 para documentar cambios en la herpetofauna asociados con el incremento en actividades humanas. En Aguascalientes se encuentran varias regiones

  9. Changes in public health preparedness services provided to local health departments by regional offices in North Carolina: a comparison of two cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Catherine V; Markiewicz, Milissa; Horney, Jennifer A

    2014-05-28

    In 2011, seven decentralized Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) were restructured into four centralized Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHP&R) regional offices to realign preparedness priorities and essential services with appropriate infrastructure; field-based staff was reduced, saving approximately $1 million. The objective of this study was to understand the impact that restructuring had on services provided to local health departments (LHDs) throughout North Carolina. A survey to document services that regional offices provide to LHDs in North Carolina was administered by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in 2013. The results were compared to a similar survey from 2009, which identified services provided by regional teams prior to restructuring. Of 69 types of assistance, 14 (20%) were received by 50% or more LHDs in 2012. Compared to 2009, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of LHDs receiving 67% (n = 47) of services. The size of the region served by regional offices was shown to inversely impact the proportion of LHDs receiving services for 25% of services. There was a slight significant decline in perceived quality of the services provided by regional teams in 2012 as comparison to 2009. Following a system-wide review of preparedness in North Carolina, the state's regional teams were reorganized to refine their focus to planning, exercises, and training. Some services, most notably under the functions of epidemiology and surveillance and public health event response, are now provided by other state offices. However, the study results indicate that several services that are still under the domain of the regional offices were received by fewer LHDs in 2012 than 2009. This decrease may be due to the larger number of counties now served by the four regional offices.

  10. Effects of local geology on ground motion in the San Francisco Bay region, California—A continued study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The seismograms, Fourier amplitude spectra, spectral amplification curves for the signal, and the Fourier amplitude spectra of the seismic noise are presented for 60 locations. Analog amplifications, based on the maximum signal amplitude, are computed for an additional 39 locations. The recordings of the nuclear explosions show marked amplitude variations which are consistently related to the local geologic conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1, 1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (2.3, 2.3), for other pre-Tertiary and Tertiary rocks, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for older bay sediments, and (3.7, 11.3) for younger bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies for younger bay mud sites and for some older bay sediment sites. The predominant frequencies for most sites were not clearly defined by the amplitude spectra computed from the seismic background noise. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance Km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical rela.tion, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (MISA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment= 0.27 + 2.70 log(AHSA). Average

  11. Estimating Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR Regional and Local Suitability: A Case Study in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Gibson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing aquifers as underground water supply reservoirs is an advantageous approach applicable to meeting water management objectives. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR is a direct injection and subsequent withdrawal technology that is used to increase water supply storage through injection wells. Due to site-specific hydrogeological quantification and evaluation to assess ASR suitability, limited methods have been developed to identify suitability on regional scales that are also applicable at local scales. This paper presents an ASR site scoring system developed to qualitatively assess regional and local suitability of ASR using 9 scored metrics to determine total percent of ASR suitability, partitioned into hydrogeologic properties, operational considerations, and regulatory influences. The development and application of a qualitative water well suitability method was used to assess the potential groundwater response to injection, estimate suitability based on predesignated injection rates, and provide cumulative approximation of statewide and local storage prospects. The two methods allowed for rapid assessment of ASR suitability and its applicability to regional and local water management objectives at over 280 locations within 62 watersheds in Washington, USA. It was determined that over 50% of locations evaluated are suitable for ASR and statewide injection potential equaled 6400 million liters per day. The results also indicate current limitations and/or potential benefits of developing ASR systems at the local level with the intent of assisting local water managers in strategic water supply planning.

  12. THE SIZE AND ORIGIN OF METAL-ENRICHED REGIONS IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM FROM SPECTRA OF BINARY QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Scannapieco, Evan; Ellison, Sara L.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present tomography of the circum-galactic metal distribution at redshift 1.7-4.5 derived from echellete spectroscopy of binary quasars. We find C IV systems at similar redshifts in paired sightlines more often than expected for sightline-independent redshifts. As the separation of the sightlines increases from 36 kpc to 907 kpc, the amplitude of this clustering decreases. At the largest separations, the C IV systems cluster similar to the Lyman-break galaxies studied by Adelberger et al. in 2005. The C IV systems are significantly less correlated than these galaxies, however, at separations less than R 1 ≅ 0.42 ± 0.15 h -1 comoving Mpc. Measured in real space, i.e., transverse to the sightlines, this length scale is significantly smaller than the break scale estimated previously from the line-of-sight correlation function in redshift space by Scannapieco et al. in 2006. Using a simple model, we interpret the new real-space measurement as an indication of the typical physical size of enriched regions. We adopt this size for enriched regions and fit the redshift-space distortion in the line-of-sight correlation function. The fitted velocity kick is consistent with the peculiar velocity of galaxies as determined by the underlying mass distribution and places an upper limit on the average outflow (or inflow) speed of metals. The implied timescale for dispersing metals is larger than the typical stellar ages of Lyman-break galaxies, and we argue that enrichment by galaxies at z ≥ 4.3 played a greater role in dispersing metals. To further constrain the growth of enriched regions, we discuss empirical constraints on the evolution of the C IV correlation function with cosmic time. This study demonstrates the potential of tomography for measuring the metal enrichment history of the circum-galactic medium.

  13. Partitioning the regional and local drivers of phylogenetic and functional diversity along temperate elevational gradients on an East Asian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Bae

    2018-02-12

    Species-centric approaches to biodiversity in ecological research are limited in their ability to reflect the evolutionary history and functional diversity of community assembly. Recently, the introduction of alternative facets of biodiversity, such as phylogenetic and functional diversity, has shed light on this problem and improved our understanding of the processes underlying biodiversity patterns. Here, we investigated the phylogenetic and functional diversity patterns of α, β and γ components in woody plant assemblages along regional and local elevational gradients in South Korea. Although the patterns of phylogenetic and functional diversity varied along regional and local elevational transects, the main drivers were partitioned into two categories: regional area or climate for phylogenetic diversity, depending on whether the transect was at a regional or local scale; and habitat heterogeneity for functional diversity, which was derived in elevational bands. Moreover, environmental distance was more important than was geographic distance for phylogenetic and functional β diversity between paired elevational bands. These results support the hypothesis that niche-based deterministic processes such as environmental filtering and competitive exclusion are fundamental in structuring woody plant assemblages along temperate elevational gradients regardless of scale (regional vs. local) in our study areas.

  14. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal-González, J.; Moore, S. C.; Park, M.-A.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g. 68Ga and 124I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides 18F, 68Ga and 124I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the ‘spillover contamination’, which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, ‘hot’ sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For 18F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio  =  0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity

  15. Knock-In Mice with NOP-eGFP Receptors Identify Receptor Cellular and Regional Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Akihiko; Brunori, Gloria; Mercatelli, Daniela; Wu, Jinhua; Cippitelli, Andrea; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Williams, Melissa; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Low, Sarah; Scherrer, Grégory; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-08-19

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor, the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in many processes common to the opioid receptors including pain and drug abuse. To better characterize receptor location and trafficking, knock-in mice were created by inserting the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into the NOP receptor gene (Oprl1) and producing mice expressing a functional NOP-eGFP C-terminal fusion in place of the native NOP receptor. The NOP-eGFP receptor was present in brain of homozygous knock-in animals in concentrations somewhat higher than in wild-type mice and was functional when tested for stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding in vitro and in patch-clamp electrophysiology in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and hippocampal slices. Inhibition of morphine analgesia was equivalent when tested in knock-in and wild-type mice. Imaging revealed detailed neuroanatomy in brain, spinal cord, and DRG and was generally consistent with in vitro autoradiographic imaging of receptor location. Multicolor immunohistochemistry identified cells coexpressing various spinal cord and DRG cellular markers, as well as coexpression with μ-opioid receptors in DRG and brain regions. Both in tissue slices and primary cultures, the NOP-eGFP receptors appear throughout the cell body and in processes. These knock-in mice have NOP receptors that function both in vitro and in vivo and appear to be an exceptional tool to study receptor neuroanatomy and correlate with NOP receptor function. The NOP receptor, the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in pain, drug abuse, and a number of other CNS processes. The regional and cellular distribution has been difficult to determine due to lack of validated antibodies for immunohistochemical analysis. To provide a new tool for the investigation of receptor localization, we have produced knock-in mice with a fluorescent-tagged NOP receptor in place of the native NOP receptor. These

  16. Brain local and regional neuroglial alterations in Alzheimer's Disease: cell types, responses and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Adolfo; Álvarez, María-Isabel; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Merino, José-Joaquín; Rodríguez, José Julio

    2016-01-01

    From birth to death, neurons are dynamically accompanied by neuroglial cells in a very close morphological and functional relationship. Three families have been classically considered within the CNS: astroglia, oligodendroglia and microglia. Many types/subtypes (including NGR2+ cells), with a wide variety of physiological and pathological effects on neurons, have been described using morphological and immunocytochemical criteria. Glio-glial, glio-neuronal and neuro-glial cell signaling and gliotransmission are phenomena that are essential to support brain functions. Morphofunctional changes resulting from the plasticity of all the glial cell types parallel the plastic neuronal changes that optimize the functionality of neuronal circuits. Moreover, neuroglia possesses the ability to adopt a reactive status (gliosis) in which, generally, new functions arise to improve and restore if needed the neural functionality. All these features make neuroglial cells elements of paramount importance when attempting to explain any physiological or pathological processes in the CNS, because they are involved in both, neuroprotection/neurorepair and neurodegeneration. There exist diverse and profound, regional and local, neuroglial changes in all involutive processes (physiological and pathological aging; neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer ´s disease -AD-), but today, the exact meaning of such modifications (the modifications of the different neuroglial types, in time and place), is not well understood. In this review we consider the different neuroglial cells and their responses in order to understand the possible role they fulfill in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment (preventive or palliative) of AD. The existence of differentiated and/or concurrent pathogenic and neuro-protective/neuro-restorative astroglial and microglial responses is highlighted.

  17. The value added of conducting regional versus local stakeholder involvement in evaluating technology acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.

    1995-06-01

    Battelle has conducted a three-year effort, funded by the U. S Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, to involve stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies to clean up volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination at arid sites. Stakeholders have been encouraged to participate in the demonstration of these innovative technologies in order to improve decisions made by DOE and its contractors about technology development, demonstration, and deployment. The basic approach is to identify people and organizations with a stake in the remediation process, and hence in the demonstration of innovative technologies. Stakeholders have included public interest group and environmental group representatives, regulators, technology users, Native Americans, Hispanic community members, and local elected officials. These people are invited to be involved and they are presented with substantive information about the technologies. Their input in terms of identifying issues and concerns, defining the kinds of information needed from the demonstrations, and assessing the acceptability of the technologies for deployment, will help ensure that only broadly promising technologies are carried forward. This approach is designed to increase the likelihood of successful deployment of the new technologies needed to accomplish environmental restoration throughout the DOE complex and at private facilities. The hypothesis in conducting this regional stakeholder involvement program is that there will be different data requirements for different sites due to geographical, institutional, programmatic, and cultural differences at the sites. Identifying the broadest set of data requirements, collecting this information during the technology demonstration, and providing the results of the demonstration to stakeholders will enhance the acceptance of the technology at these sites and, thereby, enhance the technology's deployability

  18. Design of a size-efficient tunable metamaterial absorber based on leaf-shaped cell at near-infrared regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Xia, Hui; Xie, Wenke; Guo, Zhibo; Li, Hongjian

    2018-06-01

    A size-efficient tunable metamaterial absorber (MA) composed of metallic leaf-shaped cell, graphene layer, silicon substrate, and bottom metal film is investigated theoretically and numerically at near-infrared (NIR) regions. Simulation results reveal that the single-band high absorption of 91.9% is obtained at 1268.7 nm. Further results show that the single-band can be simply changed into dual-band high absorption by varying the geometric parameters of top metallic layer at same wavelength regions, yielding two high absorption coefficients of 96.6% and 95.3% at the wavelengths of 1158.7 nm and 1323.6 nm, respectively. And the effect of related geometric parameter on dual-band absorption intensities is also investigated to obtain the optimized one. The peak wavelength can be tuned via modifying the Fermi energy of the graphene layer through controlling the external gate voltage. The work shows that the proposed strategy can be applied to other design of the dual-band structure at infrared regions.

  19. The role of cluster types and firm size in designing the level of network relations: The experience of the Antalya tourism region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus Öztürk, H.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of developing global as well as local networks between tourism firms and clusters seeking to attain global competitiveness has been increasingly emphasized in previous studies. The aim of this paper is to examine the role of local and global networking in firms of different sizes and

  20. Critical assessment of the pore size distribution in the rim region of high burnup UO{sub 2} fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappia, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Pizzocri, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nuclear Engineering Division, Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milano (Italy); Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P.; Paperini, G.; Pellottiero, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Macián-Juan, R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Rondinella, V.V., E-mail: Vincenzo.RONDINELLA@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A new methodology is introduced to analyse porosity data in the high burnup structure. Image analysis is coupled with the adaptive kernel density estimator to obtain a detailed characterisation of the pore size distribution, without a-priori assumption on the functional form of the distribution. Subsequently, stereological analysis is carried out. The method shows advantages compared to the classical approach based on the histogram in terms of detail in the description and accuracy within the experimental limits. Results are compared to the approximation of a log-normal distribution. In the investigated local burnup range (80–200 GWd/tHM), the agreement of the two approaches is satisfactory. From the obtained total pore density and mean pore diameter as a function of local burnup, pore coarsening is observed starting from ≈100 GWd/tHM, in agreement with a previous investigation. - Highlights: • A new methodology to analyse porosity is introduced. • The method shows advantages compared to the histogram. • Pore density and mean diameter data vs. burnup are presented. • Pore coarsening is observed starting from ≈100 GWd/tHM.

  1. Critical assessment of the pore size distribution in the rim region of high burnup UO_2 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappia, F.; Pizzocri, D.; Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P.; Paperini, G.; Pellottiero, D.; Macián-Juan, R.; Rondinella, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced to analyse porosity data in the high burnup structure. Image analysis is coupled with the adaptive kernel density estimator to obtain a detailed characterisation of the pore size distribution, without a-priori assumption on the functional form of the distribution. Subsequently, stereological analysis is carried out. The method shows advantages compared to the classical approach based on the histogram in terms of detail in the description and accuracy within the experimental limits. Results are compared to the approximation of a log-normal distribution. In the investigated local burnup range (80–200 GWd/tHM), the agreement of the two approaches is satisfactory. From the obtained total pore density and mean pore diameter as a function of local burnup, pore coarsening is observed starting from ≈100 GWd/tHM, in agreement with a previous investigation. - Highlights: • A new methodology to analyse porosity is introduced. • The method shows advantages compared to the histogram. • Pore density and mean diameter data vs. burnup are presented. • Pore coarsening is observed starting from ≈100 GWd/tHM.

  2. Intra and inter-continental aerosol transport and local and regional impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Leona Ann Marie

    Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to establish a nationally uniform air quality index for the reporting of air quality. In 1976, the EPA established this index, then called the Pollutant Standards Index, for use by state and local communities across the country. The Index provides information on pollutant concentrations for ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. On July 18, 1997, the EPA revised the ozone and particulate matter standards, in light of a comprehensive review of new scientific evidence including refined fine particulate matter standards.* Any program which is designed to improve air quality must devise tools in which emissions, meteorology, air chemistry and transport are understood. Clearly, the complexity of this task requires measurements at both regional and mesoscale ranges, as well as on a continental scale to investigate long range transport. Unfortunately, determination of fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations is particularly difficult since an accurate measurement of PM2.5 relies on costly equipment which cannot provide the complete transport story and the mixing and dispersion of particulate matter is much more complex than that for trace gases. Besides the need for accurate measurements as a way of documenting air quality standards, the EPA is required in the near future to implement a 24 hour Air Quality Forecast. Current forecast tools are usually based on emission inventories and meteorological forecasts, but significant work is being done in trying to assimilate both ground measurements as well as satellite measurements into these schemes. Clearly, the 'Holy Grail' would be the capability of assimilating full 3D (+ time) measurements. However, since satellite measurements are primarily passive, only total air column properties such as aerosol optical depth can be retrieved. In particular, it is not possible to determine the

  3. Regional Lymph Node Uptake of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Predicts Local-Regional Failure of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovina, Stephanie [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Snyder, Bradley S. [Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Siegel, Barry A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@radonc.wustl.edu [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0235 study demonstrated that standardized uptake values (SUV) on post-treatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlated with survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This secondary analysis determined whether SUV of regional lymph nodes (RLNs) on post-treatment FDG-PET correlated with patient outcomes. Methods and Materials: Included for analysis were patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy, using radiation doses ≥60 Gy, with identifiable FDG-avid RLNs (distinct from primary tumor) on pretreatment FDG-PET, and post-treatment FDG-PET data. ACRIN core laboratory SUV measurements were used. Event time was calculated from the date of post-treatment FDG-PET. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank test), and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: Of 234 trial-eligible patients, 139 (59%) had uptake in both primary tumor and RLNs on pretreatment FDG-PET and had SUV data from post-treatment FDG-PET. Maximum SUV was greater for primary tumor than for RLNs before treatment (P<.001) but not different post-treatment (P=.320). Post-treatment SUV of RLNs was not associated with overall survival. However, elevated post-treatment SUV of RLNs, both the absolute value and the percentage of residual activity compared to the pretreatment SUV were associated with inferior local-regional control (P<.001). Conclusions: High residual metabolic activity in RLNs on post-treatment FDG-PET is associated with worse local-regional control. Based on these data, future trials evaluating a radiation therapy boost should consider inclusion of both primary tumor and FDG-avid RLNs in the boost volume to maximize local-regional

  4. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Walter Duarte de Araujo; Schneider, Fábio Kurt; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2012-09-20

    Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical applications even when regular air is used as the gas phase. Improved

  5. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho WalterDuartedeAraujo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. Methods A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. Results The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. Conclusion The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical

  6. Localization and (semi-)quantification of fluorescent beads of 2 sizes in chickens over time after simultaneous intratracheal and cloacal administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghof, T.V.L.; Lai, T.L.H.; Lammers, A.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental particles enter the chicken via several routes. Entry via the respiratory and cloacal routes likely activates immune responses. We studied the localization of simultaneous intratracheally and cloacally applied beads of 2 sizes in the chicken body in time, and when possible,

  7. Homeland Security Knowledge Management for Local Law Enforcement in the National Capital Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Deirdre I

    2005-01-01

    .... Using existing knowledge (derived primarily from the emergency management field), police agencies have worked to develop locally relevant, viable and available expertise in the developing field of HLS...

  8. LOCAL BRAND DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONALIZATION AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently Romania is in the process of regionalization whose foundations were laid in the "Green Paper regional development in Romania", elaborated under the aegis of the EU Delegation in our country. Regional development is a defining concept of EU construction and at the same time it constitutes a monitoring parameter of any country that wishes to join this structure. Not incidentally, one of the most important directions of the European Commission is called "Regional development and social cohesion”. Against the background of regional development trends, the brand of the region is the one that will make the difference. The concept of branding applied to countries, cities and regions began to be used in the mid-90s in order to support these geographical areas in their fierce competition in the competitive environment. In this era of "super-brands" is nothing unusual to consider a city, a country or a region as being a successful brand.

  9. Defining the spatial scale in modern regional analysis new challenges from data at local level

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Vázquez, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the concept of region, including techniques of ecological inference applied to estimating disaggregated data from observable aggregates. The final part presents applications in line with the functional areas definition in regional analysis.

  10. Estimating the size of the cavity and surrounding failed region for underground nuclear explosions from scaling rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Leo A [El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The fundamental physical principles involved in the formation of an underground cavity by a nuclear explosion and breakage of the rock surrounding the cavity are examined from the point of view of making preliminary estimates of their sizes where there is a limited understanding of the rock characteristics. Scaling equations for cavity formation based on adiabatic expansion are reviewed and further developed to include the strength of the material surrounding the shot point as well as the overburden above the shot point. The region of rock breakage or permanent distortion surround ing the explosion generated cavity is estimated using both the Von Mises and Coulomb-Mohr failure criteria. It is found that the ratio of the rock failure radius to the cavity radius for these two criteria becomes independent of yield and dependent only on the failure mechanics of the rock. The analytical solutions developed for the Coulomb-Mohr and Von Mises criteria are presented in graphical form. (author)

  11. Regional localization of DNA probes on the short arm of chromosome 11 using aniridia-Wilms' tumor-associated deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannens, M.; Slater, R. M.; Heyting, C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Frants, R. R.; van Ommen, G. J.; Pearson, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    We are interested in the precise localization of various DNA probes on the short arm of chromosome 11 for our research on the aniridia-Wilms' tumor association (AWTA), assigned to region 11p13 (Knudson and Strong 1972; Riccardi et al. 1978). For this purpose we have screened lymphocyte DNA and

  12. Overview of EPA tools for supporting local- and regional-scale decision makers addressing energy and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been developing tools and illustrative case studies for decision makers in local and regional authorities who are facing challenges of establishing resilience to extreme weather events, aging built environment and infrastru...

  13. Improved estimates of net primary productivity from MODIS satellite data at regional and local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough; Kenneth Clark

    2006-01-01

    We compared estimates of net primary production (NPP) from the MODIS satellite with estimates from a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-CN) and forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data for forest types of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The regional means were similar for the three methods and for the dominant oak? hickory forests in the region. However...

  14. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  15. Timing of reproduction and clutch size in Parus major and P. caeruleus in Kharkiv and Sumy regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Bondarets

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Under our supervision were on average 450 artificial nesting in different years. Studies were conducted in 2006–2014 in the conditions ofoak forestin national natural park “Homilshanski forests” (Kharkiv region (49°38' north latitude, 36°18' east longitude, pine forests in National natural park “Hetmansky” (50°22' north latitude, 35°01' east longitude and broadleaf forest natural boundary Vakalivschyna (Sumyregion (51°01' north latitude, 34°55' east longitude. We investigated 164 layings of great tits and 38 laying of blue tits. Terms of breeding of birds were determined by the date of laying of the first egg. It was found that tits began to lay eggs at steady transition of the average daily temperature over +4 ºC. Maximum amount of started layings was observed in great tits and blue tits in the conditions of the national natural park “Homilshanski forests” (average size – 12.3 ± 1.50 and 12.8 ± 1.75 eggs, respectively at +15 ºC, with the size of laying gradually decreasing with higher temperatures. Sizes of full layings in great tits (n = 164 and blue tits (n = 38 inSumyand Kharkiv regions were found. With regard to the great tit, it varies from 5 to 15 eggs being on average 10.8 ±1.93 inthe conditions of NNP “Homilshanski forests”, at natural boundary Vakalivschyna – 9.3 ± 2.33 and at NNP “Hetmansky” – 9.1 ± 2.28, while for blue tits it is equal to 5–15 eggs, i.e. 11.4 ± 2.09 on average in the conditions of NNP “Homilshanski forests”, at natural boundary Vakalivschyna – 9.3 ± 2.81 and at NNP “Hetmansky” – 10.5. Size of laying for great tits and blue tits, which prevails for each territory, has been established. The largest sizes for great tits are: 11-egg laying (10.9% in the conditions of NNP “Homilshanski forests”, 11-egg laying (12.7% dominating at the natural boundary Vakalivschyna and 9- and 10-egg laying (by 3.0% at NNP “Hetmansky”. 12-egg laying (21.0% was often found in

  16. Infrastructure and Local Agenda 21: The Municipality of Albertslund in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The Chapter explores the future of technical networks from the perspective of local aspirations for sustainable forms of flow management as expressed by LA21 intiatives......The Chapter explores the future of technical networks from the perspective of local aspirations for sustainable forms of flow management as expressed by LA21 intiatives...

  17. Infrastructure and Local Agenda 21: the Municipality of Albertslund in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    A case-study on how the visions of the professional flow managers and the central Local Agenda 21 actors interconnect.......A case-study on how the visions of the professional flow managers and the central Local Agenda 21 actors interconnect....

  18. Robust optimization of the billet for isothermal local loading transitional region of a Ti-alloy rib-web component based on dual-response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ke; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhan, Mei; Meng, Miao

    2018-03-01

    Billet optimization can greatly improve the forming quality of the transitional region in the isothermal local loading forming (ILLF) of large-scale Ti-alloy ribweb components. However, the final quality of the transitional region may be deteriorated by uncontrollable factors, such as the manufacturing tolerance of the preforming billet, fluctuation of the stroke length, and friction factor. Thus, a dual-response surface method (RSM)-based robust optimization of the billet was proposed to address the uncontrollable factors in transitional region of the ILLF. Given that the die underfilling and folding defect are two key factors that influence the forming quality of the transitional region, minimizing the mean and standard deviation of the die underfilling rate and avoiding folding defect were defined as the objective function and constraint condition in robust optimization. Then, the cross array design was constructed, a dual-RSM model was established for the mean and standard deviation of the die underfilling rate by considering the size parameters of the billet and uncontrollable factors. Subsequently, an optimum solution was derived to achieve the robust optimization of the billet. A case study on robust optimization was conducted. Good results were attained for improving the die filling and avoiding folding defect, suggesting that the robust optimization of the billet in the transitional region of the ILLF was efficient and reliable.

  19. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban–regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukar E. Thornton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster, this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban–regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional, and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage, nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools, and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage. Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban–regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed. Keywords: Australia, Fast food, Socioeconomic inequalities, Urbanicity, Schools, Land-use planning

  20. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  1. Surgical Margins and the Risk of Local-Regional Recurrence After Mastectomy Without Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Stephanie K.; Chen Yuhui; Duggan, Margaret M.; Golshan, Mehra; Pochebit, Stephen; Wong, Julia S.; Bellon, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Although positive surgical margins are generally associated with a higher risk of local-regional recurrence (LRR) for most solid tumors, their significance after mastectomy remains unclear. We sought to clarify the influence of the mastectomy margin on the risk of LRR. Methods and Materials: The retrospective cohort consisted of 397 women who underwent mastectomy and no radiation for newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer from 1998-2005. Time to isolated LRR and time to distant metastasis (DM) were evaluated by use of cumulative-incidence analysis and competing-risks regression analysis. DM was considered a competing event for analysis of isolated LRR. Results: The median follow-up was 6.7 years (range, 0.5-12.8 years). The superficial margin was positive in 41 patients (10%) and close (≤2 mm) in 56 (14%). The deep margin was positive in 23 patients (6%) and close in 34 (9%). The 5-year LRR and DM rates for all patients were 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.9-4.0) and 3.5% (95% confidence interval, 1.6-5.3) respectively. Fourteen patients had an LRR. Margin status was significantly associated with time to isolated LRR (P=.04); patients with positive margins had a 5-year LRR of 6.2%, whereas patients with close margins and negative margins had 5-year LRRs of 1.5% and 1.9%, respectively. On univariate analysis, positive margins, positive nodes, lymphovascular invasion, grade 3 histology, and triple-negative subtype were associated with significantly higher rates of LRR. When these factors were included in a multivariate analysis, only positive margins and triple-negative subtype were associated with the risk of LRR. Conclusions: Patients with positive mastectomy margins had a significantly higher rate of LRR than those with a close or negative margin. However, the absolute risk of LRR in patients with a positive surgical margin in this series was low, and therefore the benefit of postmastectomy radiation in this population with otherwise favorable features

  2. Full wave field recording of the vertical strain at SAFOD from local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Karrenbach, M. H.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The main borehole at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) contains optical fibers cemented in place in between casing strings from the surface to just below the top of the basement. The fibers are under tension of approximately 1 N and are housed in a 0.9 mm diameter stainless steel tube. Earth strain is transmitted to the fiber by frictional contact with the tube wall. One fiber has been in use as a vertical strainmeter since 2005, measuring the total strain between 9 and 740 m by laser interferometry. In June 2017 we attached an OptaSense Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system, model ODH3.1, to a second fiber that terminates at 864 m depth. The DAS laser interrogator measures the strain over a gauge length with a set spacing between gauge intervals. For this experiment we set the gauge length to 10 m with 1 m spacing between gauges. Including the surface run of the fiber, this gives us 936 channels measuring the vertical strain at a sample interval of 0.4 msec (2500 samples/s). Continuous recording of the string produces approximately 1 TB/day. During one month of data collection, we recorded local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes. With this recording geometry, the DAS system captures the full vertical wavefield between the basement interface and free surface, revealing direct, converted and refracted waves. Both P- and S- strain waves are clearly visible in the data, even for 10 km deep earthquakes located almost directly below the well (see figure). The incident and surface reflected wavefields can be separated by frequency-wavenumber filtering due to the large-aperture and fine spatial and temporal sampling. Up- and downgoing strain waves illuminate the subsurface within the sensor array's depth range. Accurate arrival time determinations of the initial arrival phase are possible due to consistent wave forms recorded at 1 m spatial intervals that can be used for fine-scale shallow velocity model estimation.

  3. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  4. Locally-regionally advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstevska, Valentina; Stojkovski, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective review of stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil managed by definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in order to analyze the patients’ outcome and to evaluate the acute and late toxic effects of this treatment modality. Material and methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, 36 patients with locally and/or regionally advanced tonsillar cancer underwent three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The dose prescription of the planning target volume for gross tumor and low-risk subclinical disease was 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. Conventional fractionation with a daily dose of 2.0 Gy, 5 times per week was used. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 30 mg/m2 given on a weekly basis. Acute and late radiotherapy-related toxicities were recorded using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (EORTC/RTOG) grading system. The 3-year locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 20.5 months (range, 5 to 90 months). The median followup of living patients was 59 months (range, 30 to 90 months). Complete response rates of the primary tumor and of the nodal disease were 72.2% and 64.0%, respectively. A complete composite response was present in 25 patients (69.4%). Treatment failure occurred in 15 out of 25 patients who achieved complete composite response following CCRT. The 3-year LRRFS, DFS, and OS rate was 38.8%, 27.8%, and 27.3%, respectively. Grade 3 mucositis occurred in 58.3% of patients. Xerostomia grade 2 was revealed in 72.2% of patients. Conclusion: Taking into account the low 3-year survival rates observed in our study and the high percentage of grade 2 xerostomia, it can be concluded that in the future, instead of 3DCRT with concurrent

  5. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10-11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks.

  6. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10–11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  7. Preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer: regional radiofrequency hyperthermia correlates with clinical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, B.; Wust, P.; Tilly, W.; Gellermann, J.; Harder, C.; Riess, H.; Budach, V.; Felix, R.; Schlag, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) is a widely used means of treatment for patients suffering from primary, locally advanced, or recurrent rectal cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment due to additional application of regional hyperthermia (HRCT) to this conventional therapy regime in a Phase II study, employing the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (SIGMA-60 applicator). The clinical results of the trial were encouraging. We investigated the relationship between a variety of thermal and clinical parameters in order to assess the adequacy of thermometry, the effectiveness of hyperthermia therapy, and its potential contribution to clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: A preoperative combination of radiotherapy (1.8 Gy for 5 days a week, total dose 45 Gy applied over 5 weeks) and chemotherapy (low-dose 5-fluorouracil [5-FU] plus leucovorin in the first and fourth week) was administered to 37 patients with primary rectal cancer (PRC) and 18 patients with recurrent rectal cancer (RRC). Regional hyperthermia (RHT) was applied once a week prior to the daily irradiation fraction of 1.8 Gy. Temperatures were registered along rectal catheters using Bowman thermistors. Measurement points related to the tumor were specified after estimating the section of the catheter in near contact with the tumor. Three patients with local recurrence after abdominoperineal resection, had their catheters positioned transgluteally under CT guidance, where the section of the catheter related to the tumor was estimated from the CT scans. Index temperatures (especially T max , T 90 ) averaged over time, cumulative minutes (cum min) (here for T 90 > reference temperature 40.5 deg. C), and equivalent minutes (equ min) (with respect to 43 deg. C) were derived from repetitive temperature-position scans (5- to 10-min intervals) utilizing software specially developed for this purpose on a PC platform. Using the statistical software package SPSS a careful analysis was

  8. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region OF NGC 7023. I. PAH size, charge, composition, and structure distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 μm spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 μm features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into 'principal' subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 μm region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  9. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region OF NGC 7023. I. PAH size, charge, composition, and structure distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 μm spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 μm features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into 'principal' subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 μm region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  10. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. I. PAH Size, Charge, Composition, and Structure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, Jesse; Allamandola, L. J

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 micron spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 micron features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into "principal" subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 micron region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  11. LOCAL GOVERNMENT ROLE IN THE SOLVING OF CATCHING FISH ILLEGALLY IN ACEH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the shape of local government actions in tackling illegal fishing in Aceh, the handling of illegal fishing destructive fishery resources. The fundamental point is Law No. 45 Year 2009 concerning fisheries. This spesification of this research descriptive analysis, used both normative juridical approach and empirical. The results showed that the local government has made an effort preventive and repressive in the case of illegal fishing. To coordinate with relevant agencies and empower the role of traditional institutions of the sea to assist the role of government and law enforcement.Local governments should improve the coordination and supervision of the marine area, to monitor and evaluate the performance of local authorities in applying the law against this illegal fishing case.

  12. Homeland Security Knowledge Management for Local Law Enforcement in the National Capital Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Deirdre I

    2005-01-01

    .... While local police must effectively address community needs associated with crime and quality of life, they are also now on the front lines of the nation's battle against the forces of international terrorism...

  13. [Local recurrence based on size after conservative surgery in breast cancer stage T1-T2. A population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, David; Fortea-Sanchis, Carlos; Escrig-Sos, Javier; Prats-de Puig, Miguel; Queralt-Martín, Raquel; Salvador-Sanchis, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Conservative surgery can be regarded as the standard treatment for most early stage breast tumors. However, a minority of patients treated with conservative surgery will present local or locoregional recurrence. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the possible factors associated with this recurrence. A population-based retrospective study using data from the Tumor Registry of Castellón (Valencia, Spain) of patients operated on for primary nonmetastatic breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2008 was designed. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test to estimate 5-year local recurrence were used. Two groups of patients were defined, one with conservative surgery and another with nonconservative surgery. Cox multivariate analysis was conducted. The total number of patients was 410. Average local recurrence was 6.8%. In univariate analysis, only tumor size and lymph node involvement showed significant differences. On multivariate analysis, independent prognostic factors were conservative surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-16.82), number of positive lymph nodes (HR 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17) and tumor size (in mm) (HR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06). Local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is higher in tumors >2 cm. Although tumor size should not be a contraindication for conservative surgery, it should be a risk factor to be considered.

  14. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a ...

  15. Regions of mid-level human visual cortex sensitive to the global coherence of local image patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Damien J; Kersten, Daniel J; Olman, Cheryl A

    2014-08-01

    The global structural arrangement and spatial layout of the visual environment must be derived from the integration of local signals represented in the lower tiers of the visual system. This interaction between the spatially local and global properties of visual stimulation underlies many of our visual capacities, and how this is achieved in the brain is a central question for visual and cognitive neuroscience. Here, we examine the sensitivity of regions of the posterior human brain to the global coordination of spatially displaced naturalistic image patches. We presented observers with image patches in two circular apertures to the left and right of central fixation, with the patches drawn from either the same (coherent condition) or different (noncoherent condition) extended image. Using fMRI at 7T (n = 5), we find that global coherence affected signal amplitude in regions of dorsal mid-level cortex. Furthermore, we find that extensive regions of mid-level visual cortex contained information in their local activity pattern that could discriminate coherent and noncoherent stimuli. These findings indicate that the global coordination of local naturalistic image information has important consequences for the processing in human mid-level visual cortex.

  16. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiheido, Hirokazu, E-mail: shiheido@ak.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  17. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  18. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2014-01-01

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ( 258 RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP 289 ). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved

  19. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchalski Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.

  20. The "Fourth Generation University" as a Creator of the Local and Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a view of the role of tertiary-level educational institutions in the globalizing world and the condition of the Polish higher education system in 2007, the author presents the factors affecting the regional development as well as those that exert the strongest influence on long-term regional development. While examining current…

  1. Localized melt-scan strategy for site specific control of grain size and primary dendrite arm spacing in electron beam additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, Narendran; Simunovic, Srdjan; Dehoff, Ryan; Plotkowski, Alex; Turner, John; Kirka, Michael; Babu, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    In addition to design geometry, surface roughness, and solid-state phase transformation, solidification microstructure plays a crucial role in controlling the performance of additively manufactured components. Crystallographic texture, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and grain size are directly correlated to local solidification conditions. We have developed a new melt-scan strategy for inducing site specific, on-demand control of solidification microstructure. We were able to induce variations in grain size (30 μm–150 μm) and PDAS (4 μm - 10 μm) in Inconel 718 parts produced by the electron beam additive manufacturing system (Arcam ® ). A conventional raster melt-scan resulted in a grain size of about 600 μm. The observed variations in grain size with different melt-scan strategies are rationalized using a numerical thermal and solidification model which accounts for the transient curvature of the melt pool and associated thermal gradients and liquid-solid interface velocities. The refinement in grain size at high cooling rates (>10 4  K/s) is also attributed to the potential heterogeneous nucleation of grains ahead of the epitaxially growing solidification front. The variation in PDAS is rationalized using a coupled numerical-theoretical model as a function of local solidification conditions (thermal gradient and liquid-solid interface velocity) of the melt pool.

  2. The coexistence of traditional medicine and biomedicine: A study with local health experts in two Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the combined use of traditional medicine and biomedicine by local experts in Chapada do Araripe communities (Ceará State) and maroon communities (Santa Catarina State), Brazil. The objective was to understand the perception of local health specialists regarding the number of healers, demand for healers and use of medicinal plants, and the dependence of different environments to obtain such plants. We also aimed to understand the role of medicinal plants to treat different categories of diseases and if there is a complementary use of medicinal plants and allopathic biomedicine, according to the context of each group. The research was conducted with local health specialists that answered structured interviews, created free lists and participated in guided tours to collect cited plants. Sixty-six local health specialists were identified in the Araripe communities and 22 specialists in the maroon communities. In the maroon communities, a greater number of specialists thought there was a decrease in the number and demand for healers, as well as the use of medicinal plants, due to changes in traditional livelihoods, since they are located in a region where the effects of the modernization were more intense. In the Chapada do Araripe communities the specialists knew more plants extracted from native vegetation, whereas in the maroon communities cultivated plants were better known, which may reflect the environmental conditions and the history of each region. Medicinal plants are preferred to treat simpler health problems that do not require medical care, such as gastrointestinal problems, general pain, flues and colds. The biomedicine is used principally for problems with blood pressure, general pains and endocrine and nutritional diseases. Even with the particularities of each region, in general the use of medicinal plants and biomedicines occurred in a complementary form in both regions; however, this coexistence may result from these different

  3. The coexistence of traditional medicine and biomedicine: A study with local health experts in two Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the combined use of traditional medicine and biomedicine by local experts in Chapada do Araripe communities (Ceará State) and maroon communities (Santa Catarina State), Brazil. The objective was to understand the perception of local health specialists regarding the number of healers, demand for healers and use of medicinal plants, and the dependence of different environments to obtain such plants. We also aimed to understand the role of medicinal plants to treat different categories of diseases and if there is a complementary use of medicinal plants and allopathic biomedicine, according to the context of each group. The research was conducted with local health specialists that answered structured interviews, created free lists and participated in guided tours to collect cited plants. Sixty-six local health specialists were identified in the Araripe communities and 22 specialists in the maroon communities. In the maroon communities, a greater number of specialists thought there was a decrease in the number and demand for healers, as well as the use of medicinal plants, due to changes in traditional livelihoods, since they are located in a region where the effects of the modernization were more intense. In the Chapada do Araripe communities the specialists knew more plants extracted from native vegetation, whereas in the maroon communities cultivated plants were better known, which may reflect the environmental conditions and the history of each region. Medicinal plants are preferred to treat simpler health problems that do not require medical care, such as gastrointestinal problems, general pain, flues and colds. The biomedicine is used principally for problems with blood pressure, general pains and endocrine and nutritional diseases. Even with the particularities of each region, in general the use of medicinal plants and biomedicines occurred in a complementary form in both regions; however, this coexistence may result from these different

  4. A Local Action Plan (PAL to Combat Desertification in Apulia Region: Functional Integration of Existing Territorial Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trotta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007, the Italian National Committee to Combat Drought and Desertification promoted the execution of local action plans in some of the Italian regions. The aims of these plans were: to carry out specific actions at a local scale; to promote the integration of local policies; to involve the local communities in proposing strategies to be adopted; to harmonize the procedures among institutions in charge of adopting the policies. In this framework, ENEA carried out an evaluation of existing policies and programs to be considered in implementing a local action plan to combat desertification in the Apulia region. The application of the environmental and socio-economic measures of the regional Rural Development Plan 2007-2013 (PSR seemed to be an effective tool to positively influence human activities such as agriculture, breeding, and forestry, with the purpose of preserving or improving soil characteristics and overall environmental conditions, and eventually resulting in a reduction of desertification processes. Therefore, we proposed that these measures should be taken into account and effectively integrated into the Local Action Plan of the Apulia region. Additionally, we considered the four priority sectors identified by the National Action Plan (PAN to combat drought and desertification as the guiding principles to carry out our analysis. These sectors were: Soil Protection, Sustainable Water Management, Reduction of the Impact of Productive Activities, and Territorial Equilibrium. We also included Climate Change, in consideration of the alarming and urgent role it has assumed. The desertification-prone province of Foggia was selected as a pilot area in where to evaluate the influences that PSR measures can directly or indirectly have on desertification-related factors, and identify and implement specific actions. The Provincial Coordination Territorial Plan (PTCP of Foggia provided the basic land units for this analysis, the

  5. Energy efficiency and sustainability assessment of about 500 small and medium-sized enterprises in Central Europe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesi, Diego; Pozzar, Francesca; Federici, Alessandro; Crema, Luigi; Mahbub, Md Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays more than 20 million small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are located in the European Union (EU): they are a key driver for economic growth, innovation, employment and social integration. The first step towards better industrial energy and environmental performance is the acknowledgement of the savings potential that can be realized by the company ownership and management board. Following this goal, the CEEM (Central Environmental and Energy Management) project provided to about 500 Central Europe SMEs of 5 countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia) a user friendly and free of charge web tool called 3EMT (Eco Energy Efficiency Management Tool). Through a questionnaire the 3EMT analyzes and sums up eco-energy patterns, helps to self-assess the company environmental performance, benchmarks a company with other Central Europe’s enterprises, delivers a customized Assessment Report, suggests further services and facilities. In this paper, the large 3EMT database is analyzed, and statistics focused on SMEs eco-energy performance and future & innovation perspectives are presented and discussed. Furthermore, key challenges and key intervention points were defined by local stakeholders (policy makers, Energy Service Companies, SMEs representatives, researchers), this paper summarizes the main policy outcomes. - Highlights: • Evaluation of Central Europe SME performance in energy efficiency and sustainability. • Extension of SME statistics at European and national level. • Identification of key challenges and key interventions for new industrial policies.

  6. The role of small and medium-sized high-tech enterprise in the formation of innovative potential of the Voronezh region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Shubina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions the region's sustainable development and economic growth is largely determined by its ability to implement innovations. One of the determining factors of long-term economic development of the territories, to date, is innovation. A mechanism to give impetus to the innovative development of the regions is to create effective small and medium-sized innovative enterprises. Voronezh region, like many Russian regions, has considerable potential for innovation, but usually it is not used efficiently or not used at all. The article deals with the concept and the need to develop innovative entrepreneurship and the role of small and medium innovative enterprises in the formation of scientific and technical potential of the Voronezh region. The basic conditions and factors promoting and impeding the development of small and medium innovative businesses in the region, determined the willingness of subjects of innovation activity in the development, implementation and promotion of innovation in the region. The problems of development of small and medium-sized businesses at the regional level. The evaluation of actions to improve SMEs management programs in the region. Particular attention is given to the classification of small and medium-sized innovative business structures. In order to stimulate the development of small and medium-sized innovative business in the Voronezh region in the article suggests the implementation of a package of measures. The active use of innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises of the Voronezh area enhances their efficiency and competitiveness, creates new jobs, which ultimately has a positive effect on the region's economic development, the growth of the tax base, improving the quality of life of the population.

  7. Skeletal muscle glycogen content and particle size of distinct subcellular localizations in the recovery period after a high-level soccer match

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whole muscle glycogen levels remain low for a prolonged period following a soccer match. The present study was conducted to investigate how this relates to glycogen content and particle size in distinct subcellular localizations. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus lateralis muscle...... biopsy collected immediately after and 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after a competitive soccer match. Transmission electron microscopy was used to estimate the subcellular distribution of glycogen and individual particle size. During the first day of recovery, glycogen content increased by ~60% in all...

  8. Detailed ordering of markers localizing to the Xq26-Xqter region of the human X chromosome by the use of an interspecific Mus spretus mouse cross

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avner, P.; Amar, L.; Arnaud, D.; Hanauer, A.; Cambrou, J.

    1987-01-01

    Five probes localizing to the Xq26-Xqter region of the human X chromosome have been genetically mapped on the mouse X chromosome using an interspecific cross involving Mus spretus to a contiguous region lying proximally to the Tabby (Ta) locus. Pedigree and recombinational analysis establish the marker order as being Hprt-FIX-c11-G6PD-St14-1. The size of this contiguous region is such that the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse mutation probably maps within this segment. This in turn suggests that it is highly improbable that the mouse mdx locus represents a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). It is, however, compatible with the idea that this mutation may correspond in man to Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The high frequency of restriction fragment length polymorphisms found in this interspecific system for all the human cross-reacting probes examined up until now, using only a limited number of restriction enzymes, suggests that the Mus spretus mapping system may be of great potential value for establishing the linkage relationships existing in man when conserved chromosomal regions are concerned and human/mouse cross-reacting probes are available or can be obtained

  9. Is climate change a threat for water uses in the Mediterranean region? Results from a survey at local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, I; Cirelli, C; Aubin, D; Larrue, C; Sellami, H; Afifi, S; Bellin, A; Benabdallah, S; Bird, D N; Deidda, R; Dettori, M; Engin, G; Herrmann, F; Ludwig, R; Mabrouk, B; Majone, B; Paniconi, C; Soddu, A

    2016-02-01

    Water scarcity and water security are linked, not only through the direct effects of water shortages on each water users' access to water, but also because of water conflicts generated. Climate change is predicted to raise temperatures in the Mediterranean region and reduce rainfall, leading to a reduction in water yield and possibly worsening the situation of water resource shortages that Mediterranean regions are already experiencing. In its dissemination strategy, the EU FP7 CLIMB project addressed water security threats through an analysis of water uses and water use rivalries within a few target catchments distributed over the Mediterranean region. The present work explores whether climate change is locally perceived by stakeholders (water users and managers) as a key issue for their water uses and water security. Individual interviews, meetings, and compilation of questionnaires were conducted at five sites located in the Mediterranean region. The methodology permitted an analysis of water use and its evolution in the water management context, an identification of the state of awareness of local stakeholders and of the pressures on water use and water use rivalries, and a prioritization of water uses. Currently, the main response to increasing water demand in the Mediterranean region, while not yet considering climate change as a driving force, is a progressive externalization of water resources, with limits represented by national borders and technological possibilities. Overall, 'climate change' was not mentioned by stakeholders during both interviews and in answers to the questionnaires. Even the prospect of decreasing precipitation was not considered a relevant or threatening issue in the coming 20years. This confirms the need to continue all efforts to disseminate the state of knowledge on climate change impacts in the Mediterranean region, such as water scarcity, especially to local water managers, as initiated by various research programs of the

  10. Separate measurement of local diffusion coefficients in grain boundaries and in adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotsman, S.M.; Kajgorodov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    A new measuring technique is presented that allows one separate determination of grain boundary width and local diffusion coefficients. With the use of the technique presented phenomenological description is accompished for time and temperature dependences of relative and absolute level populations in a zone of preferential intercrystalline diffusion. Local diffusion coefficients obtained for the upper temperature limit of applicability of the technique proposed are in a good agreement with values calculated form coordinate distribution of atoic probes. Local diffusion coefficients determined at lower temperatures essentially differ from those calculated assuming that suction coefficient is equal to a coefficient of volume diffusion. Experimental dta are given for diffusion parameters in Ag, Pd and W polycrystals. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; del Castillo, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets ...

  12. All-in-all-out magnetic domain size in pyrochlore iridate thin films as probed by local magnetotransport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T. C.; Uchida, M., E-mail: uchida@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kozuka, Y.; Ogawa, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Arima, T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-01-11

    Pyrochlore iridates have attracted growing attention because of a theoretical prediction of a possible topological semimetal phase originating from all-in-all-out spin ordering. Related to the topological band structure, recent findings of the magnetic domain wall conduction have stimulated investigations of magnetic domain distribution in this system. Here, we investigate the size of magnetic domains in Eu{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} single crystalline thin films by magnetoresistance (MR) using microscale Hall bars. Two distinct magnetic domains of the all-in-all-out spin structure are known to exhibit linear MR but with opposite signs, which enables us to estimate the ratio of the two domains in the patterned channel. The linear MR for 80 × 60 μm{sup 2} channel is nearly zero after zero-field cooling, suggesting random distribution of domains smaller than the channel size. In contrast, the wide distribution of the value of the linear MR is detected in 2 × 2 μm{sup 2} channel, reflecting the detectable domain size depending on each cooling-cycle. Compared to simulation results, we estimate the average size of a single all-in-all-out magnetic domain as 1–2 μm.

  13. Gravel size matters: Early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts made from local Rhine and Meuse deposits in the central Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, D.F.A.M.; van Balen, R.T.; Kluiving, S.J.; Verpoorte, A.; Alink, A

    2016-01-01

    The artefact size of the Early Middle Palaeolithic (EMP) assemblages in ice-pushed Rhine–Meuse deposits in the central Netherlands decreases northwestward. This trend correlates to the downstream fining direction of the Rhine–Meuse fluvial system, the source of the rock material, showing that

  14. A Scaling Analysis of Frequency Dependent Energy Partition for Local and Regional Seismic Phases from Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    explosions at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site (STS). Labeled stations are those for which high resolution digital data are available. 12 8...characteristics of regional phase observations from underground nuclear explosions at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites , the...various regional phases observed from underground nuclear explosions at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site (STS). Labeled stations are those for

  15. Improving Suicide Prevention in Dutch Regions by Creating Local Suicide Prevention Action Networks (SUPRANET): A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, Renske; De Beurs, Derek; Mokkenstorm, Jan; Mérelle, Saskia; Donker, Gé; Terpstra, Sanne; Derijck, Carla; Franx, Gerdien

    2017-03-28

    The European Alliance against Depression (EAAD) program is to be introduced in The Netherlands from 2017 onwards. This program to combat suicide consists of interventions on four levels: (1) increasing the awareness of suicide by local media campaigns; (2) training local gatekeepers, such as teachers or police officers; (3) targeting high-risk persons in the community; and (4) training and support of professionals in primary care settings. The implementation starts in seven Dutch pilot regions. Each region is designated as a Suicide Prevention Action NETwork (SUPRANET). This paper describes the SUPRANET program components and the evaluation of its feasibility and impact. The findings will be used to facilitate the national implementation of EAAD in The Netherlands and to add new findings to the existing literature on EAAD.

  16. Climate Change and Coastal Zones. An Overview of the State-of-the-Art on Regional and Local Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterr, H.; Klein, R.J.T.; Reese, S.

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in methodologies for assessing the vulnerability of coastal zones to climate change at regional and local scales. The focus of vulnerability assessment in coastal zones used to be on erosion and land loss due to sea-level rise. Methodologies now increasingly consider the wide range of climate and impact variables that play a part in determining coastal vulnerability, as well as non-climatic developments. The paper presents a conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment that identifies a number of system components that can be considered determinants of vulnerability. It then goes on to outline a number of steps that are required for the actual assessment of coastal vulnerability, such as scenario development, data collection and impact assessment. The approach is illustrated using a regional and local case study in Germany

  17. Economic Contribution of Regional Feeder Ports to The Local Economy In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Syabri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia regional feeder ports’ main function is to serve marine transport activities between regency/city in a province in limited quantities. The intention of the government to make marine transportation as the backbone of national logistic transportation system puts these ports to an important position, as suppliers for the main and/or collector ports and as goods distribution centers for the region from the bigger ports. Not only as a provider of accessibility between regions, regional feeder ports should be seen as an investation to boost regional economy. This study aims to explain the influences of regional feeder ports on regency/city economy, based on the port types: (1 cargo ports, and (2 cargo & passengers ports. Results showed that both types of ports have positive influences on the regency/city economy, although it is not related to region’s economic base sector. Cargo ports which are mainly located on west area of Indonesia, supports the region’s economy more than cargo & passenger ports which are mainly located on the east.

  18. Internet Usage in Small Businesses in Regional South Australia: Service Learning Opportunities for a Local University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The Internet offers opportunities for electronic trading in the global marketplace and as such it can provide substantial benefits to a business. Despite this, the rate of adoption of e-commerce by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia has been slower than anticipated and these benefits are not being realised (Pease & Rowe,…

  19. Regional Lymph Node Uptake of ["1"8F]Fluorodeoxyglucose After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Predicts Local-Regional Failure of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovina, Stephanie; Duan, Fenghai; Snyder, Bradley S.; Siegel, Barry A.; Machtay, Mitchell; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0235 study demonstrated that standardized uptake values (SUV) on post-treatment ["1"8F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlated with survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This secondary analysis determined whether SUV of regional lymph nodes (RLNs) on post-treatment FDG-PET correlated with patient outcomes. Methods and Materials: Included for analysis were patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy, using radiation doses ≥60 Gy, with identifiable FDG-avid RLNs (distinct from primary tumor) on pretreatment FDG-PET, and post-treatment FDG-PET data. ACRIN core laboratory SUV measurements were used. Event time was calculated from the date of post-treatment FDG-PET. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank test), and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: Of 234 trial-eligible patients, 139 (59%) had uptake in both primary tumor and RLNs on pretreatment FDG-PET and had SUV data from post-treatment FDG-PET. Maximum SUV was greater for primary tumor than for RLNs before treatment (P<.001) but not different post-treatment (P=.320). Post-treatment SUV of RLNs was not associated with overall survival. However, elevated post-treatment SUV of RLNs, both the absolute value and the percentage of residual activity compared to the pretreatment SUV were associated with inferior local-regional control (P<.001). Conclusions: High residual metabolic activity in RLNs on post-treatment FDG-PET is associated with worse local-regional control. Based on these data, future trials evaluating a radiation therapy boost should consider inclusion of both primary tumor and FDG-avid RLNs in the boost volume to maximize local-regional control.

  20. Small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation shield for custom examination of freight transported by motor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, A.V.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Klinov, A.P.; Krest'yaninov, A.S.; Nikolaev, V.M.; Fomin, L.P.; Linkenbach, H.A.; Geus, G.; Knospel, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new development of a small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation protection is described. The accelerator is intended for movable facilities of radiation custom of the freight transported by motor transport. Main constructive solutions, mass and dimension characteristics and results of preliminary tests of the accelerator parameters and characteristics of radiation protection are presented [ru

  1. Geophysical Evidence for the Locations, Shapes and Sizes, and Internal Structures of Magma Chambers beneath Regions of Quaternary Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, H. M.

    1984-04-01

    This paper is a review of seismic, gravity, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques to detect and delineate magma chambers of a few cubic kilometres to several thousand cubic kilometres volume. A dramatic decrease in density and seismic velocity, and an increase in seismic attenuation and electrical conductivity occurs at the onset of partial melting in rocks. The geophysical techniques are based on detecting these differences in physical properties between solid and partially molten rock. Although seismic refraction techniques, with sophisticated instrumentation and analytical procedures, are routinely used for detailed studies of crustal structure in volcanic regions, their application for magma detection has been quite limited. In one study, in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., fan-shooting and time-term techniques have been used to detect an upper-crustal magma chamber. Attenuation and velocity changes in seismic waves from explosions and earthquakes diffracted around magma chambers are observed near some volcanoes in Kamchatka. Strong attenuation of shear waves from regional earthquakes, interpreted as a diffraction effect, has been used to model magma chambers in Alaska, Kamchatka, Iceland, and New Zealand. One of the most powerful techniques in modern seismology, the seismic reflection technique with vibrators, was used to confirm the existence of a strong reflector in the crust near Socorro, New Mexico, in the Rio Grande Rift. This reflector, discovered earlier from data from local earthquakes, is interpreted as a sill-like magma body. In the Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, mapping seismicity patterns in the upper crust has enabled the modelling of the complex magma conduits in the crust and upper mantle. On the other hand, in the Usu volcano, Japan, the magma conduits are delineated by zones of seismic quiescence. Three-dimensional modelling of laterally varying structures using teleseismic residuals is proving to be a very promising technique for detecting and

  2. Inverter sizing of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the light of local solar resource distribution characteristics and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Bruno [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Electrical Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ruether, Ricardo [LABSOLAR-Laboratorio de Energia Solar, LabEEE-Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Inverter sizing strategies for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems often do not take into account site-dependent peculiarities of ambient temperature, inverter operating temperature and solar irradiation distribution characteristics. The operating temperature affects PV modules and inverters in different ways and PV systems will hardly ever have a DC output equal to or above their STC-rated nominal power. Inverters are usually sized with a nominal AC output power some 30% (sometimes even more) below the PV array nominal power. In this paper, we show that this practice might lead to considerable energy losses, especially in the case of PV technologies with high temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with cold climates and of PV technologies with low temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with warm climates and an energy distribution of sunlight shifted to higher irradiation levels. In energy markets where PV kWh are paid premium tariffs, like in Germany, energy yield optimization might result in a favorable payback of the extra capital invested in a larger inverter. This paper discusses how the time resolution of solar radiation data influences the correct sizing of PV plants. We demonstrate that using instant (10s) irradiation values instead of average hourly irradiation values leads to considerable differences in optimum inverter sizing. When calculating inverter yearly efficiency values using both, hourly averages and 1-min averages, we can show that with increased time resolution of solar irradiation data there are higher calculated losses due to inverter undersizing. This reveals that hourly averages hide important irradiation peaks that need to be considered. We performed these calculations for data sets from pyranometer readings from Freiburg (48{sup o}N, Germany) and Florianopolis (27{sup o}S, Brazil) to further show the peculiarities of the site-dependent distribution of irradiation levels and its effects on inverter sizing

  3. Influence of ENSO on Regional Indian Summer Monsoon Precipitation—Local Atmospheric Influences or Remote Influence from Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Roy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using CMIP5 model outputs in different El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases, this work investigates the indicator that could be used as an Index to characterise regional Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation. Dividing the Indian subcontinent into five arbitrarily chosen regions, viz. Central North East (CNE (18°N–31°N, 86°E–75°E, Hilly (H (28°N–38°N, 85°E–70°E, North West (NW (21°N–31°N, 79°E–67°E, North East (NE (21°N–31°N, 86°E–97°E and Southern India (S (18°N–7°N, 73°E–85°E, loca