WorldWideScience

Sample records for region present day

  1. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  2. Educational Inequality in the Minority Regions of Present Day China and Suggestions for the Government Regarding the Education Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Yueya

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research of new educational inequality in the minority regions of preset day China,this article points out the importance of educational equality principle in government's decision making and suggests tha ti tshould give top priority to ethnic minorities when distributing education resources,to develop their compulsory education and broaden meir opportunities to enter into postcompulsory education by the"differentiated but equal"principle.Perfect education policies and mechanism and lifelong education system are also pivotal for the attainment of the goal of educational equality.

  3. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M.; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of 90 Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface 90 Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface 90 Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the 90 Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released 90 Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO 2 ). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released 90 Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Present Day Philosophies of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2006-01-01

    Presently, there are competing philosophies of education which need comparison. Two philosophies will be compared which are at opposite ends of the continuum. They are distinctly different. And yet, both schools of thought have their disciples. Each of the two will be discussed in terms of its essential features and then there will be selected…

  5. In the Shadow of Coal: How Large-Scale Industries Contributed to Present-Day Regional Differences in Personality and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Stuetzer, Michael; Rentfrow, Peter J; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Satchell, Max; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2017-11-20

    Recent research has identified regional variation of personality traits within countries but we know little about the underlying drivers of this variation. We propose that the Industrial Revolution, as a key era in the history of industrialized nations, has led to a persistent clustering of well-being outcomes and personality traits associated with psychological adversity via processes of selective migration and socialization. Analyzing data from England and Wales, we examine relationships between the historical employment share in large-scale coal-based industries (coal mining and steam-powered manufacturing industries that used this coal as fuel for their steam engines) and today's regional variation in personality and well-being. Even after controlling for possible historical confounds (historical energy supply, education, wealth, geology, climate, population density), we find that the historical local dominance of large-scale coal-based industries predicts today's markers of psychological adversity (lower Conscientiousness [and order facet scores], higher Neuroticism [and anxiety and depression facet scores], lower activity [an Extraversion facet], and lower life satisfaction and life expectancy). An instrumental variable analysis, using the historical location of coalfields, supports the causal assumption behind these effects (with the exception of life satisfaction). Further analyses focusing on mechanisms hint at the roles of selective migration and persisting economic hardship. Finally, a robustness check in the U.S. replicates the effect of the historical concentration of large-scale industries on today's levels of psychological adversity. Taken together, the results show how today's regional patterns of personality and well-being (which shape the future trajectories of these regions) may have their roots in major societal changes underway decades or centuries earlier. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l. in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP and grass and sedge tundra (TUND communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae, alder (Duschekia fruticosa and willow (Salix species, is dated to 13.5–12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen.

  7. Present day problems concerning the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, G.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of the regional energy supply industry touching directly the energy supply utilities (e.g. territorial reform, power prices) are discussed. In a survey on the overall energy situation in the FRG as seen by energy supply utilities, the following conclusions are drawn: 1) The electricity supply industry is in the favourite position to make the required structural changes by utilizing primary energy for generating electric power. It offers - via electric energy - an effective opportunity for substituting oil. 2) The electricity supply industry alone will be in a position to use nuclear energy during the next few decades. A decision in favour of nuclear energy must not be at disposal to make oneself momentarily politically popular. This indispensable decision results exclusively from our responsibility for the future of our national economy and thus our society. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Present-day radiodiagnosis of craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, A.N.; Ozerova, V.I.; Kovnienko, V.K.; Krasnova, T.S.; Shten'o, Yu.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 108 patients with craniopharyngiomas were examined with the help of computerized tomography, craniography, angiography; in some cases the liquor system of the brain was studied. The data obtained were intercorrelated permitting one to single out main X-ray signs of craniopharyngiomas of the endosupracellUlar, intraventricular and stalk types. At present CT is a method of patients' examiration pepmitting one to reveal with utmost precision the size and structure of tumors, their correlation with cerebral structures. CT makes it possible to follow-up patients with craniopharyngiomas over time in the early and late postoperative periods

  9. 33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

  10. Radiotherapy in skin cancer - present day aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2009-01-01

    Skin carcinomas (SC) are the leading ones in the structure of oncological morbidity in both genders in Bulgaria, as well as in white populations in the world. Regardless of their high frequency, their treatment is successful and mortality due to SC has been reduced by 20 - 30% during the last decades. In Bulgaria SC in 2003 comprise 9.3% of all oncological diseases in men and women. According to their frequency they occupy the second phase after lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The treatment of SC is realized applying various therapeutic approaches, distinguished as basic (radical) and alternative ones. The first include surgical treatment and radiotherapy (RT) (definitive or adjuvant) and the alternative ones - curettage and electro-coagulation, cryotherapy, local chemotherapy and immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, etc. When defining the therapeutic approach, the method affording the best chances of curing with acceptable cosmetic results should be selected. The present review is aimed at considering the contemporary aspects in RT of SC, including used radiotherapy methods and techniques, volumes, doses, fractionation, and achieved therapeutic effects. The indications for implementing definitive and adjuvant RT are given in detail. The applied radiotherapy methods - external beam RT and brachytherapy, are also discussed. The used planned radiotherapy volumes, doses, fractionation schemes, attained therapeutic effects and possible radiation reactions are considered as well. The curability of SC is high, exceeding 90% after adequate treatment. Regardless of the fact that RT has partially ceded its leading role in SC treatment, it still remains to be one of the basic and successful therapeutic approaches

  11. Simulated variations of eolian dust from inner Asian deserts at the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum, and present day: contributions from the regional tectonic uplift and global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhengguo; Liu, Xiaodong; An, Zhisheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Loess Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Xi' an (China); Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Northern Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change are regarded as two important factors responsible for a remarkable increase in dust concentration originating from inner Asian deserts during the Pliocene-Pleistocene period. Dust cycles during the mid-Pliocene, last glacial maximum (LGM), and present day are simulated with a global climate model, based on reconstructed dust source scenarios, to evaluate the relative contributions of the two factors to the increment of dust sedimentation fluxes. In the focused downwind regions of the Chinese Loess Plateau/North Pacific, the model generally produces a light eolian dust mass accumulation rate (MAR) of 7.1/0.28 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the mid-Pliocene, a heavier MAR of 11.6/0.87 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr at present, and the heaviest MAR of 24.5/1.15 g/cm{sup 2}/kyr during the LGM. Our results are in good agreement with marine and terrestrial observations. These MAR increases can be attributed to both regional tectonic uplift and global climate change. Comparatively, the climatic factors, including the ice sheet and sea surface temperature changes, have modulated the regional surface wind field and controlled the intensity of sedimentation flux over the Loess Plateau. The impact of the Tibetan Plateau uplift, which increased the areas of inland deserts, is more important over the North Pacific. The dust MAR has been widely used in previous studies as an indicator of inland Asian aridity; however, based on the present results, the interpretation needs to be considered with greater caution that the MAR is actually not only controlled by the source areas but the surface wind velocity. (orig.)

  12. Italian Present-day Stress Indicators: IPSI Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, M. T.; Montone, P.

    2017-12-01

    In Italy, since the 90s of the last century, researches concerning the contemporary stress field have been developing at Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) with local and regional scale studies. Throughout the years many data have been analysed and collected: now they are organized and available for an easy end-use online. IPSI (Italian Present-day Stress Indicators) database, is the first geo-referenced repository of information on the crustal present-day stress field maintained at INGV through a web application database and website development by Gabriele Tarabusi. Data consist of horizontal stress orientations analysed and compiled in a standardized format and quality-ranked for reliability and comparability on a global scale with other database. Our first database release includes 855 data records updated to December 2015. Here we present an updated version that will be released in 2018, after new earthquake data entry up to December 2017. The IPSI web site (http://ipsi.rm.ingv.it/) allows accessing data on a standard map viewer and choose which data (category and/or quality) to plot easily. The main information of each single element (type, quality, orientation) can be viewed simply going over the related symbol, all the information appear by clicking the element. At the same time, simple basic information on the different data type, tectonic regime assignment, quality ranking method are available with pop-up windows. Data records can be downloaded in some common formats, moreover it is possible to download a file directly usable with SHINE, a web based application to interpolate stress orientations (http://shine.rm.ingv.it). IPSI is mainly conceived for those interested in studying the characters of Italian peninsula and surroundings although Italian data are part of the World Stress Map (http://www.world-stress-map.org/) as evidenced by many links that redirect to this database for more details on standard practices in this field.

  13. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  14. A brief description of South Africa's present-day climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available positive chill units. 31 Winter (Apr - Sep) CASE STUDY - Global change impacts on agriculture and water: South Africa?s Garden Route 33 7 Global change and human health 35 CASE STUDY - Environmental health: Bridging the gap between traditional... days). Annual (Jan - Dec) 31 Map 6.2 Intermediate future - present (degree days). Accumulated heat units. 31 Annual (Jan - Dec) Map 6.3 Accumulated positive chill units. Winter (Apr - Sep) 31 Map 6.4 Intermediate future - present. Accumulated...

  15. Present-day stress fields of the Gulf of Suez (Egypt) based on exploratory well data: Non-uniform regional extension and its relation to inherited structures and local plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, William; Durocher, Scott

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Suez is the prototype model of a failed or aborted continental rift. However, the basin is seismically active and the footwalls of several major extensional faults continue to rise at the present time. Furthermore, decadal-length Global Positioning System (GPS) datasets demonstrate that the Sinai micro-plate continues to separate from Africa in a northerly direction at ∼0.15 cm/yr with a Gulf of Suez rift-normal component of ∼0.05 cm/yr. Geologic and GPS observations both indicate that the rift is now undergoing highly-oblique extension. Previous interpretations of borehole breakouts in industry exploration wells suggested that the minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) in the southern Gulf of Suez is presently aligned ∼015°. New subsurface data from the accommodation zone boundary between the Central and Darag (northern) sub-basins similarly identifies an extension direction of approximately N-S. By contrast, in the Central sub-basin itself breakout and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) data indicate NE-SW extension, or rift-normal movement that is similar to the documented older Miocene history of the entire basin. Based on these observations the present-day stress field of the Gulf of Suez is spatially non-uniform. Variations are also present in local and teleseismic datasets. The northern Gulf of Suez shows relatively less seismicity, with very few events greater than M = 3. The central sub-basin is very active, with 17 events M ≥ 3 during the past 45 years, and these suggest NE-SW extension similar to the breakout data. The southern Gulf of Suez is the most seismically active and merges with an area of significant seismicity in the northern Red Sea. In the southern Gulf of Suez the seismicity is complex but focal plane analyses of the two largest historical events indicated NNE-SSW extension, in agreement with the breakout data. Differing interpretations have been proposed for the smaller magnitude seismicity. We suggest that each of the three

  16. Astrochemistry: From primordial gas to present-day clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Bovino, Stefano; Körtgen, Bastian; Grassi, Tommaso; Banerjee, Robi

    2017-01-01

    Astrochemistry plays a central role during the process of star formation, both in the primordial regime as well as in the present-day Universe. We revisit here the chemistry in both regimes, focusing first on the chemistry under close to primordial conditions, as observed in the so-called Caffau star SDSS J102915+172927, and subsequently discuss deuteration processes in present-day star-forming cores. In models of the high-redshift Universe, the chemistry is particularly relevant to determine...

  17. Interactions between science and technology and present-day philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The authors plead for a revival of the symbiosis between science and technology and philosophy. Their contributions to the assessment of the consequences in science and technology as a task of philosophy as well as to the effects of science and technology on present-day philosophy want to give new impulses to this revival. (DG) [de

  18. WORD-MAKING IN PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMONINI, R.C., JR.

    WORDS CAN BE STUDIED BY DESCRIBING THEIR ORIGIN INDUCTIVELY OR DEDUCTIVELY. EITHER WAY, A PRECISE DEFINITION OF ETYMOLOGICAL CLASSES WHICH ARE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE IS NEEDED. PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH IS CLASSIFIED INTO--(1) NATIVE WORDS WHICH CAN BE TRACED BACK TO THE WORD STOCK OF OLD ENGLISH, (2) LOAN WORDS NEW TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE WHICH HAD…

  19. Uncovering the Genetic History of the Present Day Greenlandic Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...

  20. Disruption generated secondary runaway electrons in present day tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I.M.; Jaspers, R.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions in present day tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, TEXTOR) was made. It was shown that even for tokamaks with the plasma current I approx 100 kA the secondary generation may dominate the runaway production during disruptions. In the same time in tokamaks with I approx 1 MA the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions may be suppressed

  1. Did European temperatures in 1540 exceed present-day records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Vogel, Martha M.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Pfister, Christian; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    There is strong evidence that the year 1540 was exceptionally dry and warm in Central Europe. Here we infer 1540 summer temperatures from the number of dry days (NDDs) in spring (March-May) and summer (June-August) in 1540 derived from historical documentary evidence published elsewhere, and compare our estimates with present-day temperatures. We translate the NDD values into temperature distributions using a linear relationship between modeled temperature and NDD from a 3000 year pre-industrial control simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Our results show medium confidence that summer mean temperatures (T JJA) and maximum temperatures (TXx) in Central Europe in 1540 were warmer than the respective present-day mean summer temperatures (assessed between 1966-2015). The model-based reconstruction suggests further that with a probability of 40%-70%, the highest daily temperatures in 1540 were even warmer than in 2003, while there is at most a 20% probability that the 1540 mean summer temperature was warmer than that of 2003 in Central Europe. As with other state-of-the-art analyses, the uncertainty of the reconstructed 1540 summer weather in this study is considerable, for instance as extrapolation is required because 1540-like events are not captured by the employed Earth system model (ESM), and neither by other ESMs. However, in addition to paleoclimatological approaches we introduce here an independent methodology to estimate 1540 temperatures, and contribute consequently to a reduced overall uncertainty in the analysis of this event. The characterization of such events and the related climate system functioning is particularly relevant in the context of global warming and the corresponding increase of extreme heat wave magnitude and occurrence frequency. Orth, R., M.M. Vogel, J. Luterbacher, C. Pfister, and S.I. Seneviratne, (2016): Did European temperatures in 1540 exceed present-day records? Env. Res. Lett., 11, 114021, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114021

  2. Ancient cosmological tachyons in the present-day world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molski, M.

    1993-01-01

    The geodesic equation for space-like objects moving along a circular trajectory in the expanding universe is considered. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that ancient cosmological tachyons may exist in the present-day world and may play an important role in (i) the internal structure of hadrons conceived as nonlocal objects called strings, (ii) the T-symmetry violation observed in the weak K-decays, (iii) the multidimensional unified field theories of Kaluza-Klein type, and in (iv) the classical models of charged particles which combine ordinary electromagnetism with a self-interacting version of Newtonian gravity. 18 refs

  3. Present-day potentialities of radiodiagnosis of stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Simavonyan, K.V.; Turovskij, B.M.; Kaluzhskij, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present-day potentialities of radiodiagnosis of stomach cancer were studied using the results of clinicoradiological examination of 209 patients, mainly with endophytic and small forms of stomach cancer and 28 with stomach polypus. It was shown that to achieve the most complete and objective estimation of tumor changes in the stomach a combination of X-ray methods including routine examination with barium suspension and double contrast should be used. One of the most promising trends in radiodiagnosis of stomach cancer is fluorographic mass screening for stomach cancer in persons at high risk with subsequent selective endoscopic examination ( according to indications ). Double contrast remains the major and most informative part of standardized technique of gastrofluorographic examination

  4. Radiology and radiation protection. Present-day problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, L.

    1978-01-01

    With the development of nuclear energy the present-day problems of radioprotection are studied in the light of new radiobiological knowledge. The following points are analysed in turn: radioprotection norms, the notion of acceptable risk; influence of dose rate and fractionation; the low-dose problem; relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and quality factor (Q.F.); the biological problem of long-term effects. The genetic risk due to accepted radioprotection norms is estimated. The part played by radioprotection organisations is underlined, with emphasis on the fact that radioactivity is the most strictly and effectively regulated of all industrial inconveniences. It is pointed out that medical irradiation is not subject to the legislations and regulations listed [fr

  5. Present-day sea level rise: a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, A.; Llovel, W.; Lombard, A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years. (authors)

  6. Power and religion: Geertz position of present-day Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Radita Novi Puspitasari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes of religious - political power relations from the mid of 1950’s to present-day Bali. Anthropologist Geertz stated that Balinese Hinduism is a “superstition”, “rhetoric” and “state cult” that had been applied in the Negara as a theatre state. Within the conception of Hinduism by referring to the relation between the Divine God -Tri Murti and Tri Hita Karana, the Balinese society is believed in the relation between Gods, the people and its environment. Although in the post-colonial era, Balinese people are maintaining the power existence of the local kingdoms, mainly the system of warna. Through the accumulation of charisma, Geertz provided a concept that Negara was basically a state created by honor and ceremony. Thus, the democratic governmental system of Indonesia hardly reach the political arena within the Balinese society. As a result, through the self-awareness and the notion on equality, the Sudra could establish their role as an influential Balinese personage.

  7. CinéGlobe presents: "One Day on Earth"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CinéGlobe International Film Festival is proud to announce that it will be hosting the Swiss edition of the Global Screening of “One Day on Earth”, the first film to be shot and then screened in every country in the world.   Founded in 2008, “One Day on Earth's” first media creation event occurred on 10.10.10. The collaboration was the first ever simultaneous filming event occuring in every country of the world. It created a unique geo-tagged video archive as well as a unique feature film. “One Day on Earth” showcases the amazing diversity, conflict, tragedy, and triumph that occurs in one day on our planet.  This Earth Day, April 22nd, CinéGlobe and CERN invite the public to a free global screening event of the first One Day on Earth Motion Picture. This unique film, created from over 3000 hours of footage, was shot by the One Day on Earth community in every country of the world on October...

  8. [The neurobiology of sleep: Cajal and present-day neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayos-Jorge, J L; Hernández-Roca, J J; Moleres-Echevarría, F J

    We briefly describe the most significant findings obtained recently concerning the sleep-waking cycle in comparison to the studies conducted by Cajal on the same subject. This paper includes a short biographical sketch of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, with special emphasis on his importance within the framework of neuroscience. Cajal represents the decisive turning point in neurobiological studies, with the discovery of the synapse and his law of dynamic polarization. We conduct a short survey of the current knowledge about the phases of sleep and oneiric phenomena, based on their anatomo-physiological foundations. We present a summary of the history of the subject and analyze the contributions made by Cajal to this field, i.e. his study of the associative cortices, which are essential in memory processes and related to the mechanisms governing the sleep-waking cycle. For Cajal the fine anatomy of the thalamus must be considered in relation to the specificity of its connections an idea that is still completely valid today. He did not observe any projections of the thalamic reticular nucleus towards the cerebral cortex, a fact that has been corroborated using modern-day techniques. He spoke of the involvement of neuroglia in the attentional and sleep processes, which is so, although not quite in the way Cajal thought. He considered the production of dreams to be based on intimate neural mechanisms, which is still so. He also studied other brain structures related with the regulation of the sleep waking cycle, although avoiding any specific mention of the mechanisms controlling such a cycle. Furthermore, he conducted self-observation studies with a high degree of insight. Cajal studied the phenomena of attention and sleep in an objective manner and contributed a number of significant interpretations, some of which are now somewhat outdated while others are still wholly valid today.

  9. Speeches and Presentations on Day 1: Opening and Introductory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 nov. 2010 ... Pr. Dieudonné OUEDRAOGO, Director of ISSP Centre d'Excellence de l'UEMOA and Regional Coordinator of PARSEP;; M. Lauchlan MUNRO, Vice-president, Corporate Strategy and Regional Management, IDRC ;; M. Jules SAVARIA, Ambassador to the Embassy of Canada in Ouagadougou (Burkina ...

  10. Illiteracy, Sex and Occupational Status in Present-Day China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Jacques

    This study determined the magnitude of disparity between men and women in China in relation to illiteracy and occupational status. Region and ethnicity are used as control variables. The data collected are from a 10 percent sampling of the 1982 census; the total sample size includes a population of 100,380,000 nationwide. The census questionnaire…

  11. Delayed splenic rupture presenting 70 days following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resteghini, Nancy; Nielsen, Jonpaul; Hoimes, Matthew L; Karam, Adib R

    2014-01-01

    Delayed splenic rupture following conservative management of splenic injury is an extremely rare complication. We report a case of an adult patient who presented with delayed splenic rupture necessitating splenectomy, 2 months following blunt abdominal trauma. Imaging at the initial presentation demonstrated only minimal splenic contusion and the patient was discharge following 24 hours of observation. © 2014.

  12. Eco-architecture: Nostalgia or present-day challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, R.

    1982-05-01

    Ecological architecture contains the so-called alternative ways of building, taking into consideration passive energy systems in accordance with building-biological aspects and their natural incorporation in the landscape. The objective of ecological architecture is to connect the historical experiences in the adaptation of buildings to regional, local, and climate conditions with todays possibilities of building. This requests a changed planning of the building. Alternative architecture begins with the planning process and the user has to participate actively. It also includes the greening of the plot and the external arrangement.

  13. [Fire worship on Soratte: form prehistory to present days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fire has always been involved in human thoughts, believes and actions. For many psychological reasons fire has been considered as living power: red as the human blood, warm as the human body, clearly shines in the night. Fire worship is very common, especially in regions where terrestrial fire is believed to be the image of the heavenly fire. Fire worship has represented the base for symbolic systems involved in the cultural-anthropological evolution of populations settled close to mount Soratte. Fire cults in this region have originated in independent and long-time separated contexts, according to available knowledge. Hirpi Sorani, ancient inhabitants of mount Soratte territory, celebrated Sorano Apollo by a famous fire walking ceremony, with a likely cathartic and apotropaic meaning, as reported by ancient Roman writers. The victory of Christianity over paganism caused the decline of these religious practices. The beginning of the XIX century witnessed the establishment ofa new kind of devotion to the Virgin Mary at the mount Soratte. Today, this religious piety-linked identity has weakened due to changes in lifestyles,from an agricultural to one based on outside home employment, and has been largely shifted on cultural and anthropological bases. In conclusion, fire worship at mount Soratte has evolved because of external influences and local inhabitants have reacted by asserting their own identity.

  14. PRESENT DAY CONCERNS ON DIET OF PREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of women at pregnancy and delivery is known to provide basis for normal healthy growth and development of their children. Deficiency of animal proteins, vegetable fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (as b-carotine, А, Е, С, В2, В6, В12, folic acid, as well as calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, chrome, selenium, iodine and other microelements have been shown in the studies of actual diets of pregnant and nursing mothers in different regions of Russia, which was conducted by scientific research institute of nutrition, Russian academy of medical sciences. Methods of diet improvement to correct macro- and micronutrient deficiency in pregnant and nursing mothers, including use of specialized food products, are taken up in the article.Key words: diet, pregnant mothers, nursing mothers, nutritive support.

  15. Program and presentations of the 33th Actinide Days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The 'Journees des Actinides' (JDA) is an annual conference which provides a forum for discussions on all aspects related to the chemical and physical properties of the actinides. At the 2003 meeting, mainly the following properties were discussed of actinides and a number of actinide compounds and complexes: crystal structure, crystal-phase transformations and transformation temperatures; electrical properties including superconductivity and superconducting transition temperatures; magnetic properties; specific heat and other thermodynamic properties; electronic structure, especially in condensed matter; chemical and physico-chemical properties. The relevant experimental techniques were also dealt with, such as neutron diffraction; X-ray diffraction, in particular using synchrotron radiation; photoemission techniques, electron microscopy and spectroscopy, etc. Altogether 96 contributions were presented, of which 42 were oral presentations and 54 poster presentations. A program of the meeting and texts of both type of presentations were published in electronic form in the PDF format. All contributions were inputted to INIS; the full text of the program and the presentations has been incorporated into the INIS collection of non-conventional literature on CD-ROM. (A.K.)

  16. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Presentations and Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of presented presentations and posters on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 55 presentations and posters are included. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013/59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  17. Teaching with Social Media: Disrupting Present Day Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabon Bartow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Because social technologies present illuminating educational, ethical, economic, and structural challenges to existing constructions of public education, they catalyze a fundamental examination of what public education should look like and be like in a democracy. Given their performances in other arenas, mobile and electronic technologies have the…

  18. Present day sea level changes: observation and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, A.

    2005-11-01

    Whereas sea level has changed little over the last 2000 years, it has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/year during the 20. century. This unexpected sea level rise has been attributed to the anthropogenic global warming, recorded over several decades. Sea level variations have been measured globally and precisely for about 12 years due to satellite altimeter missions Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1. These observations indicate a global mean sea level rise of about 3 mm/year since 1993, a value significantly larger than observed during previous decades. Recent observations have allowed us to quantify the various climatic factors contributing to observed sea level change: thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in the land water reservoirs. A water budget based on these new observations allows us to partly explain the observed sea level rise. In particular, we show that the thermal expansion explains only 25% of the secular sea level rise as recorded by tide-gauges over the last 50 years, while it contributes about 50% of sea level rise observed over the last decade. Meanwhile, recent studies show that glacier and ice sheet melting could contribute the equivalent of 1 mm/year in sea level rise over the last decade. In addition, the high regional variability of sea level trends revealed by satellite altimetry is mainly due to thermal expansion. There is also an important decadal spatio-temporal variability in the ocean thermal expansion over the last 50 years, which seems to be controlled by natural climate fluctuations. We question for the first time the link between the decadal fluctuations in the ocean thermal expansion and in the land reservoirs, and indeed their climatic contribution to sea level change. Finally a preliminary analysis of GRACE spatial gravimetric observations over the oceans allows us to estimate the seasonal variations in mean sea level due to ocean water mass balance variations

  19. TRANSFER PRICING–A PRESENT-DAY ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIȚIMUȘ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the fiscal inspection procedures and financial control undertaken by the Romanian fiscal authorities, a special place and an everyday more increasing share is occupied by the transactions between Romanian companies with affiliated entities. The principle that should stay at the foundation of these transactions is that every agreement of purchase or sale between affiliates should be made at the market price. This paper aims to present methodological aspects regarding transfer pricing and to underline the evolution and the expectations related to this subject in Romania.

  20. Present-day Problems and Methods of Optimization in Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnowski Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is justified that design is an inverse problem, and the optimization is a paradigm. Classes of design problems are proposed and typical obstacles are recognized. Peculiarities of the mechatronic designing are specified as a proof of a particle importance of optimization in the mechatronic design. Two main obstacles of optimization are discussed: a complexity of mathematical models and an uncertainty of the value system, in concrete case. Then a set of non-standard approaches and methods are presented and discussed, illustrated by examples: a fuzzy description, a constraint-based iterative optimization, AHP ranking method and a few MADM functions in Matlab.

  1. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  2. Detailed study of transmutation scenarios involving present day reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document makes a detailed technical evaluation of three families of separation-transmutation scenarios for the management of radioactive wastes. These scenarios are based on 2 parks of reactors which recycle plutonium and minor actinides in an homogeneous way. A first scenario considers the multi-recycling of Pu and Np and the mono-recycling of Am and Cm using both PWRs and FBRs. A second scenario is based on PWRs only, while a third one considers FBRs only. The mixed PWR+FBR scenario requires innovative options and gathers more technical difficulties due to the americium and curium management in a minimum flux of materials. A particular attention has been given to the different steps of the fuel cycle (fuels and targets fabrication, burnup, spent fuel processing, targets management). The feasibility of scenarios of homogeneous actinides recycling in PWRs-only and in FBRs-only has been evaluated according to the results of the first scenario: fluxes of materials, spent fuel reprocessing by advanced separation, impact of the presence of actinides on PWRs and FBRs operation. The efficiency of the different scenarios on the abatement of wastes radio-toxicity is presented in conclusion. (J.S.)

  3. Cultures and politics in the present-day Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Plus que jamais, l’espace alpin est marqué par le déploiement de flux toujours plus variés, toujours plus puissants, et symétriquement par la multiplication d’initiatives destinées à conforter ou à régénérer l’idée de localité. Quelles spatialités et quelles territorialités travaillent les populations alpines aujourd’hui ? Quelles sont les figures contemporaines de la circulation et des flux, et les figures complémentaires de l’ancrage et de la refondation territoriale ? Voici les questions que cet essai se propose de développer. Ce texte reprend le contenu d’une conférence donnée dans le cadre de la célébration du centenaire de l’Institut de Géographie Alpine. Cette conférence, comme les autres données à cette occasion, avait adopté une forme libre dressant un bilan et des perspectives de la situation alpine. La trace écrite adoptée ici prend alors logiquement la forme d’un essai.More than ever before, the Alps are affected by increasingly varied and powerful flows and equally by the multiplication of initiatives designed to strengthen or regenerate the idea of “locality” (place. What spatialities and what territorialities activate the populations of the Alps today? What are the contemporary figures relating to circulation and flows and the complementary figures concerning spatial “anchoring” or fixity and new territorial foundations? These are the questions that this essay, proposes to develop. This text takes another look at the subject of a lecture given as part of celebrations to mark the centenary of the Institut de Géographie Alpine. This lecture, like the others given on this occasion, adopted a free format, presenting a report on the current situation in the Alps and prospects for the future. The written format adopted here logically takes the form of an essay. Readers looking for detailed illustrations and references are referred to three scientific articles published by the same

  4. Combining GRACE and Altimetry to solve for present day mass changes and GIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbroek, R.; Lück, C.; Uebbing, B.; Kusche, J.; King, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Past and present day sea level rise is closely linked to geoid and surface deformation changes from the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Sea level, as detected by radar altimetry, senses the radial deformation of the ocean floor as mantle material slowly flows back to the locations of the former glacial domes. This manifests itself as a net subsidence when averaged over the entire ocean, but can regionally be seen as an uplift for locations close to the former ice sheets. Furthermore, mass driven sea level as derived from GRACE, is even more sensitive to GIA induced mass redistribution in the solid Earth. Consequently, errors in GIA corrections, most notably errors in mantle viscosity and ice histories, have a different leverage on regional sea level estimates from GRACE and altimetry. In this study, we discuss the abilities of a GRACE-altimetry combination to co-estimate GIA corrections together with present day contributors to sea level, rather than simply prescribing a GIA correction from a model. The data is combined in a joint inversion scheme which makes use of spatial patterns to parameterize present day loading effects and GIA. We show that the GRACE-altimetry combination requires constraints, but generally steers the Antarctic GIA signal towards a weaker present day signal in Antarctica compared to a ICE5-G(VM2) derived model. Furthermore, in light of the aging GRACE mission, we show sensitivity studies of how well one could estimate GIA corrections when using other low earth orbiters such as SWARM or CHAMP. Finally, we show whether the Antarctic GNSS station network may be useful in separating GIA from present day mass signals in this type of inversion schemes.

  5. Inverse relationship between present-day tropical precipitation and its sensitivity to greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Choi, Jun-Young; Jin, Fei-Fei; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Future changes in rainfall have serious impacts on human adaptation to climate change, but quantification of these changes is subject to large uncertainties in climate model projections. To narrow these uncertainties, significant efforts have been made to understand the intermodel differences in future rainfall changes. Here, we show a strong inverse relationship between present-day precipitation and its future change to possibly calibrate future precipitation change by removing the present-day bias in climate models. The results of the models with less tropical (40° S-40° N) present-day precipitation are closely linked to the dryness over the equatorial central-eastern Pacific, and project weaker regional precipitation increase due to the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing1-6 with stronger zonal Walker circulation. This induces Indo-western Pacific warming through Bjerknes feedback, which reduces relative humidity by the enhanced atmospheric boundary-layer mixing in the future projection. This increases the air-sea humidity difference to enhance tropical evaporation and the resultant precipitation. Our estimation of the sensitivity of the tropical precipitation per 1 K warming, after removing a common bias in the present-day simulation, is about 50% greater than the original future multi-model projection.

  6. Statistical Downscaling of Rainfall for Romania From six European GCMs for Present Day and Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebener, H.; Cubasch, U.

    2007-12-01

    Circulation Weather Types calculated from ERA40 SLP fields are correlated to rainfall for selected Romanian stations in the lower Danube catchment. The western, central, and eastern parts of the area show differing correlations between rainfall and CWTs in the observations. For all all regions and most CWTs, precipitation amount per rain day is larger in summer while occurrence frequency of rain days per CWT is larger in winter. Rain amount and frequency show high positive (negative) correlation with cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) days. In the western region rain amounts are highest for SE CWT, associated with synoptic disturbances originating from the central Mediterranean. In the central and eastern region N to E CWTs provide the highest rain amounts, associated with low pressure over the black sea and the eastern Mediterranean. SW to NW CWTs are negatively correlated with rain in the eastern part of the area due to diffluence south of the Carpathians. In the scope of the EU-Project ENSEMBLES, CWTs are also calculated using six European GCMs (BCC, NERSC, Norway; CNRM-CM3, CNRM, France; EGMAM, FU-Berlin, Germany; ECHAM5/MPI-OM1, MPI-M, Germany; HadGEM1, Hadley-Centre, UK; IPSL-CM4, Institute Pierre Simone Laplace, France). Comparison of the occurrence frequency of CWTs for present-day simulations to the ERA40 results shows a positive bias of W CWT in Romania, associated with a too strong northern polar low in all models. Additionally an overestimation of cyclonic and an underestimation of anti-cyclonic days is found in the models. This feature is consistent with a general tendency of GCMs to underestimate blocking situations. The annual cycle of CWTs for Romania is displayed in the different models in varying quality: while ECHAM5/MPI-OM shows an annual cycle close to observations, some of the other models are not suited to represent the annual cycle correctly. All models show an increase of anti-cyclonic days combined with a decrease of cyclonic days for the SRES A1B

  7. Simulation of regional day-ahead PV power forecast scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuno, Edgar; Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with Photovoltaic (PV) generation can have a significant impact on real-time planning and operation of power systems. This obstacle is commonly handled using multiple forecast realizations, obtained using for example forecast ensembles and/or probabilistic forecasts, often...... at the expense of a high computational burden. Alternatively, some power system applications may require realistic forecasts rather than actual estimates; able to capture the uncertainty of weatherdriven generation. To this end, we propose a novel methodology to generate day-ahead forecast scenarios of regional...... PV production matching the spatio-temporal characteristics while preserving the statistical properties of actual records....

  8. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project reveal new Near Eastern features in present-day Tuscans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000 and partial control region sequences (>180,000.Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%. Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran.Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks.

  9. Brief communication: Improved simulation of the present-day Greenland firn layer (1960-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Noël, Brice P. Y.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-05-01

    By providing pore space for storage or refreezing of meltwater, the Greenland ice sheet firn layer strongly modulates runoff. Correctly representing the firn layer is therefore crucial for Greenland (surface) mass balance studies. Here, we present a simulation of the Greenland firn layer with the firn model IMAU-FDM forced by the latest output of the regional climate model RACMO2, version 2.3p2. In the percolation zone, much improved agreement is found with firn density and temperature observations. A full simulation of Greenland firn at high temporal (10 days) and spatial (11 km) resolution is available for the period 1960-2016.

  10. Analysis of present day and future OH and methane lifetime in the ACCMIP simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voulgarakis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results from simulations performed for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP are analysed to examine how OH and methane lifetime may change from present day to the future, under different climate and emissions scenarios. Present day (2000 mean tropospheric chemical lifetime derived from the ACCMIP multi-model mean is 9.8 ± 1.6 yr (9.3 ± 0.9 yr when only including selected models, lower than a recent observationally-based estimate, but with a similar range to previous multi-model estimates. Future model projections are based on the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, and the results also exhibit a large range. Decreases in global methane lifetime of 4.5 ± 9.1% are simulated for the scenario with lowest radiative forcing by 2100 (RCP 2.6, while increases of 8.5 ± 10.4% are simulated for the scenario with highest radiative forcing (RCP 8.5. In this scenario, the key driver of the evolution of OH and methane lifetime is methane itself, since its concentration more than doubles by 2100 and it consumes much of the OH that exists in the troposphere. Stratospheric ozone recovery, which drives tropospheric OH decreases through photolysis modifications, also plays a partial role. In the other scenarios, where methane changes are less drastic, the interplay between various competing drivers leads to smaller and more diverse OH and methane lifetime responses, which are difficult to attribute. For all scenarios, regional OH changes are even more variable, with the most robust feature being the large decreases over the remote oceans in RCP8.5. Through a regression analysis, we suggest that differences in emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and in the simulation of photolysis rates may be the main factors causing the differences in simulated present day OH and methane lifetime. Diversity in predicted changes between present day and future OH was found to be associated more strongly with

  11. Surface ozone in China: present-day distribution and long-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable knowledge of spatio-temporal variations of surface ozone is highly needed to assess the impacts of ozone on human health, ecosystem and climate. Although regional distributions and trends of surface ozone in European and North American countries have been well characterized, little is known about the variability of surface ozone in many other countries, including China, where emissions of ozone precursors have been changing rapidly in recent decades. Here we present the first comprehensive description of present-day (2013-2017) distribution and long-term changes of surface ozone in mainland China. Recent ozone measurements from China's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) are analyzed to show present-day distributions of a few ozone exposure metrics for urban environment. Long-term measurements of ozone at six background sites, a rural site and an urban are used to study the trends of ozone in background, rural and urban air, respectively. The average levels of ozone at the AQMN sites (mainly urban) are close to those found at many European and North American sites. However, ozone at most of the sites shows very large diurnal and seasonal variations so that ozone nonattainment can occur in many cities, particularly those in the North China Plain (NCP), the south of Northeast China (NEC), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Sichuan Basin-Chongqing region (SCB). In all these regions, particularly in the NCP, the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentration can significantly exceed the national limit (75 ppb). High annual sum of ozone means over 35 ppb (SOMO35) exist mainly in the NCP, NEC and YRD, with regional averages over 4000 ppb·d. Surface ozone has significantly increased at Waliguan (a baseline site in western China) and Shangdianzi (a background site in the NCP), and decreased in winter and spring at Longfengshan (a background site in Northeast China). No clear trend can be derived from long-term measurements

  12. Present day crustal deformation of the Italian peninsula observed by permanent GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoti, Roberto; Esposito, Alessandra; Galvani, Alessandro; Pietrantonio, Grazia; Pisani, Anna Rita; Riguzzi, Federica; Sepe, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Italian penisula is a crucial area in the Mediterranean region to understand the active deformation processes along Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. We present the velocity and strain rate fields of the Italian area derived from continuous GPS observations of more than 300 sites in the time span 1998-2009. The GPS networks were installed and managed by different institutions and for different purposes; altogether they cover the whole country with a mean inter-site distance of about 50 km and provide a valuable source of data to map the present day kinematics of the region. The data processing is performed by BERNESE software ver. 5.0, adopting a distributed session approach, with more than 10 clusters, sharing common stations, each of them consisting of about 40 stations. Daily loosely constrained solutions are routinely produced for each cluster and then combined into a network daily loose solution. Subsequently daily solutions are transformed on the chosen reference frame and the constrained time series are fitted using the complete covariance matrix, simultaneously estimating site velocities together with annual signals and sporadic offsets at epochs of instrumental changes. In this work we provide an updated detailed picture of the horizontal and vertical kinematics (velocity maps) and deformation pattern (strain rate maps) of the Italian area. The results show several crustal domains characterized by different velocity rates and styles of deformation.

  13. NCR-days 2004; research for managing rivers: present and future issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Os, van A.G.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the product of the NCR days 2004, held 46 November 2004 in Wageningen.The NCR days are a yearly conference at which mainly young scientists present their ongoing research on a wide variety of fluvial subjects. The 46 contributions (oral presentations and posters) to the

  14. 3D instantaneous dynamics modeling of present-day Aegean subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Anne; Spakman, Wim; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Pranger, Casper

    2017-04-01

    To study the sensitivity of surface observables to subduction and mantle flow, i.e. the coupling of crustal tectonics and the underlying mantle dynamics, we have developed 3D numerical models of the instantaneous crust-mantle dynamics of the eastern Mediterranean. These models comprise both a realistic crust-lithosphere system and the underlying mantle. The focus for this presentation lies on the regional crustal flow response to the present-day Aegean subduction system. Our curved model domain measures 40°x40°x2900km with the Aegean subduction system taken as the geographic center. Model set-ups are based on geological and geophysical data of the eastern Mediterranean. We first create a 3D synthetic geometry of the crust-lithosphere system in a stand-alone program, including the present-day configuration of the plates in the region and crust and lithosphere thickness variations abstracted from Moho and LAB maps (Faccenna et al., 2014, Carafa et al., 2015). In addition we construct the geometry of the Aegean slab from a seismic tomography model (UU-P07; Amaru, 2007) and earthquake hypocenters (NCEDC, 2014). Geometries are then imported into the finite element code ASPECT (Kronbichler et al., 2012) using specially designed plugins. The mantle initial temperature conditions can include deviations from an adiabatic profile obtained from conversion of the UU-P07 seismic velocity anomalies to temperature anomalies using a depth-dependent scaling (Karato, 2008). We model compressible mantle flow for which material properties are obtained from thermodynamics P-T lookup-tables (Perple_X, Connolly, 2009) in combination with nonlinear viscoplastic rheology laws. Sublithospheric flow through the lateral model boundaries is left free via open boundary conditions (Chertova et al., 2012), while plate motion is prescribed at the model sides in terms of relative as well as absolute plate motion velocities (e.g. Doubrovine et al., 2012). So far, we used a free-slip surface, but

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L. Fleming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the present-day global and regional distributions (2010–2014 and trends (2000–2014 for five ozone metrics relevant for short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics, calculated by the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report, are: 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone (4MDA8; number of days with MDA8 > 70 ppb (NDGT70, SOMO35 (annual Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb and two seasonally averaged metrics (3MMDA1; AVGMDA8. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites worldwide, which were classified as urban or non-urban based on population and nighttime lights data. Present-day distributions of 4MDA8 and NDGT70, determined predominantly by peak values, are similar with highest levels in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. For the other three metrics, distributions are similar with North–South gradients more prominent across Europe and Japan. Between 2000 and 2014, significant negative trends in 4MDA8 and NDGT70 occur at most US and some European sites. In contrast, significant positive trends are found at many sites in South Korea and Hong Kong, with mixed trends across Japan. The other three metrics have similar, negative trends for many non-urban North American and some European and Japanese sites, and positive trends across much of East Asia. Globally, metrics at many sites exhibit non-significant trends. At 59% of all sites there is a common direction and significance in the trend across all five metrics, whilst 4MDA8 and NDGT70 have a common trend at ~80% of all sites. Sensitivity analysis shows AVGMDA8 trends differ with averaging period (warm season or annual. Trends are unchanged at many sites when a 1995–2014 period is used; although fewer sites exhibit non-significant trends. Over the longer period 1970–2014, most Japanese sites exhibit positive 4MDA8/SOMO35 trends. Insufficient data exist to characterize ozone trends for the rest of Asia and other world regions.

  16. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-24

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  17. Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV) penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the transport sector and provide...... demand side flexibility required by the smart grids. On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. In order to quantify the electricity consumption increase due to the 100% EV penetration in the Nordic region to facilitate the power system planning studies, the day-ahead energy...

  18. Analysis of Present Day Election Processes vis-à-vis Elections Through Blockchain Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hegadekatti, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    Currently, Democracy is realised through representatives elected by the people. These elections are periodic activities. They involve expenditure of big amounts of manpower, money, time and other resources. It is important to note that during an election, the administration and day-to-day lives of people are affected as election activities take centre stage. Present day elections are amenable to influence where Voters can possibly be intimidated to vote against their will. In many instances, ...

  19. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 1: Energy outlook and presentation of the Areva Group; AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 1: enjeux energetiques et presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This first session deals with energy challenges and nuclear, public acceptance of nuclear power, mining activities, chemistry activities, enrichment activities, fuel assembly, reactors and services activities, nuclear measurements activities, reprocessing and recycling activities, logistics activities and connectors activities. (A.L.B.)

  20. Present-day Opening of the Natron Rift: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, E.; Dalaison, M.; Saria, E.; Doubre, C.; Masson, F.

    2017-12-01

    The young Natron basin (system, is an important locale to study the initial stage of continental rifting. It was the locus of a rarely observed tectono-magmatic event in July 2007, with slow slip on an intra-basin normal fault followed by a 10 km-long dike intrusion underneath the Gelai shield volcano. Here we report on a series of GPS observations over a 20-site network spanning the basin, measured repeatedly since 2013. We observe a long wavelength ( 200 km wide) extension with a horizontal rate of about 2 mm/yr, consistent with recentlty published regional kinematic models, and a velocity gradient centered on the west-bounding fault of the Natron basin. Initial models show that the data is best fit by a normal fault dipping 60 degrees to the east and slipping at a rate of 6 mm/yr. Superimposed on this long wavelength extension, we observe a smaller scale ( 30 km wide) extensional signal in the middle of the basin, roughly coincident with the location of the Gelai volcano, which was the locale of the 2007 seismic-magmatic crisis. We investigate the relative importance of tectonic faulting, post-diking relaxation following the 2007 intrusion (as observed for instance in Afar or Iceland after similar events), and melt recharge of the intra-basin magmatic system in present-day extension across this young segment of the East African Rift.

  1. Present-Day Mars' Seismicity Predicted From 3-D Thermal Evolution Models of Interior Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Golombek, M. P.; Breuer, D.; Grott, M.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonné, P.; Tosi, N.; Weber, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport mission, to be launched in 2018, will perform a comprehensive geophysical investigation of Mars in situ. The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure package aims to detect global and regional seismic events and in turn offer constraints on core size, crustal thickness, and core, mantle, and crustal composition. In this study, we estimate the present-day amount and distribution of seismicity using 3-D numerical thermal evolution models of Mars, taking into account contributions from convective stresses as well as from stresses associated with cooling and planetary contraction. Defining the seismogenic lithosphere by an isotherm and assuming two end-member cases of 573 K and the 1073 K, we determine the seismogenic lithosphere thickness. Assuming a seismic efficiency between 0.025 and 1, this thickness is used to estimate the total annual seismic moment budget, and our models show values between 5.7 × 1016 and 3.9 × 1019 Nm.

  2. The influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Krško

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.

  3. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D A [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  4. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, D. A. [The John Hopkins Univ, Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Baltimore (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO{sub 2} and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request 22 refs., 7 tabs., 18 figs.

  5. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  6. Empirical estimation of present-day Antarctic glacial isostatic adjustment and ice mass change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, B. C.; Didova, O.; Riva, R. E. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; King, M. A.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Urban, T.

    2014-04-01

    This study explores an approach that simultaneously estimates Antarctic mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) through the combination of satellite gravity and altimetry data sets. The results improve upon previous efforts by incorporating a firn densification model to account for firn compaction and surface processes as well as reprocessed data sets over a slightly longer period of time. A range of different Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity models were evaluated and a new Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) surface height trend map computed using an overlapping footprint approach. When the GIA models created from the combination approach were compared to in situ GPS ground station displacements, the vertical rates estimated showed consistently better agreement than recent conventional GIA models. The new empirically derived GIA rates suggest the presence of strong uplift in the Amundsen Sea sector in West Antarctica (WA) and the Philippi/Denman sectors, as well as subsidence in large parts of East Antarctica (EA). The total GIA-related mass change estimates for the entire Antarctic ice sheet ranged from 53 to 103 Gt yr-1, depending on the GRACE solution used, with an estimated uncertainty of ±40 Gt yr-1. Over the time frame February 2003-October 2009, the corresponding ice mass change showed an average value of -100 ± 44 Gt yr-1 (EA: 5 ± 38, WA: -105 ± 22), consistent with other recent estimates in the literature, with regional mass loss mostly concentrated in WA. The refined approach presented in this study shows the contribution that such data combinations can make towards improving estimates of present-day GIA and ice mass change, particularly with respect to determining more reliable uncertainties.

  7. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from ACCMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Y.; Lamarque, J.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D. T.; Berntsen, T.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Cao, J.; Collins, B.; Curran, M. A.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, S. J.; Horowitz, L. W.; McConnell, J. R.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5-3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfraujoch and Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes well at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores and the overall temporal trends in the Alps ice core. The

  8. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN DRY DAYS AND TEMPERATURE OF SYLHET REGION: CORRELATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mustakim Ali Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can have profound impact on weather conditions around the world such as heavy rainfall, drought, global warming and so on. Understanding and predicting these natural variations is now a key research challenge for disaster-prone country like Bangladesh. This study focuses on the north eastern part of Bangladesh which is a hilly region, plays an important role in the ecological balance of the country along with socio-economic development. Present study analyses the behavior of maximum temperature and dry days using different statistical tools. Pearson’s correlation matrix and Man-Kendall’s tau are used to correlate monthly dry days with monthly maximum temperature, and also their annual trend. A moderate correlation was found mostly in dry summer months. In addition, a positive trend was observed in Man Kendall’s trend test of yearly temperature which might be an indication of global warming in this region.

  9. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND TRENDS OF DRY DAYS IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mustakim Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall distribution in Bangladesh is not uniform and refl ecting topography. Hilly Sylhet region receives substantial rainfall every year compare to other regions of Bangladesh. Though Sylhet region is less vulnerable to drought but weather pattern is not constant and changing day by day. Hence as a part of drought an alysis, behavior of dry days is important. This study focuses on dry days pattern and associ ated changes from daily records of last 54 years for Sylhet region. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variations of dry days were analyzed to check for major changes. In order to inve stigate extreme dry events, time history of monthly dry days data were transformed into fre quency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Variability of dry days in tim e scale was also checked from filtered signals which is very useful for drought a nalysis, agricultural development and disaster management for the north-east region of Bangladesh.

  10. Re-assessing Present Day Global Mass Transport and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment From a Data Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Jiang, Y.; Simonsen, S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ligtenberg, S.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining present-day mass transport (PDMT) is complicated by the fact that most observations contain signals from both present day ice melting and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Despite decades of progress in geodynamic modeling and new observations, significant uncertainties remain in both. The key to separate present-day ice mass change and signals from GIA is to include data of different physical characteristics. We designed an approach to separate PDMT and GIA signatures by estimating them simultaneously using globally distributed interdisciplinary data with distinct physical information and a dynamically constructed a priori GIA model. We conducted a high-resolution global reappraisal of present-day ice mass balance with focus on Earth's polar regions and its contribution to global sea-level rise using a combination of ICESat, GRACE gravity, surface geodetic velocity data, and an ocean bottom pressure model. Adding ice altimetry supplies critically needed dual data types over the interiors of ice covered regions to enhance separation of PDMT and GIA signatures, and achieve half an order of magnitude expected higher accuracies for GIA and consequently ice mass balance estimates. The global data based approach can adequately address issues of PDMT and GIA induced geocenter motion and long-wavelength signatures important for large areas such as Antarctica and global mean sea level. In conjunction with the dense altimetry data, we solved for PDMT coefficients up to degree and order 180 by using a higher-resolution GRACE data set, and a high-resolution a priori PDMT model that includes detailed geographic boundaries. The high-resolution approach solves the problem of multiple resolutions in various data types, greatly reduces aliased errors from a low-degree truncation, and at the same time, enhances separation of signatures from adjacent regions such as Greenland and Canadian Arctic territories.

  11. Neanderthal and Denisova tooth protein variants in present-day humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Zanolli

    Full Text Available Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries. To gain insights into the relationships between tooth protein polymorphisms and dental structural morphology and defects, we searched for non-synonymous polymorphisms in tooth proteins from Neanderthal and Denisova hominins. The objective was to identify archaic-specific missense variants that may explain the dental morphostructural variability between extinct and modern humans, and to explore their putative impact on present-day dental phenotypes. Thirteen non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins specific to hard dental tissues have been selected, searched in the publicly available sequence databases of Neanderthal and Denisova individuals and compared with modern human genome data. A total of 16 non-synonymous polymorphisms were identified in 6 proteins (ameloblastin, amelotin, cementum protein 1, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, enamelin and matrix Gla protein. Most of them are encoded by dentin and enamel genes located on chromosome 4, previously reported to show signs of archaic introgression within Africa. Among the variants shared with modern humans, two are ancestral (common with apes and one is the derived enamelin major variant, T648I (rs7671281, associated with a thinner enamel and specific to the Homo lineage. All the others are specific to Neanderthals and Denisova, and are found at a very low frequency in modern Africans or East and South Asians, suggesting that they may be related to particular dental traits or

  12. Present day design challenges exemplified by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, P.W. Jr.; Anderson, C.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The present day design challenges faced by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant engineer result from two causes. The first cause is aspiration to achieve a design that will operate at conditions which are desirable for future LMFBRs in order for them to achieve low power costs and good breeding. The second cause is the licensing impact. Although licensing the CRBRP won't eliminate future licensing effort, many licensing questions will have been resolved and precedents set for the future LMFBR industry

  13. Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the day-ahead energy planning of passenger cars with 100% electric vehicle (EV penetration in the Nordic region by 2050. EVs will play an important role in the future energy systems which can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the transport sector and provide the demand side flexibility required by smart grids. On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. In order to quantify the electricity consumption increase due to the 100% EV penetration in the Nordic region to facilitate the power system planning studies, the day-ahead energy planning of EVs has been investigated with different EV charging scenarios. Five EV charging scenarios have been considered in the energy planning analysis which are: uncontrolled charging all day, uncontrolled charging at home, timed charging, spot price based charging all day and spot price based charging at home. The demand profiles of the five charging analysis show that timed charging is the least favorable charging option and the spot priced based EV charging might induce high peak demands. The EV charging demand will have a considerable share of the energy consumption in the future Nordic power system.

  14. Bayesian inversion of the global present-day GIA signal uncertainty from RSL data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Lambert; Ivins, Erik R.; Adhikari, Surendra; Larour, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Various geophysical signals measured in the process of studying the present-day climate change (such as changes in the Earth gravitational potential, ocean altimery or GPS data) include a secular Glacial Isostatic Adjustment contribution that has to be corrected for. Yet, one of the current major challenges that Glacial Isostatic Adjustment modelling is currently struggling with is to accurately determine the uncertainty of the predicted present-day GIA signal. This is especially true at the global scale, where coupling between ice history and mantle rheology greatly contributes to the non-uniqueness of the solutions. Here we propose to use more than 11000 paleo sea level records to constrain a set of GIA Bayesian inversions and thoroughly explore its parameters space. We include two linearly relaxing models to represent the mantle rheology and couple them with a scalable ice history model in order to better assess the non-uniqueness of the solutions. From the resulting estimates of the Probability Density Function, we then extract maps of uncertainty affecting the present-day vertical land motion and geoid due to GIA at the global scale, and their associated expectation of the signal.

  15. Darfur Crisis of 2003: Analysis of the Darfur Conflict from the Times of First Clashes to the Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielová Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the conflict in the Darfur region that took place in 2003. Main aim consists inanalyzing of major Darfur conflict emphasizing historical events preceded it. The crucial question raised here is what were significant causalities that affected the emergence of terror? The paper deals with the origin and evolution of tension and violence in Darfur. It observes growth of violation throughout history from the precolonial period to the present day. Emphasis is placed on the root causes of the Darfur crisis of 2003, its participants and characteristic aspects of this war.

  16. Present-day radiotherapy: analysis of the sate of the art and outlook in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar'yalova, S.P.; Bojko, A.V.; Chernichenko, A.V.; Kiceleva, E.S.; Kvasov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the development of radiotherapy as exemplified by experience gained by P.A.Herzen Oncological Research Dulines the priority of radiotherapy for the nearest future. It is, firet and foremost, chemoradiotherapy making use of both, intravenous polychemotherapy and intra-and paratumoral injection of drugs: intraoperative exposure to electron beam of different energies using gaseous hypoxia; laser exposure together with combined radiotherapy for the treatment of tracheobronchial, esofophageal, rectal, and genital cancers. Validates and presents the results of nontraditional protocols of downs fractionation and radiomodifier use. Formulates the ideology of present-day radiotherapy. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Shallow transient liquid water environments on present-day mars, and their implications for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eriita G.

    2018-05-01

    The identification and characterisation of subsurface liquid water environments on Mars are of high scientific interest. Such environments have the potential to support microbial life, and, more broadly, to develop our understanding of the habitability of planets and moons beyond Earth. Given our current state of knowledge of life on Earth, three pre-requisites are necessary for an environment to be considered 'habitable' and therefore capable of supporting terrestrial-like life: energy, biogenic elements, and liquid water with a sufficiently high water activity. The surface of Mars today is predominately cold and dry, and any liquid water exposed to the atmosphere will vaporise or freeze on timescales of hours to days. These conditions have likely persisted for much of the last 10 million years, and perhaps longer. Despite this, briny liquid water flows (Recurrent Slope Linea) have been observed in a number of locations in the present-day. This review examines evidence from the Phoenix Lander (2008) and the Mars Science Laboratory (2012-current), to assess the occurrence of habitable conditions in the shallow Martian regolith. It will be argued that shallow, transient, liquid water brines are potentially habitable by microbial life, are likely a widespread occurrence on Mars, and that future exploration aimed at finding present-day habitable conditions and potential biology should 'follow the salt'.

  18. The present-day scope of practice and services of the traditional healer in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The scope of practice of the traditional healer in South Africa is not guided or circumscribed by any statutory mandate at present. The traditional healer’s practice and services are currently based on and driven by the supernatural and the afterlife, lacking not only a scientific foundation, but also legal constraint. Aims This study aimed to determine and describe the present-day scope of practice and services of the South African traditional healer. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the scope of practice and services of the South African traditional healer. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results There is no established curriculum and practice culture to serve as an evaluation and descriptive criteria for the present-day traditional healer’s scope of practice. Conclusion The South African traditional healer’s practice and rights are unwritten and legally unregulated, especially when viewed against in comparison with the current practice customs, traditions and rights of the South African statutorily regulated healthcare practitioners.

  19. Telos: The Revival of an Aristotelian Concept in Present Day Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    HAUSKELLER, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    Genetic engineering is often looked upon with disfavour on the grounds that it involves ‘tampering with nature’. Most philosophers do not take this notion seriously. However, some do. Those who do tend to understand nature in an Aristotelian sense, as the essence or form which is the final end or telos for the sake of which individual organisms live, and which also explains why they are as they are. But is this really a tenable idea? In order to secure its usage in present day ethics, I will ...

  20. AREVA Technical Days (ATD) session 1: Energy outlook and presentation of the Areva Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These technical days organized by the Areva Group aims to explain the group activities in a technological and economic point of view, to provide an outlook of worldwide energy trends and challenges and to present each of their businesses in a synthetic manner. This first session deals with energy challenges and nuclear, public acceptance of nuclear power, mining activities, chemistry activities, enrichment activities, fuel assembly, reactors and services activities, nuclear measurements activities, reprocessing and recycling activities, logistics activities and connectors activities. (A.L.B.)

  1. Uncovering the genetic history of the present-day greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Ida; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2015-01-01

    Because of past limitations in samples and genotyping technologies, important questions about the history of the present-day Greenlandic population remain unanswered. In an effort to answer these questions and in general investigate the genetic history of the Greenlandic population, we analyzed...... between the Norse Vikings who lived in Greenland for a limited period ∼600-1,000 years ago and the Inuit, we found no evidence supporting this hypothesis. Similarly, we found no evidence supporting a previously hypothesized admixture event between the Inuit in East Greenland and the Dorset people, who...

  2. Electronic inventions and discoveries electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1983-01-01

    Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day provides a summary of the development of the whole field of electronics. Organized into 13 chapters, the book covers and reviews the history of electronics as a whole and its aspects. The opening chapter covers the beginnings of electronics, while the next chapter discusses the development of components, transistors, and integrated circuits. The third chapter tackles the expansion of electronics and its effects on industry. The succeeding chapters discuss the history of the aspects of electronics

  3. Global Ozone Distribution relevant to Human Health: Metrics and present day levels from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; Doherty, R. M.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Cooper, O. R.; Malley, C.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Pinto, J. P.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M. G.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Using stations from the TOAR surface ozone database, this study quantifies present-day global and regional distributions of five ozone metrics relevant for both short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites globally, and re-classified for this project as urban or non-urban using population densities and night-time lights. National surface ozone limit values are usually related to an annual number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-hour running mean (MDA8), with many countries not even having any ozone limit values. A discussion and comparison of exceedances in the different ozone metrics, their locations and the seasonality of exceedances provides clues as to the regions that potentially have more serious ozone health implications. Present day ozone levels (2010-2014) have been compared globally and show definite geographical differences (see Figure showing the annual 4th highest MDA8 for present day ozone for all non-urban stations). Higher ozone levels are seen in western compared to eastern US, and between southern and northern Europe, and generally higher levels in east Asia. The metrics reflective of peak concentrations show highest values in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. A number of the metrics show similar distributions of North-South gradients, most prominent across Europe and Japan. The interquartile range of the regional ozone metrics was largest in East Asia, higher for urban stations in Asia but higher for non-urban stations in Europe and North America. With over 3000 monitoring stations included in this analysis and despite the higher densities of monitoring stations in Europe, north America and East Asia, this study provides the most comprehensive global picture to date of surface ozone levels in terms of health-relevant metrics.

  4. Present-day crustal deformation and strain transfer in northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional present-day crustal deformation and strain partitioning in northeastern Tibetan Plateau are analyzed using available GPS and precise leveling data. We used the multi-scale wavelet method to analyze strain rates, and the elastic block model to estimate slip rates on the major faults and internal strain within each block. Our results show that shear strain is strongly localized along major strike-slip faults, as expected in the tectonic extrusion model. However, extrusion ends and transfers to crustal contraction near the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The strain transfer is abrupt along the Haiyuan Fault and diffusive along the East Kunlun Fault. Crustal contraction is spatially correlated with active uplifting. The present-day strain is concentrated along major fault zones; however, within many terranes bounded by these faults, intra-block strain is detectable. Terranes having high intra-block strain rates also show strong seismicity. On average the Ordos and Sichuan blocks show no intra-block strain, but localized strain on the southwestern corner of the Ordos block indicates tectonic encroachment.

  5. PRAGMATIC FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION CODE FAILURE IN PRESENT-DAY DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochtar Elena Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of communicative regulations within the discourse frames as viewed through the fact of existing interconnection between speech arrangement modes and speech functional destinations; it analyzes the basic maxims of the P. Grice's Cooperation principle, initially formulated from the speaker's viewpoint, and finds out its relevance for the listeners, thus providing identity of speech behavior principles as shared by both participants in the communication process. Comparing each of the cooperative maxims with the communicative parameters of the present-day discourse the author discovers in it frequent violations of the Cooperation principles suggested by P. Grice and concludes that this system of speech relation fails in cases of discourse realizing an effective function. The article observes that the traditional communicative code is being pressed out as the basic regulator of conversation and goes through some pragmatic changes resulting in communication code failure in present day discourse, some other means of securing the perlocutionary effect in affective discourse are introduced by the author, the politeness principle and the principle of style in particular. Considering the basic mechanisms of these aestheticethical principles in application to the discourse of advertising the author finds proofs to them being functionally adequate and communicatively effective.

  6. Present and prospective role of bioenergy in regional energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V.; Joshi, N.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Center for Ecological Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2000-12-01

    Bioenergy is the energy released from the reaction of organic carbon material with oxygen. The organic material derived from plants and animals is also referred to as biomass. Biomass is a flexible feedstock capable of conversion into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels by chemical and biological processes. These intermediate biofuels (such as methane gas, ethanol, charcoal) can be substituted for fossil based fuels. Wood and charcoal are important as household fuels and for small scale industries such as brick making, cashew processing etc. The scarcity of biofuels has far reaching implications on the environment. Hence, expansion of bioenergy systems could be influential in bettering both the socioeconomic condition and the environment of the region. This paper examines the present role of biomass in the region's (Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State, India) energy supply and calculates the potential for future biomass provision and scope for conversion to both modern and traditional fuels. Based on the detailed investigation of biomass resource availability and demand, we can categorise the Uttara Kannada District into two zones (a) Biomass surplus zone consisting of Taluks mainly from hilly area (b) Biomass deficit zone, consisting of thickly populated coastal Taluks such as Bhatkal, Kumta, Ankola, Honnavar and Karwar. Fuel wood is mainly used for cooking and horticulture residues from coconut, arecanut trees are used for water heating purposes. Most of the households in this region still use traditional stoves where efficiency is less than 10%. The present inefficient fuel consumption could be brought down by the usage of fuel efficient stoves (a saving of the order of 27%). Availability of animal residues for biogas generation in Sirsi, Siddapur, Yellapur Taluks gives a viable alternative for cooking, lighting fuel and a useful fertiliser. However to support the present livestock population, fodder from agricultural residues is insufficient in these

  7. Present-day stress magnitude at depth from leak-off tests in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, M. T.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present new results from the analysis of leak-off tests, performed in deep oil wells in Italy, to characterize the present-day stress magnitude and regime in the crust. In the last years we have collected a large number of data (more than 500) from different stress indicators, mainly borehole breakouts, earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data, which provided information on the present-day stress orientations. In some areas the tectonic regime has been inferred either from fault plane solutions of M≥4 earthquakes or from stress inversions of smaller earthquakes. Where seismicity lacks, the regime is not well constrained and little or no information on the magnitude of the crustal stresses is available. In order to improve our knowledge in stress regime and its magnitude in Italy, in this work we use the leak-off test technique. Each test is performed at the bottom of an open hole by sealing off a section and then slowly pressurizing with a fluid until hydraulic tensile fractures develop. The minimum horizontal stress is inferred by leak-off pressure record, the vertical stress is computed by rock density data and the maximum horizontal stress is estimated applying a specific formula from the literature. Thanks to ENI S.p.A. (Italian oil company), that kindly provided new well data, we have been able to perform a critical review of our preliminary calculations and to enhance our previous results concerning stress magnitudes. Totally, we have analyzed 192 leak-off tests at depth between 200 and 5400m (average 1800m). In particular, wells are located along the Italian peninsula and in Sicily: most of them are in the Po Plain and along the Apenninic foredeep; few are in southern Apenninic belt and a few tens are in Sicily. After an accurate selection of the most robust results, we better characterize the Italian stress regime at depth.

  8. THE IMPRINT OF EXOPLANET FORMATION HISTORY ON OBSERVABLE PRESENT-DAY SPECTRA OF HOT JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordasini, C.; Van Boekel, R.; Mollière, P.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Benneke, Björn, E-mail: christoph.mordasini@space.unibe.ch, E-mail: boekel@mpia.de, E-mail: molliere@mpia.de, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: bbenneke@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The composition of a planet’s atmosphere is determined by its formation, evolution, and present-day insolation. A planet’s spectrum therefore may hold clues on its origins. We present a “chain” of models, linking the formation of a planet to its observable present-day spectrum. The chain links include (1) the planet’s formation and migration, (2) its long-term thermodynamic evolution, (3) a variety of disk chemistry models, (4) a non-gray atmospheric model, and (5) a radiometric model to obtain simulated spectroscopic observations with James Webb Space Telescope and ARIEL. In our standard chemistry model the inner disk is depleted in refractory carbon as in the Solar System and in white dwarfs polluted by extrasolar planetesimals. Our main findings are: (1) envelope enrichment by planetesimal impacts during formation dominates the final planetary atmospheric composition of hot Jupiters. We investigate two, under this finding, prototypical formation pathways: a formation inside or outside the water iceline, called “dry” and “wet” planets, respectively. (2) Both the “dry” and “wet” planets are oxygen-rich (C/O < 1) due to the oxygen-rich nature of the solid building blocks. The “dry” planet’s C/O ratio is <0.2 for standard carbon depletion, while the “wet” planet has typical C/O values between 0.1 and 0.5 depending mainly on the clathrate formation efficiency. Only non-standard disk chemistries without carbon depletion lead to carbon-rich C/O ratios >1 for the “dry” planet. (3) While we consistently find C/O ratios <1, they still vary significantly. To link a formation history to a specific C/O, a better understanding of the disk chemistry is thus needed.

  9. Three-day dendritic cells for vaccine development: Antigen uptake, processing and presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schendel Dolores J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DC are capable of priming naïve T cells and therefore represent an attractive adjuvant for vaccine development in anti-tumor immunotherapy. Numerous protocols have been described to date using different maturation cocktails and time periods for the induction of mature DC (mDC in vitro. For clinical application, the use of mDC that can be generated in only three days saves on the costs of cytokines needed for large scale vaccine cell production and provides a method to produce cells within a standard work-week schedule in a GMP facility. Methods In this study, we addressed the properties of antigen uptake, processing and presentation by monocyte-derived DC prepared in three days (3d mDC compared with conventional DC prepared in seven days (7d mDC, which represent the most common form of DC used for vaccines to date. Results Although they showed a reduced capacity for spontaneous antigen uptake, 3d mDC displayed higher capacity for stimulation of T cells after loading with an extended synthetic peptide that requires processing for MHC binding, indicating they were more efficient at antigen processing than 7d DC. We found, however, that 3d DC were less efficient at expressing protein after introduction of in vitro transcribed (ivtRNA by electroporation, based on published procedures. This deficit was overcome by altering electroporation parameters, which led to improved protein expression and capacity for T cell stimulation using low amounts of ivtRNA. Conclusions This new procedure allows 3d mDC to replace 7d mDC for use in DC-based vaccines that utilize long peptides, proteins or ivtRNA as sources of specific antigen.

  10. Paleo and present-day chemical weathering in lacustrine and riverine sediments in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman Ross, Gabriela [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica; Arribere, Maria A.; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, XX (Argentina)

    1996-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to study the abundance, distribution and fraction of REE (Rare Earth Elements) and diagnostic elements (Th, Co, Cr, Sc, Rb, Sr) in sediments from Mascardi lake and Upper Manso river. The local weathering patterns of this watershed show a strong influence of volcanic rocks with a selective mobilization of the more soluble elements. These patterns are very similar to those observed in a sedimentary lacustrine core from Mascardi lake. Paleolimnological record indicates a change in local fluxes of water and sediments, and an increase in organic matter content since the last full-glacial maximum. However, the chemical composition of the sedimentary inputs has not changed significantly during the last 14000 years. Our data support the hypothesis that present-day and Holocene chemical weathering have similar characteristics. All of the above conclusions are based on geochemical parameters only. (author)

  11. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  12. Paleo and present-day chemical weathering in lacustrine and riverine sediments in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman Ross, Gabriela

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to study the abundance, distribution and fraction of REE (Rare Earth Elements) and diagnostic elements (Th, Co, Cr, Sc, Rb, Sr) in sediments from Mascardi lake and Upper Manso river. The local weathering patterns of this watershed show a strong influence of volcanic rocks with a selective mobilization of the more soluble elements. These patterns are very similar to those observed in a sedimentary lacustrine core from Mascardi lake. Paleolimnological record indicates a change in local fluxes of water and sediments, and an increase in organic matter content since the last full-glacial maximum. However, the chemical composition of the sedimentary inputs has not changed significantly during the last 14000 years. Our data support the hypothesis that present-day and Holocene chemical weathering have similar characteristics. All of the above conclusions are based on geochemical parameters only. (author)

  13. The present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides content in mosses, lichens and needles of Siberia areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovenko, V.D.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Shcherbov, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate the present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides activity in lichen-moss cover and needles in the Siberia region. During the expeditionary activities (1995-2004) the Lichen cover mosses and needles were sampled in the Ust'-Ordinsky and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous regions, Altai area, Republic of Altai, Novosibirsk Region, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region. The identical species of lichen, mosses. needles were collected from Siberia (lichens - Cladonia, Evernia, Usnea, Parmeli; mosses - Polytrichum, Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum; needles - Pinaceae). It was collected 6 and more lichen species from each of 18 sample sites, more than 3 Moss species from 7 sample sites, and in place of coniferous trees joint growth (a pine, a cedar, a fir, a fur-tree and a larch). The needles were selected from all trees and thus were divided into one-year-old and many-year old. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Trace Elements Geochemistry and Ecogeochemistry of the UIGGM, Novosibirsk, using special sample preparation and analysis techniques. The content of 137 Cs were determined by gamma-spectrometry (analyst Stepin A.S.), 90 Sr by beta-radiometry with a radiochemical sample preparation (analyst Makeover I.V.). The data reported are evidence that a present-day level of radioactive contamination in moss-lichen cover and needles of Siberia areas corresponds to this of global background, expect for northern area of Siberia (YNAD) for which hyperactivity are determined for the each of three components. Radiocesium concentration in one-year old needles reflects a level of atmospheric intake only for accidents, for other cases the condition of current needles reflects basically radionuclide level established as the result of dynamic balance between root intake and annual biogenic abscission of needles. (author)

  14. Mass-gathering Medicine: Risks and Patient Presentations at a 2-Day Electronic Dance Music Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A

    2015-06-01

    Music festivals, including electronic dance music events (EDMEs), increasingly are common in Canada and internationally. Part of a US $4.5 billion industry annually, the target audience is youth and young adults aged 15-25 years. Little is known about the impact of these events on local emergency departments (EDs). Drawing on prospective data over a 2-day EDME, the authors of this study employed mixed methods to describe the case mix and prospectively compared patient presentation rate (PPR) and ambulance transfer rate (ATR) between a first aid (FA) only and a higher level of care (HLC) model. There were 20,301 ticketed attendees. Seventy patient encounters were recorded over two days. The average age was 19.1 years. Roughly 69% were female (n=48/70). Forty-six percent of those seen in the main medical area were under the age of 19 years (n=32/70). The average length of stay in the main medical area was 70.8 minutes. The overall PPR was 4.09 per 1,000 attendees. The ATR with FA only would have been 1.98; ATR with HLC model was 0.52. The presence of an on-site HLC team had a significant positive effect on avoiding ambulance transfers. Twenty-nine ambulance transfers and ED visits were avoided by the presence of an on-site HLC medical team. Reduction of impact to the public health care system was substantial. Electronic dance music events have predictable risks and patient presentations, and appropriate on-site health care resources may reduce significantly the impact on the prehospital and emergency health resources in the host community.

  15. Role of structural inheritance on present-day deformation in intraplate domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarayoun, A.; Mazzotti, S.; Gueydan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the role of structural inheritance on present day surface deformation is a key element for better characterizing the dynamism of intraplate earthquakes. Current deformation and seismicity are poorly understood phenomenon in intra-continental domains. A commonly used hypothesis, based on observations, suggests that intraplate deformation is related to the reactivation of large tectonic paleo-structures, which can act as locally weakened domains. The objective of our study is to quantify the impact of these weakened areas on present-day strain localizations and rates. We combine GPS observations and numerical modeling to analyze the role of structural inheritance on strain rates, with specific observations along the St. Lawrence Valley of eastern Canada. We processed 143 GPS stations from five different networks, in particular one dense campaign network situated along a recognized major normal faults system of the Iapetus paleo-rift, in order to accurately determine the GPS velocities and strain rates. Results of strain rates show magnitude varying from 1.5x10-10 to 6.8x10-9 yr-1 in the St Lawrence valley. Weakened area strain rates are up to one order of magnitude higher than surrounding areas. We compare strain rates inferred from GPS and the new postglacial rebound model. We found that GPS signal is one order of magnitude higher in the weakened zone, which is likely due to structural inheritance. The numerical modeling investigates the steady-state deformation of the continental lithosphere with presence of a weak area. Our new approach integrates ductile structural inheritance using a weakening coefficient that decreases the lithosphere strength at different depths. This allows studying crustal strain rates mainly as a function of rheological contrast and geometry of the weakened domains. Comparison between model predictions and observed GPS strain rates will allow us to investigate the respective role of crustal and mantle tectonic inheritance.

  16. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence Presenting with Free Air 60 Days after Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Munger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The vast majority of patients presenting with pneumoperitoneum have visceral organ perforation and require urgent diagnostic laparoscopy. Nonsurgical causes are relatively rare and may be attributed to multiple etiologies. Case Presentation. Here we describe the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian female who presented to the emergency department with three days of cramping, epigastric abdominal pain. Her physical exam was notable for tenderness to palpation in the epigastric area and abdominal and chest X-rays showed free air under the diaphragm. Free air around the porta hepatis was verified on CT scan. Approximately 90% of pneumoperitoneum cases are due to perforation of visceral organs and therefore require operative management. An urgent exploratory laparoscopy revealed no clear source of free air, but postoperatively the patient developed a large volume of watery discharge from her vagina. Subsequent workup revealed a 1 cm vaginal cuff dehiscence which was later repaired with no postoperative complications. Conclusion. Although the majority of patients with pneumoperitoneum require urgent exploratory laparoscopy, a careful diagnostic workup may reveal sources of free air that are not related to hollow viscous perforation. Vaginal cuff dehiscence represents a rare yet nonurgent source of pneumoperitoneum. This differential should be considered in light of the possible intra- and postoperative complications of surgery.

  17. Present-day sea level rise: a synthesis; Hausse actuelle du niveau de la mer: synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, A.; Llovel, W. [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lombard, A. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-11-15

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes have improved considerably in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing data sets have become available. Here we report on the current knowledge of present-day sea level change. We briefly present observational results on sea level change from satellite altimetry since 1993 and tide gauges for the past century. We next discuss recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on time scales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion, land ice mass loss and land water storage change. For the 1993-2003 decade, the sum of climate-related contributions agree well (within the error bars) with the altimetry-based sea level, half of the observed rate of rise being due to ocean thermal expansion, land ice plus land waters explaining the other half. Since about 2003, thermal expansion increase has stopped, whereas the sea level continues to rise, although at a reduced rate compared to the previous decade (2.5 mm/yr versus 3.1 mm/yr). Recent increases in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets appear able to account alone for the rise in sea level reported over the last five years. (authors)

  18. Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Favier, Charly; Bremond, Laurent; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Bayol, Nicolas; Lejeune, Philippe; Beeckman, Hans; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-17

    The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future.

  19. Simulation of the present-day climate with the climate model INMCM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, E. M.; Mortikov, E. V.; Kostrykin, S. V.; Galin, V. Ya.; Lykossov, V. N.; Gritsun, A. S.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.; Iakovlev, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present the fifth generation of the INMCM climate model that is being developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INMCM5). The most important changes with respect to the previous version (INMCM4) were made in the atmospheric component of the model. Its vertical resolution was increased to resolve the upper stratosphere and the lower mesosphere. A more sophisticated parameterization of condensation and cloudiness formation was introduced as well. An aerosol module was incorporated into the model. The upgraded oceanic component has a modified dynamical core optimized for better implementation on parallel computers and has two times higher resolution in both horizontal directions. Analysis of the present-day climatology of the INMCM5 (based on the data of historical run for 1979-2005) shows moderate improvements in reproduction of basic circulation characteristics with respect to the previous version. Biases in the near-surface temperature and precipitation are slightly reduced compared with INMCM4 as well as biases in oceanic temperature, salinity and sea surface height. The most notable improvement over INMCM4 is the capability of the new model to reproduce the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biannual oscillation and statistics of sudden stratospheric warmings.

  20. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountain Region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in frost indices in the New York’s Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0ºC. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  1. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Rune, E-mail: rdi@dmu.dk [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Aarhus University, Roskilde (Denmark); Outridge, Peter M. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Hobson, Keith A. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2009-12-01

    Background: Because of concern about the recently increasing levels of biological Hg in some areas of the Arctic, we examined the literature concerning the long-term changes of Hg in humans and selected Arctic marine mammals and birds of prey since pre-industrial times (i.e. before 1800 A.D.), to determine the anthropogenic contribution to present-day Hg concentrations and the historical timing of any changes. Methods: Mercury data from published articles were extracted on historical and pre-industrial concentrations as percentages of the recent maximum, as well as the man-made contribution was calculated and depicted in a uniform manner to provide an overview of the development over time. Results and discussion: Trends of [Hg] in hard tissues such as teeth, hair and feathers consistently showed that there had been an order-of-magnitude increase of [Hg] in Arctic marine foodweb-based animals that began in the mid- to late-19th Century and accelerated in the 20th Century. The median man-made contribution to present-day Hg concentrations was 92.4% ranging from 74.2 to 94.4%. Confidence in our data was increased by accompanying data in some studies on stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N), which allowed us to normalize where necessary for changes in animal trophic position and feeding location over time, and by careful attention to the possibility of sample chemical diagenesis (Hg contamination or loss) which can alter the Hg content of ancient hard tissues. Conclusions: Wildlife hard tissue matrices provide consistent information with respect to the steep onset of Hg exposure of Arctic wildlife beginning in the latter half of the 19th Century. Today the man-made contribution was found to be above 92%. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to normalize for possible changes in diet over time, and are highly relevant to include when interpreting temporal trends, baseline concentrations as well as man-made anthropogenic contribution of Hg.

  2. The origin of ICM enrichment in the outskirts of present-day galaxy clusters from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Rasia, E.; Murante, G.; Fabjan, D.; Gaspari, M.

    2018-05-01

    The uniformity of the intracluster medium (ICM) enrichment level in the outskirts of nearby galaxy clusters suggests that chemical elements were deposited and widely spread into the intergalactic medium before the cluster formation. This observational evidence is supported by numerical findings from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, as presented in Biffi et al., including the effect of thermal feedback from active galactic nuclei. Here, we further investigate this picture, by tracing back in time the spatial origin and metallicity evolution of the gas residing at z = 0 in the outskirts of simulated galaxy clusters. In these regions, we find a large distribution of iron abundances, including a component of highly enriched gas, already present at z = 2. At z > 1, the gas in the present-day outskirts was distributed over tens of virial radii from the main cluster and had been already enriched within high-redshift haloes. At z = 2, about 40 {per cent} of the most Fe-rich gas at z = 0 was not residing in any halo more massive than 10^{11} h^{-1} M_{⊙} in the region and yet its average iron abundance was already 0.4, w.r.t. the solar value by Anders & Grevesse. This confirms that the in situ enrichment of the ICM in the outskirts of present-day clusters does not play a significant role, and its uniform metal abundance is rather the consequence of the accretion of both low-metallicity and pre-enriched (at z > 2) gas, from the diffuse component and through merging substructures. These findings do not depend on the mass of the cluster nor on its core properties.

  3. Pro-colonial or Postcolonial? Appropriation of Japanese Colonial Heritage in Present-day Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Amae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of World War II, the Kuomintang (KMT (Guomindang government has erased all traces of Japanese rule from public space, deeming them “poisonous” to the people in Taiwan. This frenzy, often termed “de-Japanization” or qu Ribenhua in Chinese, included the destruction and alteration of Japanese structures. Yet, with democratization in the 1990s, the Japanese past has been revisited, and many Japa-nese structures have been reconstructed and preserved. This paper examines the social phenomenon of preserving Japanese heritage in present-day Taiwan. It mainly investigates religious/ spiritual architecture, such as Shinto shrines and martial arts halls (Butokuden, war monuments and Japanese statues and busts. A close investigation of these monuments finds that many of them are not restored and preserved in their original form but in a deformed/ transformed one. This finding leads the paper to conclude that the phenomenon is a postcolonial endeavour, rather than being “pro-colonial”, and that the preservation of Japanese heritage contributes to the construction and consolidation of a Taiwan-centric historiography in which Taiwan is imagined as multicultural and hybrid.

  4. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  5. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  6. Relation between Art Education and Democracy from Antique Greece to the Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali OZTÜRK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is a set of activities that are done in order to ensure the development of knowledge, skills and abilities in human behaviours. Art emphasizes the connection between emotion and thought. Also it has an effective role in the process and development of learning. But art education is a specific process of aesthetic changes in individuals’ behaviours through their own experience. It is known that art and art education are based on very old times such as the humanity history and the reality of it’s been continuously argued from Platon up to date. Democracy which is the other concept of this research is a form of an administration whereas the art is a form of existence. While the artist exists by creating, the democracy tries to exist by will. When it’s looked from the art, certainly, the art does not have the power that brings the freedom and the truth on its own, however without art; this power cannot take a form, because the democracy cannot look at the human’s pains and beauties as sensitive as the art. Aim of this research is to discuss the relation of art education and democracy as a form of implementation and functionality from antique Greece to the present day. The method of the study is descriptive and references in literature are interpreted.

  7. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides

  8. The Cyclicity of the Development of the Global Economic System amid Present-Day Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail N. Dudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is associated with the diversity of causes behind crisis processes in economics and the individuality of each particular crisis. This necessitates classifying them in a detailed fashion. The present downturn is a manifestation of the cyclicity of the development of the global economic system amid present-day globalization and the established architecture of the institutional space. The formal (legislation, contractual rules, corporate norms, etc. and non-formal institutes (rules, customs, traditions, behavior as a whole, etc., undergoing changes in their structure and mechanisms, caused the emergence of financial innovations whose yield surpassed that of the real sector of the economy multifold. This facilitated the concentration of money in financial markets and transforming them into a thing-in-itself. The theory of economic cycles is one of the theories of economic dynamics which explain the movement of the national economy. While the theory of economic growth explores factors and conditions for growth as a long-term trend, the theory of cycles deals with causes behind fluctuations in economic activity through time. Results. In accordance with the aims of this study, the authors established that crises can have the following causes: objective, which are associated with the cyclical development of the system, modernization and restructuring needs, and the impact of external factors, and subjective, which reflect errors in management, shortcomings in the organization of production, and the imperfections of innovation and investment policy. A crisis can take its course manifestly and be easily detected or can be inconspicuous and take its course in a latent form. The most dangerous are crises that affect the system as a whole. In a situation of this kind, there forms a train of complex issues resolving which depends on the timeliness of detecting them and professionalism in managing the organization, municipal

  9. Time evolution of primordial magnetic fields and present day extragalactic magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    The topic of the present thesis is the time evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields which have been generated in the Early Universe. Assuming this so-called Cosmological Scenario of magnetogenesis to be true, it is shown in the following that this would account for the present day Extragalactic Magnetic Fields. This is particularly important in light of recent gamma ray observations which are used to derive a lower limit for the corresponding magnetic field strength, even though also an alternative approach, claiming instead that these observations are due to interactions with the Intergalactic Medium, is possible and will be tested here with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to describe the aforementioned evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields, a set of general Master Equations for the spectral magnetic, kinetic and helical components of the system are derived and then solved numerically for the Early Universe. This semianalytical method allows it to perform a full quantitative study for the time development of the power spectra, in particular by fully taking into account the backreaction of the turbulent medium onto the magnetic fields. Applying the formalism to non-helical Primordial Magnetic Fields created on some characteristic length measure, it is shown that on large scales L their spectrum 5 builds up a slope which behaves as B∝L -(5)/(2) and governs the evolution of the coherence (or integral) scale. In addition, the claim of equipartition between the magnetic and the kinetic energy is found to be true. Extending the analysis to helical magnetic fields, it is observed that the time evolution changes dramatically, hence confirming quantitatively that an Inverse Cascade, i.e. an efficient transport of energy from small to large scales, as predicted in previous works, indeed does take place.

  10. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  11. Kazan Arbitration Day: The Rule-of-Law Development and Regional Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Valeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The third Annual Symposium of the Journal “Herald of Civil Procedure” “2016 –KazanArbitration Day: The Rule-of-Law Development and Regional Governance” was hosted by the Law Faculty on September 30, 2016.The opening ceremony of the event took place in the Hall of the Board of Trustees of theKazanUniversity, followed by an academic discussion on legal issues of the Symposium. The Symposium participants and invited guests had the opportunity to discuss the most current and topical issues of civil procedural law, to present the latest Russian and foreign academic works in this direction to colleagues, to offer further ways of development of contemporary civil procedure, and to exchange experience and accumulated knowledge.The Symposium discussed both the issues that directly related to arbitration proceedings as well as the most relevant news in the field of civil procedure and enforcement proceedings in general.

  12. Trends and changes in tropical and summer days at the Adana Sub-Region of the Mediterranean Region, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Altın, Türkan; Barak, Belma

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the long-term variability and trends of the annual and seasonal numbers of summer and tropical days of the Adana Sub-region were investigated using nonlinear and linear trend detection tests for the period 1960-2014 at 14 meteorological stations. The results suggest that the annual number of summer and tropical days was generally below the long-term average through to the end of the 1980s. In particular, positive anomaly values could be observed at all stations between the years 1993-2014. With respect to the Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test, the significant breaking date was 1993. The rapid rise of the annual number of summer (tropical) days after this year led to the inversion of the negative trends observed from 1987 to 1992 into positive ones. The increasing trend is statistically significance at 0.01 level in Yumurtalık, Mersin and Antakya for the annual number of summer and tropical days. Dörtyol, İskenderun and Elbistan were significance at 0.01 level for tropical days. The largest positive anomalies of the summer of 2010 are observed in coastal vicinity (Mersin, Yumurtalık and İskenderun). This indicates that these settlements underwent a long-term warm period and thermal conditions due to increasing temperatures in the spring and summer months. The same conditions are found in high inner areas (Göksun and Elbistan) for tropical days. It is noticed that a tendency for greater warming occurred at stations located above 1000 m in the sub-region. The average number of warm days will increase 2-days per 100-years in southern part of the sub-region. The increasing trend in summer temperatures can be considered a potential risk, notably for human health and for economic and crop losses in the Adana Sub-region, including Çukurova, one of the most important agriculture areas of Turkey.

  13. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  14. The Dynamics of the Balinese Literature in the Present Day Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Ardhana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Balinese literature has a significant role in the context of how the Balinese have preserved their own cultural tradition up to now. Even though the Majapahit Kingdom in the fourteenth century strongly influenced the Balinese tradition in the past, but itseems that the Balinese recently also look back at their cultural tradition prior to the period of the Majapahit influence. There are some crucial issues in relation to the above explanation: firstly,there have been widely debated on the issue around the originof the Balinese tradition. On the one hand scholars argue thatthe origin of Balinese tradition is not started from the East Java period, but it was earlier than that it had been started prior to the period of the Majapahit such as the Middle Java period inthe 8th to 9th century or, even, in the West Java Hindu tradition that also played a major role. However, others have not convinced with this argument; Secondly; due to globalization process, theBalinese perceive that the only way to anticipate the impacts of globalization is just to revitalize the local Balinese cultures by seeking at the Balinese literatures as the local sources like the babad, paswara, and awig-awig; Thirdly; to counter the negative impacts of globalization, the Balinese use their local cultural heritage so that they can maintain their cultural tradition that not based on Balinese tradition, but also the Javanese tradition. Itis important to discuss such issue since the influences of pre and post Majapahit cultural traditions have indeed influenced thecultural identity of the Balinese. On top of this, to understand the concept of multiculturalism in the present day Bali, one needs to trace back the dynamic of interplay amongst arrays of cultural traditions that have affected the origin of multicultural society there.

  15. Ocean Bottom Deformation Due To Present-Day Mass Redistribution and Its Impact on Sea Level Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; King, Matt A.

    2017-12-01

    Present-day mass redistribution increases the total ocean mass and, on average, causes the ocean bottom to subside elastically. Therefore, barystatic sea level rise is larger than the resulting global mean geocentric sea level rise, observed by satellite altimetry and GPS-corrected tide gauges. We use realistic estimates of mass redistribution from ice mass loss and land water storage to quantify the resulting ocean bottom deformation and its effect on global and regional ocean volume change estimates. Over 1993-2014, the resulting globally averaged geocentric sea level change is 8% smaller than the barystatic contribution. Over the altimetry domain, the difference is about 5%, and due to this effect, barystatic sea level rise will be underestimated by more than 0.1 mm/yr over 1993-2014. Regional differences are often larger: up to 1 mm/yr over the Arctic Ocean and 0.4 mm/yr in the South Pacific. Ocean bottom deformation should be considered when regional sea level changes are observed in a geocentric reference frame.

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1980-present, Dynamic Height

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Dynamic Height data (a measure of the elevation of the sea level, calculated by integrating the specific volume anomaly of the sea water...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1977-present, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. Estimating hypothetical present-day insured losses for past intense hurricanes in the French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, James; Desarthe, Jérémy; Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Garnier, Emmanuel; Liu, Ye; Moncoulon, David

    2015-04-01

    On the islands of the French Antilles, the period for which systematic meteorological measurements and historic event loss data are available is short relative to the recurrence intervals of very intense, damaging hurricanes. Additionally, the value of property at risk changes through time. As such, the recent past can only provide limited insight into potential losses from extreme storms in coming years. Here we present some research that seeks to overcome, as far as is possible, the limitations of record length in assessing the possible impacts of near-future hurricanes on insured properties. First, using the archives of the French overseas departments (which included administrative and weather reports, inventories of damage to houses, crops and trees, as well as some meteorological observations after 1950) we reconstructed the spatial patterns of hazard intensity associated with three historical events. They are: i) the 1928 Hurricane (Guadeloupe), ii) Hurricane Betsy (1956, Guadeloupe) and iii) Hurricane David (1979, Martinique). These events were selected because all were damaging, and the information available on each is rich. Then, using a recently developed catastrophe model for hurricanes affecting Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin, we simulated the hypothetical losses to insured properties that the reconstructed events might cause if they were to reoccur today. The model simulated damage due to wind, rainfall-induced flooding and storm surge flooding. These 'what if' scenarios provided an initial indication of the potential present-day exposure of the insurance industry to intense hurricanes. However, we acknowledge that historical events are unlikely to repeat exactly. We therefore extended the study by producing a stochastic event catalogue containing a large number of synthetic but plausible hurricane events. Instrumental data were used as a basis for event generation, but importantly the statistical methods we applied permit

  5. Historical sediment budget and present-day catchment-shoreline coupling at Twofold Bay, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Oliver, T.; Hudson, J.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Considering projected impacts of sea-level rise in the 21st century on sandy shorelines, an understanding of long-term sediment budget for individual beaches or coastal compartments supports assessments of shoreline stability. We examined a low-lying coastal beach-ridge barrier in Twofold Bay using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating , airborne LiDAR, sedimentological analysis and seismic data to assess changes in rates of sediment supply to this shoreline through time. Calculations of barrier volume, Twofold Bay bay-floor sediment volume and estimates of sediment delivery from a proximal river system provide a broad-scale assessment of past-sediment budget. Between ca. 7500 years ago and 1500 years ago, sources of sediment for shoreline progradation at Boydtown were bay-floor sediments either inherited or moved into the embayment during late-stage transgression. Progradation rate between ca. 7500-1500 years ago was 0.16 m/yr with subaerial barrier volume accumulating at 0.46 m3/m/yr. Between ca. 1500 years and present day, the Towamba River to the south has delivered additional sediment to the Boydtown shoreline more than doubling shoreline progradation rate to 0.65 m/yr and subaerial barrier accumulation has risen to 1.83 m3/m/yr. The delivery of fluvial sediment from the Towamba River was restricted to the past ca. 1500 years as prior to this, estuary infilling prevented floods delivering sediments to the bay. This recent historical coupling of river sand supply and shoreline progradation rate implies that anthropogenic modifications to the Towamba River catchment such as river damming, or climatic changes reducing rainfall or runoff, would negatively impact the Boydtown Beach shoreline. Conversely increased rainfall or deforestation may increase sediment discharge due to upstream erosion. The Boydtown shoreline within Twofold Bay may be able to maintain its current position in the coming century if fluvial sediment delivery continues. The fact that

  6. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), for 1979 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Project is a reanalysis of historical observations using a 32-km version of the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Children's Understanding of Night and Day: A Research Report Presented at NCSS, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Bruce M.

    What advanced 4- and 5-year-old children know about night and day in relationship to the earth and sun was studied to test the hypothesis that two teaching activities would help children to understand the cause of the phenomenon. Participants were 21 middle to upper class boys and girls enrolled in a part-time early childhood enrichment program…

  8. Body attitudes in patients with eating disorders at presentation and completion of intensive outpatient day treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, C.C.; Vriesendorp, P.F.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2009-01-01

    Due to the importance of the distorted body experience in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment, we wanted to explore body attitudes of patients with eating disorders before and after 5 months of intensive specialized outpatient day treatment. We assessed 193 patients diagnosed with Anorexia

  9. Potential autotrophic metabolisms in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, P. L.; Miles, S.; Kohl, L.; Kavanagh, H.; Ziegler, S. E.; Brazelton, W. J.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as windows into the biogeochemistry of this subsurface exothermic environment rich in H2 and CH4 gases. Biogeochemical carbon transformations in these systems are of interest because serpentinization creates conditions that are amenable to abiotic and biotic reduction of carbon. However, little is known about the metabolic capabilities of the microorganisms that live in this environment. To determine the potential for autotrophic metabolisms, bicarbonate and CO substrate addition microcosm experiments were performed using water and sediment from an ultra-basic reducing spring in the Tablelands, Newfoundland, Canada, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. CO was consistently observed to be utilized in the Live but not the Killed controlled replicates amended with 10% 13C labelled CO and non-labelled (natural C isotope abundance) CO. In the Live CO microcosms with natural C isotope abundance, the residual CO became enriched in 13C (~10 ‰) consistent with a decrease in the fraction of CO remaining. In the Killed CO controlled replicates with natural C isotope abundance the CO showed little 13C enrichment (~1.3 ‰). The data from the Live CO microcosms were well described by a Rayleigh isotopic distillation model, yielding an isotopic enrichment factor for microbial CO uptake of 15.7 ×0.5 ‰ n=2. These data suggest that there was microbial CO utilization in these experiments. The sediment and water from the 13C-labelled and non-labelled, Live and Killed microcosms were extracted for phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) to determine changes in community composition between treatments as well as to determine the microbial uptake of CO. The difference in community composition between the Live and Killed microcosms was not readily resolvable based on PLFA distributions. Additionally, the microbial uptake of 13CO had minimal to no affect on the δ13C of the cellular biomarkers, with the

  10. Present-day status of the synchrophasotron as a nuclear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Beznogikh, Yu.D.; Donets, E.D.; Issinsky, I.B.; Makarov, L.G.; Monchinsky, V.A.; Popov, V.A.; Semenyushkin, I.N.; Sikolenko, V.F.; Volkov, V.I.; Zinoviev, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The accelerator has been adapted to a new region of research, that of relativistic nuclear physics. Most of the experiments performed with the Synchrophasotron pertain to particle energies of about 4 GeV/u, but some have been carried out at 4.2 Gev/u. 9 refs

  11. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  12. Regional meeting of south Oncologist.Third day of Oncologic nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The organization of the Uruguayan Congress represents the greatest effort Oncology Society Medical and Pediatric Uruguay (Sompu) to contribute to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer in Uruguay. It has developed a program that includes a wide range of topics presenting the latest developments and their significance in clinical practice, through lectures, round tables, and panels-course forum. Selected scientific papers were also discussed sessions for oral and poster presentation way. To ensure a high scientific and educational level to a select group of domestic and foreign experts were invited. The 8th Congress incorporates a panel-led forum for residents and young oncologists Prevention Cancer. Furthermore Course was held on hereditary predispositions to cancer under the Continuing Medical Education Program developed by the Sompu and accredited by the Graduate School. A special meeting in the context of the Latin American Federation of Cancer Societies (FLASCA) Therapeutic Research on Cancer in .In Region Parallel Days also included third Oncology Nursing also developed

  13. The Abnormal Quiet Days in SQ(H) in Mid and Low Latitudes Regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the analysis and study of abnormal quiet days (AQDs) at mid and low latitudes locations, it was found that there is difference between the characteristics of phase variability Sq (H) of the low latitude locations. This suggests that the origin and cause of AQDs are of different sources in the two latitude regions. The AQDs ...

  14. Data on present-day precipitation changes in the extratropical part of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groisman, P.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    100-year time series of spatially averaged annual precipitation and precipitation for the warm period of the year (May-September) for 12 regions of the USSR, Europe and North America are analyzed. It is shown that for land within 30-70 degree N the precipitation trend was about 6%/100 year, the increase in precipitation amount being a maximum in the Eastern Hemisphere north of 55 degree N

  15. A diagnostic study of the global coverage by contrails. Pt. 1. Present day climate. Revised version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Gierens, K.; Ponater, M.; Schumann, U.

    1998-03-01

    The global distribution of the contrail formation potential and the contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analysis data for temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and a data base on aircraft fuel consumption. Regions with humidity between ice and liquid saturation and with temperature low enough to let aircraft trigger contrail formation are identified as regions in which persistent contrails may be formed. The frequency with which a region is conditioned for such persistent contrail formation measures the contrail formation potential. The mean contrail cloud coverage is computed by multiplying this frequency with a suitable function of fuel consumption (linear or non-linear). The product is normalized such that the contrail coverage equals the observed value of 0.5% in a domain between 30 W to 30 E, 35 N to 75 N. The results show a large potential for contrail formation in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics but also at mid-latitudes. At northern mid-latitudes about 20% of the upper tropospheric air is conditioned to form persistent contrails. Part of this region may be covered by otherwise forming cirrus clouds. When multiplied with fuel consumption of 1992 aviation, large cover by persistent contrail clouds is computed over Europe, the North Atlantic, the continental USA, and south-east Asia. The computed contrail coverage reaches 2% over the USA, and is larger in winter than in summer. The global mean contrail coverage is about 0.11% for linear fuel dependence and the given normalization. The result is only weakly sensitive to the propulsion efficiency of aircraft, but strongly sensitive to aircraft flight altitude. (orig.)

  16. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  17. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  18. Seasonal provenance changes in present-day Saharan dust collected in and off Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Friese

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saharan dust has a crucial influence on the earth climate system and its emission, transport and deposition are intimately related to, e.g., wind speed, precipitation, temperature and vegetation cover. The alteration in the physical and chemical properties of Saharan dust due to environmental changes is often used to reconstruct the climate of the past. However, to better interpret possible climate changes the dust source regions need to be known. By analysing the mineralogical composition of transported or deposited dust, potential dust source areas can be inferred. Summer dust transport off northwest Africa occurs in the Saharan air layer (SAL. In continental dust source areas, dust is also transported in the SAL; however, the predominant dust input occurs from nearby dust sources with the low-level trade winds. Hence, the source regions and related mineralogical tracers differ with season and sampling location. To test this, dust collected in traps onshore and in oceanic sediment traps off Mauritania during 2013 to 2015 was analysed. Meteorological data, particle-size distributions, back-trajectory and mineralogical analyses were compared to derive the dust provenance and dispersal. For the onshore dust samples, the source regions varied according to the seasonal changes in trade-wind direction. Gibbsite and dolomite indicated a Western Saharan and local source during summer, while chlorite, serpentine and rutile indicated a source in Mauritania and Mali during winter. In contrast, for the samples that were collected offshore, dust sources varied according to the seasonal change in the dust transporting air layer. In summer, dust was transported in the SAL from Mauritania, Mali and Libya as indicated by ferroglaucophane and zeolite. In winter, dust was transported with the trades from Western Sahara as indicated by, e.g., fluellite.

  19. Present-day kinematics of the Danakil block (southern Red Sea-Afar) constrained by GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladron de Guevara, R.; Jonsson, S.; Ruch, J.; Doubre, C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Ogubazghi, G.; Floyd, M.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.

    2017-12-01

    The rifting of the Arabian plate from the Nubian and Somalian plates is primarily accommodated by seismic and magmatic activity along two rift arms of the Afar triple junction (the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts). The spatial distribution of active deformation in the Afar region have been constrained with geodetic observations. However, the plate boundary configuration in which this deformation occurs is still not fully understood. South of 17°N, the Red Sea rift is composed of two parallel and overlapping rift branches separated by the Danakil block. The distribution of the extension across these two overlapping rifts, their potential connection through a transform fault zone and the counterclockwise rotation of the Danakil block have not yet been fully resolved. Here we analyze new GPS observations from the Danakil block, the Gulf of Zula area (Eritrea) and Afar (Ethiopia) together with previous geodetic survey data to better constrain the plate kinematics and active deformation of the region. The new data has been collected in 2016 and add up to 5 years to the existing geodetic observations (going back to 2000). Our improved GPS velocity field shows differences with previously modeled GPS velocities, suggesting that the rate and rotation of the Danakil block need to be updated. The new velocity field also shows that the plate-boundary strain is accommodated by broad deformation zones rather than across sharp boundaries between tectonic blocks. To better determine the spatial distribution of the strain, we first implement a rigid block model to constrain the overall regional plate kinematics and to isolate the plate-boundary deformation at the western boundary of the Danakil block. We then study whether the recent southern Red Sea rifting events have caused detectable changes in observed GPS velocities and if the observations can be used to constrain the scale of this offshore rift activity. Finally, we investigate different geometries of transform faults that

  20. Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Mount Etna in northeastern Sicily (Italy) rises to over 3000 m, covers an area of ca.1750 km2 and is the most active volcano in Europe. Observations of Etna by literate observers stretch back to the classical era and one of the earliest references to an eruption of Etna was by Pindar in his Pythian Odes, to the event of ca. 474-479 B.C. The history of its activity has been reconstructed by scholars up to the present day and records of eruptions are reasonably complete from the early fifteenth century, reliable from 1669, and document the threats and destruction to human settlements and livelihoods. Effusive and explosive activity has occurred continually throughout the historical period and eruptions of Mount Etna have presented numerous eruption styles, from persistent central crater activity, to periodic flank eruptions. From 1600 to 1669 the activity of Etna was characterised by a high volumetric output of lava with a mean eruption rate of 1.19 m3s-1, this was followed by a pause from flank eruptions and the re-establishment of significant activity from the middle of the eighteenth century. After 1750 the output of lava by flank eruptions was lower than in the previous century, with the mean eruption rate falling to 0.18 m3s-1. This paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred between the period of 1600 to present; the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day civil defence planning in the region. People responded to the eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; as members of a community and, as citizens of the State. The State, however, was a minor player in responding to these eruptions until the early nineteenth century as the State then became more involved in each successive eruption as the responses moved to a more industrial nature rather than pre-industrial. Today emergencies are

  1. Management of patients presenting with diarrhoea to a regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... subsequent discussion of opportunistic infections that cause chronic diarrhoea, i.e. diarrhoea lasting >4 ... graphic characteristics, HIV status, presenting symptoms, pre- scription of antibiotics, blood results, final ... Salmonella spp, Shigella and Campylobacter) or there were white cells and/or yeasts present.

  2. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA BIRIESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania's participation in the implementation of EU regional policy means, first opportunity to benefit from a system of values that can be found between economic efficiency, environmental protection,ensuring minimum standards of existence, the definition of a "European lifestyle, urban values, qualified human resources. Moreover, European integration and openness to the EU internal market and the challenge involves increasing competitiveness, which can negatively affect the process of building an economy, like Romania. In this context, structural instruments are the most important resource that Romania will have to face the challenges of change and integration. However, regional development policy can not solely be the key to overall development of a state, especially in terms of its actual effects on growth are difficult to assess. A critical dimension of this is represented on the nature of economic and quality of other public policies that form the core of economic policy mix of a state: the legal protection of property rights and market economy, taxation, antitrust, etc.

  3. Body attitudes in patients with eating disorders at presentation and completion of intensive outpatient day treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exterkate, Cecile C; Vriesendorp, Patricia F; de Jong, Cor A J

    2009-01-01

    Due to the importance of the distorted body experience in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment, we wanted to explore body attitudes of patients with eating disorders before and after 5 months of intensive specialized outpatient day treatment. We assessed 193 patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) using the Body Attitude Test (BAT), Body Mass Index (BMI), Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale (EDES) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Eating disorder subtypes differed in BMI, total body attitudes and negative appreciation of body size at intake, but not at termination of treatment. Following treatment, all patient groups reported large improvements in eating disorder pathology and all but the AN-Restrictive (AN-R) group, reported large improvements in overall psychological functioning. The AN patients demonstrated significant improvement in BMI, however the Anorexia Nervosa purging (AN-P) and Anorexia Nervosa restrictive (AN-R) subtypes differed in their changes in body attitudes. AN-R patients indicated no significant improvement in body attitudes. AN-P patients improved in total body attitudes, except one subscale. Patients with Bulimia Nervosa non-purging (BN-NP) subtype, Bulimia Nervosa purging (BN-P) subtype and EDNOS demonstrated similar improvements in total body attitudes (BAT). Body attitudes provide important insights into differences between eating disorder diagnostic categories and their treatment responsiveness.

  4. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.

  5. G.N. Florov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, history and the present day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmider, J.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific activity and review of results attained at Florov Nuclear Reactions Laboratory of the Joined Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, have been presented in historical order. Especially the heavy ion cyclotron use for synthesis of new super-heavy elements as well as investigations of their physical and chemical properties have been shown. 1 fig

  6. Present and future responses of growing degree days for Crete Island in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Climate affects practically all the physiological processes that determine plant life (IPCC, 2014). A major challenge and objective of the agricultural science is to predict the occurrences of specific physical or biological events. For this reason, flower phenology has been widely used to study the flowering in plant species of economic interest, and in this concept, temperature and heat units have been widely accepted as the most important factors affecting processes leading to flowering. The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). Determination of GDD is useful for achieving a better understanding of the flowering season development in several plant species, and for forecasting when flowering will occur (Paparrizos and Matzarakis, 2017). Temperature and GDD represent two important spatially-dynamic climatic variables, as they both play vital roles in influencing forest development by directly affecting plant functions such as evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and plant transpiration. Understanding the spatial distribution of GDD is crucial to the practice of sustainable agricultural and forest management, as GDD relates to the integration of growth and provides precise point estimates (Hasan et al., 2007; Matzarakis et al., 2007). The aim of the current study was to estimate and map through downscaling spatial interpolation and multi-linear regression techniques, the future variation of GDD for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, under the A1B and B1 IPCC emission scenarios in relation with the reference periods for Crete Island in Greece. Future temperature data were obtained, validated and analysed from the ENSEMBLES European project. A combination of dynamical and statistical approach was conducted in order to downscale and perform the spatial interpolation of GDD through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that in the future, GDD will be increased and the existing

  7. Nuisance Flooding and Relative Sea-Level Rise: the Importance of Present-Day Land Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar, Makan A; Dixon, Timothy H; Malservisi, Rocco; Kusche, Jürgen; Engelhart, Simon E

    2017-09-11

    Sea-level rise is beginning to cause increased inundation of many low-lying coastal areas. While most of Earth's coastal areas are at risk, areas that will be affected first are characterized by several additional factors. These include regional oceanographic and meteorological effects and/or land subsidence that cause relative sea level to rise faster than the global average. For catastrophic coastal flooding, when wind-driven storm surge inundates large areas, the relative contribution of sea-level rise to the frequency of these events is difficult to evaluate. For small scale "nuisance flooding," often associated with high tides, recent increases in frequency are more clearly linked to sea-level rise and global warming. While both types of flooding are likely to increase in the future, only nuisance flooding is an early indicator of areas that will eventually experience increased catastrophic flooding and land loss. Here we assess the frequency and location of nuisance flooding along the eastern seaboard of North America. We show that vertical land motion induced by recent anthropogenic activity and glacial isostatic adjustment are contributing factors for increased nuisance flooding. Our results have implications for flood susceptibility, forecasting and mitigation, including management of groundwater extraction from coastal aquifers.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of present-day Aboriginal Australians and implications for human evolution in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Schurr, Theodore G; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R John

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians are one of the more poorly studied populations from the standpoint of human evolution and genetic diversity. Thus, to investigate their genetic diversity, the possible date of their ancestors' arrival and their relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in a large sample of Aboriginal Australians. Selected mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the hypervariable segment haplotypes were analyzed in 594 Aboriginal Australians drawn from locations across the continent, chiefly from regions not previously sampled. Most (~78%) samples could be assigned to mtDNA haplogroups indigenous to Australia. The indigenous haplogroups were all ancient (with estimated ages >40 000 years) and geographically widespread across the continent. The most common haplogroup was P (44%) followed by S (23%) and M42a (9%). There was some geographic structure at the haplotype level. The estimated ages of the indigenous haplogroups range from 39 000 to 55 000 years, dates that fit well with the estimated date of colonization of Australia based on archeological evidence (~47 000 years ago). The distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in Australia and New Guinea supports the hypothesis that the ancestors of Aboriginal Australians entered Sahul through at least two entry points. The mtDNA data give no support to the hypothesis of secondary gene flow into Australia during the Holocene, but instead suggest long-term isolation of the continent.

  9. Present day situation and perspectives of the nuclear sector in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With the restart-up of Browns Ferry NPP on May 22, 2007, the US nuclear park comprises now 104 reactors in operation: 35 BWR-type and 69 PWR-type. NPPs are present in only 31 states and mainly in the eastern half of the country. Nuclear energy represents 20% of the US energy mix (coal: 50%, gas: 19%, hydro-power: 6%, petroleum: 3% and other renewable energies: 2%). The highest average availability rate in power generation is reached by nuclear energy (89.9%). The nuclear power generation reached 787.2 TWh in 2006, i.e. the second best result after the 2004 record (788.5 TWh). This document presents also some nuclear safety and radioprotection indicators (number of unplanned outages, failures, injury frequency rate), the programme of licenses extension, the permissions for power increase, the demands for design certification, for early site permit, and for combined construction permit and operating license. The regulation may be different from one state to the other and sometimes not favorable to a re-launch of nuclear energy. The situation of each state in this domain is presented in appendix. (J.S.)

  10. Campaigned GPS on Present-Day Crustal Deformation in Northernmost Longitudinal Valley Preliminary Results, Hualien Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Longitudinal Valley in Eastern Taiwan sits at the collision suture between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates. Based on repeated GPS campaigned measurements from 25 stations six times in 2007 - 2009, we characterize the surface deformation in the northernmost Longitudinal Valley where the Coastal Range of the Philippine Sea plate turns northward diving under the Eurasian plate producing two major active faults: the Milun fault and the Longitudinal Valley fault. We reconstructed a GPS velocity field and conducted strain analyses and elastic block modeling. Our results suggest a rapid clockwise rotation of 33° Myr-1 and an eastward tectonic escape in the small Hualien City block (HUAL area of ~10 × 10 km, which is apparently detached from the regional rotating RYUK block defined by previous studies. We interpret it as being initiated locally by the northwest indentation of the Coastal Range, which pushed the HUAL block to move upward and eastward. According to our strain analyses, the HUAL block shows a significant internal elastic strain inside the Milun Tableland, the hanging wall of the Milun fault. No significant deformation was observed across the surface trace of the fault, indicating that the Milun fault is now probably locked in the near surface. The deformation in the footwall of the fault was accommodated by pure-shear strain with a major NNW-compression and a minor ENE-extension. The deformation in the hanging wall is characterized by simple-shear strain with ENE-extension in its northern part and little deformation in the southern part, separated by a little known NW-trending active fault zone (Dongmingyi fault, which needs further investigation.

  11. Short-Term fo F2 Forecast: Present Day State of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Depuev, V. H.; Depueva, A. H.

    An analysis of the F2-layer short-term forecast problem has been done. Both objective and methodological problems prevent us from a deliberate F2-layer forecast issuing at present. An empirical approach based on statistical methods may be recommended for practical use. A forecast method based on a new aeronomic index (a proxy) AI has been proposed and tested over selected 64 severe storm events. The method provides an acceptable prediction accuracy both for strongly disturbed and quiet conditions. The problems with the prediction of the F2-layer quiet-time disturbances as well as some other unsolved problems are discussed

  12. A comparison by stochastic models between present-day and last-century temperature in Udine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceschia, M.; Garfagnini, R.; Toppano, E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the daily average temperatures recorded in Udine in the years 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1876, 1976, 1980, 1981, 1984 and 1985 (for which an integral set of reliable and comparable-data was at disposal) have been analysed. The main purposes of this work are: look for characteristic periodicities in the series of data, analyse the background erratic component by means of stochastic methods and look for possible differences between the temperature of the last century and those of the present

  13. Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development

  14. Present day state of knowledge of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, M.

    1960-01-01

    The technological conditions of the problem of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium are presented first. Then, the author explains the qualitative reasons why in non-allied uranium: 1) the new phase germination follows a consistent process; 2) the new phase growth, at the expense of the mother phase, proceeds either by martensitic-type shear or by thermal diffusion if the temperature and impurities amount are high enough. Reprint of a paper published in La Mettalurgia Italiana, vol. LI, no. 11, p. 497-504, 1959 [fr

  15. Review of present beta dosimetry problems in radiation protection; to day's answers and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The large use of pure beta radionuclides needs to be develop beta dosimetry methods for radiation protection. The different types of present dosimetry assessments are reviewed. In all the cases the quantity to take into account is the absorbed dose rate in human tissus and more particularly in skin. In the case of point sources of known nature and activity this quantity can be worked out. This calculation is achieved either by incident beta spectrum analysis or theoretical considerations based on Kernel point. The absorbed dose rate can also be measured by extrapolation ionization chamber which characteristics and working are detailed here. All present survey meter were not initially planned for such a beta dosimetry, as this performed with the extrapolation ionization chamber which is taken here as a reference. So responses of usual dosimeters compared to this reference need to be estimated. Responses of personal film badges used in CEA, portable ionization chambers as babyline, pocket dosimeters SEQ7 and the thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD700 are exposed here. Results show that all these survey meters are not completely suitable for routine beta dosimetry. Consequently other operational dosimetry techniques have to be pursued. In particular some thermoluminescence dosimeters for instance boron diffused in surface layer and multi-elements, and furthermore Thermally Stimulated Exoelectron Emission (TSEE) and surface barrier detectors are described [fr

  16. [Amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in Mexico: a present-day public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón Romero, C; García Manzo, N T; Escobedo de la Peña, J; Hernández Ramos, J M; Olvera Alvarez, J; Cabral Soto, J

    1996-01-01

    Amebiasis still remains as a major public health problem in the world. It is one of the most common reasons for medical consult. There are more than half a million cases of amebiasis just at the Mexican Institute of the Social Security. There is still a lack of epidemiologic information on amebiasis in Mexico. To describe the secular trend fro amebiasis and for amebic liver abscess in the Mexican population, as well as in those covered by IMSS Solidaridad. An ecologic trend study was carried on. Incidence rate of amebiasis in all of its forms of presentation, and of amebic liver abscess, were plotted against each year for the 1986-1994 period. Amebiasis incidence in all of its forms of presentation showed a stable trend in this period, as it was seen with amebic liver abscess. Amebiasis is more common in the first years of life. On the contrary, amebic liver abscess showed an inverted 'J' pattern; its occurrence is higher in the extreme years of life. Fatality rates have shown a descendent trend. Amebiasis reflects socioeconomic conditions in Mexico and the fact that Mexican is still an endless culture. There is a need to promote health education, better diagnostic procedures and detection of asymptomatic carriers. Health policies for mothers that are asymptomatic carriers should be reviewed, due to the high rates of amebiasis and amebic liver abscess in children under one year of age.

  17. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M; Schelske, O [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y; Ndoh, M; Tacchini, C [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  18. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; de Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean-Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, Judit; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E. C.; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Romero, Irene Gallego; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, Béla; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a “Basal Eurasian” population that split prior to the diversification of other non-African lineages. PMID:25230663

  19. Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

  20. The present-day epidemiological situation in the Horn of Africa on the example of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information on the environmental hazards prevailing in Somalia and recommends a health prophylaxis in connection with a potential deployment of Polish Military Contingent to this part of the world. Somalia is a country located in the eastern part of Africa, in the so-called Horn of Africa. The country has been continuously at war for over two decades. Because of its much-devastated municipal and industrial infrastructure, widespread famine and limited access of the local people to healthcare it is considered one of the countries where living conditions are extremely difficult. Epidemiological indexes in Somalia are the worst in the world, and the Somali citizens are entirely dependent on foreign humanitarian assistance. At present, three different military operations, under the auspices of international organizations, have been carried out on the soil and the territorial waters: the European Union Naval Force Somalia--Operation Atlanta, the NATO Operation Ocean Shield, and the biggest of the three--the UN peacekeeping mission AMISOM with 9,5 thousand African troops, mainly from Uganda and Burundi). Despite their presence, the situation of the civilian population is critical. If the number ofpeacekeeping and stabilization troops deployed to the Horn of Africa is increased, it is very likely that Polish soldiers will also get involved in the military operations in Somalia. because of a strong possibility that following European military contingents are going to be relocated to East Africa to carry out the mandatory tasks, in relation to the occurrence of difficult climatic conditions and low sanitary standards, it is necessary to undertake appropriate preventive measures before the departure (compulsory/recommended vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, stocks of medicines to be taken by soldiers for an extended period of time, prevention and treatment kits), throughout the deployment (acclimatization, avoiding alcohol, water and

  1. Comparison of eight degree-days estimation methods in four agroecological regions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight methods were used to estimate degree-days in four Colombian localities. Four methods have been previously proposed in literature: Simple Sine, Double Sine, Simple Triangle, and Double Triangle methods. The other four methods are proposed in this research: Simple Logistic, Double Logistic, Simple Normal, and Double Normal. The estimation of the degree-days through hourly temperature values was used as the reference standard method, and the four localities from where the temperature values were taken were the municipalities of Cajicá (Cundinamarca, Santa Elena (Antioquia, Carepa (Urabá Antioqueño, and Ciudad Bolivar (Zona cafetera Antioqueña. Degree-days obtained by all methods under study were compared through linear regression to those obtained by the reference standard method. There were differences in the correlation of each method to the reference when compared within each region and among regions. The Simple Logistic and Double Logistic methods showed the best performance with acceptable R² values and considerably lower bias than the other methods. The poorest fit was found in Cajicá, where the average R² was 0.571. For the regions of Santa Elena and Carepa, the average R² was 0.756 and 0.733. The best fit was found in Ciudad Bolivar, with an average R² of 0.826.

  2. The stellar orbit distribution in present-day galaxies inferred from the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; van de Ven, Glenn; Bosch, Remco van den; Rix, Hans-Walter; Lyubenova, Mariya; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Martig, Marie; Mao, Shude; Xu, Dandan; Jin, Yunpeng; Obreja, Aura; Grand, Robert J. J.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Walcher, Jakob C.; García-Benito, Rubén; Zibetti, Stefano; Sánchez, Sebastian F.

    2018-03-01

    Galaxy formation entails the hierarchical assembly of mass, along with the condensation of baryons and the ensuing, self-regulating star formation1,2. The stars form a collisionless system whose orbit distribution retains dynamical memory that can constrain a galaxy's formation history3. The orbits dominated by ordered rotation, with near-maximum circularity λz ≈ 1, are called kinematically cold, and the orbits dominated by random motion, with low circularity λz ≈ 0, are kinematically hot. The fraction of stars on `cold' orbits, compared with the fraction on `hot' orbits, speaks directly to the quiescence or violence of the galaxies' formation histories4,5. Here we present such orbit distributions, derived from stellar kinematic maps through orbit-based modelling for a well-defined, large sample of 300 nearby galaxies. The sample, drawn from the CALIFA survey6, includes the main morphological galaxy types and spans a total stellar mass range from 108.7 to 1011.9 solar masses. Our analysis derives the orbit-circularity distribution as a function of galaxy mass and its volume-averaged total distribution. We find that across most of the considered mass range and across morphological types, there are more stars on `warm' orbits defined as 0.25 ≤ λz ≤ 0.8 than on either `cold' or `hot' orbits. This orbit-based `Hubble diagram' provides a benchmark for galaxy formation simulations in a cosmological context.

  3. Constraints on Mars Hydrogen loss from MAVEN: processes and present-day rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, M.; Deighan, J.; Stewart, I. F.; Schneider, N. M.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Jain, S.; Thiemann, E.; Mayyasi, M.; Clarke, J. T.; Crismani, M. M. J.; Stiepen, A.; Montmessin, F.; Epavier, F.; McClintock, B.; Holsclaw, G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Mars today is dessicated and oxidized, despite a large body of evidence indicating that the planet was wet and redox neutral early in its history. H escape has the potential to explain both conditions, but until recently there was no long-term monitoring of H loss at Mars. The presence of MAVEN at Mars since late 2014 has established a seasonal record of H escape via airglow measurements of coronal hydrogen and the flux of energetic particles whose production is mediated by the H corona. H escape appears from multiple proxies to be more than an order of magnitude larger in Southern summer than Northern summer, potentially as a consequence of enhanced water transport to the middle atmosphere. This newly described escape channel potentially dominates water loss from Mars today and over its history, and may be the most important control on the chemistry of the atmosphere and surface. I will present an overview of MAVEN measurements of H loss, focusing on contributions made by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, and discuss how photochemical models of the atmosphere may need to be adjusted to incorporate new mechanisms for H loss.

  4. A look at present-day biology Una mirada a la biología actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Gil Torres

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the objective and method of classic biology, the one that eliminates the object of study and converts it in an object of intervention (aspect that is taken by others as «natural resource» is questioned. Likewise, genetic determinism and the central dogma of molecular biology are raised again, since DNA by itself is a slightly-reactive crystal that only acquires a sences in relationship to other molecules that determine it, creating a codependent network. It is proposed that living beings are emergencies in networks of relationships and acknowledgements in specific contexts, outside of which nothing can exist. En el presente texto se cuestionan el objeto y el método de la biología clásica, aquélla que elimina el objeto de estudio para convertirlo en objeto de intervención (aspecto que es retomado por otros como «recurso natural. Así mismo, se replantean el determinismo genético y el Dogma Central de la biología molecular, dado que el material genético o ADN por sí mismo es un cristal poco reactivo y que sólo adquiere sentido en relaciones con otras moléculas que lo determinan, creando una red codependiente. Se propone que los seres vivos son emergencias de redes de relaciones y reconocimientos en contextos específicos, por fuera de los cuales nada puede existir.

  5. A model study of present-day Hall-effect circulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placke, B. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Bosco, S. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Fundamentals of Future Information Technologiesh, Juelich (Germany); DiVincenzo, D.P. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Fundamentals of Future Information Technologiesh, Juelich (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute, Theoretical Nanoelectronics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Stimulated by the recent implementation of a three-port Hall-effect microwave circulator of Mahoney et al. (MEA), we present model studies of the performance of this device. Our calculations are based on the capacitive-coupling model of Viola and DiVincenzo (VD). Based on conductance data from a typical Hall-bar device obtained from a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field, we numerically solve the coupled field-circuit equations to calculate the expected performance of the circulator, as determined by the S parameters of the device when coupled to 50Ω ports, as a function of frequency and magnetic field. Above magnetic fields of 1.5 T, for which a typical 2DEG enters the quantum Hall regime (corresponding to a Landau-level filling fraction ν of 20), the Hall angle θ{sub H} = tan{sup -1} σ{sub xy}/σ{sub xx} always remains close to 90 , and the S parameters are close to the analytic predictions of VD for θ{sub H} = π/2. As anticipated by VD, MEA find the device to have rather high (kΩ) impedance, and thus to be extremely mismatched to 50Ω, requiring the use of impedance matching. We incorporate the lumped matching circuits of MEA in our modeling and confirm that they can produce excellent circulation, although confined to a very small bandwidth. We predict that this bandwidth is significantly improved by working at lower magnetic field when the Landau index is high, e.g. ν = 20, and the impedance mismatch is correspondingly less extreme. Our modeling also confirms the observation of MEA that parasitic port-to-port capacitance can produce very interesting countercirculation effects. (orig.)

  6. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  7. Digitization of the human body in the present-day economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report on the historic development of human body digitization and on the actual state of commercially available technology. Complete systems for the digitization of the human body exist since more than ten years. One of the main users of this technology was the entertainment industry. Every new movie excited with attractive visual effects, but only few people knew that the most thrilling cuts were realized by using virtual persons. The faces and bodies of actors were digitized and the "virtual twin" replaced the actor in the movie. Nowadays, the state of the human body digitization is so high that it is not possible any more to distinguish the real actor from the virtual one. Indeed, for the rush technical development has to be thanked the movie industry, which was one of the strong economic motors for this technology. Today, with the possibility of a massive cost reduction given by new technologies, methods for digitization of the human body are used also in other fields of application, such as ergonomics, medical applications, computer games, biometry and anthropometrics. With the time, this technology becomes interesting also for sport, fitness, fashion and beauty. A large expansion of human body digitization is expected in the near future. To date, different technologies are used commercially for the measurement of the human body. They can be divided into three distinguished groups: laser-scanning, projection of light patterns, combination modeling and image processing. The different solutions have strengths and weaknesses that profile their suitability for specific applications. This paper gives an overview of their differences and characteristics and expresses clues for the selection of the adequate method. Practical examples of commercial exploitation of human body digitization are also presented and new interesting perspectives are introduced.

  8. A model study of present-day Hall-effect circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placke, B.; Bosco, S.; DiVincenzo, D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated by the recent implementation of a three-port Hall-effect microwave circulator of Mahoney et al. (MEA), we present model studies of the performance of this device. Our calculations are based on the capacitive-coupling model of Viola and DiVincenzo (VD). Based on conductance data from a typical Hall-bar device obtained from a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field, we numerically solve the coupled field-circuit equations to calculate the expected performance of the circulator, as determined by the S parameters of the device when coupled to 50Ω ports, as a function of frequency and magnetic field. Above magnetic fields of 1.5 T, for which a typical 2DEG enters the quantum Hall regime (corresponding to a Landau-level filling fraction ν of 20), the Hall angle θ_H = tan"-"1 σ_x_y/σ_x_x always remains close to 90 , and the S parameters are close to the analytic predictions of VD for θ_H = π/2. As anticipated by VD, MEA find the device to have rather high (kΩ) impedance, and thus to be extremely mismatched to 50Ω, requiring the use of impedance matching. We incorporate the lumped matching circuits of MEA in our modeling and confirm that they can produce excellent circulation, although confined to a very small bandwidth. We predict that this bandwidth is significantly improved by working at lower magnetic field when the Landau index is high, e.g. ν = 20, and the impedance mismatch is correspondingly less extreme. Our modeling also confirms the observation of MEA that parasitic port-to-port capacitance can produce very interesting countercirculation effects. (orig.)

  9. Possible Imprints of Cold-mode Accretion on the Present-day Properties of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies suggest that a significant part of the primordial gas accretes onto forming galaxies as narrow filaments of cold gas without building a shock and experiencing heating. Using a simple model of disk galaxy evolution that combines the growth of dark matter halos predicted by cosmological simulations with a hypothetical form of cold-mode accretion, we investigate how this cold-accretion mode affects the formation process of disk galaxies. It is found that the shock-heating and cold-accretion models produce compatible results for low-mass galaxies owing to the short cooling timescale in such galaxies. However, cold accretion significantly alters the evolution of disk galaxies more massive than the Milky Way and puts observable fingerprints on their present properties. For a galaxy with a virial mass {M}{vir}=2.5× {10}12 {M}ȯ , the scale length of the stellar disk is larger by 41% in the cold-accretion model than in the shock-heating model, with the former model reproducing the steep rise in the size–mass relation observed at the high-mass end. Furthermore, the stellar component of massive galaxies becomes significantly redder (0.66 in u ‑ r at {M}{vir}=2.5× {10}12 {M}ȯ ), and the observed color–mass relation in nearby galaxies is qualitatively reproduced. These results suggest that large disk galaxies with red optical colors may be the product of cold-mode accretion. The essential role of cold accretion is to promote disk formation in the intermediate-evolution phase (0.5< z< 1.5) by providing the primordial gas having large angular momentum and to terminate late-epoch accretion, quenching star formation and making massive galaxies red.

  10. Changing Groundwater and Lake Storage in the Americas from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Present Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, K. L.; Wickert, A. D.; Michael, L.; Fan, Y.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Austermann, J.; Ng, G. H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater accounts for 1.69% of the globe's water storage - nearly the same amount (1.74%) that is stored in ice caps and glaciers. The volume of water stored in this reservoir has changed over glacial-interglacial cycles as climate warms and cools, sea level rises and falls, ice sheets advance and retreat, surface topography isostatically adjusts, and patterns of moisture transport reorganize. During the last deglaciation, over the past 21000 years, all of these factors contributed to profound hydrologic change in the Americas. In North America, deglaciation generated proglacial lakes and wetlands along the isostatically-depressed margin of the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, along with extensive pluvial lakes in the desert southwest. In South America, changing patterns of atmospheric circulation caused regional and time-varying wetting and drying that led to fluctuations in water table levels. Understanding how groundwater levels change in response to these factors can aid our understanding of the effects of modern climate change on groundwater resources. Using a model that incorporates temporally evolving climate, topography (driven by glacial isostatic adjustment), ice extent, sea level, and spatially varying soil properties, we present our estimates of changes in total groundwater storage in the Americas over the past 21000 years. We estimate depth to water table at 500-year intervals and at a 30-arcsecond resolution. This allows a comparative assessment of changing groundwater storage volumes through time. The model has already been applied to the present day and has proven successful in estimating modern groundwater depths at a broad scale (Fan et al., 2013). We also assess changing groundwater-fed lakes, and compare model-estimated lake sizes and locations to paleorecords of these lakes. Our data- and model-integrated look back at the terminal Pleistocene provides an estimate of groundwater variability under extreme climate change. Preliminary results

  11. Periodontal microbiota of Sardinian children: comparing 200-year-old samples to present-day ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Orrù

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The microrganisms of the human oral cavity include more than 700 species or phenotypes of bacteria. Some “diseases of civilization” are strictly correlated to changes in the microbiome following the food revolution that occurred after WWII. For that reason, a precise recognition of the microbiome profile before and after this period should be useful to determine the health-compatible model of microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbiome profiles (number of total cells, and pathogen types of dental samples obtained from two distinct groups of children, a 200-year-old retrieved one and a present one.Methods: Two different groups of samples have been studied. The first group was a set of 50 recent subgingival plaque samples obtained from children of age 2-8 years, 14 males and 36 females. They were enrolled by the Department of Dental Disease Prevention (University of Cagliari, in Sardinia, Italy during standard dental care procedures. None reported periodontal disease and none had been under antibiotic therapy during the previous 6 months. The second group was an old retrieved group that included 24 teeth from 6 different 6- to 8-year-old crania fragments; they were obtained from a 200-year-old charnel-house located in Villaputzu, a city close to Cagliari. Representative periodontal bacteria have been identified by a previously published real-time PCR procedure (Sokransky et al., 1998 in which P. gingivalis and T. forsythia (red complex, A. actinomycetemcomitans (green complex and F. nucleatum (orange complex were detected. In addition, the title of each pathogen was expressed as a percentage of the total bacteria (biofilm in the sample.Results and discussion: The profile of periodontal microbiomes, between recent/ancient samples showed a significant difference relative to Sokransky’s red complex bacteria (p < 0.05. In all analyzed periodontal strains, the pathogenic bacteria P. gingivalis and T. forsythia

  12. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, V.; Oušková, V.; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), s. 1-16, e100117 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/0649 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : landscape reconstruction * pollen analysis * REVEALS model Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  13. Present-day African analogue of a pre-European Amazonian floodplain fishery shows convergence in cultural niche construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle B; Durécu, Mélisse; Pouilly, Marc; Béarez, Philippe; Ovando, Alex; Kalebe, Mashuta; Huchzermeyer, Carl F

    2016-12-27

    Erickson [Erickson CL (2000) Nature 408 (6809):190-193] interpreted features in seasonal floodplains in Bolivia's Beni savannas as vestiges of pre-European earthen fish weirs, postulating that they supported a productive, sustainable fishery that warranted cooperation in the construction and maintenance of perennial structures. His inferences were bold, because no close ethnographic analogues were known. A similar present-day Zambian fishery, documented here, appears strikingly convergent. The Zambian fishery supports Erickson's key inferences about the pre-European fishery: It allows sustained high harvest levels; weir construction and operation require cooperation; and weirs are inherited across generations. However, our comparison suggests that the pre-European system may not have entailed intensive management, as Erickson postulated. The Zambian fishery's sustainability is based on exploiting an assemblage dominated by species with life histories combining high fecundity, multiple reproductive cycles, and seasonal use of floodplains. As water rises, adults migrate from permanent watercourses into floodplains, through gaps in weirs, to feed and spawn. Juveniles grow and then migrate back to dry-season refuges as water falls. At that moment fishermen set traps in the gaps, harvesting large numbers of fish, mostly juveniles. In nature, most juveniles die during the first dry season, so that their harvest just before migration has limited impact on future populations, facilitating sustainability and the adoption of a fishery based on inherited perennial structures. South American floodplain fishes with similar life histories were the likely targets of the pre-European fishery. Convergence in floodplain fish strategies in these two regions in turn drove convergence in cultural niche construction.

  14. Boundary-Layer Characteristics of Persistent Regional Haze Events and Heavy Haze Days in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the surface conditions and boundary-layer climate of regional haze events and heavy haze in southern Jiangsu Province in China. There are 5 types with the surface conditions which are equalized pressure (EQP, the advancing edge of a cold front (ACF, the base of high pressure (BOH, the backside of high pressure (BAH, the inverted trough of low pressure (INT, and saddle pressure (SAP with the haze days. At that time, 4 types are divided with the regional haze events and each of which has a different boundary-layer structure. During heavy haze, the surface mainly experiences EQP, ACF, BOH, BAH, and INT which also have different boundary-layer structures.

  15. Presentations given at the regional conference on photovoltaic self-consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Jacques; Loyen, Richard; Humbert, Adrien; Vache, Vincent; Soors, Corinne; Vienot, Raphaelle; Aries, Pierre; Bardon, Philippe; Dieny, Gauthier; Le Vannier, Isabelle; Joffre, Andre; Chardon, Julien; Charier, Gilles; Langevine, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    After the first national conference on photovoltaic self-consumption in May 2016, Enerplan, the French union of solar energy professionals, organised a first regional conference to inform its partners about the recent legal evolutions in this domain, to anticipate the next call for bids of the Commission of Energy Regulation, to benefit from the experience feedbacks of the last regional call for proposals and of project owners, and to discover the new opportunities of the decentralization and deregulation of local solar energy supplies. This document brings together the presentations given at this conference: 1 - New legal framework with the self-consumption decree of July 27, 2016: new opportunities and deadlines (Richard Loyen); 2 - Self-consumption in collective residential buildings, present-day legal framework (Adrien Humbert); 3 - Renewable energies self-consumption call for bids: priority targets and financial support (Vincent Vache); 4 - Enedis actions to simplify self-consumption (Corinne Soors); 5 - Regional context and experience feedback of the call for proposals (Raphaelle Vienot); 6 - Testimonies from project owners (Pierre Aries, Philippe Bardon, Gauthier Dieny, Isabelle Le Vannier); 7 - Decentralisation and deregulation of the local power supply: the block-chains big-bang in self-consumption (Andre Joffre); 8 - A new community platform for renewable electricity producers and consumers (Julien Chardon)

  16. Female college students' negative feelings toward their fathers : Comparison of present feelings with recollections of their junior high school days

    OpenAIRE

    石丸, 綾子; Ishimaru, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent daughter’s relationship with her father is strained owing to her negative feelings, such as opposition, defiant attitude, and hatred, toward father. However, further details regarding these feelings and how they evolve during a daughter’s growing years have not been examined yet. In this study, a questionnaire survey was administered to female college students, asking about their negative feelings toward their fathers in the present and during their junior high school days. The ...

  17. Regional brain glucose use in unstressed rats after two days of starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional brain glucose use was measured in conscious, unrestrained, fed rats and after 2 days of starvation, using quantitative autoradiography and [6- 14 C]glucose. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketone body concentrations and brain glucose and lactate content were measured in separate groups of rats. Glucose concentrations were lower in starved rats in both plasma and brain; plasma ketone body concentrations were elevated. Glucose use was found to be lower throughout the brain by about 12%. While some areas seemed to be affected more than others, statistical analysis showed that none were exceptionally different. The results could not be explained by increased loss of 14 C as lactate or pyruvate during the experimental period, because the arteriovenous differences of these species were insignificant. The calculated contribution by ketone bodies to the total energy consumption was between 3 and 9% for the brain as a whole in the starved rats and could, therefore, partially account for the depression seen in glucose use. It was concluded that glucose oxidation is slightly depressed throughout the brain after 2 days of starvation

  18. A Day in the Life of an Industrial Hearing Conservationist: A Template for Successful Career Education and Outreach Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Whether in a classroom setting or at a local community meeting, opportunities for providing descriptive and positive information about our professions to an audience unfamiliar with acoustics, noise control or hearing conservation often call for alternatives to technical demonstrations that illustrate principles of acoustics or noise control. More importantly, successful outreach presentations must convey images of our day-to-day activities and the challenges we address, many of which are non-technical. One successful approach to career outreach presentations makes use of a collection of photo slides featuring the speaker, his colleagues, customers and workplaces to vividly illustrate the specific job tasks, people and environment of the speaker's job or career. Against this fluid and multi-dimensional visual backdrop, an accompanying script addresses the main theme. A comprehensive photo slide collection may be established gradually, often by making use of and adding to technical and personal slides already in the speaker's possession. Slide collections are portable, easily and quickly reconfigured for back-to-back or spontaneous engagements, and they are well suited to speaking opportunities where technical presentations or demonstrations are not practical or appropriate. A carefully chosen sequence of photo slides minimizes the need for speaker's notes, as each photo itself provides a visual prompt. Although photo slide presentations are appropriate to a variety of outreach and professional settings, the specific illustrative and explanatory material presented here illustrates their application in career education outreach activities, using industrial hearing conservation as an example.

  19. Antenatal Bartter syndrome presenting with vomiting and constipation mimicking subacute intestinal obstruction in a 20-day-old neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgadir, Ibtihal Siddiq; Elgharbawy, Fawzia; Salameh, Khalil Mohamad; Juma, Baha Eldin

    2017-11-14

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a rare condition that can present with different clinical features. These features include early onset maternal polyhydramnios, failure to thrive, prematurity and nephrocalcinosis.We are presenting this 20-day-old girl who had an antenatal history of polyhydramnios. She developed persistent non-bilious vomiting that was associated with constipation soon after birth. She presented with failure to thrive and features suggestive of intestinal obstruction. On the initial evaluation, she was noted to have hypokalaemic, hyponatraemic metabolic alkalosis. The initial work-up was done to exclude surgical and renal causes of her presentation, and the diagnosis was confirmed by gene analysis to be type III-classic Bartter syndrome. She was closely monitored for her growth and development with the appropriate salt replacement therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Radiative forcing by aerosols as derived from the AeroCom present-day and pre-industrial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schulz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine different global models with detailed aerosol modules have independently produced instantaneous direct radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols. The anthropogenic impact is derived from the difference of two model simulations with prescribed aerosol emissions, one for present-day and one for pre-industrial conditions. The difference in the solar energy budget at the top of the atmosphere (ToA yields a new harmonized estimate for the aerosol direct radiative forcing (RF under all-sky conditions. On a global annual basis RF is −0.22 Wm−2, ranging from +0.04 to −0.41 Wm−2, with a standard deviation of ±0.16 Wm−2. Anthropogenic nitrate and dust are not included in this estimate. No model shows a significant positive all-sky RF. The corresponding clear-sky RF is −0.68 Wm−2. The cloud-sky RF was derived based on all-sky and clear-sky RF and modelled cloud cover. It was significantly different from zero and ranged between −0.16 and +0.34 Wm−2. A sensitivity analysis shows that the total aerosol RF is influenced by considerable diversity in simulated residence times, mass extinction coefficients and most importantly forcing efficiencies (forcing per unit optical depth. The clear-sky forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical depth has diversity comparable to that for the all-sky/ clear-sky forcing ratio. While the diversity in clear-sky forcing efficiency is impacted by factors such as aerosol absorption, size, and surface albedo, we can show that the all-sky/clear-sky forcing ratio is important because all-sky forcing estimates require proper representation of cloud fields and the correct relative altitude placement between absorbing aerosol and clouds. The analysis of the sulphate RF shows that long sulphate residence times are compensated by low mass extinction coefficients and vice versa. This is explained by more sulphate particle humidity growth and thus higher extinction in those models where short-lived sulphate

  1. Post World War II orcharding creates present day DDT-problems in The Sørfjord (Western Norway)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Green, Norman W; Maage, Amund; Amundsen, Carl Einar; Schøyen, Merete; Skei, Jens

    2010-10-01

    The Sørfjord has a long history of agriculture and industry, and environmental monitoring has been conducted for decades, comprising analyses of contaminants in mussel, fish and sediments. DDT was used as an insecticide in orchards surrounding the fjord between World War II and 1970. Since the early 1990 s, elevated concentrations of DDT were found in mussels and fish. Unexpectedly, DDT-concentrations increased towards present day, despite the discontinuation of use. The highest concentrations in mussels (in 2006) corresponded to about two orders of magnitude higher than background. Analyses of sediment core sections also indicated increased input towards present day. Shifts in climatic parameters, as well as increased amounts of soil dissolved organic carbon following a decline in atmospheric sulphate deposition may have contributed to this phenomenon. We warrant the need for increased knowledge of the effects of alterations in variables acting regionally and globally on the disposition of contaminants in ecosystems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of present day geomorphological dynamics to decipher landscape evolution around the Paleolithic sites of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerker, Michael; Schillaci, Calogero; Melis, Rita; Mussi, Margherita

    2014-05-01

    The area of Melka Kunture (central Ethiopia) is one of the most important clusters of Paleolithic sites in Eastern Africa. The archaeological record spans from c. 1.7 Ma onwards, with a number of stratified occurrences of Oldowan, Acheulean, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age industries, together with faunal remains and human fossils. However, the archaeological sites are endangered by flooding and soil erosion. The main excavation area lies close to the convergence of the Awash river with the Atabella river, one of the main tributaries of the upper Awash catchment. In the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands, gully networks develop especially in the vicinity of the active and inactive river meanders. Various erosion processes are linked to specific driving factors such as the rainfall regime, the land use/cover changes and vertic soils with a specific hydrological behaviour. It was documented in the field and by previous research that the origin of most of the man made erosion channels is due to animal pathways and car tracks. However, paleolandscape features increase the general erosion risk. Former wetland areas and deposition zones are particularly affected by soil erosion processes. Hence, the spatial distribution and characteristics of present day geomorphic processes also reveal information on the paleolandscape. In order to assess landscape evolution and present day geomorphologic dynamics, we mapped the geomorphology describing in detail the present-day slope processes at a 10.000 scale. We performed a detailed terrain analysis based on high resolution DEMs such as SRTM-X with 25m resolution and ALOS/PRISM with 10m resolution to characterize the main erosion processes and surface runoff dynamics. The latter ones are simulated using a Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method. Landuse was delineated for a larger area using ASTER 25m multispectral data. Finally, using calibrated topographic indices and a simple hydrological model we were able to detect and

  3. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Nuri; Kahya, Emin; Aras, Nil; Aras, Haydar

    2007-01-01

    The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this is not the case. Fuel consumption and operational costs are reduced by increasing the thickness of the external walls and roof (ceiling), despite an increase in the investment costs. According to Turkish Standard Number 825 (TS 825), there are four different degree-day (DD) regions, and the required heat loads for the buildings in these regions exhibit large differences. Therefore, a method based on costs is needed for the determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of different DD regions. In this study, optimum insulation thicknesses for different DD regions of Turkey, namely, Izmir (DD: 1450), Bursa (DD: 2203), Eskisehir (DD: 3215) and Erzurum (DD: 4856), have been determined for a lifetime of N years, maximizing the present worth value of annual energy savings for insulated external walls

  4. Landau ghost pole problem in quantum field theory: From 50th of last century to the present day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarov, Rauf G., E-mail: rauf-jafarov@hotmail.com [Institute for Physical Problems, Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mutallimov, Mutallim M. [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-03-25

    In this paper we present our results of the investigation of asymptotical behavior of amplitude at short distances in four-dimensional scalar field theory with ϕ{sup 4} interaction. To formulate of our calculating model – two-particle approximation of the mean-field expansion we have used an Rochev’s iteration scheme of solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equations with the fermion bilocal source. We have considered the nonlinear integral equations in deep-inelastic region of momenta. As result we have a non-trivial behavior of amplitude at large momenta.

  5. Day case shoulder surgery: satisfactory pain control without regional anaesthesia. A prospective analysis of a perioperative protocol.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daruwalla, Z J

    2009-03-01

    Pain control is an issue which may limit patients\\' acceptance of day case shoulder surgery. This study prospectively examined the outcome of a protocol for day case shoulder surgery to determine if satisfactory pain relief could be achieved without regional anaesthesia.

  6. Holidays – the Mirror of Society. The Social and Cultural Contexts of Present-Day Holidays in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Popelková

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available After 2010, the study of present-day holidays established itself as an original tool for the study of society in Slovak ethnology. In the first stage, the research team of the Institute of Ethnology SAS focused on the empirical research of the specific contexts of the term holiday in Slovakia and mapped the range of situations which are designated by people as holidays today. The term holiday means the interruption of the daily routine, a moment commemorated on a cyclical basis or a period accompanied by normative or ritual acts and with an ascribed symbolic meaning. Our research showed that apart from identification, ritual and spiritual functions which are important for individuals or communities, as commonly studied by ethnology, holidays also fulfil a number of practical functions at present. After the discovery of the manifold overlaps of this phenomenon with the on-going social processes, the focus of ethnology has shifted to society as such and on its reflection in the mirror of holidays. Through an analysis of empirical materials from the observation and ethnographic description of the events in the public space during holidays, the study of the holiday legislation, the activities of various institutions the production of printed and electronic media, business and advertising, which create the current content and the ways of celebrating holidays, it was possible to obtain a basis for a specific testimony about the present-day social processes in the Slovak Republic. In this context, this study is dedicated to the following relations: holidays and politics, holidays and economy, and holidays and citizens.

  7. Continuity and Admixture in the Last Five Millennia of Levantine History from Ancient Canaanite and Present-Day Lebanese Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Doumet-Serhal, Claude; Scheib, Christiana; Xue, Yali; Danecek, Petr; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Youhanna, Sonia; Martiniano, Rui; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Szpak, Michał; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Schutkowski, Holger; Mikulski, Richard; Zalloua, Pierre; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2017-08-03

    The Canaanites inhabited the Levant region during the Bronze Age and established a culture that became influential in the Near East and beyond. However, the Canaanites, unlike most other ancient Near Easterners of this period, left few surviving textual records and thus their origin and relationship to ancient and present-day populations remain unclear. In this study, we sequenced five whole genomes from ∼3,700-year-old individuals from the city of Sidon, a major Canaanite city-state on the Eastern Mediterranean coast. We also sequenced the genomes of 99 individuals from present-day Lebanon to catalog modern Levantine genetic diversity. We find that a Bronze Age Canaanite-related ancestry was widespread in the region, shared among urban populations inhabiting the coast (Sidon) and inland populations (Jordan) who likely lived in farming societies or were pastoral nomads. This Canaanite-related ancestry derived from mixture between local Neolithic populations and eastern migrants genetically related to Chalcolithic Iranians. We estimate, using linkage-disequilibrium decay patterns, that admixture occurred 6,600-3,550 years ago, coinciding with recorded massive population movements in Mesopotamia during the mid-Holocene. We show that present-day Lebanese derive most of their ancestry from a Canaanite-related population, which therefore implies substantial genetic continuity in the Levant since at least the Bronze Age. In addition, we find Eurasian ancestry in the Lebanese not present in Bronze Age or earlier Levantines. We estimate that this Eurasian ancestry arrived in the Levant around 3,750-2,170 years ago during a period of successive conquests by distant populations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On abnormal quiet day Sq(Z) ranges in the Indian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, N.K.; Sontakke, K.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar quiet day variations of the vertical geomagnetic component Sq(Z) have been studied. These show abnormal variations from day to day. The study for the period 1961 to 1976 indicates that, for quite a number of days, the Sq(Z) phase reverses completely. It is concluded that changes in phase of Sq(Z) could be explained by the movement of the Sq current system and the penetration of the Sq southern current system into the northern hemisphere. (author)

  9. Geodetic constraints on present-day motion of the Arabian Plate: Implications for Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrajehi, Abdullah; McClusky, Simon; Reilinger, Robert; Daoud, Mohamed; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Ergintav, Semih; Gomez, Francisco; Sholan, Jamal; Bou-Rabee, Firyal; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Haileab, Biniam; Fisseha, Shimelles; Asfaw, Laike; Mahmoud, Salah; Rayan, Ali; Bendik, Rebecca; Kogan, Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Five years of continuously recording GPS observations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia together with new continuous and survey-mode GPS observations broadly distributed across the Arabian Peninsula provide the basis for substantially improved estimates of present-day motion and internal deformation of the Arabian plate. We derive the following relative, geodetic Euler vectors (latitude (°N), longitude (°E), rate (°/Myr, counterclockwise)) for Arabia-Nubia (31.7 ± 0.2, 24.6 ± 0.3, 0.37 ± 0.01), Arabia-Somalia (22.0 ± 0.5, 26.2 ± 0.5, 0.40 ± 0.01), Arabia-India (18.0 ± 3.8, 87.6 ± 3.3, 0.07 ± 0.01), Arabia-Sinai (35.7 ± 0.8, 17.1 ± 5.0, 0.15 ± 0.04), and Arabia-Eurasia (27.5 ± 0.1, 17.6 ± 0.3, 0.404 ± 0.004). We use these Euler vectors to estimate present-day stability of the Arabian plate, the rate and direction of extension across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and slip rates along the southern Dead Sea fault south of the Lebanon restraining bend (4.5-4.7 ± 0.2 mm/yr, left lateral; 0.8-1.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr extension) and the Owens fracture zone (3.2-2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr, right lateral, increasing from north to south; 1-2 mm/yr extension). On a broad scale, the Arabian plate has no resolvable internal deformation (weighted root mean square of residual motions for Arabia equals 0.6 mm/yr), although there is marginally significant evidence for N-S shortening in the Palmyride Mountains, Syria at ≤ 1.5 mm/yr. We show that present-day Arabia plate motion with respect to Eurasia is consistent within uncertainties (i.e., ±10%) with plate tectonic estimates since the early Miocene when Arabia separated from Nubia. We estimate the time of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifting from present-day Arabia motion, plate tectonic evidence for a 70% increase in Arabia-Nubia relative motion at 13 Ma, and the width of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and find that rifting initiated roughly simultaneously (±2.2 Myr) along the strike of the Red Sea from the Gulf of Suez to the Afar

  10. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. White supremacism and Islamic astronomy in history of astronomy texts from the eighteenth century to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Joe

    2018-04-01

    This paper reviews manifestations of racism in European and American histories of Arab and Persian astronomy from the eighteenth century to the present day. Its first section discusses representation of Islamic astronomy from Adam Smith to late Victorian writers, particularly tracing ideas of Arab unoriginality and scientific incapacity. The second section first relates the appearance of scientific racism in the early twentieth-century historiography of astronomy, then how the rise of scientifically and linguistically competent scholarship in the latter twentieth century provided much-improved information on Islamic achievements in astronomy. The paper’s conclusion underlines the importance of avoiding ethnic supremacism and integrating research on Islamic astronomy into teaching and publishing on the history of astronomy.

  12. Present-day Horizontal Mobility in the Serbian Part of the Pannonian Basin; Inferences from the Geometric Analysis of Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Zoran; Toljić, Marinko; Bulatović, Vladimir; Ninkov, Toša; Stojadinović, Uroš

    2016-10-01

    In tectonically complex environments, such as the Pannonian Basin surrounded by the Alps-Dinarides and Carpathians orogens, monitoring of recent deformations represents very challenging matter. Efficient quantification of active continental deformations demands the use of a multidisciplinary approach, including neotectonic, seismotectonic and geodetic methods. The present-day tectonic mobility in the Pannonian Basin is predominantly controlled by the northward movement of the Adria micro-plate, which has produced compressional stresses that were party accommodated by the Alps-Dinarides thrust belt and partly transferred towards its hinterland. Influence of thus induced stresses on the recent strain field, deformations and tectonic mobility in the southern segment of the Pannonian Basin has been investigated using GPS measurements of the horizontal mobility in the Vojvodina area (northern Serbia).

  13. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafidh Hajjej

    Full Text Available In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B and class II (DRB1, DQB1, using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%, HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%, HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%, and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%. Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2% as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese. This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool.

  14. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  15. Top-down freezing in a Fe-FeS core and Ganymede's present-day magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Tina; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2018-06-01

    Ganymede's core most likely possesses an active dynamo today, which produces a magnetic field at the surface of ∼ 719 nT. Thermochemical convection triggered by cooling of the core is a feasible power source for the dynamo. Experiments of different research groups indicate low pressure gradients of the melting temperatures for Fe-FeS core alloys at pressures prevailing in Ganymede's core ( < 10 GPa). This may entail that the core crystallizes from the top instead of from the bottom as is expected for Earth's core. Depending on the core sulfur concentration being more iron- or more sulfur-rich than the eutectic concentration either snowing iron crystals or a solid FeS layer can form at the top of the core. We investigate whether these two core crystallization scenarios are capable of explaining Ganymede's present magnetic activity. To do so, we set up a parametrized one-dimensional thermal evolution model. We explore a wide range of parameters by running a large set of Monte Carlo simulations. Both freezing scenarios can explain Ganymede's present-day magnetic field. Dynamos of iron snow models are rather young ( < 1 Gyr), whereas dynamos below the FeS layer can be both young and much older ( ∼ 3.8 Gyr). Successful models preferably contain less radiogenic heat sources in the mantle than the chondritic abundance and show a correlation between the reference viscosity in the mantle and the initial core sulfur concentration.

  16. Modelling present-day basal melt rates for Antarctic ice shelves using a parametrization of buoyant meltwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazeroms, Werner M. J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Basal melting below ice shelves is a major factor in mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which can contribute significantly to possible future sea-level rise. Therefore, it is important to have an adequate description of the basal melt rates for use in ice-dynamical models. Most current ice models use rather simple parametrizations based on the local balance of heat between ice and ocean. In this work, however, we use a recently derived parametrization of the melt rates based on a buoyant meltwater plume travelling upward beneath an ice shelf. This plume parametrization combines a non-linear ocean temperature sensitivity with an inherent geometry dependence, which is mainly described by the grounding-line depth and the local slope of the ice-shelf base. For the first time, this type of parametrization is evaluated on a two-dimensional grid covering the entire Antarctic continent. In order to apply the essentially one-dimensional parametrization to realistic ice-shelf geometries, we present an algorithm that determines effective values for the grounding-line depth and basal slope in any point beneath an ice shelf. Furthermore, since detailed knowledge of temperatures and circulation patterns in the ice-shelf cavities is sparse or absent, we construct an effective ocean temperature field from observational data with the purpose of matching (area-averaged) melt rates from the model with observed present-day melt rates. Our results qualitatively replicate large-scale observed features in basal melt rates around Antarctica, not only in terms of average values, but also in terms of the spatial pattern, with high melt rates typically occurring near the grounding line. The plume parametrization and the effective temperature field presented here are therefore promising tools for future simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet requiring a more realistic oceanic forcing.

  17. Present state of the perception gap of nuclear energy between Japanese nuclear energy supplying region and an energy consuming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2002-01-01

    Public opinion surveys have been carried out since 1998 on what phase and on what extent of the perception of nuclear energy differs between Japanese dwelling in energy supplying region and an energy-consuming region. Southern Fukui rural district where 15 nuclear reactors are now installed and Osaka urban region of about 100 km apart from Fukui were selected as the respective targets for the energy supplying and consuming regions. Analyses of the data of about 3000 samples have revealed the followings. (1) The public in the nuclear energy supplying region are very friendly to nuclear energy so that only about 20 and 39 of the public are resistive to the general promotion of nuclear energy in Japan and to the construction of another nuclear reactor in their dwelling region, respectively. (2) On the other hand, in the energy-consuming region those respective fractions are 41 and 70 implying strong resistance to nuclear energy in the urban region. (3) Both the degree of interest in and the degree of knowledge on nuclear energy are very low, whereas the extent of fear to nuclear is high for the urban public. (4) Not only the fraction of the public who are satisfied with their present life, but the public fraction who is eagerly support the thought of return-to-nature are very high in the urban region. (5) On the other hand, in the energy supplying region, many peoples eagerly want their life to become more convenient than it is now, and 6) all those trends (I)-(5) are revealed more pronouncedly in the woman than the man. The perception gap of nuclear energy thus became clear between Japanese dwelling in rural and urban regions. On the basis of this knowledge, discussions on the nature of the so-called NIMBY will be made from the socio-psychological viewpoint and propositions will also be made on the methods to dissolve the perception gap of that soft. (author)

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE IN THE USSR AS MEANS OF FORMING HUMANITARIAN SPACE FOR PRESENT-DAY RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golomazova Tamara Nikolaevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the current task of the social policy of Russia is solution of the housing problem. In Russia today there is a lack of housing, especially modern housing of good quality. In the article the experience of mass housing construction in the USSR is considered. The reasons of housing crisis in the USSR and the ways of its overcome, which were offered in the 60—80th of the 20th century are analyzed. The author pays special attention to the positive component of the experience of overcoming the housing crisis, but also its disadvantages are underlined. The author believes, that in future specialists we should form not only a knowledge of housing construction experience in the USSR, but the understanding of the importance of this experience and opportunity to use it in the contemporary Russian conditions. The author points out, what exactly can be used to solve the housing problem of present-day Russia basing on this experience.

  19. From Poule de Luxe to Geisha: Source Languages behind the Present-Day English Synonyms of Prostitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Duda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at drawing a picture, as complete as possible, of an anthropocentric reality hidden in the synonyms of prostitute which have been incorporated into the English lexico-semantic system from other languages since the beginning of the 19th century. The body of Present-day English synonyms of prostitute to be analysed includes horizontal, geisha, shawl and poule de luxe. Apart from providing the source languages from which English borrowed the afore-mentioned synonyms of prostitute, an attempt will be made at discovering the plausible cultural and sociological justification for the lexical borrowings to have taken place. In order to make the onomasiological picture of the sense ‘prostitute’ as complete as it can be within the limits of this paper, a mention will be made of the lexical heritage within the range of the synonyms of prostitute which were incorporated into the English language in the course of Middle English, Early Modern English and Late Modern English.

  20. Non-Economic Obstacles to Wind Deployment: Issues and Regional Differences (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation provides an overview of national obstacles to wind deployment, with regional assessments. A special mention of offshore projects and distributed wind projects is provided. Detailed maps examine baseline capacity, military and flight radar, golden and bald eagle habitat, bat habitat, whooping crane habitat, and public lands. Regional deployment challenges are also discussed.

  1. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  2. Modelling the economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Martius, Olivia; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Severe winter storms such as "Vivian" in February 1990 and "Lothar" in December 1999 are among the most destructive meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Disaster severity resulting from such windstorms is attributable, on the one hand, to hazardous weather conditions such as high wind gust speeds; and on the other hand to socio-economic factors such as population density, distribution of values at risk, and damage susceptibility. For present-day winter storms, the data basis is generally good to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated socio-economic impacts. In contrast, the information on historic windstorms is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. This study illustrates a promising technique to simulate the economic impacts of both historic and present winter storms in Switzerland since end of the 19th century. Our approach makes use of the novel Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) spanning 1871-present. The 2-degree spatial resolution of the global 20CR dataset is relatively coarse. Thus, the complex orography of Switzerland is not realistically represented, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of wind systems that are strongly influenced by the local orography, such as Föhn winds. Therefore, a dynamical downscaling of the 20CR to 3 km resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was performed, for in total 40 high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since 1871. Based on the downscaled wind gust speeds and the climada loss model, the estimated economic losses were calculated at municipality level for current economic and social conditions. With this approach, we find an answer to the question what would be the economic losses of e.g. a hazardous Föhn storm - which occurred in northern Switzerland in February 1925 - today, i.e. under current socio-economic conditions. Encouragingly, the pattern of

  3. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  4. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  5. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  6. seNorge2 daily precipitation, an observational gridded dataset over Norway from 1957 to the present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussana, Cristian; Saloranta, Tuomo; Skaugen, Thomas; Magnusson, Jan; Tveito, Ole Einar; Andersen, Jess

    2018-02-01

    The conventional climate gridded datasets based on observations only are widely used in atmospheric sciences; our focus in this paper is on climate and hydrology. On the Norwegian mainland, seNorge2 provides high-resolution fields of daily total precipitation for applications requiring long-term datasets at regional or national level, where the challenge is to simulate small-scale processes often taking place in complex terrain. The dataset constitutes a valuable meteorological input for snow and hydrological simulations; it is updated daily and presented on a high-resolution grid (1 km of grid spacing). The climate archive goes back to 1957. The spatial interpolation scheme builds upon classical methods, such as optimal interpolation and successive-correction schemes. An original approach based on (spatial) scale-separation concepts has been implemented which uses geographical coordinates and elevation as complementary information in the interpolation. seNorge2 daily precipitation fields represent local precipitation features at spatial scales of a few kilometers, depending on the station network density. In the surroundings of a station or in dense station areas, the predictions are quite accurate even for intense precipitation. For most of the grid points, the performances are comparable to or better than a state-of-the-art pan-European dataset (E-OBS), because of the higher effective resolution of seNorge2. However, in very data-sparse areas, such as in the mountainous region of southern Norway, seNorge2 underestimates precipitation because it does not make use of enough geographical information to compensate for the lack of observations. The evaluation of seNorge2 as the meteorological forcing for the seNorge snow model and the DDD (Distance Distribution Dynamics) rainfall-runoff model shows that both models have been able to make profitable use of seNorge2, partly because of the automatic calibration procedure they incorporate for precipitation. The seNorge2

  7. High natural erosion rates are the backdrop for present-day soil erosion in the agricultural Middle Hills of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. J.; Arnold, M.; AumaItre, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Keddadouche, K.; Bickle, M.; Ojha, T.

    2015-07-01

    Although agriculturally accelerated soil erosion is implicated in the unsustainable environmental degradation of mountain environments, such as in the Himalaya, the effects of land use can be challenging to quantify in many mountain settings because of the high and variable natural background rates of erosion. In this study, we present new long-term denudation rates, derived from cosmogenic 10Be analysis of quartz in river sediment from the Likhu Khola, a small agricultural river basin in the Middle Hills of central Nepal. Calculated long-term denudation rates, which reflect background natural erosion processes over 1000+ years prior to agricultural intensification, are similar to present-day sediment yields and to soil loss rates from terraces that are well maintained. Similarity in short- and long-term catchment-wide erosion rates for the Likhu is consistent with data from elsewhere in the Nepal Middle Hills but contrasts with the very large increases in short-term erosion rates seen in agricultural catchments in other steep mountain settings. Our results suggest that the large sediment fluxes exported from the Likhu and other Middle Hills rivers in the Himalaya are derived in large part from natural processes, rather than from soil erosion as a result of agricultural activity. Catchment-scale erosional fluxes may be similar over short and long timescales if both are dominated by mass wasting sources such as gullies, landslides, and debris flows (e.g., as is evident in the landslide-dominated Khudi Khola of the Nepal High Himalaya, based on compiled data). As a consequence, simple comparison of catchment-scale fluxes will not necessarily pinpoint land use effects on soils where these are only a small part of the total erosion budget, unless rates of mass wasting are also considered. Estimates of the mass wasting contribution to erosion in the Likhu imply catchment-averaged soil production rates on the order of ~ 0.25-0.35 mm yr-1, though rates of mass wasting are

  8. PRESENT-DAY GALACTIC EVOLUTION: LOW-METALLICITY, WARM, IONIZED GAS INFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD COMPLEX A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Madsen, G. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Duncan, A. K., E-mail: kbarger@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: haffner@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: Alex.Hill@csiro.au, E-mail: wakker@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: greg.madsen@sydney.edu.au [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin H{alpha} Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s{sup -1} in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full H{alpha} intensity map of Complex A across (l, b) = (124 Degree-Sign , 18 Degree-Sign ) to (171 Degree-Sign , 53 Degree-Sign ) and deep targeted observations in H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}6716, [N II] {lambda}6584, and [O I] {lambda}6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The H{alpha} data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn and Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 10{sup 4} K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow changes related to affective speech presentation in persistent vegetative state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    A story told by his mother was presented on tape to a trauma patient in persistent vegetative state (PVS). During auditory presentation, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Changes in rCBF related to this stimulus

  10. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  11. The analysis of drug consumption, drug trafficking and the fight against drug trafficking at the present day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisenko M.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the current drug situation in Russia, Siberian Federal District and Novosibirsk Region relating to drug consumption and drug trafficking and the main reasons of deaths of drug-dependent people.

  12. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Theresa N.; Okeke, Francisca N.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January–December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method....

  13. One day-old chicks transport: Assessment of thermal profile in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the thermal profile of truck with different levels of box placement during one day-old chicks transport. An experiment was conducted through monitoring of 11 transport loads. A acclimatized truck was used in this research, with maximum capacity of 630 one day-old chicks boxes, totalizing 63,000 animals. The assessment of thermal environment was performed in 5 min intervals, through the following variables: temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. The treatments were registered at two levels of the load (first rack and floor where 17 data loggers were distributed throughout the truck. The experiment used a completely randomized design and geostatistics was used for spatial dependency and Kriging interpolation. The microclimatic conditions of the truck were not as per recommended values, which confirm a heterogeneous distribution of heat and moisture in environment. Regarding the box positioning, the mean values of thermal variables associated with thermal comfort of one day-old chicks was found in the floor area. The most stressful environment for birds inside the truck was located in front and at the center of the truck.

  14. Global and regional axial ocean angular momentum signals and length-of-day variations (1985-1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Stammer, Detlef

    2000-07-01

    Changes in ocean angular momentum M about the polar axis are related to fluctuations in zonal currents (relative component Mr) and latitudinal shifts in mass (planetary component MΩ). Output from a 1° ocean model is used to calculate global Mr, MΩ, and M time series at 5 day intervals for the period January 1985 to April 1996. The annual cycle in Mr, MΩ, and M is larger than the semiannual cycle, and MΩ amplitudes are nearly twice those of Mr. Year-to-year modulation of the seasonal cycle is present, but interannual variability is weak. The spectrum of M is red (background slope between ω-1 and ω-2) at subseasonal periods, implying a white or blue spectrum for the external torque on the ocean. Comparisons with previous studies indicate the importance of direct atmospheric forcing in inducing subseasonal M signals, relative to instabilities and other internal sources of rapid oceanic signals. Regional angular momentum estimates show that seasonal variability tends to be larger at low latitudes, but many local maxima exist because of the spatial structure of zonal current and mass variability. At seasonal timescales, latitudes ~20°S-10°N contribute substantial variability to MΩ, while signals in Mr can be traced to Antarctic Circumpolar Current transports and associated circulation. Variability in M is found to be small when compared with similar time series for the atmosphere and the solid Earth, but ocean signals are significantly coherent with atmosphere-solid Earth residuals, implying a measurable oceanic impact on length-of-day variations.

  15. Ionospheric Response to St. Patrick's Day Storm of 2015 Over Indian Region: Ionosonde and All-Sky Imager Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Upadhayaya, A. K.; Taori, A. K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The St. Patrick's Day Storm of 2015 was the first superstorm of 24th solar cycle, with Dst dipping down to -223 nT. The response of this severe (G4) storm is studied using ionosonde data at low-mid latitude Indian station, Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E), along with 630.0 nm night airglow observations from low latitude Indian station, Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E). A peculiar occurrence of additional stratification, not observed before at this latitude, is found to be present between F1 and F2 layers before the SSC of the storm. This observed extra stratification in F layer (F1.5) is attributed to TIDs during vertically uplifted F region. Apart from this, additional stratification above F2 layer, lasting for about half an hour, was seen during this storm. A large variation in F2 layer critical parameters, showing both positive and negative phases, with electron density enhancement of 264% and depression of 65%, is observed during this storm. Contrary to the previous reports, Spread-F occurrence at Delhi do not follow anticorrelation with solar activity. The night airglow observations of 630.0 nm from Gadanki indicates towards the presence of external forcing which results in drifting of plasma in the opposite direction (westward) to that of normally seen, during this St. Patrick's Day storm of 2015. The variation in neutral composition (O/N2 taken from GUVI) is found during this storm. This result suggests O/N2 ratio to be a vital contributor, apart from the electric field and neutral wind, in determining the ionospheric response to such transient events.

  16. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, Theresa N; Okeke, Francisca N

    2013-05-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January-December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year's change in the source current system of Sq.

  17. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa N. Obiekezie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Quiet (Sq day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January–December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year’s change in the source current system of Sq.

  18. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    OpenAIRE

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples wer...

  19. Measurement and evaluation of nuclear data for fissile and fertile isotopes: An important task of present-day physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van'kov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers questions relating to the analysis of neutron cross-section measurements and measurements of transmission functions for heavy isotopes in the unresolved resonance region. It also considers questions connected with the evaluation of group constants. Conclusions are drawn regarding the need to set up new experiments for measuring transmission functions. (author)

  20. Challenges in day-to-day midwifery practice; a qualitative study from a regional referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremnes, Hanna Strømholt; Wiig, Åsil Kjøl; Abeid, Muzdalifat; Darj, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Maternal and infant mortality rates in Tanzania have decreased over the past decades, but remain high. One of the challenges the country faces, is the lack of skilled health care workers. High fertility rates make midwives and their patients particularly susceptible to stress as a result of understaffing. This paper explores the challenges midwives face in their day-to-day practice at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania, and investigates which measures the midwives themselves find necessary to implement to improve their situation. A qualitative study design with focus group discussions (FGDs) was employed to explore which challenges the midwives experienced. Each focus group consisted of five to six midwives. A FGD topic guide covering challenges, consequences, motivation, ideal situation and possible solutions was used. These data were analyzed using Systematic Text Condensation. A total of 28 Midwives, six men and 22 women, participated in five FGDs. Four categories emerged from the collected material: Feelings of demoralization, shortage of resources, societal challenges and personal struggles. A feeling of demoralization was especially prevalent and was caused by a lack of support from the leaders and little appreciation from the patients. Shortage of resources, and shortage of personnel in particular, was also highlighted as it led to an excessive workload resulting in difficulties with providing adequate care. These difficulties were intensified by lack of equipment, facilities and a non-optimal organization of the healthcare system. The challenges revealed during the FGDs prevent the midwives from providing sufficient midwifery care. To improve the situation, measures such as supportive leadership, reduction of workload, increasing availability of equipment and increasing knowledge of reproductive health in society, should be taken.

  1. Cytogenetical effects of low doses: results obtained by N.N.Luchik and present-day problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Sevan'kaev, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of present status of the problem of quantitative assessment of cytogenetic effects low is presented. The importance of works of N.V. Luchik is demonstrated for the development of this field of radiobiology. The results of the author's own experimental and theoretical research on the regularities of induction of cytogenetical damage by low doses of ionising radiation are presented

  2. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  3. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology.

  4. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  5. Xanthogranuloma of the intrasellar region presenting in pituitary dysfunction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiuchi Takamasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Differentiation of cystic mass lesions of the sellar and parasellar regions may pose a diagnostic dilemma for physicians, neurosurgeons, radiologists and pathologists involved in treating patients with these entities. A considerable number of tumors previously identified as craniopharyngiomas may, in fact, have been xanthogranulomas. We report a case of pituitary dysfunction caused by xanthogranuloma of the intrasellar region. Case presentation A 47-year-old man of Japanese descent presented to our institution with a tumor located exclusively in the intrasellar region which manifested as severe hypopituitarism. MRI revealed a clearly defined intrasellar mass that was heterogeneously hyperintense on T1-weighted images and markedly hypointense on T2-weighted images. We preoperatively diagnosed the patient with Rathke's cleft cyst or non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Although the tumor was completely removed using a transsphenoidal approach, the improvement of the patient's endocrine function was marginal, and continued endocrine replacement therapy was needed. Postoperatively, a histological examination revealed the tumor to be a xanthogranuloma of the intrasellar region. His visual field defects and headache improved. Conclusion Because diagnosis depends on surgical intervention and xanthogranulomas of the intrasellar region are very rare, the natural history of xanthogranuloma is still unknown. Therefore, this entity is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. We suggest that xanthogranuloma should be included in the differential diagnosis, even in the case of sellar lesions, to formulate appropriate postoperative management and improve endocrine outcomes.

  6. Indications of a major Neolithic trade route? An archaeometric geochemical and Sr, Pb isotope study on amphibolitic raw material from present day Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.-M.; Holm, P.M.; Schuessler, U.; Petrasch, J.

    2006-01-01

    In order to interpret pre-historic cultural interactions, the provenance of amphibolitic raw material used for flat-axes and adzes in lower to middle Neolithic cultures throughout present day Germany were investigated by elemental and Sr, Pb isotopic methods. Within all settlements studied, a homogeneous actinolite-hornblende schist rock type (AHS) was found to be massively dominating, with a distinct petrography of needle-shaped actinolite interwoven with single larger grains of hornblende along with calcic plagioclase and large amounts of ilmenite. Geochemically, the AHS group is very homogeneous and has a signature of an enriched basaltic precursor with high concentrations of particularly the LIL-elements. The geochemical signature is relatively rare and can not be matched in nearby geological outcrops, wherefore the conclusion of 'imported material' is quickly reached. Strontium and Pb isotopic analyses of the AHS were compared to the isotopic composition of amphibolitic rocks with similar petrography and trace elemental signatures within possible archaeological trade regions. The isotopic data of the archaeological material point roughly to a Proterozoic age of the stone used; an age which can be reasonable matched to a single outcrop situated at Jistebsko within the Czech Republic. This area further shows archaeological traces of prehistoric mining. Based on petrographic, geochemical and isotopic evidence, this area is here presented as the provenance area of the stone raw material, which later spread throughout prehistoric Europe - establishing contact and trade routes between Neolithic cultures

  7. Comparison of Smoking, Drinking, and Marijuana Use between Students Present or Absent on the Day of a School-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Faeh, David; Warren, Wick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this population-based survey was to compare the prevalence of selected risk behaviors between students present or absent on the day of a school-based survey. The study population was a representative sample of all students of secondary schools in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean). Students absent on the day of the survey were traced and…

  8. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone relevant to climate and global atmospheric chemistry model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaudel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available 'The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report' (TOAR is an activity of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project. This paper is a component of the report, focusing on the present-day distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone relevant to climate and global atmospheric chemistry model evaluation. Utilizing the TOAR surface ozone database, several figures present the global distribution and trends of daytime average ozone at 2702 non-urban monitoring sites, highlighting the regions and seasons of the world with the greatest ozone levels. Similarly, ozonesonde and commercial aircraft observations reveal ozone’s distribution throughout the depth of the free troposphere. Long-term surface observations are limited in their global spatial coverage, but data from remote locations indicate that ozone in the 21st century is greater than during the 1970s and 1980s. While some remote sites and many sites in the heavily polluted regions of East Asia show ozone increases since 2000, many others show decreases and there is no clear global pattern for surface ozone changes since 2000. Two new satellite products provide detailed views of ozone in the lower troposphere across East Asia and Europe, revealing the full spatial extent of the spring and summer ozone enhancements across eastern China that cannot be assessed from limited surface observations. Sufficient data are now available (ozonesondes, satellite, aircraft across the tropics from South America eastwards to the western Pacific Ocean, to indicate a likely tropospheric column ozone increase since the 1990s. The 2014–2016 mean tropospheric ozone burden (TOB between 60°N–60°S from five satellite products is 300 Tg ± 4%. While this agreement is excellent, the products differ in their quantification of TOB trends and further work is required to reconcile the differences. Satellites can now estimate ozone’s global long-wave radiative effect, but evaluation is difficult due to limited

  9. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proceedings of 17th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Europe, Region and Croatia in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The international community is faced with a big test of determining the marginal requirements of environmental impact aimed at preventing the climate change potentially endangering the survival of the civilisation as we know it. This phrase actually reflects the course of developments to be expected if we do not change our attitude towards the protection of the environment. This is a huge challenge for the energy sector and technological development: how to meet the growing needs for energy and, at the same time, significantly diminish the ecological burden. In the past 2 years the EU has put forward very ambitious plans. The question is are the designed mechanisms sufficient to facilitate the implementation of these plans and if the awareness of all actors participating in the process is high enough to enable this implementation.This Forum wants to open the decision about the future of the future in energy development in Europe, Region and Croatia. It is important that we all become aware that the changes in the energy sector will be dramatic if the obligations to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, mostly CO 2 , are accepted in order to start working in that direction as soon as today

  11. FY 2011 Second Quarter: Demonstration of New Aerosol Measurement Verification Testbed for Present-Day Global Aerosol Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, D

    2011-03-20

    The regional-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is being used by a DOE Earth System Modeling (ESM) project titled “Improving the Characterization of Clouds, Aerosols and the Cryosphere in Climate Models” to evaluate the performance of atmospheric process modules that treat aerosols and aerosol radiative forcing in the Arctic. We are using a regional-scale modeling framework for three reasons: (1) It is easier to produce a useful comparison to observations with a high resolution model; (2) We can compare the behavior of the CAM parameterization suite with some of the more complex and computationally expensive parameterizations used in WRF; (3) we can explore the behavior of this parameterization suite at high resolution. Climate models like the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) being used within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) will not likely be run at mesoscale spatial resolutions (10–20 km) until 5–10 years from now. The performance of the current suite of physics modules in CAM5 at such resolutions is not known, and current computing resources do not permit high-resolution global simulations to be performed routinely. We are taking advantage of two tools recently developed under PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects for this activity. The first is the Aerosol Modeling Testbed (Fast et al., 2011b), a new computational framework designed to streamline the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The second is the CAM5 suite of physics parameterizations that have been ported into WRF so that their performance and scale dependency can be quantified at mesoscale spatial resolutions (Gustafson et al., 2010; with more publications in preparation).

  12. De-hospitalization of the pediatric day surgery by means of a freestanding surgery center: pilot study in the lazio region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangia Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day surgery should take place in appropriate organizational settings. In the presence of high volumes, the organizational models of the Lazio Region are represented by either Day Surgery Units within continuous-cycle hospitals or day-cycle Day Surgery Centers. This pilot study presents the regional volumes provided in 2010 and the additional volumes that could be provided based on the best performance criterion with a view to suggesting the setting up of a regional Freestanding Center of Pediatric Day Surgery. Methods This is an observational retrospective study. The activity volumes have been assessed by means of a DRG (Diagnosis Related Group-specific indicator that measures the ratio of outpatients to the total number of treated patients (freestanding indicator, FI. The included DRGs had an FI exceeding the 3rd quartile present in at least a health-care facility and a volume exceeding 0.5% of the total patients of the pediatric surgery and urology facilities of the Lazio Region. The relevant data have been provided by the Public Health Agency and relate to 2010. The best performance FI has been used to calculate the theoretical volume of transferability of the remaining facilities into freestanding surgery centers. Patients under six months of age and DRGs common to other disciplines have been excluded. The Chi Square test has been used to compare the FI of the health-care facilities and the FI of the places of origin of the patients. Results The DRG provided in 2010 amounted to a total of 5768 belonging to 121 types of procedures. The application of the criteria of inclusion have led to the selection of seven final DRG categories of minor surgery amounting to 3522 cases. Out of this total number, there were 2828 outpatients and 694 inpatients. The recourse of the best performance determines a potential transfer of 497 cases. The total outpatient volume is 57%. The Chi Square test has pointed to a statistically significant

  13. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  14. Crossmodal Activation of Visual Object Regions for Auditorily Presented Concrete Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper J F van den Bosch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual-coding theory (Paivio, 1986 postulates that the human mind represents objects not just with an analogous, or semantic code, but with a perceptual representation as well. Previous studies (eg, Fiebach & Friederici, 2004 indicated that the modality of this representation is not necessarily the one that triggers the representation. The human visual cortex contains several regions, such as the Lateral Occipital Complex (LOC, that respond specifically to object stimuli. To investigate whether these principally visual representations regions are also recruited for auditory stimuli, we presented subjects with spoken words with specific, concrete meanings (‘car’ as well as words with abstract meanings (‘hope’. Their brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain contrasts showed overlap between regions differentially activated by words for concrete objects compared to words for abstract concepts with visual regions activated by a contrast of object versus non-object visual stimuli. We functionally localized LOC for individual subjects and a preliminary analysis showed a trend for a concreteness effect in this region-of-interest on the group level. Appropriate further analysis might include connectivity and classification measures. These results can shed light on the role of crossmodal representations in cognition.

  15. Quantifying enhancement in aerosol radiative forcing during 'extreme aerosol days' in summer at Delhi National Capital Region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumant; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Arun

    2016-04-15

    Changes in aerosol characteristics (spectral aerosol optical depth, AOD and composition) are examined during the transition from 'relatively clean' to 'extreme' aerosol days in the summer of 2012 at Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), India. AOD smaller than 0.54 (i.e. 12-year mean AOD-1σ) represents 'relatively clean' days in Delhi during the summer. 'Extreme' days are defined by the condition when AOD0.5 exceeds 12-year mean AOD+1 standard deviation (σ). Mean (±1σ) AOD increases to 1.2±0.12 along with a decrease of Angstrom Exponent from 0.54±0.09 to 0.22±0.12 during the 'extreme' days. Aerosol composition is inferred by fixing the number concentrations of various individual species through iterative tweaking when simulated (following Mie theory) AOD spectrum matches with the measured one. Contribution of coarse mode dust to aerosol mass increased from 76.8% (relatively clean) to 96.8% (extreme events), while the corresponding contributions to AOD0.5 increased from 35.0% to 70.8%. Spectrally increasing single scattering albedo (SSA) and CALIPSO aerosol sub-type information support the dominant presence of dust during the 'extreme' aerosol days. Aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) at the top-of-the-atmosphere increases from 21.2Wm(-2) (relatively clean) to 56.6Wm(-2) (extreme), while the corresponding change in surface ADRF is from -99.5Wm(-2) to -153.5Wm(-2). Coarse mode dust contributes 60.3% of the observed surface ADRF during the 'extreme' days. On the contrary, 0.4% mass fraction of black carbon (BC) translates into 13.1% contribution to AOD0.5 and 33.5% to surface ADRF during the 'extreme' days. The atmospheric heating rate increased by 75.1% from 1.7K/day to 2.96K/day during the 'extreme' days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ASN: regional day of information and exchange on transport of radioactive materials - 4 February 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations made during a meeting on the transport of radioactive materials. The contributions addressed the following topics: results of a survey based on questionnaires sent to actors of this sector, regulatory framework and radioprotection plan, case of parcels not submitted to the authority concerned, declaration of transport interesting or significant events, ASN inspections, the transport of radioactive products by the IBt Bebig company in France, the activities of the Institut de Soudure Industrie (industry welding institute), the activities of the ISO Life company specialized in health product transportation, the activities of the Securidis company (a consulting company for activities related to hazardous materials transportation, and notably radioactive materials), the activities a the ACE Environnement company (specialized in building diagnosis), the point of view of an academic research unit on radioactive material transportation, the experience of the hospital sector in radioactive source transportation, the experience of the Advanced Accelerator Applications company in radioactive material transportation, and a discussion on regulation application

  17. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  18. Congenital segmental dilatation of jejunoileal region in a newborn: Unusual clinical and radiologic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjai M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental dilatation of the ileum is one of the uncommon causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We present a case of slow transit of bowel contents leading to suspicion of functional bowel obstruction in a new born, which on exploration turned out to be a case of segmental dilatation of the jejuno-ileal region. The clinical and radiological evaluation was suggestive of hypomotility disorder of gut, resulting in diagnostic dilemma and delayed surgical intervention.

  19. Present day sea level changes: observation and causes; Les variations actuelles du niveau de la mer: observations et causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, A

    2005-11-15

    Whereas sea level has changed little over the last 2000 years, it has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/year during the 20. century. This unexpected sea level rise has been attributed to the anthropogenic global warming, recorded over several decades. Sea level variations have been measured globally and precisely for about 12 years due to satellite altimeter missions Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1. These observations indicate a global mean sea level rise of about 3 mm/year since 1993, a value significantly larger than observed during previous decades. Recent observations have allowed us to quantify the various climatic factors contributing to observed sea level change: thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in the land water reservoirs. A water budget based on these new observations allows us to partly explain the observed sea level rise. In particular, we show that the thermal expansion explains only 25% of the secular sea level rise as recorded by tide-gauges over the last 50 years, while it contributes about 50% of sea level rise observed over the last decade. Meanwhile, recent studies show that glacier and ice sheet melting could contribute the equivalent of 1 mm/year in sea level rise over the last decade. In addition, the high regional variability of sea level trends revealed by satellite altimetry is mainly due to thermal expansion. There is also an important decadal spatio-temporal variability in the ocean thermal expansion over the last 50 years, which seems to be controlled by natural climate fluctuations. We question for the first time the link between the decadal fluctuations in the ocean thermal expansion and in the land reservoirs, and indeed their climatic contribution to sea level change. Finally a preliminary analysis of GRACE spatial gravimetric observations over the oceans allows us to estimate the seasonal variations in mean sea level due to ocean water mass balance variations

  20. Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn’s P’ungnyudo and Present-day Hallyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangshik Choe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available P’ungnyudo, originating from the ancient societies, was based on belief in the heavens and native beliefs, but it was also open to and accepting of the teachings of foreign religions such as Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. In the process of teaching this to and transforming the people, it became the central principle of ancient Korea. The hwarang and kuksŏn, who modeled themselves on this guiding ideology, were the leading forces of Silla and the key figures in the unification of the three kingdoms of Silla, Kokuryŏ, and Paekche. During the later years of Silla, however, they underwent some changes. In Koryŏ, there were efforts to revitalize sŏnp’ung; however, only the recreational aspects were emphasized. It continued as the p’ungnyu of music and poetic music of the sŏnbi in Chosŏn, with hwarang deteriorating into one of the eight despised social groups as a male shaman. Since the mid-1990s as Hallyu such as Korean drama and K-pop started to garner popularity, Korean pop culture has been receiving international attention. There has been a renewed interest in Korean enjoyment, talent, and style, as well as in traditional culture of Korea. P’ungnyudo, mentioned early on by Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn in Nallangbisŏ, grounded itself on traditional culture at the same time it was open and accepting towards foreign culture. Hallyu should be developed in the same way. Korea accepted culture from China and its western regions as well as from the West through the Silk Road and further developed it anew. In the same way, it will be possible to revitalize p’ungnyudo by being open minded and accepting of one another and maintaining a spirit of harmony and mutual prosperity.

  1. Water vapor changes under global warming and the linkage to present-day interannual variabilities in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hanii; Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2016-12-01

    The fractional water vapor changes under global warming across 14 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 simulations are analyzed. We show that the mean fractional water vapor changes under global warming in the tropical upper troposphere between 300 and 100 hPa range from 12.4 to 28.0 %/K across all models while the fractional water vapor changes are about 5-8 %/K in other regions and at lower altitudes. The "upper-tropospheric amplification" of the water vapor change is primarily driven by a larger temperature increase in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere per degree of surface warming. The relative contributions of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity changes to the water vapor change in each model vary between 71.5 to 131.8 % and 24.8 to -20.1 %, respectively. The inter-model differences in the water vapor change is primarily caused by differences in temperature change, except over the inter-tropical convergence zone within 10°S-10°N where the model differences due to the relative humidity change are significant. Furthermore, we find that there is generally a positive correlation between the rates of water vapor change for long-tem surface warming and those on the interannual time scales. However, the rates of water vapor change under long-term warming have a systematic offset from those on the inter-annual time scales and the dominant contributor to the differences also differs for the two time scales, suggesting caution needs to be taken when inferring long-term water vapor changes from the observed interannual variations.

  2. Stable lead isotope compositions in selected coals from around the world and implications for present day aerosol source tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Diaz-Somoano; M.E. Kylander; M.A. Lopez-Anton; I. Suarez-Ruiz; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona; M. Ferrat; B. Kober; D.J. Weiss [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    The phasing out of leaded gasoline in many countries around the world at the end of the last millennium has resulted in a complex mixture of lead sources in the atmosphere. Recent studies suggest that coal combustion has become an important source of Pb in aerosols in urban and remote areas. Lead concentration and isotopic composition is reported for 59 coal samples representing major coal deposits worldwide in an attempt to characterize this potential source. The average concentration in these coals is 35 {mu}g Pb g{sup -1}, with the highest values in coals from Spain and Peru and the lowest in coals from Australia and North America. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotope ratios range between 1.15 and 1.24, with less radiogenic Pb in coals from Europe and Asia compared to South and North America. Comparing the Pb isotopic signatures of coals from this and previous studies with those published for Northern and Southern Hemisphere aerosols, we hypothesize that coal combustion might now be an important Pb source in China, the eastern U.S., and to some extent, in Europe but not as yet in other regions including South Africa, South America, and western U.S. This supports the notion that 'old Pb pollution' from leaded gasoline reemitted into the atmosphere or long-range transport (i.e., from China to the western U.S.) is important. Comparing the isotope ratios of the coals, the age of the deposits, and Pb isotope evolution models for the major geochemical reservoirs suggests that the lead isotope ratios (PbIC) in coals is strongly influenced by the depositional coal forming environment. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Evaluation of Preindustrial to Present-day Black Carbon and its Albedo Forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, Drew; Berntsen, T.; Bisiauxs, M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-03-05

    As a part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against the observations including 12 ice core records, a long-term surface mass concentrations and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using the NCAR Community Land and Sea-Ice model 4 with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000, which includes the SNICAR BC-snow model. We evaluated the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations to using recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to the differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology among models; 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However,models agree well on 2.5~3 times increase in the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day, which matches with the 2.5 times increase in BC emissions. We find a large model diversity at both NH and SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Jungfrauch and Ispra. However, the models fail to capture the Arctic BC seasonality due tosevere underestimations during winter and spring. Compared to recent snowpack measurements, the simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of observations except for Greenland and Arctic Ocean. However, model and observation differ widely due to missing interannual variations in emissions and possibly due to the choice of the prescribed meteorology period (i.e., 1996-2000).

  4. On the Scatter of the Present-day Stellar Metallicity–Mass Relation of Cluster Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Christoph; Lisker, Thorsten; Pillepich, Annalisa

    2018-04-01

    We examine the scatter of the relation between stellar mass and stellar metallicity for cluster dwarf galaxies in the cosmological simulation Illustris. The mass-metallicity relation exhibits the smallest intrinsic scatter at the galaxies' times of peak stellar mass, suggesting stellar mass stripping to be the primary effect responsible for the rather broad relation at present. However, for about 40% of galaxies in the high-metallicity tail of the relation, we find mass stripping to coincide with an increased enrichment of stellar metallicity, possibly caused by the stripping of low-metallicity stars in the galaxy outskirts.

  5. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the present-day radial metallicity distribution of the Galactic disc probed by pre-main-sequence clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, L.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; Jeffries, R. D.; Friel, E. D.; Sacco, G. G.; Pancino, E.; Bonito, R.; Bravi, L.; Franciosini, E.; Klutsch, A.; Montes, D.; Gilmore, G.; Vallenari, A.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Frasca, A.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The radial metallicity distribution in the Galactic thin disc represents a crucial constraint for modelling disc formation and evolution. Open star clusters allow us to derive both the radial metallicity distribution and its evolution over time. Aims: In this paper we perform the first investigation of the present-day radial metallicity distribution based on [Fe/H] determinations in late type members of pre-main-sequence clusters. Because of their youth, these clusters are therefore essential for tracing the current interstellar medium metallicity. Methods: We used the products of the Gaia-ESO Survey analysis of 12 young regions (age ages is not easily explained by the models. Our results reveal a complex interplay of several processes (e.g. star formation activity, initial mass function, supernova yields, gas flows) that controlled the recent evolution of the Milky Way. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A70

  6. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Agriculture and Forestry in the Temperate Regions. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracchi, G.; Sirotenko, O.; Bindi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry will be particularly sensitive to changes in mean climate and climate variability in the northern and southern regions of Europe. Agriculture may be positively affected by climate change in the northern areas through the introduction of new crop species and varieties, higher crop production and expansion of suitable areas for crop cultivation. The disadvantages may be determined by an increase in need for plant protection, risk of nutrient leaching and accelerated breakdown of soil organic matter. In the southern areas the benefits of the projected climate change will be limited, while the disadvantages will be predominant. The increased water use efficiency caused by increasing CO2 will compensate for some of the negative effects of increasing water limitation and extreme weather events, but lower harvestable yields, higher yield variability and reduction in suitable areas of traditional crops are expected for these areas. Forestry in the Mediterranean region may be mainly affected by increases in drought and forest fires. In northern Europe, the increased precipitation is expected to be large enough to compensate for the increased evapotranspiration. On the other hand, however, increased precipitation, cloudiness and rain days and the reduced duration of snow cover and soil frost may negatively affect forest work and timber logging determining lower profitability of forest production and a decrease in recreational possibilities. Adaptation management strategies should be introduced, as effective tools, to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on agricultural and forestry sectors

  7. 9 %-chromium steel P91 and P92 in German power plants. From 1991 to the present day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Mirko; Thuemer, Joerg Rainer; Glasenapp, Klaus [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    P91 and P92 are the top players in the field of high-pressure piping in modern coal-fired and CCGT power plants. A long-term testing phase and a step-by-step introductory phase since the nineties had preceded current application. For this reason, a review and overview of the first installation in German power plants and the experience acquired from almost 20 years' operating time of USC boilers in medium-load operation mode will be presented. With a view to the newly built power plants, the focal point changes to P92 for high-temperature pressure tubing. In this context the technical experiences were used in the material qualification process and the design of new component. (orig.)

  8. Entheseal changes and pathological lesions in draught reindeer skeletons - Four case studies from present-day Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Anna-Kaisa; Niinimäki, Sirpa

    2016-09-01

    Draught use and being ridden often result in typical pathological patterns in animal skeletons. Moreover, physical activity patterns may be reflected in bone biomechanical properties and entheseal changes at muscle attachment sites. This paper presents the pathologies and entheseal changes observed in four draught and/or racing reindeer skeletons against information on their life histories and discusses the probability of linking the observed changes to their use. The results of this study are a useful point of comparison to researchers working on reindeer and other species of draught animals. However, our results also emphasize that entheseal changes and many pathologies have multifactorial etiologies and that interpretation of skeletal change patterns is not straightforward, even when there is information on the life history of the animal and its complete skeleton can be examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible divertor solutions for a fusion reactor. Pt. I. Physical aspects based on present day divertor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach, A.; Bosch, H.-S.; De Pena Hempel, S.; Dux, R.; Kaufmann, M.; Mertens, V.; Neuhauser, J.; Suttrop, W.; Zohm, H.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., p.109-117 (1997). With an anticipated power flux across the separatrix of up to 300 MW of an ITER-like fusion reactor, conventional measures of power spread lead to a peak power load at the target plates in the order of 30 MW m -2 , far beyond the technically feasible limit for stationary operation. Radiative cooling by seed impurities appears to be the most promising plasma-physical option to reduce the target power load, but extrapolations of present experiments predict an only marginally tolerable increase of the plasma effective charge Z eff . Key points will be the achievement of very high electron densities, leading to more effective radiative cooling by δP rad /δZ eff ∝n e 2 while keeping the edge temperature within its optimum range. This range is bounded from below by the H→L mode temperature threshold due to confinement requirements, whereas the upper boundary is given by the ideal ballooning stability limit which is connected to type-I ELM activity which may cause non-tolerable divertor heat loads. The completely detached H-mode (CDH) in ASDEX Upgrade demonstrates radiative H-mode operation within this operational range exhibiting high-frequent type-III ELMs and target power load in the order of 10% of the heating power. At present, open questions on high density reactor operation are related to radiative instabilities as well as edge transport enhancement and H-mode impairment observed in several tokamaks under high density conditions. Measures to overcome these detrimental effects will be investigated with improved divertor concepts in the near future. The possible problems connected to high density reactor operation can be relaxed, if the design of plasma facing components with higher heat flux endurance is successful. (orig.)

  10. Regional difference of radiosensitivity of neural cells in the fetal brain of mice on day 13 of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Kiyoshi; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1986-01-01

    Pregnant Slc: ICR mice were exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation at a dose of 12.5 R or 25 R on day 13 of gestation. After irradiation, fetuses were obtained from mothers at 1- or 3-hour intervals and coronal histological sections were made. Pyknotic cells were counted in the ventricular zone of brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb. In the 25 R group, peak incidences of pyknotic cells in brain mantle, hippocampal anlage and olfactory bulb were 13.2 %, 6.9 % and 2.2 %, respectively. In the 12.5 R group, these were 6.0 %, 3.2 % and 1.7 %, respectively. This result indicates that neural cells in the ventricular zone of brain mantle are the most radiosensitive among the cerebral regions examined in day-13 mouse fetuses. (author)

  11. Evaluation of a present-day climate simulation with a new coupled atmosphere-ocean model GENMOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Alder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new, non-flux corrected AOGCM, GENMOM, that combines the GENESIS version 3 atmospheric GCM (Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive Systems and MOM2 (Modular Ocean Model version 2 nominally at T31 resolution. We evaluate GENMOM by comparison with reanalysis products (e.g., NCEP2 and three models used in the IPCC AR4 assessment. GENMOM produces a global temperature bias of 0.6 °C. Atmospheric features such as the jet stream structure and major semi-permanent sea level pressure centers are well simulated as is the mean planetary-scale wind structure that is needed to produce the correct position of stormtracks. Most ocean surface currents are reproduced except where they are not resolvable at T31 resolution. Overall, GENMOM captures reasonably well the observed gradients and spatial distributions of annual surface temperature and precipitation and the simulations are on par with other AOGCMs. Deficiencies in the GENMOM simulations include a warm bias in the surface temperature over the southern oceans, a split in the ITCZ and weaker-than-observed overturning circulation.

  12. Some Present-Day Asylum Seekers in the U.S.: Machismo and “Women on the Run”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Eisold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following a brief review of international asylum law (The Geneva Conventions, and the role of American mental health professionals in the asylum process, this paper attempts to understand the ways in which the often trauma-creating custom of machismo is transferred across generations in Central American families. Using as background the work of self psychologist Alan Roland (1989,1996, 2005, I have described families from these areas as so powerfully father-centric that children develop a sense of themselves based largely on their ability to sustain their father’s positive regard. In addition, without discussion, they present a positive image of him to the outside world, even when his behavior at home is brutal. To do otherwise would be humiliating. Having no place to reflect on these customs, often they are acted upon/acted out in the next generation. Note:We publish thi paper also tranlated in italian by Francesca Tessitore (Francesca Tessitore, Psychologist, PhD Student in Mind, Gender and Languages, her research fields are the processes of female immigration and motherhood at risk through a psychodynamic framework. francitessitore@gmail.com.

  13. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mendel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While intensive fish production has many advantages, it also has a number of drawbacks as regards disease and stress. To date, there has been no conclusive review of disease resistance at Czech fish farms. The aim of the study was to describe briefly the existing salmonid breeding practice in the Czech Republic and to point out the trends and new possibilities gaining ground around Europe. However, the present situation in the Czech stocks is not rare at all and therefore it is used here as a model example representing numerous breeding practices in Europe. Stress and disease resistance in fish is polygenic and quantitative, making selection for such traits difficult. In recent years, however, fish breeding methods have developed rapidly, with the use of genetic analysis tools, for example, now allowing much greater selection accuracy. Gradual progress in understanding the importance of individual genetic markers offers many new options that can be utilised in breeding practice. New selection methods, such as quantitative trait loci (QTLs and genomic selection, are increasingly employed in European aquaculture. Next generation sequencing techniques now help in the finding of new and promising QTLs that can be used in assisted selection. This review maps the current progress in improving salmonid resistance to stress and disease in aquaculture and at the same time provides the breeders with a short overview of the latest tools of genetically controlled breeding and of the newest products available at the European market.

  14. [Present-day sports activities among the blind and persons with poor vision in different countries of the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmachev, R A

    2003-01-01

    The approach of a country to persons with limited physical abilities is an important component of country's social-and-cultural policy. Blindness is a most severe variety of health disorders leading to social defect and social insufficiency. The role of adaptive physical culture is important within the system of the social-and-medical rehabilitation of the blind because the sedentary life mode has a negative effect on organisms of the disabled due to vision. Sports is not only a method for correcting the general somatic condition, but it is also an important social-and-physiological factor that enables the blind to comprehend their abilities as an example for others. As for our country, the information about the modern sports activities among the disabled due to vision is absolutely insufficient for the public at large. An analysis of results of examination (conducted by using the computer data base of the International Blind Sportsmen Association--IBSA) of 2386 blind and impaired vision sportsmen is presented in the paper. Data about sport disciplines and types of ophthalmic pathologies encountered among the high-class blind and impaired vision athletes from different world countries are described. The above data can be helpful in elaborating the rehabilitation programs for persons with severe disorders of the organ of vision to be used in rehabilitation centers, sport federations and clubs of the disabled as well as in other institutions dealing with rehabilitation of the disabled due to vision in our country.

  15. Distribution of inhalant allergies in pediatric patients presenting with allergic complaints in the Eastern Anatolia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mehmet; Taskin, Erdal

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to define the distribution of inhalant allergens in pediatric patients in whom sensitization was diagnosed with a skin prick test (SPT) who had presented with allergic complaints. In addition, the correlation between the inhalant allergens detected on the SPT and the patients' demographic features, diagnosis, and laboratory findings was defined. A total of 1415 children among the 4056 patients who presented at a clinic in the Eastern Anatolia region with allergic complaints and who had undergone an SPT were included in this study. On the SPT, sensitization to grass pollens was found in 60.1%, cereals pollens in 57.2%, and Dermatophagoides farinae in 21.8% of the patients. Furthermore, on the SPT, incidence of asthma development was 3.96 times higher (odds ratio 3.96, 95% CI: 1.77-6.83; P=0.001) in patients who were allergic to Dermatophagoides farinae. In our study, differences were found in the study region compared to data from around the world and other regions in Turkey in terms of the distribution of allergies and variations in allergens in patients diagnosed due to variations in climate and plants.

  16. Cholesteatoma in the Sellar Region Presenting as Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wu, Huanwen; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Kong, Yanguo; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinically significant sellar cysts unrelated to pituitary adenomas are uncommon. Intracranial cholesteatomas are also rare and are most common in the middle ear and mastoid region. We report an even rarer case of cholesteatoma in the sellar region—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological signs, and biopsy, aiming at emphasize the importance of considering cholesteatoma when making differential diagnoses of sellar lesions. We present a case of cholesteatoma in the sellar region in a 56-year-old man with hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and cystic imaging findings. It was difficult to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We present detailed analysis of the patient's disease course and review pertinent literature. The patient underwent a surgical exploration and tumor resection through a transsphenoidal approach. Pathologic results revealed a cholesteatoma. The patient's symptoms improved a lot after surgery, and the postoperative period was uneventful. Taken together, the lesion's imaging appearance, pathological characteristics, and clinical features were all unique features that lead to a diagnosis of cholesteatoma. As we did not see such reports by Pubmed and EMBASE, we believe this is the first reported case of sellar cholesteatoma presenting in this manner. This article emphasized that cholesteatomas, although rare, should be considered part of the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. PMID:26962793

  17. The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summit metabolic rate (M(sum), maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M(sum) is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M(sum) than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M(sum) as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M(sum) should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M(sum) data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M(sum) variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M(sum), and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M(sum). These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M(sum) in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

  18. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  19. Enabling data science in the Gaia mission archive: The present-day mass function and age distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiador, D.; Berihuete, A.; Sarro, L. M.; Julbe, F.; Huedo, E.

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in large scale computing architectures enable new opportunities to extract value out of the vast amounts of data being currently generated. However, their successful adoption is not straightforward in areas like science, as there are still some barriers that need to be overcome. Those comprise (i) the existence of legacy code that needs to be ported, (ii) the lack of high-level and use case specific frameworks that facilitate a smoother transition, or (iii) the scarcity of profiles with the balanced skill sets between the technological and scientific domains. The European Space Agency's Gaia mission will create the largest and most precise three dimensional chart of our galaxy (the Milky Way), providing unprecedented position, parallax and proper motion measurements for about one billion stars. The successful exploitation of this data archive will depend on the ability to offer the proper infrastructure upon which scientists will be able to do exploration and modelling with this huge data set. In this paper, we present and contextualize these challenges by building two probabilistic models using Hierarchical Bayesian Modelling. These models represent a key challenge in astronomy and are of paramount importance for the Gaia mission itself. Moreover, we approach the implementation by leveraging a generic distributed processing engine through an existing software package for Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The two computationally intensive models are then validated with simulated data in different scenarios under specific restrictions, and their performance is assessed to prove their scalability. We argue that this approach will not only serve for the models in hand but also for exemplifying how to address similar problems in science, which may need to both scale to bigger data sets and reuse existing software as much as possible. This will lead to shorter time to science in massive data archives.

  20. Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram

    2013-07-01

    We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in short-lived pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among short-lived species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the short-lived pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in short-lived pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top

  1. Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Factors Associated With Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Two Regional Hospitals in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindong, Maxime; Palle, John N; Nebongo, Daniel; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Mboue-Djieka, Yannick; Mbarga, Nicole T Fouda; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Choukem, Siméon-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer and high risk for ulceration, describe the clinical presentation, and identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer in the Southwest regional hospitals of Cameroon. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to consecutive patients with diabetes. Findings from detailed foot examination were recorded. Diabetic foot ulcer was diagnosed according to the International Working Group on Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) definition. Data were analyzed with Stata IC version 12. Of the 203 participants included, 63.1% were females. Age ranged from 26 to 96 years. The median duration of diabetes was 4.0 years (interquartile range 1.0-8.0 years). The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer was 11.8% (24), of whom 29.2% (7) had high grade (grades 2 to 4), and most of the ulcers 58.3% (14) were located at the plantar region. The prevalence of high risk for ulceration was 21.8% (39). Loss of protective sensation (OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.43-9.71; P = .007), and peripheral arterial disease (OR = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.14-10.56; P = .028) were independently associated with diabetic foot. Diabetic foot ulcer is a common complication among patients with diabetes attending these regional hospitals. Loss of protective sensation, and peripheral arterial disease increase the odds of having diabetic foot ulcer, and we suggest them as the main target of interest for prevention.

  2. Past, Present, and Future Anthropogenic Emissions over Asia: a Regional Air Quality Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hun; Jung, Bujeon; Choi, Ki-Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Rokjin J.; Youn, Daeok; Jeong, Jaein; Moon, Byung-Kwon; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2010-05-01

    Climate change will also affect future regional air quality which has potential human health, ecosystem, and economic implications. To analyze the impacts of climate change on Asian air quality, the NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea) integrated modeling framework was developed based on global-to-regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, we developed emission inventories for the modeling framework for 1980~2100 with an emphasis on Asia emissions. Two emission processing systems which have functions of emission projection, spatial/temporal allocation, and chemical speciation have been also developed in support of atmospheric chemistry models including GEOS-Chem and Models-3/CMAQ. Asia-based emission estimates, projection factors, temporal allocation parameters were combined to improve regional modeling capability of past, present and future air quality over Asia. The global CO emissions show a 23% decrease from the years 1980 to 2000. For the future CO (from year 2000 to 2100), the A2 scenario shows a 95% increase due to the B40 (Residential-Biofuel) sector of Western Africa, Eastern Africa and East Asia and the F51 (Transport Road-Fossil fuel) sector of Middle East, USA and South Asia. The B1 scenario, however, shows a 79% decrease of emissions due to B40 and F51 sectors of East Asia, South Asia and USA for the same period. In many cases, Asian emissions play important roles for global emission increase or decrease depending on the IPCC scenarios considered. The regional ozone forming potential will be changed due to different VOC/NOx emission ratio changes in the future. More similarities and differences of Asian emission characteristics, in comparison with its global counterpart, are investigated.

  3. Continuous day-time time series of E-region equatorial electric fields derived from ground magnetic observatory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alken, P.; Chulliat, A.; Maus, S.

    2012-12-01

    The day-time eastward equatorial electric field (EEF) in the ionospheric E-region plays an important role in equatorial ionospheric dynamics. It is responsible for driving the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current system, equatorial vertical ion drifts, and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). Due to its importance, there is much interest in accurately measuring and modeling the EEF. However, there are limited sources of direct EEF measurements with full temporal and spatial coverage of the equatorial ionosphere. In this work, we propose a method of estimating a continuous day-time time series of the EEF at any longitude, provided there is a pair of ground magnetic observatories in the region which can accurately track changes in the strength of the EEJ. First, we derive a climatological unit latitudinal current profile from direct overflights of the CHAMP satellite and use delta H measurements from the ground observatory pair to determine the magnitude of the current. The time series of current profiles is then inverted for the EEF by solving the governing electrodynamic equations. While this method has previously been applied and validated in the Peruvian sector, in this work we demonstrate the method using a pair of magnetometers in Africa (Samogossoni, SAM, 0.18 degrees magnetic latitude and Tamanrasset, TAM, 11.5 degrees magnetic latitude) and validate the resulting EEF values against the CINDI ion velocity meter (IVM) instrument on the C/NOFS satellite. We find a very good 80% correlation with C/NOFS IVM measurements and a root-mean-square difference of 9 m/s in vertical drift velocity. This technique can be extended to any pair of ground observatories which can capture the day-time strength of the EEJ. We plan to apply this work to more observatory pairs around the globe and distribute real-time equatorial electric field values to the community.

  4. Hydatid disease presenting as multiple cystic swelling in the right supraclavicular region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manab Nandy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in the Middle East as well as other parts of the world including India. Even though hydatid cysts can occur in any organ, infestation by hydatid disease in humans most commonly occurs in the liver because it acts as the first filter followed by the lung, which forms a second filter. The two organs can be affected simultaneously. After entering the systemic circulation it may be distributed in various organs including brain, orbit, parotid gland, vertebrae, bones and even palm and sole. Some other organs may also be rarely affected, but presentation as lymph node swelling in the supraclavicular region is very rare. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the fact that supra clavicular lymph node swelling may be a presenting feature of hydatid disease, especially in endemic areas of the world.

  5. The early days of pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection in the central region of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duque

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first case of pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection was diagnosed in the central region of Portugal on June 16, 2009, in a woman infected in Canada. Methods: The aim of our study was, first to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of all the patients with clinical manifestations included in the definition of a case for investigation with samples submitted to diagnosis of the pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection, in the central region of Portugal; second, to assess the precision of the case definition of case for investigation considered in the study according to the presence or the absence of fever at the moment of clinical observation. We reviewed the medical records of all the patients presenting with Influenza like-illness classified as a case for investigation and the first cases of patients infected with the new pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus, diagnosed in the central region of Portugal during the pandemic period between June and August, 2009, were analyzed. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR testing was used to confirm the pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection. Data collection was performed using a standardized paper format in agreement with the General Health Directorate. Results and discussion: Pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection was confirmed in 255 patients. Overall, median age was 23 years and 42.7% were included in the category of 20 to 29 years. Confirmed infection in patients with less than 2 years or greater than 50 years was a rare event. The first cases were imported from Europe, namely France, Spain and England. In a second phase, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection was acquired in the south of Portugal (Algarve. The incidence rate for pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection was 10.7 per 100,000 persons and was different according to the district. It was higher in the district of Coimbra and Guarda where the main roads are connecting to Europe. The median calculated incubation

  6. Present-day geothermal characteristics of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton: new findings from deep borehole steady-state temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Qiu, Qianfeng; Jiang, Guangzheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Shengbiao; Lei, Yuhong; Wang, Xiangzeng

    2018-07-01

    Heat flow and associated thermal regimes are related to the tectonic evolution and geophysical properties of the lithosphere. The Ordos Basin is located in a tectonic transitional zone: areas to the east of the basin are characterized as tectonically active, while regions to the west of the basin are characterized as tectonically stable. It is of general interest to learn the geothermal characteristics of the basin in such tectonic conditions. To clarify the spatial variability of the present-day geothermal field across the basin and its implications, we report 13 terrestrial heat flow points based on the first systematic steady-state deep borehole temperature measurements in the basin. The new data together with existing data show that the geothermal gradients in the basin range from 12.6 to 42.3 °C km-1 with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.3 °C km-1; the terrestrial heat flow values range from 43.3 to 88.7 mW m-2 with a mean of 64.7 ± 8.9 mW m-2. Such values are higher than those of typical cratonic basins and lower than those of tectonically active areas. By using all these data in the basin and adjacent areas, we plot geothermal gradient and heat flow distribution maps. The maps reveal that the basin is cooling westwards and northwards. The distribution pattern of the geothermal field is consistent with the lithospheric thickness variation in the basin. This similarity suggests that the geothermal spatial variability of the Ordos Basin is mainly influenced by heat from the deep mantle. In the southeastern basin, we locate a positive geothermal anomaly caused by the convergence of heat flow in basement highs and the high radiogenic heat production. In addition, the high heat flow in the eastern basin is related to the intense uplift during the Cenozoic Era.

  7. The Role of Long-Term Tectonic Deformation on the Distribution of Present-Day Seismic Activity in the Caribbean and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobelock, J.; Stamps, D. S.; Pagani, M.; Garcia, J.; Styron, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean and Central America region (CCAR) undergoes the entire spectrum of earthquake types due to its complex tectonic setting comprised of transform zones, young oceanic spreading ridges, and subductions along its eastern and western boundaries. CCAR is, therefore, an ideal setting in which to study the impacts of long-term tectonic deformation on the distribution of present-day seismic activity. In this work, we develop a continuous tectonic strain rate model based on inter-seismic geodetic data and compare it with known active faults and earthquake focal mechanism data. We first create a 0.25o x 0.25o finite element mesh that is comprised of block geometries defined in previously studies. Second, we isolate and remove transient signals from the latest open access community velocity solution from UNAVCO, which includes 339 velocities from COCONet and TLALOCNet GNSS data for the Caribbean and Central America, respectively. In a third step we define zones of deformation and rigidity by creating a buffer around the boundary of each block that varies depending on the size of the block and the expected deformation zone based on locations of GNSS data that are consistent with rigid block motion. We then assign each node within the buffer a 0 for the deforming areas and a plate index outside the buffer for the rigid. Finally, we calculate a tectonic strain rate model for CCAR using the Haines and Holt finite element approach to fit bi-cubic Bessel splines to the the GNSS/GPS data assuming block rotation for zones of rigidity. Our model of the CCAR is consistent with compression along subduction zones, extension across the mid-Pacific Rise, and a combination of compression and extension across the North America - Caribbean plate boundary. The majority of CCAR strain rate magnitudes range from -60 to 60 nanostrains/yr. Modeling results are then used to calculate expected faulting behaviors that we compare with mapped geologic faults and seismic activity.

  8. Present-day geothermal characteristics of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton: new findings from deep borehole steady-state temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Qiu, Qianfeng; Jiang, Guangzheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Shengbiao; Lei, Yuhong; Wang, Xiangzeng

    2018-03-01

    Heat flow and associated thermal regimes are related to the tectonic evolution and geophysical properties of the lithosphere. The Ordos Basin is located in a tectonic transitional zone: areas to the east of the basin are characterized as tectonically active, while regions to the west of the basin are characterized as tectonically stable. It is of general interest to learn the geothermal characteristics of the basin in such tectonic conditions. To clarify the spatial variability of the present-day geothermal field across the basin and its implications, we report 13 terrestrial heat flow points based on the first systematic steady-state deep borehole temperature measurements in the basin. The new data together with existing data show that the geothermal gradients in the basin range from 12.6 to 42.3° C km-1 with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.3° C km-1; the terrestrial heat flow values range from 43.3 to 88.7 mW/m2 with a mean of 64.7 ± 8.9 mW/m2. Such values are higher than those of typical cratonic basins and lower than those of tectonically active areas. By using all these data in the basin and adjacent areas, we plot geothermal gradient and heat flow distribution maps. The maps reveal that the basin is cooling westward and northward. The distribution pattern of the geothermal field is consistent with the lithospheric thickness variation in the basin. This similarity suggests that the geothermal spatial variability of the Ordos Basin is mainly influenced by heat from the deep mantle. In the southeastern basin, we locate a positive geothermal anomaly caused by the convergence of heat flow in basement highs and the high radiogenic heat production. In addition, the high heat flow in the eastern basin is related to the intense uplift during the Cenozoic Era.

  9. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  10. Environmental Health assessment 200 Days after Earthquake-Affected Region in East Azerbaijan Earthquake, North-Western of Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of health status and explore the challenges of health problems that threaten human life following disasters and major earthquakes providing windows of opportunities for health care providers in future planning of disasters. The main purpose of this report was to survey the environmental sanitation statues after 200 days of the affected populations in earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, northwestern of Iran, 2012. The survey was carried out in earthquake zones 200 days after the occurrence of the earthquake. A single stage cluster sampling from among 95 villages damaged in the earthquake of 2012 East Azerbaijan of three towns Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire, site visits and evaluation of water and sanitation. In a twin Earthquake, East Azerbaijan province that 399 villages of Ahar, Varzeghan, Heris, Tabriz and Kaleibar cities were affected and 356 (89.2 % villages were destroyed between 30-100%.  Evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure after 200 days, shown that only half of these villages consumed healthy water with high coverage and adequate. Half of the villages in 200 days after the earthquake were covered safe drinking water (treated drinking water. The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of the affected area was assessed in randomly collected 146 samples from this region and ten (6.8% reported as unsuitable. Solid waste management facilities in residents have not been acceptable that affect public health. Solid waste disposal was done by district residents (cooperation rural residents 68.4%, 36.8% and 76.3% in Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris, respectively. Overall, the impact of infectious and communicable diseases after Earthquake was reported 42.1% (16 villages in the Varzeghan. The lack of geographical view with a focus in mountainous and rural areas, partial support and dispersion of earthquake-stricken people in affected villages and lack of participatory need

  11. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP, we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996–2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5–3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period. We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2–3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan

  12. Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D. T.; Bernsten, T.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W. J.; Curran, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, long-term surface mass concentrations, and recent Arctic BC snowpack measurements. We also estimate BC albedo forcing by performing additional simulations using offline models with prescribed meteorology from 1996-2000. We evaluate the vertical profile of BC snow concentrations from these offline simulations using the recent BC snowpack measurements. Despite using the same BC emissions, the global BC burden differs by approximately a factor of 3 among models due to differences in aerosol removal parameterizations and simulated meteorology: 34 Gg to 103 Gg in 1850 and 82 Gg to 315 Gg in 2000. However, the global BC burden from preindustrial to present-day increases by 2.5-3 times with little variation among models, roughly matching the 2.5-fold increase in total BC emissions during the same period.We find a large divergence among models at both Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH) high latitude regions for BC burden and at SH high latitude regions for deposition fluxes. The ACCMIP simulations match the observed BC surface mass concentrations well in Europe and North America except at Ispra. However, the models fail to predict the Arctic BC seasonality due to severe underestimations during winter and spring. The simulated vertically resolved BC snow concentrations are, on average, within a factor of 2-3 of the BC snowpack measurements except for Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. For the ice core evaluation, models tend to adequately capture both the observed temporal trends and the magnitudes at Greenland sites. However, models fail to predict the decreasing trend of BC depositions/ice core concentrations from the 1950s to the 1970s in most Tibetan Plateau ice cores. The distinct temporal trend at the Tibetan Plateau ice cores

  13. THE PRESENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AFTER CRISES AND LOCAL AND REGIONAL CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel–Lucian SANDU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The actual article is intended to underline the way in which crises and local and regional conflicts nowadays influence the global economic development The dependence of the small states on the actions of the more developed countries, the economic growth accelerated by the scientific-technological developments and the attitude of the geopolitical actors on global context, describe in detail the ideas extracted from the theme of this article. The economic development is necessary, convenient and unavoidable, the main problems appearing when the main raw materials and essential resources for human survival must be insured. The present international relations and the ways in which political-diplomatic differences are solved, support the need of existence and involvement of some organizations and unbiased pacifist forums wherever societies have differences of opinions.

  14. Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia-present climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole B.; Christensen, Jens H.; Machenhauer, Bennert

    1998-01-01

    realistically simulated. It is found in particular that in mountainous regions the high-resolution simulation shows improvements in the simulation of hydrologically relevant fields such as runoff and snow cover. Also, the distribution of precipitation on different intensity classes is most realistically...... on a high-density station network for the Scandinavian countries compiled for the present study. The simulated runoff is compared with observed data from Sweden extracted from a Swedish climatological atlas. These runoff data indicate that the precipitation analyses are underestimating the true...... simulated in the high-resolution simulation. It does, however, inherit certain large-scale systematic errors from the driving GCM. In many cases these errors increase with increasing resolution. Model verification of near-surface temperature and precipitation is made using a new gridded climatology based...

  15. Living Day by Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L.; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R. S.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country. PMID:28462340

  16. Living Day by Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Kaplan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country.

  17. Presentations and Preceding factors of Drug Overdose amongst adolescents admitted to a Large Regional Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maduemem, KE

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is the third most common cause of death among adolescents globally, and poisoning is the leading method of attempted suicide. Survival after self-poisoning or drug overdose (OD) is common, providing an opportunity for secondary prevention. The aim of this study was to highlight pattern of presentations and preceding factors of OD in an adolescent population. We retrospectively evaluated the data of 85 adolescents presenting to a large regional hospital with OD over a 3-year period. The female-to-male ratio was 4.3:1. The median age of adolescents was 15.83 (range: 11.32 – 16.98) years. History of deliberate self-harm (DSH) was documented in 44.7%. Twenty-eight (33%) patients had been under the care of the CAMHS prior to index admission. Acetaminophen was the commonest drug used. Depression was the most common cause of mental illness in the study group. Substance abuse and conduct disorder were significantly commoner in males (p<0.05). Self-poisoning including OD in adolescence is a strong predictor of suicide; understanding the probable triggers can be significant in establishing appropriate prevention strategies.

  18. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and

  19. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tc m -HMPAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in amphetamine abusers. Twenty-one amphetamine abusers were included and 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT performed to evaluate rCBF. The drug-using periods ranged from 1 month to several years. The demonstrated neuropsychogenic symptoms and signs of the abusers were from normal presentation to various neurologic complications. The brain SPECT scans were interpreted visually as either normal or abnormal. The degree of abnormality was classified into mild or severe. The results revealed that (a) most SPECT studies in abusers show small defects (95%, 20/21 cases); 71% (15/21) of cases revealed multiple defects over both hemispheres (classified as severe); 24% (5/21) of the cases had focal defects (classified as mild); and only one case (5%, 1/21) demonstrated a normal SPECT finding; (b) the degree of abnormality on SPECT scans was not related to the dose and duration of drug use or the severity of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs. In conclusion, 99 Tc m -HMPAO brain SPECT is a sensitive but not specific test for neuropsychogenic abnormalities associated with amphetamine abuse. (Author)

  20. Contributions of a Strengthened Early Holocene Monsoon and Sediment Loading to Present-Day Subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpytchev, M.; Ballu, V.; Krien, Y.; Becker, M.; Goodbred, S.; Spada, G.; Calmant, S.; Shum, C. K.; Khan, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The contribution of subsidence to relative sea level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is largely unknown and may considerably enhance exposure of the Bengal Basin populations to sea level rise and storm surges. This paper focuses on estimating the present-day subsidence induced by Holocene sediment in the Bengal Basin and by oceanic loading due to eustatic sea level rise over the past 18 kyr. Using a viscoelastic Earth model and sediment deposition history based on in situ measurements, results suggest that massive sediment influx initiated in the early Holocene under a strengthened South Asian monsoon may have contributed significantly to the present-day subsidence of the GBD. We estimate that the Holocene loading generates up to 1.6 mm/yr of the present-day subsidence along the GBD coast, depending on the rheological model of the Earth. This rate is close to the twentieth century global mean sea level rise (1.1-1.7 mm/yr). Thus, past climate change, by way of enhanced sedimentation, is impacting vulnerability of the GBD populations.

  1. Climatic responses to the shortwave and longwave direct radiative effects of sea salt aerosol in present day and the last glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Climate Change Research Center (CCRC), Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Beijing (China); Harvard University, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA (United States); Liao, Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), P.O. Box 9804, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    We examine the climatic responses to the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) direct radiative effects (RE) of sea salt aerosol in present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a general circulation model with online simulation of sea salt cycle. The 30-year control simulation predicts a present-day annual emission of sea salt of 4,253 Tg and a global burden of 8.1 Tg for the particles with dry radii smaller than 10 {mu}m. Predicted annual and global mean SW and LW REs of sea salt are, respectively, -1.06 and +0.14 W m{sup -2} at the top of atmosphere (TOA), and -1.10 and +0.54 W m{sup -2} at the surface. The LW warming of sea salt is found to decrease with altitude, which leads to a stronger net sea salt cooling in the upper troposphere. The changes in global mean air temperature by the present-day sea salt are simulated to be -0.55, -0.63, -0.86, and -0.91 K at the surface, 850, 500a, and 200 hPa, respectively. The emission of sea salt at the LGM is estimated to be 4,075 Tg year{sup -1}. Relative to present day, the LGM sea salt emission is higher by about 18% over the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is lower by about 35% in the mid- and high-latitudes in both hemispheres because of the expansion of sea ice. As a result of the weakened LGM water cycle, the LGM annual and global mean burden of sea salt is predicted to be higher by 4% as compared to the present-day value. Compared with the climatic effect of sea salt in present day, the sea-salt-induced reductions in surface air temperature at the LGM have similar magnitude in the tropics but are weakened by about 0.18 and 0.14 K in the high latitudes of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, respectively. We also perform a sensitivity study to explore the upper limit of the climatic effect of the LGM sea salt. We assume an across-the-board 30% increase in the glacial wind speed and consider sea salt emissions over sea ice, so that the model can reproduce the ratio of sea salt deposition between the LGM and

  2. AVHRR CoastWatch Regional Data, November 2003 - present (NODC Accession 0099041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR (Advanced High Resolution Radiometer) onboard NOAA and Metop satellites is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest....

  3. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing...

  4. Factors controlling the interannual variation of 30-60-day boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over the Asian summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Mao, Jiangyu

    2018-04-01

    The 30-60-day boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) is a dominant variability of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), with its intensity being quantified by intraseasonal standard deviations based on OLR data. The spatial and interannual variations of the BSISO intensity are identified via empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis for the period 1981-2014. The first EOF mode (EOF1) shows a spatially coherent enhancement or suppression of BSISO activity over the entire ASM region, and the interannual variability of this mode is related to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) contrast between the central-eastern North Pacific (CNP) and tropical Indian Ocean. In contrast, the second mode (EOF2) exhibits a seesaw pattern between the southeastern equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) and equatorial western Pacific (EWP), with the interannual fluctuation linked with developing ENSO events. During strong years of EOF1 mode, the enhanced low-level westerlies induced by the summer-mean SSTA contrast between the warmer CNP and cooler tropical Indian Ocean tend to form a wetter moisture background over the eastern EIO, which interacts with intraseasonal low-level convergent flows, leading to stronger equatorial eastward propagation. The intensified easterly shear favors stronger northward propagation over the South Asian and Eastern Asian/Western North Pacific sectors, respectively. Opposite situation is for weak years. For interannual variations of EOF2 mode, the seesaw patterns with enhanced BSISO activity over the southeastern EIO while weakened activity over the EWP mostly occur in the La Niña developing summers, but inverse patterns appear in the El Niño developing summers.

  5. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  6. Statistical modelling of grapevine yield in the Port Wine region under present and future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2011-03-01

    The impact of projected climate change on wine production was analysed for the Demarcated Region of Douro, Portugal. A statistical grapevine yield model (GYM) was developed using climate parameters as predictors. Statistically significant correlations were identified between annual yield and monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals during the growing cycle. These atmospheric factors control grapevine yield in the region, with the GYM explaining 50.4% of the total variance in the yield time series in recent decades. Anomalously high March rainfall (during budburst, shoot and inflorescence development) favours yield, as well as anomalously high temperatures and low precipitation amounts in May and June (May: flowering and June: berry development). The GYM was applied to a regional climate model output, which was shown to realistically reproduce the GYM predictors. Finally, using ensemble simulations under the A1B emission scenario, projections for GYM-derived yield in the Douro Region, and for the whole of the twenty-first century, were analysed. A slight upward trend in yield is projected to occur until about 2050, followed by a steep and continuous increase until the end of the twenty-first century, when yield is projected to be about 800 kg/ha above current values. While this estimate is based on meteorological parameters alone, changes due to elevated CO2 may further enhance this effect. In spite of the associated uncertainties, it can be stated that projected climate change may significantly benefit wine yield in the Douro Valley.

  7. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  8. Morphological indicators of growth stages in carbonates platform evolution: comparison between present-day and Miocene platforms of Northern Borneo, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, B.; Menier, D.; Ting, K. K.; Chalabi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite images of present-day reefs and carbonate platforms of the Celebes Sea, east of Sabah, Malaysia, exhibit large-scale features indicative of the recent evolution of the platforms. These include: (1) multiple, sub-parallel reef rims at the windward margin, suggestive of back-stepping of the platform margin; (2) contraction of the platform, possibly as a result of recent sea level fluctuations; (3) colonization of the internal lagoons by polygonal reef structures and (4) fragmentation of the platforms and creation of deep channels separating platforms that used to be part of a single entity. These features are analogue to what has been observed on seismic attribute maps of Miocene carbonate platforms of Sarawak. An analysis of several growth stages of a large Miocene platform, referred to as the Megaplatform, shows that the platform evolves in function of syn-depositional tectonic movements and sea level fluctuations that result in back-stepping of the margin, illustrated by multiple reef rims, contraction of the platform, the development of polygonal structures currently interpreted as karstic in origin and fragmentation of the megaplatform in 3 sub-entities separated by deep channels that precedes the final demise of the whole platform. Comparing similar features on present-day to platforms and Miocene platforms leads to a better understanding of the growth history of Miocene platforms and to a refined predictability of reservoir and non-reservoir facies distribution.

  9. Iran’s policy in the Caspian region at the present stage: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important players in the geopolitical process in the Caspian region is Iran. In this article, we consider Iran’s policy on a wide range of problems in the Caspian Sea region that the country has been following since the collapse of the Soviet Union. For more than two decades, one of the important tasks of the Iranian Foreign Ministry was to define the international legal regime of the Caspian Sea, which was complicated by the geopolitical changes in the region associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of new Caspian states - Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. Initially, Iran tried to justify the division of the sea, based on the former Soviet-Iranian agreements. However, the new Caspian states believed that the geopolitical status underwent fundamental changes and the previous contracts couldn’t justify modern challenges. In this connection, the tasks of preserving the national interest to the maximum extent and at the same time maintaining constructive relations with other Caspian states, especially with the Russian Federation, became urgent for Iran’s policy. Environmental pollution and lack of financial and technological resources for energy extraction are a serious problem for Iran in the Caspian Sea. The Islamic Republic of Iran is still at the stage of research into the extraction of energy resources in the region and has not entered the mass production stage due to international sanctions. However, after the agreement with the “5+1” and the lifting of sanctions, Iran has the opportunity to extract oil and gas from the Caspian. The activities of Western companies and their close cooperation with the new Caspian states are also a problem for Iran. The military presence of the West, especially the United States, in the Caspian region is considered a direct security threat from the Iranian point of view, and Iran has serious objections and fears in this regard.  

  10. Cerebellar cortex development in the weaver condition presents regional and age-dependent abnormalities without differences in Purkinje cells neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, María C; Hervás, José P; Bayer, Shirley A; Villegas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ataxias are neurological disorders associated with the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs). Homozygous weaver mice (wv/wv) have been proposed as a model for hereditary cerebellar ataxia because they present motor abnormalities and PC loss. To ascertain the physiopathology of the weaver condition, the development of the cerebellar cortex lobes was examined at postnatal day (P): P8, P20 and P90. Three approaches were used: 1) quantitative determination of several cerebellar features; 2) qualitative evaluation of the developmental changes occurring in the cortical lobes; and 3) autoradiographic analyses of PC generation and placement. Our results revealed a reduction in the size of the wv/wv cerebellum as a whole, confirming previous results. However, as distinguished from these reports, we observed that quantified parameters contribute differently to the abnormal growth of the wv/wv cerebellar lobes. Qualitative analysis showed anomalies in wv/wv cerebellar cytoarchitecture, depending on the age and lobe analyzed. Such abnormalities included the presence of the external granular layer after P20 and, at P90, ectopic cells located in the molecular layer following several placement patterns. Finally, we obtained autoradiographic evidence that wild-type and wv/wv PCs presented similar neurogenetic timetables, as reported. However, the innovative character of this current work lies in the fact that the neurogenetic gradients of wv/wv PCs were not modified from P8 to P90. A tendency for the accumulation of late-formed PCs in the anterior and posterior lobes was found, whereas early-generated PCs were concentrated in the central and inferior lobes. These data suggested that wv/wv PCs may migrate properly to their final destinations. The extrapolation of our results to patients affected with cerebellar ataxias suggests that all cerebellar cortex lobes are affected with several age-dependent alterations in cytoarchitectonics. We also propose that PC loss may be regionally

  11. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  12. Seismology: Ways and means for regional cooperation. Transparencies used during the presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzhi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Within the frame of international cooperation in the field of CTBT, this paper describes the first seismologic station established in Morocco in 1934, and in sixties and seventies another 15 stations after the earthquake in Agadir. In 1982, a system for seismic detection was installed having as main objectives he following: coordination and correlation of activities concerned with evaluation of seismic risks in the Mediterranean region, and integration of geophysical data needed for seismic risk assessment

  13. Contamination of humans by radionuclides, global problem presented on region Vojvodina, city Novi Sad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Markovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    As interval data obtained results are in region of not high doses of radiation's there are short course, a little bit funny about low level radiation's, low dose radiation. Welcome to Hormesis and Radio adaptive Response Page,Radiation Hormesis, Dr. K.S. Parthasarathy exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation can harm the tissues of the human body. This has been demonstrated unequivocally

  14. Present consequences of the post-war migration in the Czech borderland for regional developemnt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Dvořák, Petr; Nosková, Helena; Zapletalová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2017), s. 5-15 ISSN 2081-6383 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:68378114 Keywords : borderland regions * resettlement * social consequences Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography ; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (USD-C) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects); Environmental sciences (social aspects) (USD-C) https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/quageo.2017.36.issue-4/quageo-2017-0032/quageo-2017-0032.xml?format=INT

  15. Abstracts of the works presented to the meeting day: UPPA/firms on materials; Resumes des travaux presentes a la journee de rencontres UPPA/entreprises sur les materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document provides the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference 'UPPA/firms meeting day on materials', held April 5, 2001 in Pau (France). The main topics presented were: 1)fabrication of new materials (1 paper) (polymers, resins, materials for electrodes) 2)analysis and characterization of materials (8 papers) (ESCA, FTIR, UV-Visible, Raman, electro-osmometry, near-field microscopy) 3)treatment of materials (1 paper) (cold plasmas) 4)behavior of materials (1 paper) (vitreous membranes for chemical sensors). The applications of these materials are: the petroleum industry, the petrochemistry, the air and water cleansing, the electric powered vehicles or hybrid electric powered vehicles. (O.M.)

  16. Evaluation of conducting a screening assessment of nutritional status of hospitalized patients. Presentation of main goals and objectives of the global health project "NutritionDay".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Ostrowska, Joanna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) commenced in 2004 a global health project named "NutritionDay" aiming to promote awareness of proper nutritional status of hospitalized patients and to draw attention to the need for early detection of malnutrition among patients. Under the Polish law--pursunat to the regulation of the Minister of Health dated September 15, 2011 (amendment as of 27.12.2013)--a nutritional status of each patient should be assessed at the time of a hospital admission. of this study was to analyze the fulfilment of the mandatory questionnaire assessment of nutritional status at selected wards of one of Warsaw's clinical hospitals. The study included an analysis of medical records of patients hospitalized within 6 months (n = 26375). The correct fulfilment of screening questionnaire assessing nutritional status (NRS 2002 survey) and the information about patients' body weight as well as the results assessment of nutritional status were subject to the analysis. NRS 2002 questionnaire was present in only 67,14% medical records of patients, however 49.24% of them were unfilled. The obtained results confirming low degree of NRS 2002 questionnaires' fulfilment in one of the Warsaw clinical hospitals draws attention to the need for education of hospital personnel in the field of significance of screening of nutritional assessment and its regulations. The "NutritionDay" project is an interesting form to attract attention of the aforementioned problem and its global extent additionally encourage medical units to participate in the project.

  17. Modelling Groundwater Depletion at Regional and Global Scales: Present State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Except for frozen water in ice and glaciers, groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this paper, the most recent advances quantifying groundwater depletion (GWD) are comprehensively reviewed. This paper critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches estimating GWD at regional and global scales, and the evidence of feedbacks to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with GWD. Finally, critical challenges and opportunities in the use of groundwater are identified for the adaption to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  18. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing of natural resources while Chinese ones - in products with high share of added value. The study reveals that among 104 scheduled key Russian projects (at the cost of 47,9 billion USD only 24 projects are under implementation (11,77 billion USD, 8 of which are carried out with the help of Chinese investments (1,77 billion USD. Joint ventures are connected with mining operations, primary processing of wood, construction of houses, manufacturing of building materials, assembly production and trade. Among 111 scheduled Program Chinese projects (at the cost of 9,87 billion USD only 42 projects are under implementation (6,1 billion USD; they are associated with engineering products. There is only one Russian-Chinese joint venture on the territory of China (at the cost of 0,63 billion USD. The author suggests that in the near future 20 additional Program projects can be implemented in Russia (at the cost of more than 20 billion USD and 6 projects (about 0,5 billion USD - in China

  19. Renewing "That Which Was Almost Lost or Forgotten": The Implications of Old Ethnologies for Present-Day Traditional Ecological Knowledge Among Canada's Pacific Coast Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne C. Newell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The pressure on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK to solve socio-economic issues globally begs the question: What is the state of TEK today, given the economic, social, and cultural ruptures it has endured during the past 200 years? The author traces how historical collaborative work between ethnographic pairings of “insiders” and “outsiders” created partnerships between some prominent anthropologists and local Indigenous research collaborators. Indeed, most of the ground-breaking anthropological work of Franz Boas and others concerning Canada’s Pacific Northwest coast culture area depended on collaborations with George Hunt and other trained Indigenous field workers. Much of their long-standing fieldwork data collection and writings involved their female relatives and anonymous women’s collaboration, lending an accumulated, but unacknowledged, thoroughness to present-day TEK. Future policy concerning collaboration between non-Indigenous academics and Indigenous communities should take into account the lessons to be learned from these historical practices.

  20. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Balaguera-Reina

    Full Text Available Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius, defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU and regional research priorities (RRP for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2 and Venezuela (919 km2, which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius' potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries. Caño Guaritico (Creek and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species

  1. Conservation status and regional habitat priorities for the Orinoco crocodile: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Blanco, Ariel S.; Morales-Betancourt, Mónica A.; Seijas, Andrés E.; Lasso, Carlos A.; Antelo, Rafael; Densmore, Llewellyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized. The SDM area obtained with a suitable habitat probability ≥ 0.5 was 23,621 km2. Out of 2,562 km2 are included within protected areas in both Colombia (1,643 km2) and Venezuela (919 km2), which represents only 10.8% of C. intermedius’ potential range. Areas such as Laguna de Chigüichigüe (flood plain lagoon) exhibited an increase in population abundance. In contrast, localities such as the Cojedes and Manapire Rivers reported a significant reduction in relative abundance values. In Colombia, disparity in previous survey methods prevented accurate estimation of population trends. Only one study in this country described an increase over a 13 years span in the Ele, Lipa, and Cravo Norte River populations based on nest surveys. We defined 34 critical areas (16 in Colombia, 17 in Venezuela, and one covering both countries) where we need to preserve/research/monitor and/or generate management actions, 10 RHP/CCU (six from Venezuela and four from Colombia) and 24 RRP (11 from Venezuela, 12 from Colombia, and one in both countries). Caño Guaritico (Creek) and the Capanaparo River in Venezuela and the Ele, Lipa, Cravo Norte River System and the Guayabero River in Colombia were defined as areas with the most optimal conditions for long-term preservation and maintenance of C. intermedius populations. We conclude that the conservation status of this species is

  2. Reconstructing the Past as a Means of Rationalizing the Present: A Study of Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Remains of The Day (1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi Helaly Khalaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The postwar world period was riddled with rapid changes at the different levels. Many people felt they were not able to come to terms with such ongoing changes and had to find a way to coexist with the status-quo. Postmodernism looks upon man as a social being that should learn how to adapt himself to whatever situation by whatever means available. Ishiguro’s novels are written in an expanded humanistic tradition. They are stories dealing with human relationship. They are narratives centering on the working of consciousness and the unconsciousness of the human mind. Ishiguro is concerned with reworking of the past from a late twentieth century perspective. The purpose of this study is to trace the postmodern aspects in The Remains of The Day through the life and character of Stevens and his relationships with the people that he has lived with. Stevens struggles to come to term with his present through telling stories and anecdotes of his past life. The novel depicts the role that memories can play in reconstructing the past events so that the present can be meaningful in some way from a postmodern standpoint. As a postwar British individual, the protagonist of the novel tries to practice suppression over his emotions at the personal level as well as the professional level to construct a new identity. Stevens appears torn between memories of the past and the representation of the present. He is suffering from an identity crisis and striving to create a meaningful present for himself. As a postmodern man, Stevens has to struggle at different levels. He is leading a life riddled with inconsistencies and contradictions. He can’t feel at home with the surrounding world as he is always busy trying to achieve some perfection that is not attainable in a world riddled with conflicts and struggle.

  3. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Lea Morrill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in 13 C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ13C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO.

  4. Investigations of potential microbial methanogenic and carbon monoxide utilization pathways in ultra-basic reducing springs associated with present-day continental serpentinization: the Tablelands, NL, CAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Penny L; Brazelton, William J; Kohl, Lukas; Rietze, Amanda; Miles, Sarah M; Kavanagh, Heidi; Schrenk, Matthew O; Ziegler, Susan E; Lang, Susan Q

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-basic reducing springs at continental sites of serpentinization act as portals into the biogeochemistry of a subsurface environment with H2 and CH4 present. Very little, however, is known about the carbon substrate utilization, energy sources, and metabolic pathways of the microorganisms that live in this ultra-basic environment. The potential for microbial methanogenesis with bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and propionate precursors and carbon monoxide (CO) utilization pathways were tested in laboratory experiments by adding substrates to water and sediment from the Tablelands, NL, CAD, a site of present-day continental serpentinization. Microbial methanogenesis was not observed after bicarbonate, formate, acetate, or propionate addition. CO was consumed in the live experiments but not in the killed controls and the residual CO in the live experiments became enriched in (13)C. The average isotopic enrichment factor resulting from this microbial utilization of CO was estimated to be 11.2 ± 0.2‰. Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and δ(13)C values suggest limited incorporation of carbon from CO into microbial lipids. This indicates that in our experiments, CO was used primarily as an energy source, but not for biomass growth. Environmental DNA sequencing of spring fluids collected at the same time as the addition experiments yielded a large proportion of Hydrogenophaga-related sequences, which is consistent with previous metagenomic data indicating the potential for these taxa to utilize CO.

  5. Theme day: corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Proceedings; Journee Thematique: Corrosion et Traitements de surface dans les Installations Nucleaires. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the theme day organized by the Bourgogne Nuclear Pole on the topic of corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Eleven presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Introduction - PNB centre of competitiveness and R and D activities (A. Mantovan, PNB); 2 - Corrosion damage (M. Foucault, Areva NP - Centre Technique Le Creusot); 3 - Corrosion mechanisms (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 4 - Examples of expertise management (C. Duret-Thual, Institut de la corrosion/Corrosion Institute); 5 - General framework of surface treatments (C. Nouveau, ENSAM Cluny Paris Tech); 6 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part A (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 7 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part B (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 8 - Ion beam surface treatment (Y. Le Guellec, Quertech Ingenierie); 9 - Impact surface treatment (G. Saout, Sonats); 10 - Metal oxides Characterisation by US laser (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 11 - Detection and Characterisation of intergranular corrosion (Y. Kernin, Stephane Bourgois, Areva Intercontrole)

  6. Regional Projections of Extreme Apparent Temperature Days in Africa and the Related Potential Risk to Human Health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional climate modelling was used to produce high resolution climate projections for Africa, under a “business as usual scenario”, that were translated into potential health impacts utilizing a heat index that relates apparent temperature...

  7. Regional anesthesia procedures for shoulder and upper arm surgery upper extremity update--2005 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Ramprasad; Bowens, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    This review of the literature since 2005 assesses developments of RA techniques commonly used for shoulder surgery, and their effectiveness for postoperative analgesia. Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the ISB provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impacts of IA single-injections remain unclear. When combined with GA, ISB can be used in lower volumes and reducing the complications for shoulder and proximal upper extremity. USG ISB and SCB are both effective and safe for shoulder surgery with a low incidence of complications, especially PONS.53 When compared with intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia, a perineural LA infusion using a disposable pump with patient-controlled LA bolus function has led to better pain relief and functional recovery while decreasing the need for rescue analgesics and the number of adverse events after ambulatory orthopedic surgery. The most remarkable advance in RA in the past 5 years is the increased usage of USG. Although there are no large-scale prospective studies to show the safety, efficacy, and success and complication rates for USG blocks, USG RA theoretically could have less risk for neurologic symptoms, except for those induced by LA (less likely perineurally, much more likely intraneurally). The next "quantum leap" lies in reducing LA concentrations and augmenting anesthetic-analgesic effects with perineural additives (including clonidine, buprenorphine, and likely low-dose dexamethasone). Since 2005, perineural catheters have been an analgesic option that offers improved pain relief among other benefits, and are now being used at home. It is clear that patients benefit greatly from a single injection and continuous nerve block for postoperative pain management,but the financial and logistical aspects need to be resolved, not to mention the phrenic hemiparesis coin toss. Whether combined

  8. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype), were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20th century climatology (1971–2000) and end of the 21st century climatology (2070–2099) using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1) assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2) quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3) identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4) explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution −270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to compare

  9. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Torregrosa

    Full Text Available Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype, were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20(th century climatology (1971-2000 and end of the 21(st century climatology (2070-2099 using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1 assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2 quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3 identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4 explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution -270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20(th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km(2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km(2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to

  10. Interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on coral reef associated epilithic algal communities under past, present-day and future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, N.; Cantin, N. E.; Strahl, J.; Kaniewska, P.; Bay, L.; Wild, C.; Uthicke, S.

    2016-06-01

    Epilithic algal communities play critical ecological roles on coral reefs, but their response to individual and interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) is still largely unknown. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and calcification of early epilithic algal community assemblages exposed for 6 months to four temperature profiles (-1.1, ±0.0, +0.9, +1.6 °C) that were crossed with four carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) levels (360, 440, 650, 940 µatm), under flow-through conditions and natural light regimes. Additionally, we compared the cover of heavily calcified crustose coralline algae (CCA) and lightly calcified red algae of the genus Peyssonnelia among treatments. Increase in cover of epilithic communities showed optima under moderately elevated temperatures and present pCO2, while cover strongly decreased under high temperatures and high-pCO2 conditions, particularly due to decreasing cover of CCA. Similarly, community calcification rates were strongly decreased at high pCO2 under both measured temperatures. While final cover of CCA decreased under high temperature and pCO2 (additive negative effects), cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased at high compared to annual average and moderately elevated temperatures. Thus, cover of Peyssonnelia spp. increased in treatment combinations with less CCA, which was supported by a significant negative correlation between organism groups. The different susceptibility to stressors most likely derived from a different calcification intensity and/or mineral. Notably, growth of the epilithic communities and final cover of CCA were strongly decreased under reduced-pCO2 conditions compared to the present. Thus, CCA may have acclimatized from past to present-day pCO2 conditions, and changes in carbonate chemistry, regardless in which direction, negatively affect them. However, if epilithic organisms cannot further acclimatize to OW and OA, the interacting effects of both factors may change

  11. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Ceran

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case, white matter lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse myelitis in two cases, sagittal sinus thrombosis in one case, spinal arachnoiditis in one case, intracranial vasculitis in one case, in addition to meningitis in all cases. Eleven patients were male and seven were female. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (83% and fever (44%. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Duration of treatment (varied 3-12 months was determined on basis of the CSF response. In four patients presented with left mild sequelae including aphasia, hearing loss, hemiparesis. In conclusion, although mortality is rare in neurobrucellosis, its sequelae are significant. In neurobrucellosis various clinical and neuroradiologic signs and symptoms can be confused with other neurologic diseases. In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations.

  12. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Heather

    2014-05-01

    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  13. Association of serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and cerebral activity to visual presentation of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurijoki, Salla; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Niskanen, Eini; Carlson, Synnöve; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko M; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Karhunen, Leila

    2008-07-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed links between genetic polymorphisms and cognitive and behavioural processes. Serotonin is a classical neurotransmitter of central nervous system, and it is connected to the control of appetite and satiety. In this study, the relationship between the functional variation in the serotonin transporter gene and the activity in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a brain area activated by visual food stimuli was explored. Thirty subjects underwent serial fMRI studies and provided DNA for genetic analyses. Subjects homozygous for the long allele exhibited greater left PCC activity in the comparison food > non-food compared with individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the short allele. The association between genotype and activation was linear, the subjects with two copies of the long allele variant having the strongest activation. These results demonstrate the possible genetically driven variation in the response of the left PCC to visual presentation of food in humans.

  14. Regionalización de los días secos en Argentina: Un enfoque metodológico Regionalization of dry days in Argentina: A methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L Bettolli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La regionalización de diferentes variables climáticas ha sido llevada a cabo en diversas zonas del mundo, dado que para distintos propósitos es conveniente dividir espacialmente la climatología de una variable en un número de áreas cuasi-homogéneas. El objetivo de este trabajo es la obtención de una regionalización objetiva de las distintas variabilidades temporales de las cantidades de días secos en la República Argentina durante el trimestre de verano. Con el fin de lograr regiones con similar variabilidad temporal en las cantidades de días secos se exploraron dos métodos: Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP y el algoritmo de agrupamiento no-jerárquico de k-means. En base a una evaluación de los patrones espaciales, la regionalización obtenida mediante el método de k-means aplicado sobre las componentes principales rotadas más importantes, es más apropiada en comparación con la determinada por el método de ACP rotadas. Mediante este método, el territorio nacional presenta seis regiones principales: las regiones Centro- Este; Noreste; Centro y Sur Bonaerense; Noroeste; Centro-Oeste y Patagónica, las cuales son climáticamente coherentes.Objective regionalizations of different climatic variables have been performed in many regions of the World. For different purposes is convenient to make a spatial regionalization to find quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. The main objective of this work is to identify spatially homogeneous regions of dry days in Argentina with different temporal variabilities during summer season. In order to achieve regions with similar temporal variability in the amount of dry days, two methods are explored: principal component analysis (PCA and k-means nonhierarchical cluster method. By means of a spatial patterns examination, the regionalization derived by k-means on the most important rotated principal components extracted is more adequate in comparison with the proposed by PCA method. Through

  15. Radiochemistry days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This document provides the 44 papers (transparencies used during the presentations and posters) presented at the Radiochemistry Days, held September 3-4, 1998 in Nantes, France. The main studied topics were problematic questions concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and in particular the management, storage of radioactive wastes and the environmental impact. (O.M.)

  16. Report on the present day situation and technical perspectives of renewable energies; Rapport sur l'etat actuel et les perspectives techniques des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C; Le Deaut, J Y

    2001-11-01

    This work, carried out by the parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices on request of the French National Assembly and Senate, takes stock of the present day situation and technical perspectives of development of renewable energy sources and of research needs of the French industry in this domain: 1 - renewable energies: key-technologies for the energy supply of developing countries and for a rational consumption in transportation systems and accommodations of developed countries (energies technically different from fossil or nuclear energies; fundamental energy sources for a developing world; different national goals in Europe depending on the available natural resources and on the political realities; a minor interest in France for the domestic power generation but a major interest for transports, residential and tertiary sectors and export); 2 - priority choices given to the French renewable energy resources: renewable electricity (photovoltaic, wind, biomass), thermal technologies (solar, geothermal, biomass); 3 - future policy: sustain of renewable electricity production with the revival of research, industry and technical cooperation. (J.S.)

  17. Determination of the root-mean-square radius of the deuteron from present-day experimental data on neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between the root-mean-square matter radius of the deuteron, r m , and its effective radius, ρ, is investigated. A parabolic relationship between these two quantities makes it possible to determine the root-mean-square radius r m to within 0.01% if the effective radius ρ is known. The matter (r m ), structural (r d ), and charge (r ch ) radii of the deuteron are found with the aid of modern experimental results for phase shifts from the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and their values are fully consistent with their counterparts deduced by using the experimental value of the effective deuteron radius due to Borbely and his coauthors. The charge-radius value of 2.124(6) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and the charge-radius value of 2.126(12) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the experimental value of the effective radius ρ, are in very good agreement with the present-day chargeradius value of 2.128(11) fm, which was deduced by Sick and Trautmann by processing world-average experimental data on elastic electron scattering by deuterons with allowance for Coulomb distortions.

  18. Report on the present day situation and technical perspectives of renewable energies; Rapport sur l'etat actuel et les perspectives techniques des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C.; Le Deaut, J.Y.

    2001-11-01

    This work, carried out by the parliamentary office for the evaluation of scientific and technological choices on request of the French National Assembly and Senate, takes stock of the present day situation and technical perspectives of development of renewable energy sources and of research needs of the French industry in this domain: 1 - renewable energies: key-technologies for the energy supply of developing countries and for a rational consumption in transportation systems and accommodations of developed countries (energies technically different from fossil or nuclear energies; fundamental energy sources for a developing world; different national goals in Europe depending on the available natural resources and on the political realities; a minor interest in France for the domestic power generation but a major interest for transports, residential and tertiary sectors and export); 2 - priority choices given to the French renewable energy resources: renewable electricity (photovoltaic, wind, biomass), thermal technologies (solar, geothermal, biomass); 3 - future policy: sustain of renewable electricity production with the revival of research, industry and technical cooperation. (J.S.)

  19. A new estimate for present-day Cocos-Caribbean Plate motion: Implications for slip along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles

    Velocities from 153 continuously-operating GPS sites on the Caribbean, North American, and Pacific plates are combined with 61 newly estimated Pacific-Cocos seafloor spreading rates and additional marine geophysical data to derive a new estimate of present-day Cocos-Caribbean plate motion. A comparison of the predicted Cocos-Caribbean direction to slip directions of numerous shallow-thrust subduction earthquakes from the Middle America trench between Costa Rica and Guatemala shows the slip directions to be deflected 10° clockwise from the plate convergence direction, supporting the hypothesis that frequent dextral strike-slip earthquakes along the Central American volcanic arc result from partitioning of oblique Cocos-Caribbean plate convergence. Linear velocity analysis for forearc locations in Nicaragua and Guatemala predicts 14±2 mm yr-1 of northwestward trench-parallel slip of the forearc relative to the Caribbean plate, possibly decreasing in magnitude in El Salvador and Guatemala, where extension east of the volcanic arc complicates the tectonic setting.

  20. ‘... conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’: The exposition of the Heidelberg Catechism in the light of present-day criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius W.C. (Natie van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is a contribution to the 450 year celebrations of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC. Sunday 14, Questions and Answers 35 and 36 receive attention. It deals with the two statements of the creed ‘… conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary’. The exposition of the HC is compared to the catechisms of Zacharias Ursinus and John Calvin in order to capture something about the historicity of the text. The exposition of the creed is an on-going process. Karl Barth, Eberhard Busch and Jan Milič Lochman are good examples of Reformed theologians who remain faithful to the intention of the HC, but who explain these statements with present-day criticism in mind. The exposition of Peter Berger is valuable because this sceptic argues that the opinion of modern, liberal Protestantism is of no value. The article concludes that the ‘virgin birth’ as such has no great value. It is only one aspect of the Christian gospel. It also does not proof the divinity of Christ. The divinity of Christ is presupposed.

  1. Cases of typhoid fever in Copenhagen region: a retrospective study of presentation and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Freja Cecille; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2013-08-11

    Typhoid fever is a systemic illness which in high-income countries mainly affects travellers. The incidence is particularly high on the Indian subcontinent. Travellers who visit friends and relatives (VFR) have been shown to have a different risk profile than others. We wished to identify main characteristics for travellers infected with S. Typhi considering both clinical and laboratory findings in order to provide for faster and better diagnostics in the future. The outcome of treatment, especially concerning relapse, was evaluated as well. Retrospectively collected data from 19 adult cases of typhoid fever over a 5-year period at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Denmark. The patients were young adults, presenting with symptoms within a month after travelling. 84% were returned from travelling in the Indian subcontinent. 17 out of 19 patients were VFR-travellers. The main symptoms were fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (84%), headache (58%) and dry cough (26%). Laboratory findings showed elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in all cases and elevated alanine transaminase (ALAT) in 47% of cases. In primary cases 4 isolates were fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin, the remaining were intermediate susceptible. Relapse occurred in 37% of the cases and only in cases where the patient was infected by a strain with intermediate susceptibility. Better pre-travel counselling should be given to VFR-travellers. The main symptoms and laboratory findings confirm previous findings. The relapse rate was unexpected high and could be correlated to ciprofloxacin-resistance.

  2. The past and present of female associations in the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Botti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the post-war period there was a widespread people's mobilization, in which women devoted themselves to social work. This also involved a great commitment to politics.Female historian associations contributed to women's commitment to social work and the creation of a women's relevant role in the country reconstruction. In particu-lar, Unione Donne Italiane (Udi and Centro Italiano Femminile (Cif were the two mass female associations related to the two most relevant political parties in the post-war period (i.e. Partito Comunista Italiano and Democrazia Cristiana.Besides being involved in institutional matters, women were also engaged in ac-tivities on the spot throughout Italy.The issue is whether female associations have, at present, lost their presence on the spot in such a disruptive time.In the post-war period women were involved in the country reconstruction by pro-viding people with socially supportive activities. These activities received an official acknowledgement by the State through the creation of a welfare state and new profes-sionals such as social workers.Nowadays, however, commitment to social work is not any longer a successful link to the job market for women.

  3. Neutron and Gamma Fluxes and dpa Rates for HFIR Vessel Beltline Region (Present and Upgrade Designs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2001-01-11

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is currently undergoing an upgrading program, a part of which is to increase the diameters of two of the four radiation beam tubes (HB-2 and HB-4). This change will cause increased neutron and gamma radiation dose rates at and near locations where the tubes penetrate the vessel wall. Consequently, the rate of radiation damage to the reactor vessel wall at those locations will also increase. This report summarizes calculations of the neutron and gamma flux (particles/cm{sup 2}/s) and the dpa rate (displacements/atom/s) in iron at critical locations in the vessel wall. The calculated dpa rate values have been recently incorporated into statistical damage evaluation codes used in the assessment of radiation induced embrittlement. Calculations were performed using models based on the discrete ordinates methodology and utilizing ORNL two-dimensional and three-dimensional discrete ordinates codes. Models for present and proposed beam tube designs are shown and their results are compared. Results show that for HB-2, the dpa rate in the vessel wall where the tube penetrates the vessel will be increased by {approximately}10 by the proposed enlargement. For HB-4, a smaller increase of {approximately}2.6 is calculated.

  4. An embedded point-of-care malaria screening device for low-resource regions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantan; Mandal, Subhamoy; Das, Debnath; Malviya, Richa; Garud, Hrushikesh T.; Ray, Ajoy K.

    2016-03-01

    In this article we propose a point-of-care screening device for the detection and identification of malaria parasite, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium malaria, plasmodium oval and plasmodium falciparum with a time frame of 15-20 minute. In our device we can provide 97-98% sensitivity for each species as we are using traditional staining methods for detecting the parasites. In addition, as we are also quantifying the parasites, it is possible to provide an accurate estimate about the malarial stage of the patient. The image processing approach increases the total numbers of samples screened by reducing interventions of trained pathologists. This helps in reducing the delays in screening process arising from increased number of potential cases based on seasonal and local variations. The same reduces mortality rate by faster diagnosis and reduced false negative detections (i.e. increased sensitivity). The system can also be integrated with telemedicine platform to obtain inputs from medical practitioners at tertiary healthcare units for diagnostic decision making. Through this paper, we present the functional prototype of this device containing all the integrated parts. The prototype incorporates image acquisition, image processing, storage, multimedia transmission and reporting environment for a low cost PDA device. It is a portable device capable of scanning slides. The acquired image will be preprocessed and processed to get desired output. The device is capable of transmitting and storing pathological information to database placed in a distant pathological center for further consultation.

  5. Animal production in the Mediterranean region: Present situation, problems and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auriol, P.

    1988-01-01

    Mediterranean countries as a whole suffer from a chronic shortage of livestock products, the main reason being the acceleration in demand observed since World War II. This acceleration has been caused by the combination of high rates of population growth and rapid increases in per capita incomes which have gone hand-in-hand with rapid urbanization. The particularly high income elasticity for livestock products has aggravated the situation. The most important constraints on livestock development are the limited amount of feed resources and their seasonality. The introduction of already known techniques and the active search for new ones leave room for substantial development. However, their adoption by the mass of producers will depend on the supply by governments of support services and on a general increase in producer prices for livestock versus plant products. Considering the diminishing political influence of farmers, such an increase can be envisaged only within the context of healthy and expanding national economies and where governments favour indigenous livestock production. In other words, livestock sectors will expand only if national economies recover rapidly from the present world crisis and if governments are able to create a socio-economic environment stimulating livestock producers. (author). 5 refs, 6 tabs

  6. “When Night Passes” and “When Day Breaks” – Between the Past and the Present. Borderlines of Holocaust in Filip David’s Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Giergiel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When Night Passes and When Day Breaks – Between the Past and the Present. Borderlines of Holocaust in Filip David’s Works The primary objective of the text is the analysis of Filip David's latest work. The Serbian writer is the author of the novel House of Memories and Oblivions (Kuća sećanja i zaborava, 2014, award for Best Novel of the Year by the NIN weekly (Nedeljne Informativne Novine. On the one hand, the output of this Serbian novelist is of interest to us as a continuation and representation of the contemporary discourse on the Holocaust in Serbia. On the other – we look at the literary realization of the Holocaust topic. The fortunes of the main characters in the novel (children who survived Holocaust serve as the cases on which we present where the author draws the borderline of the ever-present Holocaust in their lives; how much and in what way the past affects their present; where the borderline of memory, forgetting and oblivion is.   Kad padne noć i Kad svane dan - między przeszłością a teraźniejszością. Granice Holocaustu w twórczości Filipa Davida Podstawowym celem tekstu jest analiza najnowszej tworczości Filipa Davida, autora nagrodzonej Nagrodą Tygodnika NIN („Nedeljne Informativne Novine" powieści Dom pamięci i zapomnienia (2014, Kuća sećanja i zabovrava. Z jednej strony twórczość serbskiego prozaika interesować nas będzie jako kontynuacja i reprezentacja współczesnego dyskursu na temat Holokaustu w Serbii. Z drugiej zaś – przyjrzymy się jego literackiej realizacji. Na przykładzie losów głównych bohaterów powieści (dzieci, które przeżyły Zagładę pokażemy, gdzie przebiega rysowana przez autora granica istnienia Shoah w ich życiu. Na ile i w jaki sposób przeszłość wpływa na ich teraźniejszość, gdzie przebiega granica pamięci, niepamięci i zapomnienia oraz w jakim stopniu ich życie definiuje rozdzielenie rzeczywistości od fikcji.

  7. Scientific days on electromagnetic fields: from dosimetry to human health - Conference proceedings; Journees scientifiques - Champs electromagnetiques: de la dosimetrie a la sante humaine - Recueil des resumes et presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiart, J.; Ghanmi, A.; Picon, O.; Conil, E.; Varsier, N.; Hadjem, A.; Sudret, B.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Gaudaire, F.; De Seze, R.; Jawad, O.; Lautru, D.; Dricot, J.M.; Horlin, F.; De Doncker, P.; Drissaoui, A.; Musy, F.; Nicolas, L.; Perrussel, R.; Scorretti, R.; Voyer, D.; Jala, M.; Moulines, E.; Levy-Leduc, C.; Mahfouz, Z.; Gati, A.; Fouad Hanna, V.; Leveque, P.; Arnaud-Cormos, D.; Zhadobov, M.; Jarrige, P.; Gaborit, G.; Kohler, S.; Ticaud, N.; Duvillaret, L.; Guelilia, Z.; Loison, R.; Gillard, R.; Laisne, A.; Favet, D.; Benadhira, R.; Mir, L.; Nadi, M.; Kourtiche, D.; Gazeau, F.; Wilhelm, C.; Delemotte, L.; Breton, M.; Tarek, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Yardin, C.; Perrin, A.; Le Drean, Y.; Sauleau, R.; Lambrozo, J.; Selmaoui, B.; Ghosn, R.; Thuroczy, G.; Villegier, A.S.; Loos, N.; Brenet-Dufour, V.; Liabeuf, S.; Bach, V.; Moretti, D.; Lewis, N.; Garenne, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Haro, E.; Lagroye, I.; Bornat, Y.; Boutaib, Y.; Saighi, S.; Renaud, S.; Veyre, B.; Schuz, J.; Deltour, I.; Van Deventer, E.; Vecchia, P.; Merckel, O.; Bellaouel, A.; Demaret, P.; Donati, P.; Jovanovic, D.; Chauvin, S.; Desreumaux, J.P.; Fouquet, L.; Picard, D.; Massardier-Pilonchery, A.; Hours, M.; Bergeret, A.; Person, C.; Toutain, Y.; Butet, R.; Berrahma, K.; Balderelli, I.; Stelmaszyk, V.; Cretallaz, C.; Lamproglou, I.; Amourette, C.; Diserbo, M.; Fauquette, W.; Martigne, P.; Collin, A.; Lagroye, I.; Ait Aissa, S.; Hurtier, A.; Taxile, M.; Le Montagner, L.; Athane, A.; Duleu, S.; Percherancier, Y.; Geffard, M.; Ruffie, G.; Billaudel, B.; Veyret, B.; Pelletier, A.; Delanaud, S.; Libert, J.P.; Schunck, T.; Bieth, F.; Soubere Mahamoud, Y.; Le Quement, C.; Ferrand, G.; Le Guevel, R.; Carton, P.H.; Luong, M.; Tanvir, S.; Selmaoui, B.; Silva Pires-Antonietti, V.; Sonnet, P.; Pulvin, S.; Kuster, O.; Tetelin, C.

    2012-04-15

    This document brings together the available presentations (articles and slides) given at the URSI scientific days on electromagnetic fields: dosimetry, peoples' exposure, biological and health risks, risk management, and medical uses. 48 presentations are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Stochastic dosimetry: variability challenge; 2 - How to estimate the exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic field in an epidemiological study?; 3 - Joint analysis of population exposure and radio coverage of GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks; 4 - Study of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) sensitiveness to phone positions near the head for 2 GSM mobile phones; 5 - Statistical Study of SAR under Wireless Channel - Exposure in Indoor Environment; 6 - Uncertainty propagation in numerical dosimetry: how to reduce calculation costs?; 7 - Use of a simplified pregnant woman model for foetus exposure analysis; 8 - SAR estimation using multi-exposure with a mobile phone; 9 - State-of-the-art in experimental dosimetry (RF and pulses); 10 - Mm-waves dosimetry: issues, stakes and actual solutions; 11 - Use of DG-FDTD for a dosimetry calculation in a strongly multi-scale problem: determination of the eye-SAR near a HF/VHF vehicle-borne source; 12 - Dosimetric measurements with a fiber-type electro-optical sensor; 13 - Partial experimental evaluation of basic restrictions in the HF/VHF range; 14 - Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation Stimulation (rTMS) in psychiatry: present day situation and perspectives; 15 - Medical applications of electric fields; 16 - Measurements for life: new perspectives? 17 - Nano-particles and magnetic stimuli for medical imaging and therapy; 18 - Molecular Insights into electroporation and siRNA electro-transfer through model cell membranes; 19 - State of knowledge on electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity (HS-CEM); 20 - Experimentation methodology: from results to interpretation; 22 - Mm waves - update on biological effects at 40-60 GHz; 23

  8. Regional differences in incidence and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancić, Gordana; La Grasta Sabolić, Lavinia; Pozgaj Sepec, Marija; Radica, Ana; Skrabić, Veselin; Severinski, Srećko; Kujundzić Tiljak, Mirjana

    2012-04-01

    To determine regional differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes in children under the age of 15 years in Croatia in a 9-year period (1995-2003). We included the patients who had been diagnosed with the disease and had started the insulin treatment before they were 15 years old. Regional differences between eastern, central, and southern Croatia were observed. The gross incidence was expressed by the number of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients in 100000 children of the same age and sex per year, ie, for the 0-14 age group, and for the 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 subgroups. The highest incidence was observed in southern Croatia (10.91 per 100000/y) and the lowest in central Croatia (8.64 per 100000/y), and in eastern Croatia the incidence was 8.93 per 100000/y. All three regions showed a growing incidence trend, which was significant only in eastern and southern Croatia. There was 35.9% of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in eastern Croatia, 41.7% in central Croatia, and 31.28% in southern Croatia. Croatian regions show differences in the incidence, incidence trends, and disease presentation of type 1 diabetes. A further follow-up is needed to establish whether the regional differences are a consequence of the population dynamics in the observed period or they will continue to exist, pointing to differences in environmental risk factors.

  9. Growth changes in plaice, cod, haddock and saithe in the North Sea: a comparison of (post-)medieval and present-day growth rates based on otolith measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, Loes J.; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; van Neer, Wim; Millner, Richard S.; van Leeuwen, Piet I.; Ervynck, Anton; Ayers, Richard; Ongenae, Ellen

    2004-05-01

    Fishing effort has strongly increased in the North Sea since the mid-19th century, causing a substantial reduction in the population size of exploited fish stocks. As fisheries research has developed simultaneously with the industrialisation of the fisheries, our knowledge of population dynamics at low levels of exploitations is limited. Otoliths retrieved from archaeological excavations offer a unique opportunity to study growth rates in the past. This study compares historical and present-day growth rates for four commercially important demersal fish species. A total of 2532 modern otoliths (AD 1984-1999) and 1286 historical otoliths (AD 1200-1925) obtained from archaeological excavations in Belgium and Scotland were analysed. Comparison of the growth patterns between eras revealed a major increase in growth rate of haddock, whereas growth changes were not observed in saithe and only in the smaller size classes of plaice and cod. Comparison of our results with literature data indicates that the observed growth rate changes in plaice and cod occurred within the 20th century. Apparently the onset of industrialised fisheries has not greatly affected the growth of plaice, cod and saithe populations in the North Sea. This result contradicts the expectation of density-dependent limitation of growth during the era of pre-industrialised fishing, but is in agreement with the concentration hypothesis of Beverton (Neth. J. Sea Res. 34 (1995) 1) stating that species which concentrate spatially into nursery grounds during their early life-history may 'saturate' the carrying capacity of the juvenile habitat even though the adult part of the population is not limited by the adult habitat.

  10. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-SA experiments in simulating seasonal mean temperature over the Himalayan region for the present climate: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nengker, T.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of an ensemble of five regional climate models (hereafter RCMs) under Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments-South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) in simulating the key features of present day near surface mean air temperature (Tmean) climatology (1970-2005) over the Himalayan region is studied. The purpose of this paper is to understand the consistency in the performance of models across the ensemble, space and seasons. For this a number of statistical measures like trend, correlation, variance, probability distribution function etc. are applied to evaluate the performance of models against observation and simultaneously the underlying uncertainties between them for four different seasons. The most evident finding from the study is the presence of a large cold bias (-6 to -8 °C) which is systematically seen across all the models and across space and time over the Himalayan region. However, these RCMs with its fine resolution perform extremely well in capturing the spatial distribution of the temperature features as indicated by a consistently high spatial correlation (greater than 0.9) with the observation in all seasons. In spite of underestimation in simulated temperature and general intensification of cold bias with increasing elevation the models show a greater rate of warming than the observation throughout entire altitudinal stretch of study region. During winter, the simulated rate of warming gets even higher at high altitudes. Moreover, a seasonal response of model performance and its spatial variability to elevation is found.

  11. CERN's 50th anniversary open day attracts record number of visitors: an estimated 32,000 visitors, from across Europe and beyond, flocked to the laboratory for a day of tours, displays and presentations.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    When CERN opened its doors to the public for its open day on 16 October, the laboratory took on the air of a county fair. Children took rides around the site in a big lorry, visitors ate ice cream that had been handmade in a flash using liquid nitrogen, and crowds strolled the lanes as they visited more than 50 events across various sites in Switzerland and France.

  12. Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using accumulated degree-days (ADD) in a temperate region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Jolandie; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Steyn, Maryna; Becker, Piet J

    2013-06-10

    The validity of the method in which total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree-days (ADD) are used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is examined. TBS and ADD were recorded for 232 days in northern South Africa, which has temperatures between 17 and 28 °C in summer and 6 and 20 °C in winter. Winter temperatures rarely go below 0°C. Thirty pig carcasses, which weighed between 38 and 91 kg, were used. TBS was scored using the modified method of Megyesi et al. [1]. Temperature was acquired from an on site data logger and the weather station bureau; differences between these two sources were not statistically significant. Using loglinear random-effects maximum likelihood regression, an r(2) value for ADD (0.6227) was produced and linear regression formulae to estimate PMI from ADD with a 95% prediction interval were developed. The data of 16 additional pigs that were placed a year later were then used to validate the accuracy of this method. The actual PMI and ADD were compared to the estimated PMI and ADD produced by the developed formulae as well as the estimated PMIs within the 95% prediction interval. A validation of the study produced poor results as only one pig of 16 fell within the 95% interval when using the formulae, showing that ADD has limited use in the prediction of PMI in a South African setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new day for CME/CPD in Canada: proceedings from the 1st Canada Regional Conference of the Global Alliance for Medical Education in Montreal, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Murray

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995, with the aim of advancing innovation in medical education. The 1st GAME Canada regional conference was held in Montreal on May 22, 2015, under the leadership of Suzanne Murray, who acted as programme chair, and GAME president Lisa Sullivan. The conference brought together a broad array of speakers and panellists, including experts from academic centres, health systems, accreditors, private organizations, and industry. Thirty-one key stakeholders participated in the event, demonstrating a strong commitment towards the improvement of best practice in continuing medical education (CME/continuing professional development (CPD. The conference included diverse presentations providing opportunities for reflection and discussion throughout the day. The participants actively took part in stimulating discussions that covered a large range of topics, including the need for enhanced networking and opportunities to learn from others, the challenges of assessment and the potential solutions, interprofessional education and competencies, and, finally, the future of a Canadian CME/CPD organization.

  14. The Traces of “New Character” in Uzbek Short Story Heroes Based on Two Examples of Uzbek Short Stories of the Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Savaş Yelok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The era following the Uzbek independence resulted in a renaissance in Uzbek life. This process in which a renaissance was experienced, also affected the material and moral elements that shape their view of life. When this situation affected the way people understand life, this reform of the Uzbek people naturally formed “the new era”. This new era demanded new ways of thinking from those who lived in that era. The effect of this development and change on people’s minds and their way of understanding and thinkingand its description found itself in literary life. In the short stories published following the independence, the spirit of the time and the different fates of those people who lived in that era were reflected. As a result, writers created the heroes of today through the change experienced by people in their inner world who lived in the same era as the writers. As a general principle, creating a hero is seen as the first issue in the literature of every era. This is so because the hero in the work of literature is the tool that reflects the inner and outer world of the people of a specific era. All the nice and ugly things in a person’s life -starting from the person’s lifestyle and continuing to the end of his life- are passed onto the hero’s thoughts and actions. Describing the changes constantly observed in a hero’s character, reflecting these by forming a direct relationship with the era is comparatively easier in a short story when compared to other genres. In this article, information on the development of short story in present day Uzbek Literature is presented. In addition, the reflection of “the person of the new era” observed in the heroes in the stories “The Author” and “The Trick of Gumshoe Jacob” written by Erkin A‘zam and Xurshid Dostmuhammad who have gained the admiration of readers in their works following the independence is studied.

  15. Antarctic Peninsula mass balance at present-day and over the past 150 years employing constraints from GRACE, GPS and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Landerer, F. W.; Simms, A.; Yuan, D.; Boening, C.

    2013-12-01

    2007. Release 05 GRACE data and JPL-mascon time series are examined in conjuction with GPS uplift rates and ICESat data in order to better define the region experiencing this speed-up and its possible origin. A more extensive search for the parameters defining GIA and model interpretation is also presented. References Berthier, E., T. A. Scambos and C.A. Shuman, (2012), Mass loss of Larsen B tributary glaciers (Antarctic Peninsula) unabated since 2002, GRL, 39, L13501, doi:10.1029/2012GL051755. Ivins, E. R., M. M. Watkins, D.-N. Yuan, R. Dietrich, G. Casassa, and A. Rülke (2011), On-land ice loss and glacial isostatic adjustment at the Drake Passage: 2003--2009, J. Geophys. Res.,116, B02403, doi:10.1029/2010JB007607. Kunz, M., M.A. King, J.P. Mills, P.E. Miller, A.J. Fox, D.G. Vaughan and S.H. Marsh (2012), Multi-decadal glacier surface lowering in the Antarctic Peninsula, GRL, 39, L19502, doi:10.1029/2012GL052823.

  16. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES THAT MAY AFFECT HEALTH BEHAVIOR AND WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH AMONG BLACK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Design Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Setting Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. Participants 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Main Outcome Measures Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Results Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. Conclusions A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study. PMID:20073146

  17. Regional differences in attitudes that may affect health behavior and willingness to participate in research among Black Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E

    2009-01-01

    To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study.

  18. Late Miocene to present-day exhumation and uplift of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain: Insights from low temperature thermochronometry and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagny, A.; Ph. Münch; Cornée, J.-J.; Corsini, M.; Azdimousa, A.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.; Drinia, H.; Bonno, M.; Arnaud, N.; Monié, P.; Quillévéré, F.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2014-07-01

    Located on the margin of the west Alboran basin, the Gibraltar Arc (Betic-Rif mountain belt) displays post-Pliocene vertical movements evidenced by uplifted marine sedimentary basins and marine terraces. Quantification of vertical movements is an important clue to understand the origin of present-day relief generation in the Betic-Rif mountain chain together with the causes of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. In this paper, we present the results of a pluridisciplinary study combining an analysis of low temperature thermochronology and Pliocene basins evolution to constrain the exhumation history and surface uplift of internals units of the Rif belt (Northern Morocco). The mean (U-Th)/He apatite ages obtained from 11 samples are comprised between 14.1 and 17.8 Ma and display a wide dispersion, which could be explained by a great variability of apatite chemistries in the analyzed samples. No correlations between altitude and age have been found along altitudinal profile suggesting a rapid exhumation during this period. Thermal modeling using our (U-Th)/He apatite ages and geochronological data previously obtained in the same area (40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar data on biotite, zircon and apatite fission track) allow us to propose a cooling history. The rocks suffered a rapid cooling at 60-100 °C/Ma between 22.5 and 19 Ma, then cooled to temperatures around 40 °C between 19 and 18 Ma. They were re-heated at around 110 °C between 18 and 15 Ma then rapidly cooled and exhumed to reach the surface temperature at around 13 Ma. The re-heating could be related to a renewal in thrusting and burying of the inner zones. Between 15 and 13 Ma the cooling resumed at a rate of 50 °C/Ma indicating an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/y considering an average 40 °C/km geothermal gradient. This exhumation may be linked to the extension in the Alboran Sea. Otherwise biostratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of Pliocene basins of the internal Rif provided informations on the more recent events

  19. Grainsize Patterns and Bed Evolution of the Rhone River (France): A Present-day Snapshot Following a Century and a Half of Human Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, T.; Parrot, E.; Piegay, H.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 150 years the Rhône River has been heavily altered by human infrastructures. The first wave (1860 - 1930) of modifications consisted of dikes and groynes designed to narrow the channel and promote incision in order to facilitate navigation. A second period (1948 - 1986) involved the construction of a series of canals and dams for hydroelectricity production. These works bypass multiple reaches of the original channel and drastically reduce the discharge and sediment load reaching them. A comprehensive study underway is aimed at describing the present-day morphology of the Rhone along its 512 km length from its source at Lake Geneva to its sink at the Mediterranean Sea and quantifying the role of management works in the evolution to its current state. Grainsize distributions and armour ratios were determined using a combination of Wolman counts on bars and in shallow channels and dredge samples collected from a boat in navigable reaches. Long profiles were constructed from historical bathymetric maps and bathymetric data collected between 1950 - 2010. Differential long profiles highlighting changes in bed elevation due to sediment storage and erosion were analyzed for three different periods: post-channelization, post-dam construction, and a recent period of major floods. Results show a complex discontinuous pattern in grainsize associated with hydraulic discontinuities imposed by dams. The D50 for bypass reaches is 45 mm compared to a D50 of 34 mm in the non-bypass reaches. The lower D50 as well as a finer tailed distribution in non-bypass reaches reflects fining associated with storage upstream of dams. Armour ratios are on average around 2 but are notably higher for reaches in the middle section of the Rhone. The average incision rate was 1.8 cm/yr for the period of post-channelization and 1.2 cm/yr following dam construction, suggesting the post-dam Rhone was already partially armoured due to incision associated with channelization preceding dam

  20. External impacts on traditional commons and present-day changes: a case study of iriai forests in Yamaguni district, Kyoto, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese iriai forests have been regarded as a model of institutions for collective action in the sustainable use of resources in studies on commons, as pointed out by Ostrom (1990 and McKean (1996. However, present-day iriai forests that have survived decades of legal and even greater economic and social challenges have undergone significant alteration. While we know that external conditions such as foreign competition from low-cost timber have depressed the Japanese forestry industry and thus reduced the health of Japanese forests as a whole, we do not know about the current state of the iriai forests in particular. Adaptation to external impacts is crucial for the survival of the commons in a modern industrialized society. This study examines external impacts on traditional commons and the resultant institutional changes in current Japan. We cannot easily track the changes in traditional commons without deep understanding of many cases, because the factors affecting their functioning are complex and diverse. Therefore, we opted to use the case study method to improve the empirical foundations for analyzing these complex phenomena. Our goal was to examine the institutional changes resulting from one source of pressure found in many commons near urbanizing areas in postwar Japan – an increase in newcomers – as well as from the pressure of foreign competition in forest products. We chose eleven villages in the Yamaguni district in Kyoto city that manage their own common forests and studied the documented rules in these communities. We used participant observation and also conducted interviews with villagers to obtain their sense of change over time, the impact of globalization, and the current status of the commons. This paper derived the following conclusions. First, the village community can adapt its institutions to external influences by supporting continuous institutional change. Second, although village communities can overcome most

  1. Little Ice Age versus Present Day: Comparison of Temperature, Precipitation and Seasonality in Speleothem Records from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, S.; Van Opdenbosch, J.; Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Keppens, E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Claeys, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Proserpine stalagmite is a 2 m large, tabular-shaped speleothem located in the Han-sur-Lesse cave in Belgium. The speleothem formed over the last 1000 years and is still growing. High-accuracy U/Th datings have indicated exceptionally high growth-rates of up to 2 mm per year. This, together with a well expressed annual layering, makes the Proserpine stalagmite an ideal candidate for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of the last millennium. Previous work, including over 10 years of cave monitoring, has already learned us how short-term, i.e. decadal to seasonal, climate variations are incorporated within speleothem calcite from the Han-sur-Lesse cave system. It has been shown that δ18O and δ13C stable isotopes and trace element proxies of recently formed calcite reflect seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation of the near-cave environment (Verheyden et al, 2008; Van Rampelbergh et al., 2014). Now, this knowledge was used to infer local climate parameters further back in time to the period of +/- 1620-1630 CE, corresponding to one of the cold peaks within the Little Ice Age. Speleothem calcite was sampled at sub-annual resolution, with approximately 11 samples per year, for stable isotope analysis. LA-ICP-MS and µXRF analyses resulted in time series of trace elements. Preliminary results indicate a well expressed seasonal signal in δ13C and trace element composition but a multi-annual to decadal trend in δ18O. This combined proxy study eventually enables comparison of the expression of seasonality and longer term climate variations between a Little Ice Age cold peak and Present Day. References: Verheyden, S. et al., 2008, Monitoring climatological, hydrological and geochemical parameters in the Père Noël cave (Belgium): implication for the interpretation of speleothem isotopic and geochemical time-series. International Journal of Speleology, 37(3), 221-234. Van Rampelbergh, M. et al., 2014, Seasonal variations recorded in cave

  2. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  3. Regional meeting of south Oncologist.Third day of Oncologic nursing; Encuentro regional de Oncologos del sur.3as. Jornadas de enfermería Oncológica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The organization of the Uruguayan Congress represents the greatest effort Oncology Society Medical and Pediatric Uruguay (Sompu) to contribute to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer in Uruguay. It has developed a program that includes a wide range of topics presenting the latest developments and their significance in clinical practice, through lectures, round tables, and panels-course forum. Selected scientific papers were also discussed sessions for oral and poster presentation way. To ensure a high scientific and educational level to a select group of domestic and foreign experts were invited. The 8th Congress incorporates a panel-led forum for residents and young oncologists Prevention Cancer. Furthermore Course was held on hereditary predispositions to cancer under the Continuing Medical Education Program developed by the Sompu and accredited by the Graduate School. A special meeting in the context of the Latin American Federation of Cancer Societies (FLASCA) Therapeutic Research on Cancer in .In Region Parallel Days also included third Oncology Nursing also developed.

  4. Present-day genetic composition suggests contrasting demographic histories of two dominant chaetognaths of the Nort-East Atlantic, Sagitta elegans and S. setosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; van Haastrecht, E.K.; Fauvelot, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Sagitta elegans and S. setosa are the two dominant chaetognaths in the North-East (NE) Atlantic. They are closely related and have a similar ecology and life history, but differ in distributional ranges. Sagitta setosa is a typical neritic species occurring exclusively above shelf regions, whereas

  5. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  6. Production of renewable energies in the Mulhouse region. Present situation and production perspectives - Study report June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodyski, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    After having briefly defined renewable energies, and outlined the benefits of their development, this report first proposes an overview of the present situation of renewable energy production in the Mulhouse region. Thus, it distinguishes hydraulic, photovoltaic, biomass, biogas, solar thermal, geothermal, aero-thermal, aqua-thermal, and fatal energies, and energy recovery from waste waters. It also addresses other resources to be exploited such as wind energy, deep geothermal energy, methanization, and electric production for direct usage. The next part proposes a brief assessment of the development potential with quantitative objectives and perspectives of development for renewable energies. The third part briefly addresses the influence of such a development on land planning

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  8. Looking Through the Ice: Searching for Past and Present Habitable Zones in the Martian North Polar Region Using MOLA DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, M. C.; Farmer, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems have been acknowledged as important gateways to accessing a potential subsurface biology (extant or extinct) on Mars. Groundwater circulation, sustained for up to one billion years by large plutonic bodies (as modeled by previous authors), might well be capable of tapping into a deep subsurface biosphere and subsequently carrying members of microbial communities to the surface. Hence, future robotic missions with near surface drilling capabilities may be able to unearth cryopreserved biosignatures, or perhaps extant organisms, in the midst of the hydrothermal system itself. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have proved to be a valuable tool in the search for potential habitable zones for extant and extinct life, and the detection of possible hydrothermal systems on Mars. When formatted for use in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software package such as ESRI's ArcView, MOLA data can be used to compose DEMs. Those DEMs can, in turn, be used to create contour maps, to allow profiling through features of interest, and to generate hillshaded views, which provide an image-like perspective of a selected area. Furthermore, DEMs eliminate many problems associated with photographic images such as over-/underexposure, poor focus, and albedo values too high or low for optimal observations. During this study, DEMs were used in the analysis of several regions north of 70° N latitude, in the Martian north polar cap and polar cap margin. The regions were selected during a Viking image survey that concentrated on the location of surface expressions of potential magma-ice interactions, and hence past or present hydrothermal activity. Specific features sought included individual volcanoes and volcanic fields, as well as pseudocrater fields, subglacial volcanic constructs (such as tuyas and tindar ridges), fluvial channels and outwash plains (indicative of j”kulhlaup flooding events), possible

  9. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basinwide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted......Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  10. Determination of low-energy parameters of neutron-proton scattering in the the shape-parameter approximation from present-day experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the total cross sections for neutron-proton scattering in the region of laboratory energies below 150 keV, the value of σ 0 = 20.4288(146) b was obtained for the total cross sections for neutron-proton scattering at zero energy. This value is in very good agreement with the experimental cross sections obtained by Houke and Hurst, but it is at odds with Dilg's experimental cross section. By using the value that we found for σ 0 and the experimental values of the neutron-proton coherent scattering length f, the deuteron binding energy ε t , the deuteron effective radius ρ t (-ε t , -ε t ), and the total cross section in the region of energies below 5 MeV, the following values were found in the shape-parameter approximation for the low-energy parameters of neutron-proton scattering in the spin-triplet and spin-singlet states: a t = 5.4114(27) fm, r 0t = 1.7606(35) fm, v 2t = 0.157 fm 3 , a s = -23.7154(80) fm, r 0s = 2.706(67) fm, and v 2s = 0.491 fm 3 .

  11. Elemental identification of blue paintings traces present in historic cemeteries in the São Martinho region, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago G.; Richter, Fábio Andreas; Castro, Elisiana Trilha; Gonçalves, Samantha; Spudeit, Daniel A.; Micke, Gustavo A.

    2018-03-01

    Cemeteries are of great significance in many communities, often being considered of invaluable historical, artistic, architectural and cultural significance and thus they need to be preserved. In this regard, understanding the historical aspects and the construction techniques used is essential for their protection. The purpose of this paper is to describe historical aspects of the funerary heritage present in the region of São Martinho in southern Brazil, along with an analysis of the blue paint found in cemeteries of German colonies in the region studied. FTIR analysis suggests that the binder is composed mostly of a protein resin and a small amount of lipid. The morphology of the pigment was investigated by SEM and EDS and the spectra revealed that the major elements present in the blue pigment are Na, Al, Si and S, with an overlap in the elemental mapping, indicative of ultramarine pigments. The GC-MS results are consistent with the type of binder identified by FTIR and indicate a mixture of oils, probably from vegetal sources, and proteins.

  12. HuR binding to AU-rich elements present in the 3' untranslated region of Classical swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chin-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is the member of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae. The 5' untranslated region (UTR of CSFV contains the IRES, which is a highly structured element that recruits the translation machinery. The 3' UTR is usually the recognition site of the viral replicase to initiate minus-strand RNA synthesis. Adenosine-uridine rich elements (ARE are instability determinants present in the 3' UTR of short-lived mRNAs. However, the presence of AREs in the 3' UTR of CSFV conserved in all known strains has never been reported. This study inspects a possible role of the ARE in the 3' UTR of CSFV. Results Using RNA pull-down and LC/MS/MS assays, this study identified at least 32 possible host factors derived from the cytoplasmic extracts of PK-15 cells that bind to the CSFV 3' UTR, one of which is HuR. HuR is known to bind the AREs and protect the mRNA from degradation. Using recombinant GST-HuR, this study demonstrates that HuR binds to the ARE present in the 3' UTR of CSFV in vitro and that the binding ability is conserved in strains irrespective of virulence. Conclusions This study identified one of the CSFV 3' UTR binding proteins HuR is specifically binding to in the ARE region.

  13. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Saito, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression profiling was performed. • CPZ

  14. Present-day and future contributions of glacier runoff to summertime flows in a Pacific Northwest watershed: implications for water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne W. Nolin; Jeff Phillippe; Anne Jefferson; Sarah L. Lewis

    2010-01-01

    While the impacts of long-term climate change trends on glacier hydrology have received much attention, little has been done to quantify direct glacier runoff contributions to streamflow. This paper presents an approach for determining glacier runoff contributions to streamflow and estimating the effects of increased temperature and decreased glacier area on future...

  15. Day vs night : Does time of presentation matter in acute heart failure? A secondary analysis from the RELAX-AHF trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Peter S.; Teerlink, John R.; Boer-Martins, Leandro; Gimpelewicz, Claudio; Davison, Beth A.; Wang, Yi; Voors, Adriaan A.; Severin, Thomas; Ponikowski, Piotr; Hua, Tsushung A.; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Felker, G. Michael; Cotter, Gad; Metra, Marco

    Background Signs and symptoms of heart failure can occur at any time. Differences between acute heart failure (AHF) patients who present at nighttime vs daytime and their outcomes have not been well studied. Our objective was to determine if there are differences in baseline characteristics and

  16. Theory and Practice in Finnish Teacher Education: A Rhetorical Analysis of Changing Values from the 1960S to the Present Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säntti, Janne; Puustinen, Mikko; Salminen, Jari

    2018-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to examine the relationship between theory and practice in Finnish teacher education from the 1960s to the present. We identify four different periods to represent this relationship based on our analysis of national committee and evaluation reports. Theory and practice gradually converged, culminating in a research-based…

  17. The present-day chemical composition of the SMC from UVES spectra of the sharp-lined, B-type dwarf AV 304

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolleston, WRJ; Venn, K; Tolstoy, E; Dufton, PL

    High-resolution spectroscopic VLT/UVES observations are presented for the B-type main-sequence star, AV 304, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These spectra have been analysed using LTE model-atmosphere techniques, to derive stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions. As AV 304 is

  18. Present day situation and perspectives of the nuclear sector in the USA; La situation actuelle et les perspectives du secteur nucleaire aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the restart-up of Browns Ferry NPP on May 22, 2007, the US nuclear park comprises now 104 reactors in operation: 35 BWR-type and 69 PWR-type. NPPs are present in only 31 states and mainly in the eastern half of the country. Nuclear energy represents 20% of the US energy mix (coal: 50%, gas: 19%, hydro-power: 6%, petroleum: 3% and other renewable energies: 2%). The highest average availability rate in power generation is reached by nuclear energy (89.9%). The nuclear power generation reached 787.2 TWh in 2006, i.e. the second best result after the 2004 record (788.5 TWh). This document presents also some nuclear safety and radioprotection indicators (number of unplanned outages, failures, injury frequency rate), the programme of licenses extension, the permissions for power increase, the demands for design certification, for early site permit, and for combined construction permit and operating license. The regulation may be different from one state to the other and sometimes not favorable to a re-launch of nuclear energy. The situation of each state in this domain is presented in appendix. (J.S.)

  19. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Present state of the design and realization of regional radioactive waste depositories and waste acceptance criteria for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortus, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surface type regional depositories for radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are described in detail. The depository of the Mochovce nuclear power plant is located near the plant, that of the Dukovany nuclear power plant is directly on the premises of the plant. Particular attention is paid to the design of the monolithic reinforced concrete pits, draining of rainwater from their surface, draining of seeping rainwater from the pit environment by means of a double drainage system, and insulation of the pits against water. The construction of the Mochovce depository started in 1987; some experience gained from this activity is presented. The radioactive waste acceptance criteria for depositories of this kind, based on safety analysis, are given. (author). 2 figs

  1. Mass balance of Graham Land at present-day and over the past 150 years using GRACE and GNSS station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Landerer, F. W.; Simms, A.; Yuan, D. N.; Boening, C.; Domack, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has been warming at an anomalously high rate with respect to other parts of the globe for the past 115 years. The increased atmospheric and ocean warmth has caused both increased precipitation and loss of buttressing near the trunks of the numerous outlet glaciers that drain into the ocean. The measurements by space gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment or 'GRACE') have been crucial to identifying the dominant role of losses in butressing in a decadal-scale total ice mass budget for the Peninsula north of about 69 °S. One of the major losses of butressing came at a time when the Larsen B Ice Shelf catastrophically disintegrated into the northernmost Weddell Sea in March of 2002, the same month that GRACE was launched into orbit. The solid Earth rebounded in phase with the speed-up of the unbutressed outlet glaciers as evidenced by GNSS station data. The process has been repeating itself throughout the northern Peninsula since the late 1980's. Larsen A Ice Shelf breakup (LAISb) occurred, for example, in the Austral summer of 1993. Rott et al. (2011) have estimated a velocity acceleration at the trunks of 11 LBISb outlet glaciers for which flux-gate mass transport can be measured. Butress loss caused an increase in discharge of 4.3 ± 1.6 Gt/a in 2008, relative to measurements that span 1995-1999 for 11 Larsen B feeding glaciers. GRACE analysis centers have now released 12 years of monthly solutions (RL05) for global mass change. Solutions for the region of the Peninsula north of 69 ° S (Graham Land) using both constrained and unconstrained mascon methods show 2003-2011 net ice loss to the oceans with a trend of greater than 32 Gt/yr (Ivins et al., 2011; Luthcke et al., 2013). A new set of mascon solutions developed by JPL (Wiese et al., 2014) provide a high-resolution look at the evolution of mass in the Antarctic Peninsula from 2003-2014. We employ a time-series from these solutions and discuss the evolution of mass changes

  2. I mutamenti tecnologici nelle condizioni odierne: riflessioni di un economista. (Technological changes in present-day conditions: reflections of an economist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tutti gli economisti concordano sul fatto che i cambiamenti tecnologici costituiscono la principale fonte di sviluppo economico . Tuttavia , molti economisti sono convinti che tali cambiamenti sono importanti solo per spinegre verso l'alto il tasso di sviluppo economico, che a lungo andare sarebbe altrimenti più basso e costante , con l'accumulazione di capitale e forza lavoro di crescita in atto gradualmente . Al contrario , il presente lavoro sostiene che nel lungo periodo , il progresso tecnico non è il fattore principale dello sviluppo economico , ma piuttosto una condizione necessaria . L'autore esamina l'evoluzione tecnologica nella teoria economica e la storia dello sviluppo economico . La disoccupazione tecnologica e la disoccupazione keynesiana sono quindi analizzate , così come la riduzione dell'orario di lavoro . Infine , l'autore considera più recenti sviluppi tecnologici ed economici e la loro relazione con il lavoro manuale e intellettuale .All economists agree that technological changes constitute the main source of economic development. Nonetheless, many economists are convinced that such changes are important only in pushing up the rate of economic development, which in the long run would otherwise be lower and constant, with capital accumulation and labor force growth taking place gradually. To the contrary, the present work argues that in the long run, technical progress is not the main factor of economic development, but rather a necessary condition. The author examines technological change in economic theory and the history of economic development. Technological unemployment and Keynesian unemployment are then considered as well as the reduction of working hours. Finally, the author considers more recent technological and economic developments and their relation to manual and intellectual labour.JEL: O33, E24

  3. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  4. Madonna: Feminist or Antifeminist? Domination of Sex in Her Music Videos and Live Performances From the 20th Century to the Present Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Mitić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After a nearly four-decade career, Madonna has not stopped with a modernist/postmodernist strategy of shock, which provides the reader or viewer the possibility of different interpretations of her art. While some art theorists condemn her as a ‘total antifeminist’, others praise Madonna’s work and point out her feminist side, through which she represents the ideal of a strong, independent and successful womanconfirming her own power and sexuality. Breaking conventional stereotypes through her videos and concert performances, the ‘Queen of Pop’ constantly demonstrates sexual dominance over both genders. In this paper, based on the contemporary research of Douglas Kellner and other theorists, I will analyze music videos and live performances from the 1990suntil the recent video for the song Bitch, I’m Madonna and consider why Madonna can be interpreted in two ways – as someone who ‘undermines her own feminism’ or as someone who is transparently presented as a feminist in the world of pop culture.

  5. Present day status of uranium and thorium survey in the French Union; Etat actuel des recherches d'uranium et de thorium dans l'Union Francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoble, A; Gangloff, A

    1958-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to underline the main facts concerning: 1) those deposits on which depends or will depend the production of uranium during the next 5 or 10 years; 2) the future of that production as it appears from a detailed study of areas or deposits; 3) the new observations made in the course of prospecting and which may be of practical importance on the scientific and eventually on the industrial level. A description is given of the present general aspect of uranium prospecting in France and its overseas territories. [French] Le but de cette communication est de degager les principaux faits concernant: 1) les gisements qui assurent ou assureront au cours des 5 ou 10 prochaines annees la production d'uranium; 2) les perspectives de production ouvertes par l'etude detaillee de districts ou de gisements; 3) les observations nouvelles faites en prospection, et qui peuvent avoir sur le plan scientifique et eventuellement industriel une importance reelle. Elle met en lumiere la physionomie generale actuelle des recherches d'uranium en France d'abord, dans les territoires d'outre-mer ensuite. (auteurs)

  6. Detailed study of transmutation scenarios involving present day reactor technologies; Etude detaillee des scenarios de transmutation faisant appel aux technologies actuelles pour les reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document makes a detailed technical evaluation of three families of separation-transmutation scenarios for the management of radioactive wastes. These scenarios are based on 2 parks of reactors which recycle plutonium and minor actinides in an homogeneous way. A first scenario considers the multi-recycling of Pu and Np and the mono-recycling of Am and Cm using both PWRs and FBRs. A second scenario is based on PWRs only, while a third one considers FBRs only. The mixed PWR+FBR scenario requires innovative options and gathers more technical difficulties due to the americium and curium management in a minimum flux of materials. A particular attention has been given to the different steps of the fuel cycle (fuels and targets fabrication, burnup, spent fuel processing, targets management). The feasibility of scenarios of homogeneous actinides recycling in PWRs-only and in FBRs-only has been evaluated according to the results of the first scenario: fluxes of materials, spent fuel reprocessing by advanced separation, impact of the presence of actinides on PWRs and FBRs operation. The efficiency of the different scenarios on the abatement of wastes radio-toxicity is presented in conclusion. (J.S.)

  7. More than a century of bathymetric observations and present-day shallow sediment characterization in Belfast Bay, Maine, USA: implications for pockmark field longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Laura L.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Maynard, Melissa Landon

    2011-08-01

    Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999-2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in

  8. National and regional climate change impact assessments in the forestry sector. Workshop summary and abstracts of oral and poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, M [ed.

    2000-07-01

    Climate change is likely to affect forests and the forest industry during the 21{sup st} century. Different processes in forest ecosystems and the forest sector are sensitive to climate and many different projects have been conducted, in which the scale of study varied from the individual leaf to the whole globe. Several attempts have been made to link impact models (e.g., ecological and socio-economic models), and to integrate them in national or regional climate impact assessment studies. However, integration of climate impact assessments for the forestry sector is still a relatively new issue on the research agenda. From November 10 to 13, 1999 the Postdam Institue for Climate Impact Research and the European Forest Institute organised a workshop in Wenddoche near Belzig (Germany) to bring together individuals and research groups from the currently developing research community, to provide a forum for the exchange of experience, and to stimulate further research collaboration. The workshop attracted 31 scientists from 12 countries, representing a wide range of disciplines covering ecophysiology, soils, forest ecology, growth and yield, silviculture, remote sensing, forest policy, and forest economics. Several presentations investigated possible impacts of climate change on forest growth and development. A second major topic was the carbon budget and the possible contribution of forestry to carbon dioxide mitigation. The third important focus was the application of economic models to estimate socio-economic consequences of changes in forest productivity and the linkage of ecological and economic models. Non-timber forest benefits were addressed in one regional impact assessment and in two national integrated assessments from the U.S. and Germany. The latter also included social components with the involvement of stakeholders and the decision making of forest owners under global change.

  9. Histoire, mémoire et identité nationale History, memory and national identity. A German triptych confronted by present-day social evolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Rambour

    2009-06-01

    identity seem to be intertwined in this specific context, aspirations for a kind of “normality” in the manner of living this past and to express oneself in the present appear. The fall of the Berlin Wall and Reunification have placed the topic of national identity at the core of debates; thus reviving the dilemma between a guilt feeling in the face of history and the desire for a “normalized” relationship with the German nation. However, the changes in Germany over the last decade make it necessary to remain vigilant. A situation of economic and social unrest, as time threatens to alleviate the weight of a heavy past, reminds us that memories also condition the way a reunified nation will consider its future and experience its own identity.

  10. Present day engines pollutant emissions: proposed model for refinery bases impact; Emissions de polluants des moteurs actuels: modelisation de l'impact des bases de raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochart, N.; Jeuland, N.; Montagne, X. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Div. Techniques d' Applications Energetiques, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Raux, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Div. Techniques d' Applications Energetiques, Centre d' Etudes et de Developpement Industriel, Rene Navarre, 69 - Vernaison (France); Belot, G.; Cahill, B. [PSA-Peugiot-Citroen, 92 - La Garenne-Colombes (France); Faucon, R.; Petit, A. [Renault, 91 - Lardy (France); Michon, S. [Renault Trucks Powertrain, 69 - Saint Priest (France)

    2003-07-01

    Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns for the coming years. For this reason, car manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and refiners have explored development issues to comply with increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. In such a context, the identification of the most promising improvement options is essential. A research program, carried out by IFP (Institut francais du petrole), and supported by the French Ministry of Industry, PSA-Peugeot-Citroen, Renault and RVI (Renault Vehicules Industriels), has been built to study this point. It is based on a 4-year program with different steps focused on new engine technologies which will be available in the next 20 years in order to answer to more and more severe pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions regulations. This program is divided into three main parts: the first one for Diesel car engines, the second for Diesel truck engines and the third for spark ignition engines. The aim of the work reported here is to characterize the effect of fuel formulation on pollutant emissions and engine tuning for different engine technologies. The originality of this study is to use refinery bases as parameters and not conventional physical or chemical parameters. The tested fuels have been chosen in order to represent the major refinery bases expected to be produced in the near future. These results, expressed with linear correlations between fuel composition and pollutant emissions, will help to give a new orientation to refinery tool. The engines presented in this publication are, for spark ignition engines, an EuroII lean-burn engine (Honda VTEC which equips the Honda Civic) and an EuroIII 1.8 l stoichiometric-running Renault engine which equips the Laguna vehicles, and, for diesel engines, an EuroII Renault Laguna 2.2 l indirect injection diesel engine and an EuroII RVI truck engine. For the fuel formulation, an original approach is proposed: while the classical studies are based

  11. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression

  12. Brain regions activated by the passive processing of visually- and auditorily-presented words measured by averaged PET images of blood flow change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Posner, M.I.; Raichle, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    A limited number of regions specific to input modality are activated by the auditory and visual presentation of single words. These regions include primary auditory and visual cortex, and modality-specific higher order region that may be performing computations at a word level of analysis

  13. Suscetibilidade do ambiente a ocorrências de queimadas sob condições climáticas atuais e de futuro aquecimento global Environmental susceptibility for the occurance of vegetacion burning under present day and future clobal warming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anailton Sales Mélo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As queimadas, a nível global, são a segunda maior fonte de emissões de gases de efeito estufa. Um passo importante para a redução dos impactos das queimadas é por meio de investigação da suscetibilidade, que um determinado ambiente possui para a queima ou mesmo para o alastramento do fogo (risco de fogo. Diante da necessidade de se conhecer possíveis implicações das mudanças na circulação atmosférica em um futuro próximo, pretende-se neste trabalho investigar a suscetibilidade do ambiente à ocorrência de queimadas, baseado no índice de risco de queimadas, a saber: o Índice de Haines (IH. Para tanto, dados de modelagem numérica do modelo ECHAM5/MPI-OM, e dados das reanálises do NCEP são empregados para os cálculos do IH em dois períodos: atual (1980-2000 e projeções climáticas para o final do século (2080-2100. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que o modelo de risco de fogo reproduz bem as áreas com maior incidência de queimadas sob condições atuais, e que sob condições de aquecimento global detectou-se um aumento na área de risco em especial para a região Amazônica.Vegetation burning is the second source of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. An important step to reduce the climate impact of these emissions is to investigate the atmospheric susceptibility of a region for fire development (fire risk. This study aims to investigate the environmental susceptibility to fire development, based on the burning risk index: the Haines Index (HI. The study is carried out with data from the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model and the NCEP reanalysis data, to calculate the HI during two periods: present day (1980-2000 and climate projections for the end of the 21st century (2080-2100. Based upon the results, we concluded that the Haines index could reproduce properly the areas with the highest fire incidence under present conditions. Moreover, it has been found an enlargement in the fire risk area under global

  14. Perceptions of Present and Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability for Agricultural Systems in the Western Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Phuoc Lai Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Mediterranean countries have experienced water shortages during the last 20 years and future climate change projections foresee further pressure on water resources. This will have significant implications for irrigation water management in agricultural systems in the future. Through qualitative and quantitative empirical research methods carried out on a case study on four Mediterranean farming systems located in Oristano, Italy, we sought to understand the relationship between farmers’ perceptions of climate change (i.e., increased temperature and decreased precipitation and of present and future water availability for agriculture as forecasted by climatic and crop models. We also explored asymmetries between farmers’ perceptions and present and future climate change and water scenarios as well as factors influencing perceptions. Our hypotheses were that farmers’ perceptions are the main drivers of actual water management practices and that sustainable practices can emerge from learning spaces designed from the understanding of the gaps between perceptions and scientific evidences. Results showed that most farmers perceived that climate change is occurring or will occur in their area. They also perceived that there has been an increased temperature trend, but also increased precipitation. Therefore, they are convinced that they have and will have enough irrigation water for agriculture in the near future, while climate change projections foresee an increasing pressure on water resources in the Mediterranean region. Such results suggest the need for (i irrigation management policies that take into account farmers’ perceptions in order to promote virtuous behaviors and improve irrigation water use efficiency; (ii new, well-designed learning spaces to improve the understanding on climate change expectations in the near future in order to support effective adaptive responses at the farm and catchment scales.

  15. Geochemical evidence of present-day serpentinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, I; Lamarche, V C; Himmelberg, G

    1967-05-12

    Ultrabasic (pH > 11) water issues from some fresh ultramafic bodies. The properties of the ultrabasic solutions are believed to be due to current reactions yielding serpentine from primary olivines and pyroxenes. The low concentrations of divalent airon. divalent magnesium, and dissolved silica from the serpentinization require an increase in rock volume.

  16. Antibiotics: from prehistory to the present day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Antimicrobials have been in use for many thousands of years in a variety of formats. In this article, I trace how we have moved from ingenious use of agents available in the environment to chemically engineered agents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. OXA-Carbapenemases Present in Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex Isolates from Patients in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjo, Aryann R; Maghdid, Delshad M; Mansoor, Isam Y; Kok, Dik J; Severin, Juliette A; Verbrugh, Henri A; Kreft, Deborah; Fatah, M H; Alnakshabandi, A A; Dlnya, Asad; Hammerum, Anette M; Ng, Kim; Goessens, Wil

    2016-12-01

    In addition to intrinsic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, many different types of acquired resistance mechanisms have been reported, including the presence of VIM and IMP metallo β-lactamases and also of bla OXA-23-like and bla OXA-58-like enzymes. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, the multiresistant A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex is prevalent. We characterized the different mechanisms of resistance present in clinical isolates collected from different wards and different hospitals from the Kurdistan region. One hundred twenty clinical nonduplicate A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates were collected from four hospitals between January 2012 and October 2013. The identification of the isolates was confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion and analyzed in accordance to EUCAST guidelines. By PCR, the presence of bla OXA-51-like , bla OXA-23-like , bla OXA-24-like , and bla OXA-58-like genes was determined as well as the presence of the insertion element ISAba1. Clonal diversity was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme ApaI and, in addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a selected subset of 15 isolates. All 120 A. baumannii isolates harbored bla OXA-51-like genes. One hundred one out of 110 (92%) imipenem (IMP)-resistant A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates additionally carried the bla OXA-23-like gene and four isolates (3%) were positive for bla OXA-24-like. All 101 bla OXA-23-like -positive isolates had the ISAba1 insertion sequence, 1,600 bp upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene. The bla OXA-58-like gene was not detected in any of the 110 IMP-resistant strains. Eight different PFGE clusters were identified and distributed over the different hospitals. MLST analysis performed on a subset of 15 representative isolates revealed the presence of the international clone ST2 (Pasteur). Besides ST2 (Pasteur), also many other

  18. Prevalent infant feeding practices among the mothers presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Garhwal Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Kumar Rathaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of studies on infant feeding practices from the rural areas of garhwal Himalayas of the state of uttarakhand. The present study was designed to assess the infant feeding practices in Garhwal region. Infant feeding practices have significant implications on a child's health. Early nutritional status especially during the first year of life has been shown to have a significant effect on child health and development. Optimal infant feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. The study of infant feeding practices is essential before formulation of any interventional programme. Settings and Design: A study was conducted in HNB Base Hospital and Teaching Institute with the aim to assess the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of malnutrition in the study population reporting at the hospital in garhwal region of uttarakhand. Methods and Material: This is an observational cross sectional study. 275 infants were included in the study. After taking informed consent, case study forms were filled by interviewing the infants' mothers. Weight, length and head circumference of each infant was also measured. The information thus obtained was compiled, tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that 46.4% infants in the age group 0-5 months were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. 52.8% infants aged 0-5 months of were exclusively breastfed. 33.6% infants in age group 0-5 months received prelacteal feeds. 53.12% infants in age group 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid or soft food, in addition to breast milk. 53.33% infants were partially or fully bottle fed. Age appropriate feeding was found in 56% infants. The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 0-5 months was 33.6%,30.4% and 36.8% respectively . The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 6-11 months was 28%, 26.5% and

  19. Information Services; A Survey of the History and Present Status of the Field. MOREL Regional Information System for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, George

    This document is one of a series describing the background, functions, and utilization of the Regional Information System (RIS) developed by the Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory (MOREL). The continuing history of the field of librarianship and information services is reviewed in this report. The first part covers ancient times to the…

  20. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emma; Hohnen, Harry; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Scalley, Benjamin D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011-2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell's cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including individual attributes, experiences and relationships and systemic factors

  1. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  2. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  3. Identification of Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal Regions of the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Jonathan; Peoples, Logan M; Hardy, Kevin; Cameron, James; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs). Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1 m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in 34 bacterial and 4 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper regions of the Mariana Trench

  4. European Corn Borer life stage model: Regional estimates of pest development and spatial distribution under present and future climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant - others:6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007

  5. Dinosaur Day!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  6. OXA-carbapenemases present in clinical acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates from patients in kurdistan region, Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganjo, A.R. (Aryann R.); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); Mansoor, I.Y. (Isam Y.); Kok, D.J. (Dik J.); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); D. Kreft; Fatah, M.H.; Alnakshabandi, A.A.; Dlnya, A. (Asad); Hammerum, A.M. (Anette M.); Ng, K. (Kim); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn addition to intrinsic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, many different types of acquired resistance mechanisms have been reported, including the presence of VIM and IMP metallo β-lactamases and also of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like enzymes. In the Kurdistan region of

  7. Presented by REL Pacific at McREL: A Summary of Cross-Regional Educational Laboratory Studies. Research Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2013

    2013-01-01

    REL Pacific at McREL, 1 of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic…

  8. Targets of DNA-binding proteins in bacterial promoter regions present enhanced probabilities for spontaneous thermal openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolaki, Angeliki; Kalosakas, George

    2011-01-01

    We mapped promoter regions of double-stranded DNA with respect to the probabilities of appearance of relatively large bubble openings exclusively due to thermal fluctuations at physiological temperatures. We analyzed five well-studied promoter regions of procaryotic type and found a spatial correlation between the binding sites of transcription factors and the position of peaks in the probability pattern of large thermal openings. Other distinct peaks of the calculated patterns correlate with potential binding sites of DNA-binding proteins. These results suggest that a DNA molecule would more frequently expose the bases that participate in contacts with proteins, which would probably enhance the probability of the latter to reach their targets. It also stands for using this method as a means to analyze DNA sequences based on their intrinsic thermal properties

  9. Effect of Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on Brachial Region of the Spinal Cord of an 18-Day Old Rat Offspring with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Diabetes can affect the spinal cord, an important part of the central nervous system. Fenugreek seed has been suggested to have potential antidiabetic effects. This study was conducted to assess the effects of Fenugreek seed extract (trigonella foenum-graecum on fetal spinal cord structure, specifically in the brachial enlargement cord in an 18-day old fetus of diabetic mothers treated with extracts in comparison with the control groups' mothers. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, sixteen healthy female rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: Healthy control, Diabetes control, Fenugreek control, Fenugreek treatment. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotcin (50 mg/kg. All four groups became pregnant by natural mating. After formation of the nervous system, two fetuses from each group were expelled by cesarean after performing anesthesia on the animals on 18th day of pregnancy furthermore their brachial enlargement spinal cord samples were taken. Finally, the tissue sections were prepared by routine procedures and diverse histological parameters were examined. The collected data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: results showed that fetal body weight on the diabetic control group was significantly higher compared to the other groups (P≤ 0/05. Moreover, significant reductions in the transvers and vertical diameters in central channel of the spinal cord and as well in the number of neurons of the spinal cord gray matter in the diabetic control groups in comparison with the other groups were observed (P≤0/05. Conclusion: The hyperglycemic effect of maternal diabetes during fetal period causes abnormalities, especially in the brachial enlargement of spinal cord, including changes in the spinal cord and neurons number in the gray matter. Disorders occurring in the prenatal remains and may perhaps cause lack of ability to perform certain physical activities. Key words

  10. Day and nighttime L-Band amplitude scintillations during low solar activity at a low latitude station in the South Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ramendra; Kumar, Sushil

    2017-12-01

    A morphological study of GPS L-band amplitude scintillations observed at a low latitude station, Suva (18.1°S, 178.4°E), Fiji, during low solar activity year 2010 of solar cycle 24, has been presented. Out of a total of 480 scintillation events recorded during 2010, 84.4% were weak (0.2 ≤ S4 < 0.3), 14.6% moderate (0.3 ≤ S4 < 0.45) and only 1% strong (0.45 ≤ S4). The amplitude scintillations were most pronounced in the local daytime with January registering the highest occurrence. Seasonal analysis revealed maximum scintillation occurrence during summer as compared to winter and equinox seasons. The daytime scintillation with a maximum in the summer is consistent with localized blanketing sporadic E observations and could also be possibly due to lightning activity around the observing station. Annual percentage occurrence shows that scintillations occurred mostly in the daytime with peak occurrence at around 05:00-09:00 LT. The daytime strong scintillation events were not associated with vTEC depletions and phase scintillations, but the signal to noise ratio during the scintillation events decreased with increase in scintillation index (S4). However, the post-midnight strong amplitude scintillations were associated with vTEC depletions and phase scintillations indicative of large scale irregularities (spread-F). The geomagnetic activity effect showed enhanced occurrence on geomagnetically disturbed days as compared to quite conditions. The geomagnetic storm effect on scintillations for 17 storms of different strengths (Dst ≤ 50 nT) during 2010-2011 showed an increase in the occurrence of post-storm scintillations, on the days following the storm.

  11. Investigations in the field electron emission at the Siemens research laboratory directed by Gustav Hertz between 1935 and 1945 and their significance for the present-day surface physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author, who was a co-worker of Gustav Hertz, describes briefly the early history of field emission research and the fundamental results, i.e. the invention of the field electron microscope by E. W. Mueller and the first confirmation of the quantum mechanical Fowler-Nordheim theory by R. A. Haefer, and points out their significance for present-day surface physics and technology. (author)

  12. Examples Not Numbers: Using Historical Events To Present Regional Hazard Information And Stimulate Client Thinking In The Insurance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, J.; Switzer, A.; Gouramanis, C.; Rush, B.; Reynolds, I.; Ryrie, S.; Soria, L.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal hazards, including tsunami and storm surges, periodically affect many of the world's coasts. Re-insurers and insurance companies use a variety of means to understand and quantify the recurrence interval and risk of such events. Such work is done with the primary aim of placing monetary values on the risk. This collective understanding is often gleaned from the available scientific literature and commonly makes use of maps to delineate areas of risk that assist in communicating risk with clients. In this study we approached the problem of producing an integrated map of coastal hazards (storm and tsunami) for much of southeast Asia (including the Bay of Bengal and northern Australia). Initial analysis showed that assessments based on the short, partial and, for the most part, fragmentary documented history of past events in southeast Asia, would deem almost every coast on the map at high risk of coastal hazards at the regional scale. Although this may be true to a certain extent it would be unjust and unscientific to label entire coastlines 'high risk' as clearly particular sites on any coast are more susceptible to coastal hazards at the local scale. This raises the question: What is the best way to communicate risk at a regional scale without broad generalisations? Our recent collaboration with a major re-insurer lead to the creation of a new form of map (poster) for their clientele using a case study approach aimed at getting clients to think about the details of historical events in the context of localised risk. Using the pedagogical premise of 'Concept, Example, Consequence', we highlight risk in a way that will hopefully stimulate thought among practitioners and provide an alternative to the broad generalizations found in many products in the marketplace. The envisaged outcome is to enhance communication of site-specific risk assessments between stakeholders and encourage a better understanding of localised and regional risk.

  13. From the past to the present: Wolf phylogeography and demographic history based on the mitochondrial control region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ersmark

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The global distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus is a complex assembly consisting of a large number of populations and described subspecies. How these lineages are related to one another is still not fully resolved, largely due to the fact that large geographical regions remain poorly sampled both at the core and periphery of the species’ range. Analyses of ancient wolves have also suffered from uneven sampling, but have shown indications of a major turnover at some point during the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary in northern North America. Here we analyze variation in the mitochondrial control region in 122 contemporary wolves from some of the less studied populations, as well as six samples from the previously unstudied Greenland subspecies (Canis l. orion and two Late Pleistocene samples from Siberia. Together with the publicly available control region sequences of both modern and ancient wolves, this study examines genetic diversity on a wide geographical and temporal scale that includes both Eurasia and North America. We identify 13 new haplotypes, of which the majority is found in northern and eastern Asia. The results show that the Greenland samples are all represented by one haplotype, previously identified in North American wolves, among which this population seems to trace its maternal lineage. The phylogeny and network analyses show a wide spatial distribution of several lineages, but also some clusters with more distinct geographical affiliation. In North America, we find support for an end-Pleistocene population bottleneck through coalescent simulations under an approximate Bayesian framework in contrast to previous studies that suggested an extinction-replacement event. However, we find no support for a similar bottleneck in Eurasia. Overall, this global analysis helps to clarify our understanding of the complex history for wolves in Eurasia and North America.

  14. Presentations from the Workshop On SABER: South Arc Beam Experimental Region, March 15-16, 2006, Menlo Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.

    2006-01-01

    SABER (the South Arc Beam Experimental Region) is a proposed facility for experiments with 30 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac. The combination of a short bunch length (s z ∼ 30 microns), high beam charge (3 nC), and small focal spot size (s r = 10 microns) will offer unique scientific opportunities. For more detailed information about the SABER facility and an overview of some of the science possible take a look at the SABER proposal. Initial experiments with electrons could start as early as 2007. A central goal of SABER is to provide a facility responsive to the research needs of its users. The workshop's purposes are to introduce SABER to the potential user community and to explore the range of experiments that are possible. This is an opportunity for the research community to provide input about science at SABER and on the required beam parameters and infrastructure

  15. Day Care: Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartarson, Freida; And Others

    This collection of 5 bilingual papers on day care programs in foreign countries (China, the Soviet Union, and 3 Scandinavian countries) is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I considers day care services in…

  16. Microbial and viral-like rhodopsins present in coastal marine sediments from four polar and subpolar regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, José L.; Golemba, Marcelo; Hernández, Edgardo; Lozada, Mariana; Dionisi, Hebe; Jansson, Janet K.; Carroll, Jolynn; Lundgren, Leif; Sjöling, Sara; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Sobecky, Patricia

    2016-11-03

    Rhodopsins are broadly distributed. In this work, we analyzed 23 metagenomes corresponding to marine sediment samples from four regions that share cold climate conditions (Norway; Sweden; Argentina and Antarctica). In order to investigate the genes evolution of viral rhodopsins, an initial set of 6224 bacterial rhodopsin sequences according to COG5524 were retrieved from the 23 metagenomes. After selection by the presence of transmembrane domains and alignment, 123 viral (51) and non-viral (72) sequences (>50 amino acids) were finally included in further analysis. Viral rhodopsin genes were homologs of Phaeocystis globosa virus and Organic lake Phycodnavirus. Non-viral microbial rhodopsin genes were ascribed to Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus and Cryptophyta and Fungi. A rescreening using Blastp, using as queries the viral sequences previously described, retrieved 30 sequences (>100 amino acids). Phylogeographic analysis revealed a geographical clustering of the sequences affiliated to the viral group. This clustering was not observed for the microbial non-viral sequences. The phylogenetic reconstruction allowed us to propose the existence of a putative ancestor of viral rhodopsin genes related to Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. This is the first report about the existence of a phylogeographic association of the viral rhodopsin sequences from marine sediments.

  17. Why do NRM regional planning processes and tools have limited effect? Presenting the perspective of the end user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Reiter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource managers are required to prepare a plan for managing the natural resources in their regions. Environmental decision support systems (EDSS have been developed to assist managers and stakeholders make decisions about complex natural resource problems. Research has shown that these EDSS are valuable and used internationally. However, sustainability science literature reports that too often these natural resource management (NRM plans are not consulted upon completion, and the EDSS are no longer used. To gain insight into why the EDSS are no longer used after the research and development phase of the NRM planning project, we have asked the stakeholders, as end users of the EDSS tool themselves, to share their perceptions of, and experience with development of the tool and then, the tool itself. This paper reports on the perspectives of the end users of an EDSS used in a South Australian NRM planning project from 2011 to 2013. The findings were mixed in that they show that the majority (90% of respondents felt the EDSS had overall value, yet it was virtually abandoned after the completion of the planning project. Further, just over half of respondents reported that they thought that the EDSS should have been used on a regular basis after the pilot project ended. We conclude that genuine capacity development, aided by the EDSS, took place during the project. However, the lack of use of the EDSS after the pilot project finished was the result of failures both with researcher follow up and especially with the lack of commitment from government agencies who support and influence the array of end users. Unless agencies commit to the changed practices identified by end users that would support ongoing use of EDSS it is inevitable that the legacy value of EDSS development will remain limited.

  18. Simulation of low-latitude ionospheric response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm using ionosonde-derived PRE vertical drifts over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, L. M.; Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present low-latitude ionospheric response over Indian longitude to the recent super geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015, using the Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) model which incorporates ionosonde-derived vertical drift impacted by prompt penetration eastward electric field occurring during the evening prereversal enhancement (PRE) in the vertical drift. The importance of this storm is that (1) Dst reaches as low as -228 nT and (2) prompt penetration of eastward electric field coincided with evening hours PRE. The daytime vertical E × B drifts in the SAMI2 model are, however, considered based on Scherliess-Fejer model. The simulations indicate a significant enhancement in F layer height and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the post sunset hours on 17 March 2015 vis-a-vis quiet day. The model simulations during recovery phase, considering disturbance dynamo vertical E × B drift along with equatorward disturbance wind, indicate suppression of the daytime EIA. SAMI2 simulations considering the disturbance wind during the recovery phase suggest that equatorward wind enhances the ionospheric density in the low latitude; however, its role in the formation of the EIA depends on the polarity of the zonal electric field. Comparison of model derived total electron content (TEC) with the TEC from ground GPS receivers indicates that model does reproduce enhancement of the EIA during the main phase and suppression of the EIA during the recovery phase of the superstorm. However, peculiarities pertaining to the ionospheric response to prompt penetration electric field in the Indian sector vis-a-vis earlier reports from American sector have been discussed.

  19. Pamphlet day

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Phil; Dunne, Chris; Fowler, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Pamphlet Day: A Political Protest Pamphlet and Zine Event focused around the occupation of Loughborough Public Library, Granby Street, Loughborough, LE11 3DZ, UK. ABSTRACT “Throughout the 20th Century artists have engaged provocatively with text, images and performance, publishing writings, pamphlets, and manifestos that challenge the status quo.” (1) Loughborough Echo, May 2017 https://www.loughboroughecho.net/whats-on/arts-culture-news/pamphlet-art-feature-events-13038989 A s...

  20. Assessment of the present and future implications of radioactive contamination of the Irish Sea coastal region of Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Simmonds, J.R.; Cooper, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    An assessment has been made of the doses that could be received by people who make use of the Cumbrian coastal area. Current doses have been estimated for residents and visitors to different parts of the area. By making assumptions about changes in waste management practices at the BNFL Sellafield plant and in the geography of the coastal area, the development of doses over the next 200 years has been assessed. The study was confined to exposure pathways in the terrestrial environment, although the influence of liquid discharges on terrestrial pathways was taken into account. Consumption of marine foodstuffs was outside the scope of the study. As expected, the highest doses would be received by those people who live closest to Sellafield. However, in all cases doses to average individuals were well below the present limit for members of the public specified by ICRP. The general future trend was for doses to decline. Doses were also estimated for particular population groups such as those who spend more time on beaches. While the resultant values were higher than those for average individuals, they were still well within the ICRP limit in all cases. (author)

  1. Reports from dissemination and feed-back workshops with presentation of Volante results from WP1 and WP2, and response from local, regional, and national stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Vesterager, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2014-01-01

    The report constitutes an overview of the dissemination and feed-back workshops in the Volante case study countries: Netherlands, Romania, Austria, Greece and Denmark. The workshops were conducted based on the presentation of findings from WP1 and WP2 to national, regional and local stakeholders...

  2. Day-Ahead Natural Gas Demand Forecasting Using Optimized ABC-Based Neural Network with Sliding Window Technique: The Case Study of Regional Basis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akpinar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of energy consumption in the world is reflected in the consumption of natural gas. However, this increment requires additional investment. This effect leads imbalances in terms of demand forecasting, such as applying penalties in the case of error rates occurring beyond the acceptable limits. As the forecasting errors increase, penalties increase exponentially. Therefore, the optimal use of natural gas as a scarce resource is important. There are various demand forecast ranges for natural gas and the most difficult range among these demands is the day-ahead forecasting, since it is hard to implement and makes predictions with low error rates. The objective of this study is stabilizing gas tractions on day-ahead demand forecasting using low-consuming subscriber data for minimizing error using univariate artificial bee colony-based artificial neural networks (ANN-ABC. For this purpose, households and low-consuming commercial users’ four-year consumption data between the years of 2011–2014 are gathered in daily periods. Previous consumption values are used to forecast day-ahead consumption values with sliding window technique and other independent variables are not taken into account. Dataset is divided into two parts. First, three-year daily consumption values are used with a seven day window for training the networks, while the last year is used for the day-ahead demand forecasting. Results show that ANN-ABC is a strong, stable, and effective method with a low error rate of 14.9 mean absolute percentage error (MAPE for training utilizing MAPE with a univariate sliding window technique.

  3. Reversible Stress Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome with Elevated Troponin in the Absence of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities: A Forme Fruste of Stress Cardiomyopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Anantha Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of reversible stress cardiomyopathy in a surgical patient, described here as a forme fruste due to its atypical features. It is important to recognize such unusual presentation of stress cardiomyopathy that mimics acute coronary syndrome. Stress cardiomyopathy commonly presents as acute coronary syndrome and is characterized by typical or atypical variants of regional wall motion abnormalities. We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male with reversible stress cardiomyopathy following a sternal fracture fixation. Although the patient had several typical features of stress cardiomyopathy including physical stress, ST-segment elevation, elevated cardiac biomarkers and normal epicardial coronaries, there were few features that were atypical, including unusual age, gender, absence of regional wall motion abnormalities, high lateral ST elevation, and high troponin-ejection fraction product. In conclusion, this could represent a forme fruste of stress cardiomyopathy.

  4. Symptom presentations and other characteristics of colorectal cancer patients and the diagnostic performance of the Auckland Regional Grading Criteria for Suspected Colorectal Cancer in the South Auckland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, John C; Bai, Wayne; Lal, Dinesh

    2013-09-13

    This study reviews the presenting symptoms of colorectal cancer in the ethnically diverse Middlemore Hospital referral population of South Auckland, New Zealand. The performance of the newly introduced Auckland Regional Grading Criteria as prediction tool for selecting colorectal cancer cases referred from primary care was evaluated in this group. Retrospective review of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2011. Information extracted from case note review was used to grade patients using the Auckland Regional Grading Criteria. A total of 799 patients were included. The commonest symptoms were: rectal bleeding (25.5-42.3%) and change in bowel habit (20.6-26.8%). Low-risk symptoms including abdominal pain (16.3-46.8%) and weight loss (18.4-26.1%) were not uncommon. 64.4% of Maori and 64.9% of Pacific patients had stage III or IV cancers. Pacific patients had more stage IV disease, 37.7% (pAuckland Regional Grading Criteria would miss 24.7% of the patients with CRC in the referral population. While rectal bleeding and change in bowel habit are frequent presenting symptoms, low-risk atypical symptoms including constipation, weight loss and abdominal pain were not uncommon. Significant proportion of Pacific patients present with late-stage disease. The current Auckland Regional grading criteria would miss significant proportion of our study population with colorectal cancer.

  5. Between Anzac Day and Waitangi Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerwińska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the historical background and significance of the two most important national holidays in New Zealand: Waitangi Day and Anzac Day. Waitangi Day is celebrated on the 6th February and it commemorates the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between British representatives and a number of Māori chiefs in 1840. Following the signing of the treaty New Zealand became effectively a British colony. Anzac Day is celebrated on 25th April, i.e., on the anniversary of the landing of soldiers of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC on the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey in 1915, during World War One. There are three major differences between these two holidays: the process of those days becoming national holidays, the level of contestation, and the changing messages they have carried. The present study analyzes the national discourse around Anzac Day and Waitangi Day in New Zealand, and attempts to reveal how the official New Zealand government rhetoric about national unity becomes deconstructed. The following analysis is based on a selection of online articles from the New Zealand Herald and Stuff published in Auckland and Wellington, respectively. Both cities are populated by multi-ethnic groups, with Auckland featuring the largest Māori population.

  6. Seismicity and seismogenic structures of Central Apennines (Italy): constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms - The SLAM (Seismicity of Lazio-Abruzzo and Molise) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frepoli, Alberto; Battista Cimini, Giovanni; De Gori, Pasquale; De Luca, Gaetano; Marchetti, Alessandro; Montuori, Caterina; Pagliuca, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    We present new results for the microseismic activity in the Central Apennines recorded from a total of 81seismic stations. The large number of recording sites derives from the combination of temporary and permanent seismic networks operating in the study region. Between January 2009 and October 2013 we recorded 6923 earthquakes with local magnitudes ML ranging from 0.1 to 4.8. We located hypocentres by using a refined 1D crustal velocity model. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the axes of the Apenninic chain, while the seismic activity observed along the peri-Tyrrhenian margin is lower. The seismicity extends to a depth of 32 km; the hypocentral depth distribution exhibits a pronounced peak of seismic energy release in the depth range between 8 and 20 km. During the observation period we recorded two major seismic swarms and one seismic sequence in the Marsica-Sorano area in which we have had the largest detected magnitude (ML = 4.8). Fault plane solutions for a total of 600 earthquakes were derived from P-polarities. This new data set consists of a number of focal plane solutions that is about four times the data so far available for regional stress field study. The majority of the focal mechanisms show predominantly normal fault solutions. T-axis trends are oriented NE-SW confirming that the area is in extension. We also derived the azimuths of the principal stress axes by inverting the fault plane solutions and calculated the direction of the maximum horizontal stress, which is mainly sub-vertical oriented. The study region has been historically affected by many strong earthquakes, some of them very destructive. This work can give an important contribution to the seismic hazard assessment in an area densely populated as the city of Rome which is distant around 60 km from the main seismogenic structures of Central Apennine.

  7. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  8. Impacts of heavy groundwater pumping on hydrogeological conditions in Libya: Past and present development and future prognosis on a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgzeli, Yousef M.; Ondovčin, Tomáš; Hrkal, Zbyněk; Krásný, Jiří; Mls, Jiří

    2013-06-01

    Elgzeli, Y.M., Ondovčin, T., Hrkal, Z., Krasny, J. and Mls, J. 2011. Impacts of heavy groundwater pumping on hydrogeological conditions in Libya: Past and present development and future prognosis on a regional scale. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 283-296. Warszawa. Libya, like many other regions with arid climates, suffers from inadequate water resources to cover all the needs of this rapidly developing country. Increasing amounts of water are needed to supply the population, as well as for agricultural irrigation and industrial use. As groundwater is the main water source in the country, it represents a natural resource of the highest economic and social importance. Conceptual and numerical models were implemented on a regional scale to show how the natural situation has changed following heavy groundwater abstraction during the last decades in the northwestern part of the country. The results of the numerical model indicated that the current zones of depression of the piezometric surface could have been caused by smaller withdrawn amounts than previously estimated. The differences in the assessed withdrawn groundwater volumes seem to be quite high and might have a considerable influence on the future possibilities of groundwater use in the study region.

  9. Assessment of the performance of CORDEX-South Asia experiments for monsoonal precipitation over the Himalayan region during present climate: part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Choudhary, A.; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of regional climate simulations to evaluate the ability of 11 Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment in South Asia experiments (CORDEX-South Asia) along with their ensemble to produce precipitation from June to September (JJAS) over the Himalayan region have been carried out. These suite of 11 combinations come from 6 regional climate models (RCMs) driven with 10 initial and boundary conditions from different global climate models and are collectively referred here as 11 CORDEX South Asia experiments. All the RCMs use a similar domain and are having similar spatial resolution of 0.44° ( 50 km). The set of experiments are considered to study precipitation sensitivity associated with the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) over the study region. This effort is made as ISM plays a vital role in summertime precipitation over the Himalayan region which acts as driver for the sustenance of habitat, population, crop, glacier, hydrology etc. In addition, so far the summer monsoon precipitation climatology over the Himalayan region has not been studied with the help of CORDEX data. Thus this study is initiated to evaluate the ability of the experiments and their ensemble in reproducing the characteristics of summer monsoon precipitation over Himalayan region, for the present climate (1970-2005). The precipitation climatology, annual precipitation cycles and interannual variabilities from each simulation have been assessed against the gridded observational dataset: Asian Precipitation-Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources for the given time period. Further, after the selection of the better performing experiment the frequency distribution of precipitation was also studied. In this study, an approach has also been made to study the degree of agreement among individual experiments as a way to quantify the uncertainty among them. The experiments though show a wide variation among themselves and individually over

  10. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  11. Women of the Second Republic and the Civil War from the present-day democratic perspective | Las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil desde la perspectiva democrática actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The strong social interest which women of the Second Republic and the civil war arouse, together with the wealth of solid historical works with a gender perspective, justify female experiences having a place in the debate on the memory of these two periods. The survival to the present day of stereotypes and myths about Republican women, despite the historiographical progress, has served to consolidate a depoliticized view of the past, which presents women as heroines without a clear ideological profile and as innocent victims of the changes and upheaval of the 1930s. These myths and stereotypes, which emphasize the idea of change experienced by women, rather than continuity and resistance to change, have influenced the current perception of the extension of female citizenship in Spanish society. | El especial interés social que las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil despiertan, así como la existencia de una nutrida y sólida historiografía de género justifican que las experiencias femeninas ocupen un lugar en el debate sobre la memoria de estos dos periodos. La pervivencia, en la actualidad, de estereotipos y mitos sobre las mujeres republicanas, a pesar de los avances historiográficos, contribuye a consolidar una visión despolitizada del pasado, que presenta a las mujeres como heroínas sin un perfil ideológico claro y víctimas inocentes de las transformaciones y convulsiones de los años treinta. Estos mitos y estereotipos, que refuerzan la idea del cambio experimentado por las mujeres, olvidando las permanencias y las resistencias al mismo, influyen en la percepción actual sobre la ampliación de la ciudadanía femenina en la sociedad española.

  12. Prevalence and clinical presentation at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in AL-Baha region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Fureeh, Abdelhameed Ahmed

    2018-03-28

    The objectives were to describe the frequency of clinical presentation at the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to estimate the prevalence of T1DM among children and adolescents in the AL-Baha region, Saudi Arabia, aiming for early diagnosis of T1DM. The clinical and laboratory data of 471 children and adolescents who presented with T1DM and received medical care at an AL-Baha diabetic center during the period from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed based on the records. The prevalence of T1DM in the AL-Baha region was 355 per 100,000 population in participants aged from 0 to 19 years. T1DM was more common among girls than boys (57.5% vs. 42.5%, respectively; p=0.3), and the female/male ratio was 1.36 in favor of girls. Hyperglycemic symptoms were the most frequent symptoms at presentation [59.2% vs. 40.8% with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)], and 37% of them presented with loss of weight. Most of the ketoacidosis was mild to moderate (80.2%), while only 19.8% of children had the severe type and DKA was more common (55.2%) among females. The mean age at diagnosis of T1DM was 8.2±3.5 years for all patients, and 8.3±3.9 and 8.9±3.6 years for boys and girls, respectively (p=0.06). Hyperglycemic symptoms were more common in spring (15.9%). The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in the AL-Baha region was 355 per 100,000 population, which is one of the highest reported prevalences in this age group. Hyperglycemic symptoms were the most encountered symptoms at the onset of the presentation of T1DM and this may help in early detection of diabetic symptoms by patients and physicians to avoid the more severe types of presentation.

  13. Radiochemistry days; Journees radiochimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document provides the 44 papers (transparencies used during the presentations and posters) presented at the Radiochemistry Days, held September 3-4, 1998 in Nantes, France. The main studied topics were problematic questions concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and in particular the management, storage of radioactive wastes and the environmental impact. (O.M.)

  14. Pen Name as a Form of a Journalist’s Self-Presentation in the Late 19th — Early 20th Centuries Russian Regional Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Gridina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates into the role of pen-names in the self-presentation of a regional newspaper’s journalist, the pen name being analyzed as a kind of micro-text that models the reporter’s image according to their position within the edition’s information field, its stylistic and generic strategies of presenting information. From the onomasiological point of view, the authors distinguish between four types of journalistic pseudonyms: 1 pen names intended to present the author as an unspecified individual; 2 pseudonyms patterned after speaking names whose internal form stresses the characteristics of the journalist’s image; 3 pen names based on the culturally specific associative meaning of the motivating name — such names impose cultural and historical presuppositions governing the perception of the journalist’s image; 4 pen names with various role specializations that manifest the journalist’s inclination to ludic self-presentation. Each type corresponds to several ways of name creation. The latter include abbreviation, onymization of common nouns, different techniques of language game. The authors also establish the generalized strategies of communicational interaction between journalists and their readers: strategy of distancing, strategy of adhesion, and strategy of game interaction. The paper argues that there is correlation between the choice of an interaction strategy and the journalist’s image reflected in their pen name.

  15. Impact of Nano Carbons for the 4th Industrial Revolution: Presentation held at 8th Annual Stuttgart NanoDays Workshop on Challenges in Emerging Materials, September 14th-15th, 2016, Stuttgart

    OpenAIRE

    Kolaric, Ivica

    2016-01-01

    The creation of value of tangible goods such as cars, medicine, and cloth starts a t the material level. New alloys and fibers led to lighter, saver and more efficient transportation such as cars and planes. Furthermore, innovations on nano level led to very efficient and affordable electronics used every day be millions of users. Without research on nanomaterials mobile phones won’t be as smart as they are and their batteries won’t endure the whole day. Even though that the impact of nanomat...

  16. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients from Ceará (n = 23, Pernambuco (n = 41, Rio de Janeiro (n = 22 and Rondônia (RO (n = 78. All skin biopsies yielded SNP-based genotypes, while 48 of the samples (94.1% yielded complete VNTR genotypes. We evaluated two procedures for extracting M. leprae DNA from Z-N-stained slides: the first including Chelex and the other combining proteinase and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of the 76 samples processed using the first procedure, 30.2% were positive for 16 or 15 VNTRs, whereas of the 39 samples processed using the second procedure, 28.2% yielded genotypes defined by at least 10 VNTRs. Combined VNTR and SNP analysis revealed large variability in genotypes, but a high prevalence of SNP genotype 4 in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Our observation of two samples from RO with an identical genotype and seven groups with similar genotypes, including four derived from residents of the same state or region, suggest a tendency to form groups according to the origin of the isolates. This study demonstrates the existence of geographically related M. leprae genotypes and that Z-N-stained slides are an alternative source for M. leprae genotyping.

  17. Methodology of Day-To-Day Ship Costs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of assessing the day-to-day fixed costs of maritime cargo ships. The authoress refersthe reader to factors that affect the amount affixed daily costsand the day-to-day voyage costs of ships. In the last chapter thepaper presents an estimation of the average daily fixed costsand day-to-day voyage costs of ships per type and size for theyear 2003. Besides particular explanations, the reader is refe"ed to data bases that authentically impart data on the structureof maritime fleets and their technical characteristics, aswell as databases on prices and costs in maritime transport.

  18. Tectonic history in the Fort Worth Basin, north Texas, derived from well-log integration with multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys: implications for paleo and present-day seismicity in the basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.; Hornbach, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production in the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) in north Texas have accelerated in the last 10 years due to the success of unconventional gas production. Here, hydraulic fracturing wastewater is disposed via re-injection into deep wells that penetrate Ordovician carbonate formations. The rise in wastewater injection has coincided with a marked rise in earthquake rates, suggesting a causal relationship between industry practices and seismicity. Most studies addressing this relationship in intraplate regions like the FWB focus on current seismicity, which provides an a-posteriori assessment of the processes involved. 3D seismic reflection data contribute complementary information on the existence, distribution, orientation and long-term deformation history of faults that can potentially become reactivated by the injection process. Here we present new insights into the tectonic evolution of faults in the FWB using multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys in the basin, west of the Dallas Fort-Worth Metroplex, where high-volume wastewater injection wells have increased most significantly in number in the past few years. The datasets image with remarkable clarity the 3,300 m-thick sedimentary rocks of the basin, from the crystalline basement to the Cretaceous cover, with particular detail of the Paleozoic section. The data, interpreted using coincident and nearby wells to correlate seismic reflections with stratigraphic markers, allow us to identify faults, extract their orientation, length and displacements at several geologic time intervals, and therefore, reconstruct the long-term deformation history. Throughout the basin, the data show that all seismically detectable faults were active during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian, but that displacement amounts drop below data resolution ( 7 m) in the post-Pennsylvanian deposits. These results indicate that faults have been inactive for at least the past 300 Ma, until the recent 2008 surge in

  19. Remarks presented (questions/answers discussed) at public regional meetings to discuss regulations (10 CFR Part 21) for reporting of defects and noncompliance, July 12--26, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    In enacting the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, Congress included Section 206 which requires the reporting of defects and noncompliances directly to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This congressional action required that the NRC promulgate rules and regulations, as necessary, to assure appropriate implementation of Section 206. In response to this mandate, the NRC drafted a new regulation. Following a period of public comment and revision, the regulation identified as 10 CFR Part 21, Reporting Defects and Noncompliance, was published in a Federal Register Notice on June 6, 1977. To assist NRC licensees and other firms and organizations covered by the new Part 21 regulation, public regional meetings were conducted by staff representatives to explain the rule. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on the meaning and application of the rule. Staff remarks contained in the original publication of this document were also provided to those in attendance. At each meeting the staff received a request for the questions and answers discussed by the staff to be made available for use as guidance by the nuclear industry covered by the rule. It was announced that a consolidation of the staff position question/answer guidance would be made available to each organization or firm attending these meetings and for others where a request is made in accordance with the directions printed insidethe front cover of the document. The staff will be guided in its implementation and enforcement of Part 21 by the positions set forth in the document. The revision of NUREG-0302 includes the following three parts relating to 10 CFR Part 21: (1) remarks presented by staff representatives; (2) Federal Register Notice material; and (3) a consolidation of questions and answers from the public regional meetings

  20. A prospective comparison of times to presentation and treatment of regional and remote head and neck patients in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J Y-A; Otty, Z A; Vangaveti, V N; Buttner, P; Varma, S C; Joshi, A J; Kelly, J; Collins, M; Sabesan, S S

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine differences between outer regional (OR) and remote/very remote (RVR) patients in northern Queensland, Australia in the times taken to receive various aspects of head and neck cancer management. Our study prospectively recruited head and neck cancer patients presenting to three North Queensland regional hospitals from January 2009 to January 2011. Data on demographic and cancer-specific details, comorbidities and timing of presentation to various services, were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included two questions in relation to possible reason for delays to health services. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the effects of various demographic characteristics on time delays. Survival and disease recurrence data were analysed in 2014. One hundred and fifty-eight patients participated. RVR patients had significantly longer median times between diagnosis and first treatment compared with OR patients (P = 0.015). Indigenous patients had significant delays from diagnosis to first treatment (P = 0.013) and visit to first specialist and treatment (P = 0.031) compared to non-Indigenous patients. Longer median times between symptoms and first treatment was associated with low income (P = 0.03) and lower education level (P = 0.04). Disease recurrence was higher for RVR patients compared with OR patients (P = 0.04), without significant differences in overall survival. Possible reasons for delays included patient and professional factors. Significant delays in various aspects of head and neck cancer management were associated with remoteness, Indigenous and socioeconomic status. While patient and professional factors could be addressed at local levels, sustainable improvement in outcomes requires a state and national level approach. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  2. Every Child, Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  3. CERN openlab Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Purcell, Andrew Robert

    2015-01-01

    The CERN openlab Open Day took place on 10 June, 2015. This was the first in a series of annual events at which research and industrial teams from CERN openlab can present their projects, share achievements, and collect feedback from their user communities.

  4. Less rain, more water in ponds: a remote sensing study of the dynamics of surface waters from 1950 to present in pastoral Sahel (Gourma region, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gardelle

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the flooded area of ponds in the Gourma region from 1950 to present are studied by remote sensing, in the general context of the current multi-decennial Sahel drought. The seasonal and interannual variations of the areas covered by surface water are assessed using multi-date and multi-sensor satellite images (SPOT, FORMOSAT, LANDSAT-MSS, –TM, and -ETM, CORONA, and MODIS and aerial photographs (IGN. Water body classification is adapted to each type of spectral resolution, with or without a middle-infrared band, and each spatial resolution, using linear unmixing for mixed pixels of MODIS data. The high-frequency MODIS data document the seasonal cycle of flooded areas, with an abrupt rise early in wet season and a progressive decrease in the dry season. They also provide a base to study the inter-annual variability of the flooded areas, with sharp contrasts between dry years such as 2004 (low and early maximal area and wetter years such as 2001 and 2002 (respectively high and late maximal area.The highest flooded area reached annually greatly depends on the volume, intensity and timing of rain events. However, the overall reduction by 20% of annual rains during the last 40 years is concomitant with an apparently paradoxical large increase in the area of surface water, starting from the 1970's and accelerating in the mid 1980's. Spectacular for the two study cases of Agoufou and Ebang Mallam, for which time series covering the 1954 to present period exist, this increase is also diagnosed at the regional scale from LANDSAT data spanning 1972–2007. It reaches 108% between September 1975 and 2002 for 91 ponds identified in central Gourma. Ponds with turbid waters and no aquatic vegetation are mostly responsible for this increase, more pronounced in the centre and north of the study zone. Possible causes of the differential changes in flooded areas are discussed in relation with the specifics in topography, soil texture and vegetation

  5. Association of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With 30-Day Renal Function and 1-Year Outcomes Among Patients Presenting With Compromised Baseline Renal Function: Experience From the PARTNER 1 Trial and Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beohar, Nirat; Doshi, Darshan; Thourani, Vinod; Jensen, Hanna; Kodali, Susheel; Zhang, Feifan; Zhang, Yiran; Davidson, Charles; McCarthy, Patrick; Mack, Michael; Kapadia, Samir; Leon, Martin; Kirtane, Ajay

    2017-07-01

    The frequency of baseline renal impairment among high-risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and the effect of TAVR on subsequent renal function are, to our knowledge, unknown. To determine the effect of TAVR among patients with baseline renal impairment. This substudy of patients with baseline renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 mL/min) and paired baseline and 30-day measures of renal function undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER 1 trial and continued access registries was conducted in 25 centers in the United States and Canada. Patients were categorized with improved eGFR (30-day follow-up eGFR≥10% higher than baseline pre-TAVR), worsened eGFR (≥10% lower), or no change in renal function (neither). Baseline characteristics, 30-day to 1-year all-cause mortality, and repeat hospitalization were compared. Multivariable models were constructed to identify predictors of 1-year mortality and of improvement/worsening in eGFR. Of the 821 participants, 401 (48.8%) were women and the mean (SD) age for participants with improved, unchanged, or worsening eGFR was 84.90 (6.91) years, 84.37 (7.13) years, and 85.39 (6.40) years, respectively. The eGFR was 60 mL/min or lower among 821 patients (72%), of whom 345 (42%) improved, 196 (24%) worsened, and 280 (34%) had no change at 30 days. There were no differences in baseline age, body mass index, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, renal or liver disease, New York Heart Association III/IV symptoms, transaortic gradient, left ventricular ejection fraction, or procedural characteristics. The group with improved eGFR had more women, nonsmokers, and a lower cardiac index. Those with worsening eGFR had a higher median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score and left ventricle mass. From 30 days to 1 year, those with improved e

  6. Gis Day 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esri Italia Esri Italia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Si è svolto nelle Marche, ad Urbino, città simbolo del legame tra scienza e Rinascimento, il GIS DAY 2005; l’evento ha avuto il patrocinio di DAMAC – INTERREG SECUR SEA ed il supporto di: Regione Marche - Giunta Regionale, Contea di Zara (Croazia, Centro di Geobiologia - Università di Urbino, Forum delle Città dell’Adriatico e dello Ionio e Adriatic Action Plan 2020 ed ha sviluppato il tema dedicato ad “Un GIS interoperabile e internazionale”.

  7. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes at a regional hospital in KwaZulu Natal Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Msomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the incidence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is between 1% and 4% of all pregnancies.Objectives. The primary objectives of this study were to describe and compare the perinatal outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women presenting with PPROM to a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal.Methods. This was a retrospective analytical cross-sectional study which reviewed files of pregnant women presenting with premature rupture of membranes at gestation between 28 and 36 completed weeks. These were identified from the labour ward birth register and from the neonatal ward admission book. Categorical and numerical variables pertaining to the method of confirmation of diagnoses, clinical profiles, modes of delivery, maternal outcomes and neonatal outcomes were considered.Results. A total of 87 files were analysed. Forty-six women (53% were HIV-negative and 41 (47% were HIV-positive. Fifty-two percent were in the gestational age <34 weeks. Fifty-nine percent (n=51 of women delivered vaginally and 31% (n=27 delivered by caesarean delivery (CD. There was also no statistical significance between the Apgar scores of the HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed neonates, birth weights and modes of delivery. There was no statistical significance in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the duration of hospital stay between the two groups. The odds of developing neonatal jaundice (NNJ in the HIV-positive group was 0.14(95% confidence interval (CI 0 - 0.93, which was statistically significant. There was no reported maternal or neonatal mortality and no maternal morbidity associated with PPROM in either groups.Conclusion. This study suggests that there are no immediate significant differences in neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by PPROM between HIV-negative and HIV-positive women on ART except that of NNJ.

  8. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  9. World water day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The symposium on world water day for the year 2005 was held on 22nd March by the Pakistan Engineering congress in collaboration with Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). Six technical papers by engineers/experts presented on the diverse fields from large dams to drinking water and public hygiene. Paper published in this volume are open for written discussion. (orig./A.B.)

  10. La Macroregione Adriatico-Ionica: passato e presente – Eventi, problematiche e testimonianze, per costruire un futuro migliore (The Adriatic-Ionian Macro-Region, Past and Present, Events, Problems and Witness for the Construction of a Better Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Paula DOBRESCU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available he Adriatic-Ionian region (EUSAIR covers an outstanding area of maritime countries, of which four are member states of the European Union (Italy, Slovenia, Croatia and Greece and four non-members (Albania, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina. It is a crossroad meeting place of peoples, religions and cultures that are often at loggerheads, sometimes on speaking terms. Religion has contributed to widening the division. However, in the last decades progress has been made towards an inter-religious dialogue. The lessons of the remote past and recent times have brought home the need to strengthen relations, to extend friendship, to prepare to defend the common values of liberty, peace and justice. The problems in the Balkans, but also those world-wide, need a positive and coherent approach. Prosperity, security and harmony of the various ethnic- religious components in the macro-region must develop peacefully. Unfortunately, the threat of war and hatred are destabilizing many parts of the world and every religion is called upon to defend peace. It is time for the individual illuminated voices to be supported by the body of the people of God, that is, God, the common father of all men who has given humanity the great gift of choosing between Good and Evil.

  11. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1997-01-01

    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....

  12. Computer Security Day

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

      Viruses, phishing, malware and cyber-criminals can all threaten your computer and your data, even at CERN! Experts will share their experience with you and offer solutions to keep your computer secure. Thursday, 10 June 2010, 9.30, Council Chamber Make a note in your diary! Presentations in French and English: How do hackers break into your computer? Quels sont les enjeux et conséquences des attaques informatiques contre le CERN ? How so criminals steal your money on the Internet? Comment utiliser votre ordinateur de manière sécurisée ? and a quiz: test your knowledge and win one of the many prizes that will be on offer! For more information and to follow the day's events via a live webcast go to: http://cern.ch/SecDay.  

  13. Present day state of knowledge of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium; L'etat actuel des connaissances sur la transformation allotropique α-β de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de Technologie, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The technological conditions of the problem of α/β allotropic transformation of uranium are presented first. Then, the author explains the qualitative reasons why in non-allied uranium: 1) the new phase germination follows a consistent process; 2) the new phase growth, at the expense of the mother phase, proceeds either by martensitic-type shear or by thermal diffusion if the temperature and impurities amount are high enough. Reprint of a paper published in La Mettalurgia Italiana, vol. LI, no. 11, p. 497-504, 1959 [French] Il est montre d'abord dans quelles conditions se pose technologiquement le probleme de la transformation allotropique α/β de l'uranium. L'auteur expose ensuite les raisons qualitatives selon lesquelles il y a lieu d'admettre que dans l'uranium non allie: 1) la germination de la nouvelle phase s'effectue par un processus coherent; 2) la croissance de la nouvelle phase au detriment de la phase mere s'opere soit par cisaillement de type martensitique, soit par diffusion thermique si la temperature et le taux d'impuretes sont suffisants. Reproduction d'un article publie dans La Mettalurgia Italiana, vol. LI, no. 11, p. 497-504, 1959.

  14. Distributions and phylogeographic data of rheophilic freshwater fishes provide evidences on the geographic extension of a central-brazilian amazonian palaeoplateau in the area of the present day Pantanal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution patterns presented by examples of freshwater fishes restricted to headwater habitat: the anostomid Leporinus octomaculatus, the characins Jubiaba acanthogaster, Oligosarcus perdido, Moenkhausia cosmops, Knodus chapadae, Planaltina sp., the loricariid Hypostomus cochliodon, and the auchenipterid Centromochlus sp. provided evidences of a relatively recent shared history between the highlands of the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining upland drainage basins. Restricted to headwater of the uplands in the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining basins, these species provide biological evidence of the former extension of the central Brazilian plateau before the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Disjunction took place due to an ecological barrier to these rheophilic taxa represented tectonic subsidence related to the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Molecular analysis of Jubiaba acanthogaster revealed that the sample from the upper rio Xingu basin are the sister-group of a clade that includes samples from the upper rio Arinos (upper rio Tapajós plus the upper rio Paraguay basin, supporting the assumption that the origin of the upper rio Paraguay basin causing vicariance between this basin and the upper rio Tapajós is the least vicariant event in the evolutionary history of the group.

  15. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  16. [Paroxysmal perceptual alteration in comparison with hallucination--a review of its clinical reports and discussion of its pathophysiological mechanism in the present day, when second generation antipsychotics are widely used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The syndrome of paroxysmal perceptual alteration (PPA) was first described by Yamaguchi in 1985. Since then, many PPA cases have been reported, and its pathophysiological mechanism has been proposed: a suppressed (blocked) mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic system and sequential compensatory increase of noradrenergic neuronal activity are crucial for the occurrence of PPA. PPA is characterized by hypersensitivity of perception, psychedelic experience (brightening of colors, sharpening of contrast, visual distortion, etc.), and somatic schema disorder (one feels that one is floating, one's extremities are being pulled and elongated, etc.). PPA in chronic schizophrenic patients occurs abruptly like an attack mainly in the evening, often precipitated by fatigue. During the attack, patients also suffer from mood and thought alteration (anxiety, agitation, depressive mood, and inability to distract their thoughts from one thing), but they are aware that symptoms of PPA are not real and apprehensive about them. The attack ceases gradually and spontaneously while the patient rests or sleeps. These clinical features are clearly different from those of schizophrenic hallucinations. It is believed that PPA is closely related to neuroleptic treatment by conventional antipsychotics. I reported the prevalence of PPA as 4.0% in 1991 when high potential D2 blocking agents were prevailing. The occurrence of PPA has been significantly reduced to the present, when second generation (atypical) antipsychotics are prevailing. However, in my inquiry in 2004, the prevalence of PPA was 3.6% in cases treated with risperidone (RIS), while the rates were 0 in cases treated with olanzapine (OLZ), quetiapine (QTP), and perospirone (PRS). Several cases of PPA have been reported in patients who were treated with OLZ and PRS. Until now, no cases of PPA have been reported who were treated with QTP and aripiprazole (APZ). The prevalence of PPA among cases treated with these second generation

  17. The South African traditional health practitioner as a beneficiary of and provider to medical funds and schemes through the traditional health practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007: A present-day perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-01-01

    various medical funds and schemes. At present there seems to be no clear and justified reason why the South African traditional health practitioner cannot be accepted as a beneficiary of and provider in the medical insurance industry.

  18. Present-day chaotic formations around the Japanese trenches: Comparison to the on land examples from the Shimanto and Miura-Boso, and from the Franciscan, Mineoka and Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yujiro; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Mori, Ryota; Chiba, Tae; Sasaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Four different types of chaotic formations were recognized by the submersible observation around the Japanese trenches, including the Nankai and Sagami troughs, Boso triple junction, Japan trench, and Izu-Bonin arc, and each type is summarized and discussed in view of comparison to the on land examples, such as from the Franciscan, Shimanto and Miura-Boso belts in the circum Pacifc margins, and the Ankara. The submarine geologies are present actual examples to give us a critical key to understanding the formation processes and emplacement mechanisms for the so-called mélange bodies, either sedimentary, tectonic or diapiric. Some are made of alternated beds of sandstone and mudstone that show broken or block-in-matrix fashion, in most cases in muddy matrix. These are commonly developed on the trench landward slope toe of the Nankai and Sagami troughs and Boso triple junction area as well as the Japan trench slope. One type is from the landward slope, but another type is from the oceanward slopes. The former type is in places calcareous cemented, probably caused by hydraulic fracturing by high pore pressure along the thrust fault and oxidized methane-made carbonate precipitation. They are seen on the feet of the thrust-dominated slope and to be compared to the so-called sedimentary mélanges due to the gravitational sliding, which occur because of tectonically induced steep slopes. Most of such thrusts are related to large subduction type earthquakes, and await for further critical consideration on to the relation to the asperity problem. Some of large scale gravitational collapses may be related to the seamount or ridge subduction to the trench, both in case of accretionary and non-accretionary type margins, the former is for the examples from the Nankai and Sagami troughs and the Boso triple junction, latter for the Japan trench. In all cases on land and under the sea in the trench landward slope, some calcareous breccias are associated with methane

  19. The women day storm

    OpenAIRE

    Parnowski, Aleksei; Polonska, Anna; Semeniv, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    On behalf of the International Women Day, the Sun gave a hot kiss to our mother Earth in a form of a full halo CME generated by the yesterday's double X-class flare. The resulting geomagnetic storm gives a good opportunity to compare the performance of space weather forecast models operating in near-real-time. We compare the forecasts of most major models and identify some common problems. We also present the results of our own near-real-time forecast models.

  20. Day-to-day reliability of gait characteristics in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter Christian; Nielsen, Louise R; Madsen, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    day-to-day reliability of the gait pattern parameters observed in rats during treadmill walking. The results of the present study may serve as a reference material that can help future intervention studies on rat gait characteristics both with respect to the selection of outcome measures...

  1. Present day serpentinization in New Caledonia, Oman and Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Trescases, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Geochemical evidence for modern low-temperature serpentinization has been found in three new localities. Apparently the low-temperature reactions are a common mode of formation of the lizardite-chrysotile and brucite assemblage. Possibly the 18O content of serpentine formed at low temperatures is in part inherited from the pyroxene and olivine. ?? 1978.

  2. [The practitioner defeated? Present-day outlook on hypochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Adela; Garcia, Ana

    2007-09-12

    The hypochondriacal patient's refusal to be reassured by his doctor about a non-existent illness threatens the practitioner with failure. The authors discuss the value of hypochondriacal states for the so-called "normal" person. The ongoing trend is to consider hypochondriacal events as a sort of psychological "dampener" allowing to live out, and work through, identity changes both at a physical and a psychical level. They appear thus to be at the service of life, offering the patient the possibility to find a better psychic adaptation and the practitioner the chance to help his patient in a creative and satisfying way to find sense and meaning.

  3. Ghanaian Perspectives on the Present Day Dynamics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    pro-gay groups and religious and traditional leaders approaching the issue from ... homosexuality in Ghana and all over the world have religious, legal, moral and .... business. It is only when you rape an adult by way of unnatural carnal.

  4. Understanding Chinese Luxury Fashion Goods Consumption in Present Day China

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The global luxury goods market has grown considerably in the past few decades and continues to do so. However, research literature on the topic, especially on Eastern cultures, is still limited. This study sets out to understand luxury goods consumption in Chinese culture. Ten Chinese students were interviewed to gauge an understanding of how perceptions of ‘luxury’ and what motivates them to purchase it.

  5. The Role of English in Present Day Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdulsalam AL-Khalil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global world and with the help of modern technology, English has become the most common and dominant language spoken and used both at the national and international levels. It has been playing a major role in many sectors as medicine, engineering, politics, economics, international relations, and higher education in particular, the most important area where English is needed. It has also become a medium of instruction at universities in a large number of countries, a basic means of second language learning / teaching, an accessing source of modern knowledge and scientific research, and a means of global communication and earn living. It is realized nowadays at the level of Higher Education in many countries around the world, in addition to EU countries as Germany, Turkey, China, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, Australian, India …, the significance of providing education in English side by side with their natives. Hence, serious steps have taken to improve the quality of instruction in English at the administrative, academic, students’, publications and research levels. And in order to prove English language international power, it goes beyond its tertiary. Many English language proficiency, training and degree programs are managed not only inside but also abroad for internationalization of higher education to keep it up to date. However, this paper signifies the role of English in modern education, particularly in higher education sector and the role of modern technology in promoting English language learning / teaching quality to meet the standards, communication needs and cultural exchange across the world.

  6. [Issues of osteoporosis in present-day medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolenskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic metabolic lesion of the skeleton involving a reduced osseous tissue weight and an impaired microarchitectonics, which worsens the bone strength and contributes to a higher risk of bone fractures. An essential spread of OP and of osteoporotic fractures among populations in various countries, including Russia, a high-severity outcome, and big economic expenses related with treatment and rehabilitation are indicative of a high social OP significance. OP is a multi-factor pathology provoked by impaired processes in osseous remodeling with a higher resorption of osseous tissue and a reduced osteogenesis. A study of molecular mechanisms of intercellular interaction in OP resulted in discovering new elements in the family of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and their ligands and receptors (RANKL-RANK-OPG), which are of primary importance in osteoclastogenesis and which are molecular mediators in many regulatory effects. The key drugs applicable to prevention and treatment of OP are also described in the article. The current methods of OP prevention and treatment improve the bone quality and reduce the incidence rate of fracture in an essential share of patients.

  7. The present-day galaxy population in spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier; Antonelli, LA; Limongi, M; Menci, N; Tornambe, A; Brocato, E; Raimondo, G

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many more stellar population studies of elliptical and lenticular galaxies, studies of spiral galaxies are catching up, due to higher signal to noise data on one hand, and better analysis methods on the other. Here I start by discussing some modern methods of analyzing integrated

  8. Stratocumulus transitions in present-day and future climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Dussen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Clouds have a strong net cooling effect on our planet, as they reflect a large part of the incident solar radiation. To be able to make accurate forecasts of the global climate, cloudiness should therefore be correctly represented by climate models. Currently, however there are large differences in

  9. Present-day problems of nuclear medicine in immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranat, V.Z.; Rossel's, A.N.; Balyura, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe in a systemic order the potentialities of the use of nuclear medicine methods in immunology. Two fields of their application were singled out: experimental and clinical immunology, each one including in vivo and in vitro methods. The authors cited examples of their use, emphasizing the importance and prospects of radioimmunoassays for determination of the level of hormones in patients with various immunological pathology

  10. Rhetorical Aspects of Discourses in Present-day Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    being important for communication in modern society. Like speakers in public life, e.g. politicians, who had always acknowledged the role of rhetoric, all sorts of communicators, mediators and scholars became interested in rhetoric as a practical tool for building up texts meant for the public sphere......Since antiquity, the notion of rhetoric has been associated with Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian. Their theories are central to the understanding that, on the one hand, rhetoric can be used for persuading and convincing an audience, and on the other, for becoming an eloquent speaker. Based...... as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...

  11. Gershwin, Imagination and the Present Day Culture: Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Berchi Petrancu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyzed George Gershwin’s musical works and the role of imagination in his musical compositions. In his case, imagination is a new product of his mind. This is in accordance with his interests, purposes and cultural backgrounds. Efforts to appreciate his works should be done in classical terms rather than using some new criteria. Failure to follow these criteria could culminate to relativism, as a result of the decreased role of imagination in today’s art. This bias may lead to imitation.

  12. Ghanaian perspectives on the present day dynamics of homosexuality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homosexuality has been an issue of controversy since time immemorial, and it elicits various reactions and attitude which are influenced by the type of societies, cultural and moral development or political situation. In recent times there has been serious controversy over the incidence of homosexuality in Ghana, with human ...

  13. Present day sea level changes: observations and climatic causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, A.

    2007-01-01

    After a few thousand years of relative stability, sea level has risen of about 20 cm since the beginning of the 20. century. It currently rises at an average rate of about 3 mm/yr in response to global warming. About half of this rate is directly attributed to thermal expansion of sea water due to ocean warming, while the other half is mainly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets. Satellite observations show that sea level rise is highly non-uniform. (author)

  14. The petroleum challenge. Present day questions about oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.; Pauwels, J.P.; Swartenbroekx, C.

    2006-04-01

    Will the 21. century be the petroleum challenge century? The petroleum problem is no longer the affair of experts and journalists, it challenges also governments and consumers in pressing terms. If there is today a petroleum problem, there is no oil or gas shortage for the moment. The cumulated oil and gas reserves would allow to face the demand of the century, with the condition that investments in exploration, field development, production, and back-end of oil and gas industries will be done in time. This book, written by specialists of energy economics and geopolitics shows up some of the key questions of our energy future. In particular, it invites us to never forget the basic heavy trends of the hydrocarbons sector in order to never be trapped by superficial extrapolations of short term phenomena. Content: heavy trend of oil prices at the 2020 prospects, natural gas take over?; oil and gas geopolitics: enough of hydrocarbons for the 21. century; Russia and Caspian sea oil and gas weight; China: a new strategic actor of the energy scene; influence of 'futures' market, of speculation, and of stocks on hydrocarbon prices; which future for LNG?; natural gas in the USA: towards a new foreign dependence. (J.S.)

  15. The Present Day Problems of Infections Diseases with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticlereviewsthemajorup-to-dateproblemsconcerning certain aspect of infections diseases treatment in children. Droplet infections, acute gastrointestinal infections, neuroinfections, viral herpes infections and viral hepatitis in children are fully characterized and described in detail. In addition, we give an outline of the ways and attitudes enabling to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes.

  16. NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRESENT-DAY CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in the field of nanotechnologies have converted the concrete into a high-tech material; its structure may be "tailored" to specific functional criteria, including strength, durability, and reduced environmental impacts. This feature will help keep the concrete as the main structural material in the foreseeable future. Nanotechnologies are still on the way from the pool of basic sciences to industrial enterprises. Today full-scale practical application of nanotechnologies in the construction industry is extremely limited for the reason of high costs of their implementation. However, the strongest potential of nanotechnologies is concentrated in the improvement of the properties of conventional materials and processes. Recent progress of nanotechnologies prompts us that many of the problems that are now considered as fantastic will be successfully resolved in the coming decade. Portland cement is one of the most widely used materials; it has a huge though underexplored potential. A better understanding and precise identification of the engineering properties of the complex structure of cement materials in the nanoscale science will give way to a new generation of concrete.

  17. CGH Supports World Cancer Day Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    We celebrate World Cancer Day every year on February 4th. This year the theme “We can. I can.” invites us to think not only about how we can work with one another to reduce the global burden of cancer, but how we as individuals can make a difference. Every day the staff at CGH work to establish and build upon programs that are aimed at improving the lives of people affected by cancer.

  18. Increasing the value of health research in the WHO African Region beyond 2015--reflecting on the past, celebrating the present and building the future: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Olalekan A; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ota, Martin O; Nicol, Mark; Hussey, Gregory D; Ndumbe, Peter M; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-13

    To assess the profile and determinants of health research productivity in Africa since the onset of the new millennium. Bibliometric analysis. In November 2014, we searched PubMed for articles published between 2000 and 2014 from the WHO African Region, and obtained country-level indicators from World Bank data. We used Poisson regression to examine time trends in research publications and negative binomial regression to explore determinants of research publications. We identified 107,662 publications, with a median of 727 per country (range 25-31,757). Three countries (South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya) contributed 52% of the publications. The number of publications increased from 3623 in 2000 to 12,709 in 2014 (relative growth 251%). Similarly, the per cent share of worldwide research publications per year increased from 0.7% in 2000 to 1.3% in 2014. The trend analysis was also significant to confirm a continuous increase in health research publications from Africa, with productivity increasing by 10.3% per year (95% CIs +10.1% to +10.5%). The only independent predictor of publication outputs was national gross domestic product. For every one log US$ billion increase in gross domestic product, research publications rose by 105%: incidence rate ratio (IRR=2.05, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.04). The association of private health expenditure with publications was only marginally significant (IRR=1.86, 95% CI 1.00 to 3.47). There has been a significant improvement in health research in the WHO African Region since 2000, with some individual countries already having strong research profiles. Countries of the region should implement the WHO Strategy on Research for Health: reinforcing the research culture (organisation); focusing research on key health challenges (priorities); strengthening national health research systems (capacity); encouraging good research practice (standards); and consolidating linkages between health research and action (translation). Published by the BMJ

  19. Studying and developing main nuclear analytical techniques for assessment of the present situation of marine environmental radioactivity in some typical regions of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Phan Son Hai; Mai Thi Huong; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Van Phuc; Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Mong Sinh, Truong Y; Le Ngoc Chung

    2003-01-01

    Typical output of the study is presented, including: 1/ establishing standard procedures for the determination of 238 U and 230 Th radionuclide concentration in marine environmental samples; 2/ acquiring baseline data for the main radionuclide concentration in marine environmental materials (water, sediment and biota) collected from suitable key coastal locations of Vietnam. (NTN)

  20. Presentation of information for spatial decision support: a survey on the use of maps by participants in quantitative water management in the IJsselmeer region, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Uran, O.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial decision support systems generate a diversity of information presented in tables, graphs, text and maps. Which form is used is dictated partially by the nature of the information but also by those who prepare information to be used in a decision-making process. The users of the information

  1. Ethnomedical research and review of Q'eqchi Maya women's reproductive health in the Lake Izabal region of Guatemala: Past, present and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joanna L; Caceres, Armando; Mahady, Gail B

    2016-02-03

    In Central America, most Maya women use ethnomedicines for all aspects of their reproductive cycle including menstruation, pregnancy and menopause. However, very few of these plants have been documented, collected and tested in appropriate pharmacological assays to determine possible safety and efficacy. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of information on the ethnomedical uses, ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacological research for medicinal plants used for women's reproductive health in Guatemala, with a special emphasis on the Q'eqchi Maya of the Lake Izabal region, to demonstrate therapeutic potential and support future research in the field. Reviews of the ethnobotanical, ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological literature were performed for 30 plants collected in the Lake Izabal region of Guatemala and used by the Q'eqchi Maya for treatment of reproductive health issues were performed up to and including July 2015 using multiple databases, library searches for abstracts, books, dissertations, and websites. Review of the published research confirms that many of the plants used by Q'eqchi Maya women for the management of reproductive health issues have pharmacological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, progestagenic and/or serotonergic effects, that support the use of these plants and provide plausible mechanisms of action for their traditional uses. Furthermore, a new serotonin agonist, 9, 10-methylenedioxy-5, 6-Z-fadyenolide was isolated, thereby demonstrating an untapped potential for drug discovery. However, to date much of the pharmacological assays have been in vitro only, and few in vivo studies have been performed. Considering the large percentage of the Maya population in Guatemala that use traditional medicines, there remains a significant lack of pharmacological and toxicological data for these plants. Future research should focus on the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants using in vivo preclinical

  2. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  3. 2015 Barcelona Asteroid Day

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsevich, Maria; Palme, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of the research presented at the International Asteroid Day workshop which was celebrated at Barcelona on June 30th, 2015. The proceedings discuss the beginning of a new era in the study and exploration of the solar system’s minor bodies. International Asteroid Day commemorates the Tunguska event of June 30th, 1908. The workshop’s goal was to promote the importance of dealing proactively with impact hazards from space. Multidisciplinary experts contributed to this discussion by describing the nature of comets and asteroids along with their offspring, meteoroids. New missions to return material samples of asteroids back to Earth such as Osiris-REx and Hayabusa 2, as well as projects like AIM and DART which will test impact deflection techniques for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids encounters were also covered. The proceedings include both an outreach level to popularize impact hazards and a scientific character which covers the latest knowledge on these topics, as well as offeri...

  4. A unique nuclear receptor direct repeat 17 (DR17) is present within the upstream region of Schistosoma mansoni female-specific p14 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado; Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; Rumjanek, Franklin David; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2008-01-01

    The eggs produced by sexually mature female Schistosma mansoni are responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease. The eggshell precursor gene p14 is expressed only in the vitelline cells of sexually mature female worms in response to a yet unidentified male stimulus. Herein, we report the identification of a novel nuclear receptor response element in the upstream region of the p14 gene. This element contains the canonical hexameric DNA core motif, 5'-PuGGTCA, composed of an atypically spaced direct repeat (DR17). Schistosome nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1 specifically bound to the p14-DR17 element as a heterodimer. SmRXR1, but not SmNR1, bound to the motif as a monomer. Introduction of mutations in the TCA core sequence completely abolished the binding by SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer. This finding supports our hypothesis that the expression of Schistosoma mansonip14 gene is regulated through the nuclear receptor signaling pathway

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Polilli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. Methods: This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Results: Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1 ± 13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67% were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33% patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p = 0.01 and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p = 0.02 were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Web-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Late presentation, Voluntary and free testing, HIV diagnosis, Sexually transmitted infections

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilli, Ennio; Sozio, Federica; Di Stefano, Paola; Clerico, Luigi; Di Iorio, Giancarlo; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1±13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67%) were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33%) patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p=0.01) and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p=0.02) were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (pWeb-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Injector MD Days 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2017-01-01

    The Injector Machine Development (MD) days 2017 were held on 23-24 March, 2017, at CERN with thefollowing main goals:Give a chance to the MD users to present their results and show the relevant progress made in 2016 onseveral fronts.Provide the MD users and the Operation (OP) crews with a general overview on the outcome and theimpact of all ongoing MD activities.Identify the open questions and consequently define - with priorities - a list of machine studies in theinjectors for 2017 (covering the operational beams, LHC Injectors Upgrade, High Luminosity LHC,Physics Beyond Colliders, other projects).Create the opportunity to collect and document the highlights of the 2016 MDs and define the perspectivesfor 2017.Discuss how to make best use of the MD time, in particular let the main MD user express their wishesand see whether/how OP teams can contribute to their fulfilment.

  8. 100 days in the jungle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohler, S.; Hall, V.

    2000-07-01

    This book describes the ordeals of 8 oilfield workers, 7 Canadian and 1 American, who were kidnapped in the jungles of Ecuador on September 11, 1999 while on a job to repair a rusted, leaking pipeline. AEC, the largest Canadian player in the country and the owner of the pipeline, contracted United Pipeline Systems to bring its stake of the pipeline up to Canadian standards. The pipeline ran along a gravel highway in the middle of Ecuador's Oriente region between the oil towns of Lago Agrio and Tarapoa where it met a main pipeline that runs all the way to the Pacific seaport of Esmerelda. Before the petroleum industry moved into Ecuador, the region was untouched rain forest. AEC was drawn to Ecuador by its rich crude reserves and the government's desire to lure international investment. Tarapoa is only 40 km from the Columbian border, a violent area controlled by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC), a Marxist guerrilla group responsible for most of Columbia's kidnappings. In 1999, there were almost 200 kidnappings in Ecuador alone and thousand others in 1990s were taken hostage in Columbia. The kidnappers ideologically opposed the disparities of wealth created by the oil boom and spent their ransoms on weapons to fight against the government. This book presents a detailed account of the kidnapping from the hostages perspective and describes the efforts made by United Pipeline Systems and the Department of Foreign Affairs to bring the workers safely home after 100 days in captivity. The theory is that the kidnappers, still unidentified at the time that this book was published, either belonged to FARC (or an Ecuadorian offshoot FARE) or they were common, well organized bandits with no political affiliation.

  9. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  10. Day Care Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of day care centers for 50 states and Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico. The dataset only includes center based day care locations...

  11. Is day surgery safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Engbæk, J; Bartholdy, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort.......Day surgery is expanding in several countries, and it is important to collect information about quality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and unanticipated hospital visits 0-30 days post-operatively in a large cohort....

  12. Export-import economics of the northern regions of Russia at the crossroad of international sanctions: past and present, geopolitics of compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Zalyvsky

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discussed historical prerequisites for the inclusion of the North in the world economy and analyzed the participation of the Arctic territories of the Russian Federation in international trade 2000–2016. The impact of the Western sanctions and their influence on the dynamics and structure of foreign trade is also in a focus of the present article as well as the political economy provisions that allow overcoming the negative nature of international economic relations between the Russian Federation and Western countries. The author proves the expediency of changing the geopolitical positions of the West and Russia with a view to moving towards a compromise model of economic cooperation between the North of Russia and the EU and other countries.

  13. Every Day Is Mathematical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  14. Slimmed May Day Holiday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Last November the State Council of China decided to renew its holiday system by reducing the seven-day Mav Dav holiday to three days and introducing three new one-day public holidays,namely the Qingming Festival,Dragon Boat Festival and Moon Festival.BY doing so,the three golden-week holidays that were introduced in 1999,namely the Spring Festival,Mav Dav and National Day,could be better distributed.The New Year's Eve holiday would remain one day.The new holiday plan was supposed to take effect in 2008.

  15. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  16. How Can It Be More Real? A Case Study to Present the Authenticity of a Local Heritage District from the Perspective of Regional Spatial Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanxi Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The discussion of authenticity has become an academic theme of great interest to scholars in the tourism and heritage fields. However, there have been relatively few studies related to the authenticity of the spatial morphology of a historical urban area. This paper is based on the approach of the theory of “constructive authenticity”, and takes a local historical district heritage in Beijing as an example to analyze the authenticity of the spatial morphology of a particular heritage site. This paper takes into account three aspects: (1 overall layout; (2 street landscape; and (3 the pattern inside the courtyards. It then analyzes the Nanluo area from the perspective of the change in spatial patterns from the past to the present, as an aspect of research on the protection and sustainable development of local historic districts. Through the analysis, it can be seen that from the point of view of spatial morphology, the Nanluo area is distant from its shape in the past, and the main differences are reflected in the above three aspects. It also can be seen that in today’s Nanluo area, the authenticity of the layout that is perceived by tourists is a “constructive authenticity” that has been developed over years.

  17. Relation of Market Where Gold Supply And Demand is Intensive With Finance Sector and Analyze Of Present Market Structure in Terms Of Socio-Economic: A Study Based On Survey in Şanlıurfa and in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cihangir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the provinces where gold is purchased and sold mostly is Şanlıurfa. Especially trading of gold mostly in some special days following İstanbul and Ankara has made necessary that jewelry sector in this province where gold is purchased and sold is put under the scope and thereby examination of the contribution of gold to region economy as well as its other aspects. Within this scope a detailed questionnaire study to search gold and jewelry sector in Şanlıurfa in point of social, cultural and economical effects have been carried out and it has been aimed to explain these effectsdirectly from explanations of parties of incident. Considering the inevitability of emergence of some problems in a region where such extensive sale and purchase is made, the problems seen mostly have been determined and proposals regarding the solution of these have been made. In addition it has also been aimed to observe perception manner of gold and its contribution to region economy as a investment vehicle in the region. Especially the damage of misleading of credit card in sector has been tried to determine and made solution recommendations to the problem. It has been pointed out on the benefits in case the gold called mattress and considered its effect to economy is little is gained to Şanlıurfa economy.

  18. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann [Institute of Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Wang, Minyan, E-mail: jz.zafu@gmail.com [Tianmu College of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 252 Yijin Str.of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Cao, Zhihong [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Rd., Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Xiping, E-mail: luoxpzj@yahoo.com.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Wong, Minghung [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, 88 North Huancheng Rd. of Lin' an, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Rd., Kln., Hong Kong (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Frankfurt University, Max-Von-Laue Str. 13, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the {sup 14}C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age.

  19. Change of PAHs with evolution of paddy soils from prehistoric to present over the last six millennia in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Cornelia, Mueller-Niggemann; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiping; Wong, Minghung; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydroponics management on soil organic components with evolution of paddy soil over the last six millennia, PAHs, as a biomarker, as well as total organic carbon content were used to explore changes of paddy soil organic carbon in two entirely buried ancient paddy soil profiles. The results showed that hydroponics management can cause organic carbon deposition in rice paddy. The changing of total PAH concentrations was not always in accordance with the changing of total organic carbon contents in layers of the buried ancient paddy soils. The PAHs in 6280 BP prehistoric paddy soil layer was 3-ring > 5-ring > 4-ring > 6-ring, while in layers of the present paddy soil and the prehistoric upland were 3-ring > 4-ring > 5-ring > 6-ring. The contribution of phenanthrene to total PAHs in two profiles and the increasing ratio of phenanthrene to alkylated PAHs from parent material/6280 BP prehistoric upland to 6280 BP paddy suggested substantial increase of the anthropogenic influence of hydroponics management on rice paddy soil. And in view of the 14 C age and bioremains in the two profiles, it was only possible for PAHs to be derived from hydroponics management with evolution of the paddy soils form the Neolithic age. Cadalene could be used as an indicator for biological sources of PAHs released by rice plant residues, and benzo[g,h,i]fluoranthene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene for pyrogenic sources released by field vegetation fires. - Highlights: ► Soil hydroponics management can cause SOC deposition in rice paddy. ► PAHs in buried ancient paddy soil profiles were mainly derived from anthropogenic hydroponics management. ► PAH, as a biomarker, was not suitable for tracing SOC change with evolution of paddy soil from the Neolithic age

  20. Tritium conference days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Sene, M.; Devin, P.; Chretien, V.; Le Guen, B.; Guetat, Ph.; Baglan, N.; Ansoborlo, E.; Boyer, C.; Masson, M.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Jenkinson, St.; Wakeford, R.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Thompson, P.; Leterq, D.; Chastagner, F.; Cortes, P.; Philippe, M.; Paquet, F.; Fournier, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Twenty presentations out of 21 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - tritium in the environment (J. Garnier-Laplace); 2 - status of knowledge about tritium impact on health (L. Lebaron-Jacobs); 3 - tritium, discrete but present everywhere (M. Sene); 4 - management of tritium effluents from Areva NC La Hague site - related impact and monitoring (P. Devin); 5 - tritium effluents and impact in the vicinity of EDF's power plants (V. Chretien and B. Le Guen); 6 - contribution of CEA-Valduc centre monitoring to the knowledge of atmospheric tritiated water transfers to the different compartments of the environment (P. Guetat); 7 - tritium analysis in environment samples: constraints and means (N. Baglan); 8 - organically-linked tritium: the analyst view (E. Ansoborlo); 9 - study of tritium transfers to plants via OBT/HTO air and OBT/HTO free (C. Boyer); 10 - tritium in the British Channel (M. Masson and P. Bailly-Du-Bois); 11 - tritium in British coastal waters (S. Jenkinson); 12 - recent results from epidemiology (R. Wakeford); 13 - effects of tritiated thymidine on hematopoietic stem cells (P.H. Romeo); 14 - tritium management issue in Canada: the point of view from authorities (P. Thompson); 15 - experience feedback of the detritiation process of Valduc centre (D. Leterq); 16 - difficulties linked with tritiated wastes confinement (F. Chastagner); 17 - optimisation of tritium management in the ITER project (P. Cortes); 18 - elements of thought about the management of tritium generated by nuclear facilities (M. Philippe); 19 - CIPR's position about the calculation of doses and risks linked with tritium exposure (F. Paquet); 20 - tritium think tanks (M. Fournier). (J.S.)

  1. Open Day at SHMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  2. Survey on the present situation and future outlook of energy/environment issues mainly on coal in the APEC region; APEC ikinai no sekitan wo chushin to suru energy kankyo mondai no genjo oyobi kongo no mitoshi ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of studying the energy supply/demand trend and the environmental problem relating mainly to coal in the APEC region, the paper surveyed the situation from the past to the present and outlooked the beginning of the 21st century. GDP in the whole APEC region increased at an annual rate of 3.4% from 1971 to 1991 and made a rapid growth of an annual rate over 7% especially in the non-OECD region. The supply/demand balance of coal, etc. in the non-OECD region is expected to be tight, and the energy price also to be higher. This will be a major factor causing hindrance to the economic growth of resource-importing countries. It is necessary to prepare the energy infrastructure. With the increasing coal utilization, it is feared that pollutants such as SOx, NOx and CO2 will increase, and it is necessary to introduce energy utilization technology/facilities which are high-efficient and environment-friendly and to expedite introduction of non-fossil energy. The APEC region, where the worldwide growth is expected, is a priming for the world development, and a policy which is well balanced in economic growth, stabilized energy supply, and environmental protection is needed for the region to achieve its sustainable growth. 50 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  4. Lecture Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Heavy-Ion Collisions in the LHC workshop held in Cracow from 18 to 18 May 2007. The main subject of the workshop was to present the newest results of research provided at CERN LHC collider. Additionally some theoretical models and methods used for presented data analysis were discussed

  5. CATCHY PRESENTATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    An important competence for designers is the ability to communicate and present ideas and proposals for customers, partners, investors and colleagues. The Pecha Kucha principle, developed by Astrid Klein and Mark Dytham, has become a widely used and easy format for the presentation of new concepts...

  6. Orthopaedics in day surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    processing of day cases is separate, more efficient and cases of ... anaesthetists, patient records, costing of procedures, drugs to be ... Methods: Patients treated at two day surgical units study with the aid of careful record, as to the selection, ... treatment only. .... Trauma, especially road traffic .... children with cerebral palsy.

  7. The Graduation Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2004-01-01

    It is one of the hottest summer days that Cambridge has ever had.We wereclad(clothe的过去式和过去分词)in the black gown once more.However thiswill probably be my last time to wear it.I had not been wearing it that much af-ter all.After this day,it will be shipped back to my home and lie in my closet,just to be dug out many years later and the sight of it will bring me back to thisvery day.It is our graduation day,the day wher we can add a hood(头巾;兜帽)

  8. Workshop presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Per-Olof; Edland, Anne; Reiersen, Craig; Mullins, Peter; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik; Bouchard, Andre; Watts, Germaine; Johnstone, John; Hollnagel, Erik; Ramberg, Patric; Reiman, Teemu

    2009-01-01

    An important part of the workshop was a series of invited presentations. The presentations were intended to both provide the participants with an understanding of various organisational approaches and activities as well as to stimulate the exchange of ideas during the small group discussion sessions. The presentation subjects ranged from current organisational regulations and licensee activities to new organisational research and the benefits of viewing organisations from a different perspective. There were more than a dozen invited presentations. The initial set of presentations gave the participants an overview of the background, structure, and aims of the workshop. This included a short presentation on the results from the regulatory responses to the pre-workshop survey. Representatives from four countries (Sweden, Canada, Finland, and the United Kingdom) expanded upon their survey responses with detailed presentations on both regulatory and licensee safety-related organisational activities in their countries. There were also presentations on new research concerning how to evaluate safety critical organisations and on a resilience engineering perspective to safety critical organisations. Below is the list of the presentations, the slides of which being available in Appendix 2: 1 - Workshop Welcome (Per-Olof Sanden); 2 - CSNI Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (Craig Reiersen); 3 - Regulatory expectations on justification of suitability of licensee organisational structures, resources and competencies (Anne Edland); 4 - Justifying the suitability of licensee organisational structures, resources and competencies (Karl-Fredrik Ingemarsson); 5 - Nuclear Organisational Suitability in Canada (Andre Bouchard); 6 - Designing and Resourcing for Safety and Effectiveness (Germaine Watts); 7 - Organisational Suitability - What do you need and how do you know that you've got it? (Craig Reiersen); 8 - Suitability of Organisations - UK Regulator's View (Peter

  9. CERN presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Presentation by CERN (10 minutes each) Rolf Landua - Education and Outreach Salvatore Mele - Open Access Jean-Yves Le Meur - Digital Library in Africa Francois Fluckiger - Open Source/Standards (tbc) Tim Smith - Open Data for Science Tullio Basiglia - tbc

  10. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has entered the pelvis. If the presenting part lies above the ischial spines, the station is reported ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  12. Student Poster Days Showcase Young Researchers | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student interns presented their research to the NCI at Frederick community during the annual Student Poster Days event, held in the Building 549 lobby and the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) atrium over two days.

  13. Astrophysics days and MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falgarone, Edith; Rieutord, Michel; Richard, Denis; Zahn, Jean-Paul; Dauchot, Olivier; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Berengere; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Noullez, Alain; Bourgoin, Mickael; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Leveque, Emmanuel; Chainais, Pierre; Abry, Patrice; Mordant, Nicolas; Michel, Olivier; Marie, Louis; Chiffaudel, Arnaud; Daviaud, Francois; Petrelis, Francois; Fauve, Stephan; Nore, C.; Brachet, M.-E.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Leorat, Jacques; Grapin, Roland; Brun, Sacha; Delour, Jean; Arneodo, Alain; Muzy, Jean-Francois; Magnaudet, Jacques; Braza, Marianna; Boree, Jacques; Maurel, S.; Ben, L.; Moreau, J.; Bazile, R.; Charnay, G.; Lewandowski, Roger; Laveder, Dimitri; Bouchet, Freddy; Sommeria, Joel; Le Gal, P.; Eloy, C.; Le Dizes, S.; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Bottausci, Frederic; Petitjeans, Philippe; Maurel, Agnes; Carlier, Johan; Anselmet, Fabien

    2001-05-01

    This publication gathers extended summaries of presentations proposed during two days on astrophysics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The first session addressed astrophysics and MHD: The cold interstellar medium, a low ionized turbulent plasma; Turbulent convection in stars; Turbulence in differential rotation; Protoplanetary disks and washing machines; gravitational instability and large structures; MHD turbulence in the sodium von Karman flow; Numerical study of the dynamo effect in the Taylor-Green eddy geometry; Solar turbulent convection under the influence of rotation and of the magnetic field. The second session addressed the description of turbulence: Should we give up cascade models to describe the spatial complexity of the velocity field in a developed turbulence?; What do we learn with RDT about the turbulence at the vicinity of a plane surface?; Qualitative explanation of intermittency; Reduced model of Navier-Stokes equations: quickly extinguished energy cascade; Some mathematical properties of turbulent closure models. The third session addressed turbulence and coherent structures: Alfven wave filamentation and formation of coherent structures in dispersive MHD; Statistical mechanics for quasi-geo-strophic turbulence: applications to Jupiter's coherent structures; Elliptic instabilities; Physics and modelling of turbulent detached unsteady flows in aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction; Intermittency and coherent structures in a washing machine: a wavelet analysis of joint pressure/velocity measurements; CVS filtering of 3D turbulent mixing layer using orthogonal wavelets. The last session addressed experimental methods: Lagrangian velocity measurements; Energy dissipation and instabilities within a locally stretched vortex; Study by laser imagery of the generation and breakage of a compressed eddy flow; Study of coherent structures of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number

  14. Adult Day Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Aide Semi Private Private $25,000 Adult Day Servi Acesssisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes $0 1. General information based on industry views of various members of the National Adult ...

  15. Adult Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Center Not all states license and regulate adult day care centers. There may be a ... is not usually covered by Medicare insurance, some financial assistance may be available through a federal or ...

  16. Voting Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During his time as a state senator in Illinois, Barack Obama voted “Present” 129 times, a deliberate act of nonvoting that subsequently became an important campaign issue during the 2008 presidential elections. In this article, I examine the use of Present votes in the Illinois state senate. I find evidence that Present votes can largely be characterized as protest votes used as a legislative tool by the minority party. Incorporating information from Present votes into a Bayesian polytomous item-response model, I find that this information increases the efficiency of ideal point estimates by approximately 35%. There is little evidence of significant moderation by Obama when Present votes are accounted for, though my results suggest that Obama’s voting record may have moderated significantly before his subsequent election to the U.S. Senate. My results also suggest that because legislative nonvoting may occur for a variety of reasons, naive inclusion of nonvoting behavior into vote choice models may lead to biased results.

  17. Lecture Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Symposium on Physics of Elementary Interactions in the LHC Era held in Warsaw from 21 to 22 April 2008. The main subject of the workshop was to present the progress in CERN LHC collider project. Additionally some satellite activities in field of education, knowledge and technology transfer in the frame of CERN - Poland cooperation were shown

  18. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  19. Open Day: General Information

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ With 50 visit points, including theatre performances, debates and visits to installations that have never before been opened to the public, CERN's 50th anniversary Open Day is set to be a day to remember. Seven hundred volunteers have signed up to help for the day. The Open Day team truly appreciates this wonderful show of support! The Open Day would not be possible without their help. Car parking and Access Cars with a CERN sticker can access all CERN sites as normal. However, to avoid congestion on Meyrin site, we ask you to park in areas that will not be open to the public (see below) and to use the shuttle services wherever possible for your transport during the day. Private cars on the French side of the border without a CERN sticker will be diverted to a car park area in the Prévessin site. There is a shuttle service connecting the Meyrin and Prévessin sites via SM18 every 20 minutes. Private cars on the Swiss side of the border without a CERN sticker will be diverte...

  20. Wind Turbine Acoustic Day 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Søndergaard, Bo; Hünerbein, Sabine Von

    The bi-annual event entitled Wind Turbine Acoustic Day dealing with wind turbine noise issues organized by DTU Wind Energy took place on May, 17th 2018 as its third edition. The abstracts and slides for the presentations are reported....

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