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Sample records for region ne spain

  1. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain

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    M. Turco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.

  2. Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities from tropical (SE Caribbean) and temperate (NE England and SW Spain) regions

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    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2018-05-01

    This is the first quantitative study of temporal assemblage turnovers of the relationships between intertidal foraminifera. Time series datasets collected from tropical Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay (Trinidad, SE Caribbean) and temperate Cowpen Marsh (NE England, U.K.) and Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain) were used. The assemblage turnover index (ATI) examined species interrelationships through comparisons of monthly or biweekly species proportional abundances over one or two years. Species contributing to major assemblage turnovers (ATI > x + σ) were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). Foraminiferal species are heterogeneously distributed within the sediment; multiple sample stations at a study location cumulatively represent the foraminiferal metacommunity and clusters represent foraminiferal assemblages. The ATI and CoBI were applied to the proportional abundances of live specimens recorded for the metacommunity and assemblages at each location. At Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay, major assemblage turnovers were driven by the most abundant species and the majority coincided with seasonal change or the arrival of the seasonal Orinoco plume in the Gulf of Paria. Seasonal turnovers of the foraminiferal metacommunities at temperate Cowpen Marsh and Bay of Cádiz occurred during the summer and winter. Major assemblage turnovers in the upper Cowpen Marsh occurred in the summer, and the lower marsh in the winter. Foraminiferans are useful bioindicators for monitoring the health of coastal environments. Understanding foraminiferal population dynamics will allow cyclical changes to be differentiated from abrupt and persistent changes, which are related to anthropogenic disturbances or long-term climate change. The ATI and CoBI are useful indices for quantitatively exploring relationships of foraminiferal populations over time.

  3. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

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    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  4. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

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    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  5. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  6. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  7. Soil and Water Assessment Tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (Ne Spain) in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Benites, Grace

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates soil loss due to water erosion in an area of 32,362 ha with a predominant land use of vineyards (Alt Penedès-Anoia region, Catalonia, Spain). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used incorporating daily climatic data for the period 2000-2010 and also detailed soil and land use maps. Particular attention was given to the universal soil loss equation cover and management factor (C factor) of vineyards, with a minimum value of 0·15 being determined for this crop. T...

  8. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

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    S. Beguería

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  9. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

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    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  10. A database about the tornadic activity in Catalonia (NE Spain) since 1994

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    Morales, M. E.; Arús, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Castán, S.

    2009-09-01

    Although tornadic activity is not the most important hazard in Spain, the damages that tornadoes and downburst generate are considerable in urban areas, giving place in some occasions to casualties. In Spain, the oldest systematic works collecting data about tornadoes, refer to the Balearic Islands, although some series about tornadoes in Spain have also been collected and analysed (Gayà, 2005). These series shows a positive increase that is probably more related to a change in the perception level of the population than to climatic change. In some occasions it is difficult to separate the damages produced by the tornado itself from those produced by other associated hazards like heavy rains, hail or a wind storms. It was the case of the September 2006 event, in which flash floods and tornadoes were recorded. In the same sense in some occasions, damages produced by a downsburt are confused with those that produced by a tornado. Having in mind all these facts, having a good systematic data base about tornadoes is necessary, before to obtain some conclusions not enough justified. This kind of database is not easy to obtain, because of it requires to have detailed information about damages, meteorological observations and testimonies that has to be filtered by a good quality control. After a general presentation about tornadoes and downsbursts in Mediterranean Region, this contribution presents the database that have affected Catalonia during the period 1994-2009, starting with the tornado recorded on the Espluga de Francolí the 31 August 1994.This database has been built in basis to the AEMET information, the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros (the insurance company of Spain for natural disasters), the newspapers and field visits to the affected places.

  11. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain.

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    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Baumhauer, Roland; Schütt, Brigitta

    2011-02-01

    The Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the closed Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, with reaction times between hours and months after rainfall. Both the total amount of rainfall over the reaction period, as well as individual extreme events, affect lake level. In this study the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the absolute amount of rainfall appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by hydrologists and climatologists involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other areas with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal patterns of surface-climate interaction in a watershed to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrology. Climatologists, on the other hand, have to develop climate models

  12. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

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    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverría, M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical and chemical soil properties, mineralogical composition and susceptibility to splash erosion. Topsoil samples (15 cm depth) were taken in the Remolinos mountain slopes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) from two soil types: Leptic Gypsisol (LP) in a convex slope and Haplic Gypsisol (GY) in a concave slope. To assess the heating effects on the mineralogy we burned the soils at 105 and 205 °C in an oven and to assess the splash effects we used a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions using undisturbed topsoil subsamples (0-5 cm depth of Ah horizon). LP soil has lower soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability (SAS) and higher gypsum content than GY soil. Gypsum and dolomite are the main minerals (>80%) in the LP soil, while gypsum, dolomite, calcite and quartz have similar proportions in GY soil. Clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) are scarce in both soils. Heating at 105 °C has no effect on soil mineralogy. However, heating to 205 °C transforms gypsum to bassanite, increases significantly the soil salinity (EC) in both soil units (LP and GY) and decreases pH only in GY soil. Despite differences in the content of organic matter and structural stability, both soils show no significant differences (P pores is reduced by heating, as derived from variations in soil water retention capacity.

  13. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

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    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  14. Sediment discharge of the rivers of Catalonia, NE Spain, and the influence of human impacts

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    Liquete, Camino; Canals, Miquel; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Arnau, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    SummaryThe environmental and anthropogenic factors controlling sediment delivery to the sea are numerous, intricate and usually difficult to quantify. Mediterranean watersheds are historically amongst the most heavily impacted by human activities in the world. This study analyzes some of these factors for nine river systems from Catalonia, NE Spain, that open into the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, and discusses the results obtained from sediment yield models and sediment concentration data series. General models indicate that the natural suspended sediment yield by individual Catalan rivers ranged within a fork from 94 to 621 t km -2 yr -1. Such a sediment yield would be noticeably reduced (moving the fork to 7-148 t km -2 yr -1) because of lithological factors and direct anthropogenic and, possibly, climatic impacts. Damming, water extraction and urbanization appear as the most important direct anthropogenic impacts in Catalonia. Water discharge and sediment concentration measurements by basin authorities provide much lower sediment yield estimations, from 0.4 to 19.8 t km -2 yr -1, which is probably due to the lack of measured sediment loads during flood events, as it is the case in many other Mediterranean rivers. The Catalan watersheds have some of the smallest runoff values amongst Mediterranean rivers. Of the nine river systems studied, water discharge tends to decrease in two and to increase in one. The other six river systems do not show any clear tendency. Related to climatic parameters, temperature raised in all the watersheds between 1961 and 1990, while precipitation did not show significant trends.

  15. Retrospective study of pestivirus infection in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and other ungulates in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

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    Marco, Ignasi; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Allepuz, Alberto; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-04-21

    In 2001 a new Pestivirus (Family Flaviviridae) was associated with an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Molecular characterization assigned this virus to the Border Disease Virus (BDV) cluster, BDV-4 genotype. A retrospective study was performed in archived sera and spleen of 74 Pyrenean chamois and in archived sera of 28 mouflon (Ovis ammon), 56 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 43 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 fallow deer (Dama dama) from the Pyrenees between the years 1990 and 2000. Thirty six of 74 (48.6%) sera of Pyrenean chamois, one of mouflon and one of red deer were positive by an ELISA antibody test. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on 26 seropositive chamois, one mouflon and one red deer, using five pestivirus strains. An ELISA antigen test was performed on 37 seronegative chamois and yielded positive results in one chamois and inconclusive result in two. RT-PCR and virus isolation performed on spleen samples from these three animals gave positive results in the positive and one inconclusive animal. Sequence analysis in the 5' unstranslated region revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. Virological and serological data of the present study indicate that BDV infection has been present in the chamois population since at least 1990, 11 years before the first outbreak of disease. Therefore, the emergence of the disease in 2001 is apparently due to other factors rather than the introduction of a new virus in the chamois population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g −1 ) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg −1 ) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L −1 ). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L −1 was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the different tropic

  17. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  18. Isotope analyses to explore diet and mobility in a medieval Muslim population at Tauste (NE Spain.

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    Iranzu Guede

    Full Text Available The Islamic necropolis discovered in Tauste (Zaragoza, Spain is the only evidence that a large Muslim community lived in the area between the 8th and 10th centuries. A multi-isotope approach has been used to investigate the mobility and diet of this medieval Muslim population living in a shifting frontier region. Thirty-one individuals were analyzed to determine δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition. A combination of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis indicated that most individuals were of local origin although three females and two males were non-local. The non-local males would be from a warmer zone whereas two of the females would be from a more mountainous geographical region and the third from a geologically-different area. The extremely high δ15N baseline at Tauste was due to bedrock composition (gypsum and salt. High individual δ15N values were related to the manuring effect and consumption of fish. Adult males were the most privileged members of society in the medieval Muslim world and, as isotope data reflected, consumed more animal proteins than females and young males.

  19. Pilot survey of a broad range of priority pollutants in sediment and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Silvia; Raldua, Demetrio; Martinez, Elena; Navarro, Alicia; Diez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M.; Barcelo, Damia

    2006-01-01

    Priority organic pollutants were investigated in sediments and fish collected along the Ebro river basin (NE Spain) to evaluate their occurrence, transport and bioavailability. Sediments were collected in 18 sites and two species of fish were captured in nine sites according to the availability in each area. The sampling sites covered industrial, urban and agricultural areas. Four methods were used to detect 20 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 3 organotin compounds, 2 alkylphenols and 40 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from purified extracts. The contamination pattern was site specific and no downstream increase in concentration of pollutants was observed but rather a generalized low level diffuse pollution. Target compounds were detected in sediments at 0.01 to 2331 μg/kg dry weight, and only OCs and PBDEs were accumulated in benthopelagic fish. Toxicological assessment was performed according to predicted environmental levels and revealed sites where adverse effects could occur. - Organic pollutants were monitored in sediments and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain)

  20. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain

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    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The socio-economic changes that occurred in the last decades have contributed to an increase in forest fires (Shakesby, 2011). There was found a change in the fire regimes in terms of frequency, size, seasonality, recurrence as well as fire intensity and severity (Keeley, 2009), which resulted in severe effects on soils, water and vegetation (Guénon et al., 2013). Fire affects soil properties directly by the heat impact (Aznar et al., 2013), and the ash cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and the reduction of the plant cover (Neary et al., 1999). The lack of vegetation and the heating promotes changes in the soil organic matter content (González-Pérez et al., 2004), on the structural stability (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), on the hydrophobic response (Bodí et al., 2012), and on the infiltration capacity (Cerdà, 1998a). This is why the vegetation cover and the litter are key factors on soil erosion after forest fires (Prats et al., 2013). Besides, the ash plays an important paper in the soil protection after the forest fire and after the first storms and winds (León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this experiment is to asses the vegetation response after a forest fire and the impact of vegetation recovery on soil erosion. The experiment consisted in a sampling of a linear transect of 10 m with samples each 2 m, under different slope position and aspect. To measure the soil erosion rates we used rainfall simulation experiments (León et al., 2013). The experiments were carried in Castejón (UTM 30T, X671106, Y4644584) in a forest burned in 2008, in the Zuera Mountains, both located in the north of Zaragoza province (NE Spain). The soils on limestone parent material are Rendzic Phaeozem (IUSS, 2007) and the texture of Ah horizons of soils developed on limestone is sandy-loam (Badía et al., 2013). The result shows fast and successful vegetation regeneration in the north

  1. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  2. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  3. A regional analysis of Tourism Specialization in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Dacal, Diana; Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Tourism sector is playing an important role in the development of a region, contributing to the economy growth and job creation. Despite of the actual crisis, Tourism activities continues to growth in the last year (UNWTO 2011). Also, Spain maintains in the better positions of the world ranking. Furthermore, Tourism activities generate around 10% of GPD and represents 11.5% of total workers of the Spanish Economy. Nevertheless, this is not true for all the Spanish Regions. There are regional ...

  4. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  5. Foreign Policy Aspect of Regional Politics of Spain

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    A V Shabaga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the regional participation of Autonomous Communities of Spain in European upbringing. The history of the process is investigated as well as the main initiatives of the Spanish government towards the integration of Autonomous Communities in the European Union decision making process are analyzed.

  6. Trends in adverse weather patterns and large wildland fires in Aragón (NE Spain from 1978 to 2010

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    A. Cardil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the effects of high temperature days on large wildland fires during 1978–2010 in Aragón (NE Spain. A high temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the low troposphere state, and some of the problems that affect surface reanalysis do not occur. High temperature days were analyzed from April to October in the study period, and the number of these extreme days increased significantly. This temporal trend implied more frequent adverse weather conditions in later years that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. The effects of those high temperatures days in large wildland fire patterns have been increasingly important in the last years of the series.

  7. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.

    2012-04-01

    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  8. Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region centrale du togo : pratiques familiales et communautaires avant la mise en oeuvre de la strategie « prise en charge integree des maladies de l'enfant »

  9. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  10. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain.

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    Víctor Sauqué

    Full Text Available Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain; we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  11. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros, Laia; Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina; Jover, Lluis; Pina, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites

  12. National and regional analysis of road accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolón-Becerra, A; Lastra-Bravo, X; Flores-Parra, I

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the absolute fatality figures decreased almost 50 percent between 1998 and 2009. Despite this great effort, road mortality is still of great concern to political authorities. Further progress requires efficient road safety policy based on an optimal set of measures and targets that consider the initial conditions and characteristics in each region. This study attempts to analyze road accidents in Spain and its provinces in time and space during 1998-2009. First, we analyzed daily, monthly, and nationwide (NUTS 0) development of road accidents, the correlation between logarithmic transformations of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, the causality by simple linear regression of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, and preliminary frequency by fast Fourier transform. Then we analyzed the annual trend in accidents in the Spanish provinces (NUTS 3) and found a correlation between the logarithmic transformations of the mortality rate, fatalities per fatal accident, and accidents resulting in injuries per inhabitant variables and population, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), length of road network, and area. Finally, causality was analyzed by simple linear regression. The most outstanding results were the negative correlation between mortality rate and population density in Spanish provinces, which has increased over time, and that road accidents in Spain have an approximate periodicity of 57 days. The fast Fourier transform analysis of road accident frequency in Spain was useful in identifying the periodic, harmonic components of accidents and casualties. The periodicity observed both for the period 1998-2009 and by year showed that the highest intensity in road accidents was bimonthly, despite the lower number of accidents and casualties in the spectra of amplitude and power and efforts to reduce the intensity and concentration during off-season travel (summer and December).

  13. Response of alluvial systems to Late Pleistocene climate changes recorded by environmental magnetism in the Añavieja Basin (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Muñoz, A.; Larrasoaña, J.C.; Luzon, A.; Perez, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Jiang, Z.; Liu, Q.; Roman-Berdi, T.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental magnetic proxies were analyzed in a relatively monotonous, ~25.3m thick alluvial sedimentary sequence drilled in the Añavieja Basin (NE Spain). Results from the core AÑ2 suggest that the concentrationdependent magnetic parameters mainly reflect variations in the content of detrital magnetite, sourced in the catchment rocks and soils of the basin, via changes in the dynamics of alluvial fans due to temperature changes in the northern hemisphere during the Late Pleistocene. The correspondence between the magnetic proxies and the temperature variations in the North Atlantic region (NGRIP curve) indicates that higher (lower) concentrations and finer (coarser) magnetite grains coincide with warm (cold) periods. We propose that during cold periods, a sparser vegetation cover favored the incoming of higher energy runoff bearing coarser sediments to the basin that are relatively impoverished in magnetite. In contrast, during warm periods, the wider distribution of the vegetation cover associated with the lower runoff energy lead to finer, magnetite-richer sediment input to the basin. Maghemite, presumably of pedogenic origin, appears to be present also in the studied alluvial sediments. Further studies are necessary to unravel its palaeoclimatic significance. (Author)

  14. Heavy rain prediction using deterministic and probabilistic models - the flash flood cases of 11-13 October 2005 in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, A.; Altava-Ortiz, V.; Llasat, M. C.; Barnolas, M.

    2007-09-01

    Between the 11 and 13 October 2005 several flash floods were produced along the coast of Catalonia (NE Spain) due to a significant heavy rainfall event. Maximum rainfall achieved values up to 250 mm in 24 h. The total amount recorded during the event in some places was close to 350 mm. Barcelona city was also in the affected area where high rainfall intensities were registered, but just a few small floods occurred, thanks to the efficient urban drainage system of the city. Two forecasting methods have been applied in order to evaluate their capability of prediction regarding extreme events: the deterministic MM5 model and a probabilistic model based on the analogous method. The MM5 simulation allows analysing accurately the main meteorological features with a high spatial resolution (2 km), like the formation of some convergence lines over the region that partially explains the maximum precipitation location during the event. On the other hand, the analogous technique shows a good agreement among highest probability values and real affected areas, although a larger pluviometric rainfall database would be needed to improve the results. The comparison between the observed precipitation and from both QPF (quantitative precipitation forecast) methods shows that the analogous technique tends to underestimate the rainfall values and the MM5 simulation tends to overestimate them.

  15. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frits manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "Ceramics Clusters"; one is in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón (Spain). In this kind of areas, there are a lot of pollutants from this industry that represent an important contribution to soil contamination so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. These atmospheric particles are deposited in the ground through both dry and wet deposition. Soil is a major sink for heavy metals released into the environment. The level of pollution of soils by heavy metals depends on the retention capacity of the soil, especially on physical-chemical properties (mineralogy, grain size, organic matter) affecting soil particle surfaces and also on the chemical properties of the metal. The most direct consequences on the ground of air pollutants are acidification, salinization and the pollutions that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. For this purpose the levels of PM10 in ambient air and the corresponding annual and weekly trend were calculated. The results of the study show that the PM10 and heavy metals concentrations are below the limit values recommended by European Union Legislation for the protection of human health and ecosystems in the study period. There is an important reduction of them from 2009 in all control stations due to the economic crisis. References Moral, R., Gilkes, R.J., Jordán, M.M., 2005

  16. Productivity and Regional Employment in Spain: A Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Escribá Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of sectorial and territorial factors on the dynamics of employment in regional industries in Spain over the period 1980-2006. A dynamic panel data model is estimated using panel data techniques (System-GMM, which provide an alternative methodology for addressing the problem of variable endogeneity. The results confirm the robustness of the contemporary effects: diversification, market size and dynamics in the sector affect employment in the short term. However, effects in the long term are more uncertain.

  17. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    compounds, 13 were identified in water samples (PFBA, PFDA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS and L-PFOS), and their concentrations ranged between 0. 1 ng L-1 (PFNA) and 2709 ng L-1 (L-PFOS). Similarly, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS, L-PFOS and PFOSA were identified in sediments samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.147 ng g-1 dw (L-PFOS) to 13 ng g-1 dw (PFBA). In biota similar PFC were detected, with values between 0.03 and 1738.06 ng g-1. According to this study, PFCs were detected in different compartments of the ecosystem where they are bio-accumulating and, potentially, would produce adverse effects on humans. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the projects Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02. We also thank the persons of IDAEA for taking the samples. References Llorca, M., Farre, M., Pico, Y., Muller, J., Knepper, T. P., Barcelo, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 431, 139-150. Llorca, M., Pérez, F., Farre, M., Agramunt, S., Kogevinas, M., Barceló, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 433, 151-160. Pico, Y., Blasco, C., Farre, M., Barcelo, D., 2012. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res. 19, 946-957. Sundstrom, M., Ehresman, D. J., Bignert, A., Butenhoff, J. L., Olsen, G. W., Chang, S. C., Bergman, A., 2011. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ. Inter. 37, 178-183.

  18. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004–2014: a multi-exponential approach

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    M. Pandolfi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background, located in the northeast (NE of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004–2014 were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann–Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10 showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN and Montseny (MSY during 2004–2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V–Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic and from the industrial (metallurgy

  19. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  20. Fluvial diffluence episodes reflected in the Pleistocene tufa deposits of the River Piedra (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Pardo, G.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Pleistocene deposits of the valley of the River Piedra (NE Spain) are represented by thick tufas with small amounts of detrital material; the development of these deposits correlates with marine isotopic stages 9, 7, 6, and 5. The sedimentary scenario in which they formed mostly corresponded to stepped fluvial systems with barrage-cascade and associated dammed areas separated by low gradient fluvial stretches. Mapping and determining the sedimentology and chronology of these deposits distinguished two main episodes of fluvial diffluence that originated as a result of the temporary blockage of the river — a consequence of the vertical growth of tufa barrages in the main channel. In both episodes, water spilt out toward a secondary course from areas upstream of barrages where the water level surpassed the height of the divide between the main and secondary course. As a consequence, extensive and distinct tufa deposits with very varied facies formed over a gently inclined area toward and, indeed, within the secondary course. The hydrology of this secondary course was episodic, fed only by surface water. The two diffluence episodes detected occurred during MIS 7 and 7-6 and were interrupted by incision events, reflected by detrital deposits at the base of each tufa sedimentation stage in the main channel. Incision, which caused the breakage of the barrages, allowed water to again flow through the main channel. No evidence of diffluence was seen in any younger (MIS 5 to present-day) tufa deposits. The proposed diffluence model might help explain other carbonate fluvial systems in which (1) tufas appear in areas with no permanent water supply, and (2) tufas are absent over extensive areas despite conditions favourable to their formation.

  1. A statistical approach to bioclimatic trend detection in the airborne pollen records of Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Belmonte, Jordina; Delgado, Rosario; De Linares, Concepción

    2014-04-01

    Airborne pollen records are a suitable indicator for the study of climate change. The present work focuses on the role of annual pollen indices for the detection of bioclimatic trends through the analysis of the aerobiological spectra of 11 taxa of great biogeographical relevance in Catalonia over an 18-year period (1994-2011), by means of different parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Among others, two non-parametric rank-based statistical tests were performed for detecting monotonic trends in time series data of the selected airborne pollen types and we have observed that they have similar power in detecting trends. Except for those cases in which the pollen data can be well-modeled by a normal distribution, it is better to apply non-parametric statistical methods to aerobiological studies. Our results provide a reliable representation of the pollen trends in the region and suggest that greater pollen quantities are being liberated to the atmosphere in the last years, specially by Mediterranean taxa such as Pinus, Total Quercus and Evergreen Quercus, although the trends may differ geographically. Longer aerobiological monitoring periods are required to corroborate these results and survey the increasing levels of certain pollen types that could exert an impact in terms of public health.

  2. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: mvicente@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gaspar@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: lpalazon@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: lquijano@eead.cisc.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long

  3. Changes of the fluid regime behaviour through time in fault zones (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Irene; Lanari, Pierre; Alías, Gemma; Travé, Anna; Vidal, Olivier; Baqués, Vinyet

    2013-04-01

    Most Neogene normal faults of the central Catalan Coastal Ranges are the reactivation of previous normal Mesozoic faults and Paleogene thrust faults. These faults, such as the Vallès and the Hospital faults, are characterised by developing polyphasic fault-fluid systems. These systems have been inferred from regional to thin section scale observations combined with geochemical analyses. Moreover, the neoformation of chlorite and K-white mica in fault rocks has allowed us to constrain the P-T conditions during fault evolution using thermodynamic modelling. In these two faults, deformation is mainly localized in the basement granodiorite from the footwall. As a whole, four tectonic events have been distinguished. The first event corresponds to the Hercynian compression, which is characterised by mylonite bands in the Hospital fault. After this first compressional event and during the exhumation of the pluton, crystallization of M1 and M2 muscovite and microcline occurred in the Vallès fault as result of deuteric alteration, at temperatures between 330°C and 370°C. The second event, attributed to the Mesozoic rifting, is characterized by precipitation of M3 and M4 phengite together with chlorite and calcite C1 at temperatures between 190 and 310°C. These minerals precipitated from a fluid resulting from the mixing between marine waters and meteoric waters, which had been warmed at depth, upflowing along the faults. The third event, corresponding to the Paleogene compression, is characterised by low-temperature meteoric fluids, responsible of precipitation of calcite C2, in the Hospital fault. In the Vallès fault, the Paleogene compression generated a shortcut that produced a blue gouge and the uplift of the Mesozoic structures, avoiding the formation of new minerals within them. Finally, the fourth event, related to the Neogene extension, was responsible of syn-rift cements such as chlorite, calcite C4 and laumontite in the Vallès fault and calcite C3 in the

  4. Environmental isotopes (N, S, C, O, D) to determine natural attenuation processes in nitrate contaminated waters: Example of Osona (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoria, Laura [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lvitoria@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Otero, Neus [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Nitrate-contaminated groundwater from an aquifer in the Osona region (NE Spain) was chemically and isotopically ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO{sub 4}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}}, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) characterized. Diffuse- NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination reached values of 366 mg/L. Nearly 75% of the 37 sampled sites had higher concentrations than the 50 mg/L in NO{sub 3}{sup -} limit for drinking water. To identify the source of pollution {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} were used with results, for most samples, in the range of pig manure NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of the {delta}{sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and water. Isotopic data suggested that natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taking place. This process was confirmed using the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} coupled with the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio, avoiding the influence of continuous NO{sub 3}{sup -} inputs. A further insight on denitrification processes was obtained by analyzing the ions involved in denitrification reactions. Although the role of organic matter oxidation could neither be confirmed nor discarded, this approach showed a link between denitrification and pyrite oxidation. Therefore, in areas with no adequate infrastructure (e.g. multipiezometers), such as the one studied, this approach could be useful for implementing better water management.

  5. Sulphur isotopes as tracers of the influence of a coal-fired power plant on a Scots pine forest in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, R.; Àvila, A.; Soler, A.

    Stable sulphur isotopes and major ionic composition were analysed in precipitation and throughfall samples from a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest near the Cercs coal-fired power plant (Catalonia, NE Spain). The purpose of the study was to determine the main sources of sulphur deposition on this pine forest. Sulphur isotope measurements from the SO 2 power plant stack emissions were used to identify the isotopic signature of this source. Net throughfall fluxes of sulphur (26.1 kg S ha 1 yr -1) and nitrogen (16.3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) were higher—5-25 times higher for S and 5-15 times for N—at this site than in other forests in Catalonia. Sulphur isotope analysis confirmed that the net throughfall fluxes of sulphur were mostly due to the dry deposition of the SO 2 power plant emissions onto the pine canopies. Two potential atmospheric end-members were distinguished: regional background rainwater (δ 34S=+7.2‰) and power plant emissions (δ 34S=-2.8‰). By applying a two-component sulphur isotope mixing model, we found that during periods of low power plant activity (⩽10 emission h day -1), 62% of the throughfall sulphate could be attributed to the power plant emissions. At higher activity periods (⩾14 emission h day -1), this contribution rose to 73%. Although power plant contribution to bulk deposition was lower in both cases (34% and 45%), the possible influence of sulphate coming with long-range transport events from the polluted areas in the Mediterranean basin (δ 34S≈0‰) was not discarded.

  6. Radon levels in houses and workplaces in a uranium rich region in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quindos Poncela, L.S.; Fernandez Navarro, P.L.; Gomez Arozamena, J.; Lopez Romero, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a study of the evaluation of the doses per inhalation of radon in a population from a region of Spain rich in uranium is compared with those of workers of a mining installation in the region

  7. The impact of droughts and climate change on sinkhole occurrence. A case study from the evaporite karst of the Fluvia Valley, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Bach, Joan; Fabregat, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    This work introduces the concept that sinkhole frequency in some karst settings increases during drought periods. This conception is tested in a sector of the Fluvia River valley in NE Spain, where subsidence phenomena is related to the karstification of folded Eocene evaporite formations. In the discharge areas, the evaporites behave as confined aquifers affected by hypogene karstification caused by aggressive artesian flows coming form an underlying carbonate aquifer. A sinkhole inventory with chronological data has been constructed, revealing temporal clusters. Those clusters show a good correlation with drought periods, as revealed by precipitation, river discharge and piezometric data. This temporal association is particularly obvious for the last and current drought starting in 1998, which is the most intense of the record period (1940-present). Climatic projections based on recent studies foresee an intensification of the droughts in this sector of NE Spain, which could be accompanied by the enhancement of the sinkhole hazard and the associated risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  9. Crystal preferred orientations of minerals from mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks form the Catalan Volcanic Zone (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks from the Catalan Volcanic Zone, associated with the Neogene-Quaternary rift system in NE Spain, are formed of anhydrous spinel lherzolites and harzburgites with minor olivine websterites. Both peridotites are considered residues of variable degrees of partial melting, later affected by metasomatism, especially the harzburgites. These and the websterites display protogranular microstructures, whereas lherzolites show continuous variation between protogranular, porphyroclastic and equigranular forms. Thermometric data of new xenoliths indicate that protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and websterites were equilibrated at higher temperatures than porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Mineral chemistry also indicates lower equilibrium pressure for porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites than for the protogranular ones. Crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes from these new xenoliths were determined with the EBSD-SEM technique to identify the deformation stages affecting the lithospheric mantle in this zone and to assess the relationships between the deformation fabrics, processes and microstructures. Olivine CPOs in protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and a pyroxenite display [010]-fiber patterns characterized by a strong point concentration of the [010] axis normal to the foliation and girdle distribution of [100] and [001] axes within the foliation plane. Olivine CPO symmetry in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites varies continuously from [010]-fiber to orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types. The orthorhombic patterns are characterized by scattered maxima of the three axes, which are normal between them. The rare [100]-fiber patterns display strong point concentration of [100] axis, with normal girdle distribution of the other two axes, which are aligned with each other. The patterns of pyroxene CPOs are more dispersed than those of olivine, especially for clinopyroxene, but

  10. Spatial and temporal changes in land cover and its relation to the wildfire risk in Montes de Zuera (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Remón, E.; Badía-Villas, D.; Ibarra-Benlloch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Land cover changes in a territory can be as result of the diverse human activities, and also, by the dynamic natural ecosystem. The analysis of these changes constitutes a fundamental indicator in improving the knowledge towards a potential sustainable development (OSE, 2006). This paper analyzes the evolution of the land cover at detailed scale 1:5000, along the years 1957, 1984, and 2005, in the Montes de Zuera (UTM: 665000-680000 East /4640000-4650000 North), nearby Zaragoza city (NE-Spain). Despite they are located in the midst of the semiarid Central Ebro Basin, the area have an uncommon, extensive and dense forest cover. For these reasons, Montes de Zuera form part of the "Natura 2000 Network" of Aragon. Because this region has a high incidence of wildfires and, as a measure to prevent them, land cover changes have been analyzed in this study. To get this objective, a methodology is developed based on GIS and Remote Sensing tools, and this makes it possible to establish the relationship between the dynamic land cover and "fire hazard". According to FAO (1986), fire hazard is the measure of risk of wildfire, which is explained by the presence of combustible materials available to burn (Chuvieco et al, 2004). It is understood that the areas with major fire hazard present a high vulnerability to suffer vast wildfires. To develop this work, the type of vegetation, its distribution and the state of maturity of the forest masses are analyzed. Moreover, the wildfires that occurred during the last five decades have been located, and the forest masses and the processes (anthropic and natural) associated to them have been characterized in the regions affected by vast wildfires. Moreover, the cartography of fire hazard is obtained, and this is useful tool to fre prevention and to promote the sustainable management of the forest masses. Two regions with high rate of fire hazards are differentiated (region 1 and region 2). The Aleppo pine cover occupies the majority of

  11. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE(3-15)O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced.

  12. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  13. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  14. The region matters: A comparative analysis of regional energy efficiency in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Fuensanta, María J.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its strategic nature, the Spanish energy policy is primarily the responsibility of the central state. In spite of this, the Spanish legal code does in fact also confer certain powers to territorial governments in Spain, the Autonomous Communities. The objective of this work is specifically to investigate the differences between the energy performance of Spanish regions, which may be a consequence of specific features of their productive structures and resource endowments, in addition to the specific decisions adopted by each of them within the scope for action that they have in this area. With this aim in mind, we intend to calculate the inefficiency levels of Spanish regions as regards their use of various energy sources during the period 2003–2008, by estimating an environmental directional distance function. The results obtained confirm the existence of significant differences in the behaviour and evolution of regional energy efficiency and point to the need to pay more attention to energy planning in this territorial sphere. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency of Spanish regions by energy source is investigated. • The environmental directional distance function is used for the analysis. • Significant differences among regions in energy efficiency are observed. • Level of development and industrialization are not determinant to explain them.

  15. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-11-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  16. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-01-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  17. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  18. The microfauna assemblages as indicators of paleoenvironmental changes in the Miocene fluvial- lacustrine cycles (NE Duero Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrero-Hernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The siliclastic and carbonate deposits are interbedded in the Villadiego area (Miocene, NE Duero Basin. They have been subdivided into two high-rank depositional sequences: DDS and CDS. The sedimentary analysis of these units and the study of the microfauna content, mainly ostracods, led to the identification of lacustrine-fluvial interaction systems. The sedimentary characteristics reveal the existence of fluvial systems of gravel, flood plains and lacustrine systems that were interconnected and intimately related in north-south direction. In the sedimentological analysis, thirteen types of fluvial and lacustrine lithofacies and six genetic facies associations were recognized. The top of DDS is the result of lake level risings. The CDS shows a deepening-shallowing cycle. The ostracod micropaleontological analysis of the sediments have been studied, with the aim of reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area. These microfauna assemblages integrated with the analysis of the sedimentary facies allowed to conclude the existence of lakes with a water-bearing level of few tens of meters. A change in the chemical conditions of the waters, which evolved from oligohaline and carbonated to mesohaline and sulphated is concluded.

  19. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  20. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, C; Fabregat, M C; Cotín, J; Huertas, D; Solé, M; Quirós, L; Sanpera, C; Jover, L; Ruiz, X; Grimalt, J O; Piña, B

    2010-03-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, C.; Fabregat, M.C.; Cotin, J.; Huertas, D.; Sole, M.; Quiros, L.; Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X.; Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  2. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barcelo, Damia

    2008-01-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE 3-15 O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148 g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced. - Whereas partitioning of nonylphenol upon particulate matter and enrichment in sludge has been detected, long chain NPE n Os were mainly found in the dissolved phase

  3. Serologic and virologic investigations into pestivirus infection in wild and domestic ruminants in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, I; Rosell, R; Cabezón, O; Beneria, M; Mentaberre, G; Casas, E; Hurtado, A; López-Olvera, J R; Lavín, S

    2009-08-01

    An outbreak of disease associated to a border disease virus was described in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain in 2002. Sera and/or spleen samples from 57 mouflon, 15 red deer, 21 roe deer, 3 fallow deer, 55 sheep, 32 cattle, and 68 goats sharing the chamois habitat were studied. An antibody ELISA test yielded an inconclusive result in 2 mouflon and positive results in 5 goat sera. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on the 2 inconclusive mouflons, 3 of the 5 seropositive goats, 55 sheep and 32 cattle, using 6 pestivirus strains. Positive results were obtained in 1 mouflon, 2 goats, 69% of sheep and 78% of cattle. Virological investigations performed with an antigen ELISA test yielded negative results in 21 goats and 39 mouflons, the result in 1 mouflon being inconclusive. PCR performed on 12 goats and the inconclusive mouflon gave negative results. These results suggested that it is unlikely that chamois BDV is infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

  4. Regional consequences of the way land users respond to future water availability in Murcia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Temansen, M.; Hubacek, K.; Reed, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural development in the Murcia autonomous region, Spain, has led to overexploitation of groundwater resources, and climate change will further increase pressures. Policy options to tackle the current unsustainable situation include the development of inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) schemes

  5. The Stimulating Mechanisms Of Regional Economic Activity In Spain: Lessous For Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Seredinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is a country that traditionally suffers a lot from high level of regional disparities. From the end of XX century Spanish government has taken different measures to smooth them. For example, the state of autonomies was established, statutes were approved for every region, more powers were transferred to regional authorities. There are several institutions in Spain that increase the efficiency of cooperation between different levels of authorities and between autonomies, such as conference of the presidents, sectoral conferences, agreements on cooperation and bilateral commissions. Activity of these mechanisms is of a great interest for the author. The author tries to find the ways to modernize Russian regional policy using Spanish experience, considering its pros and cons. Undoubtedly it is impossible to copy other countries practice as Russia and Spain differ a lot, for example, in size, population, the level of socialeconomic development and the supply of mineral resources. Still there is something in common, like high level of regional disparities and amount of authorities the territories obtain. Even though Spain is a unitary state, its autonomies are quite independent. Territorial status of the country is a hybrid between unitary and federative state. Its institutional structure of regional policy is pretty diversified. So both these aspects are worth considering. Regional policy is one the most important directions of the state activity in Russia, because of its extensive territories. Today Russia has to face a number of regional challenges and regional policy cannot cope with them. The growing territorial polarization slow down the development of the whole country. It is useful to analyze foreign institutions, which solve regional problems in the other states, to adapt their practice to the Russian realities.

  6. Applying Multimodel Ensemble from Regional Climate Models for Improving Runoff Projections on Semiarid Regions of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Olmos, P.; Giraldo Osorio, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mediterranean area, significant changes on temperature and precipitation are expected throughout the century. These trends could exacerbate the existing conditions in regions already vulnerable to climatic variability, reducing the water availability. Improving knowledge about plausible impacts of climate change on water cycle processes at basin scale, is an important step for building adaptive capacity to the impacts in this region, where severe water shortages are expected for the next decades. RCMs ensemble in combination with distributed hydrological models with few parameters, constitutes a valid and robust methodology to increase the reliability of climate and hydrological projections. For reaching this objective, a novel methodology for building Regional Climate Models (RCMs) ensembles of meteorological variables (rainfall an temperatures), was applied. RCMs ensembles are justified for increasing the reliability of climate and hydrological projections. The evaluation of RCMs goodness-of-fit to build the ensemble is based on empirical probability density functions (PDF) extracted from both RCMs dataset and a highly resolution gridded observational dataset, for the time period 1961-1990. The applied method is considering the seasonal and annual variability of the rainfall and temperatures. The RCMs ensembles constitute the input to a distributed hydrological model at basin scale, for assessing the runoff projections. The selected hydrological model is presenting few parameters in order to reduce the uncertainties involved. The study basin corresponds to a head basin of Segura River Basin, located in the South East of Spain. The impacts on runoff and its trend from observational dataset and climate projections, were assessed. Considering the control period 1961-1990, plausible significant decreases in runoff for the time period 2021-2050, were identified.

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  8. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for an Abandoned Quarry in the Evros Region (NE Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapfo Τsolaki-Fiaka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the impacts of abandoned quarries and to examine scenarios for their restoration. Two quarries were selected as case studies, which are located in the Evros Region (NE Greece. Initially, the current state of the abandoned quarries was recorded and evaluated, including slopes, landscape, land use, as well as cultural elements. Four alterative scenarios for the exploitation of each quarry were proposed, taking into account the specifics of each site. Financial, environmental, and socioeconomic criteria were then used to evaluate these scenarios. The PROMETHEE method is a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and was applied to rank the alterative scenarios. The results show that the “do nothing” scenario is the worst solution for both quarries. In the quarry at Αsvestades, the restoration of the area by returning the land to pre-quarry use with the shaping of the slopes and planting is considered the best solution. On the other hand, in the quarry Mikro Derio two scenarios are proposed; one provides restoring the site to its pre-quarry land use and the other is the restoration of the quarry combined with the creation of a wildlife observatory and places for alternative forms of tourism.

  9. Automatic Extraction and Size Distribution of Landslides in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan A. Othman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the localization and size distribution of landslides using automatic remote sensing techniques in (semi- arid, non-vegetated, mountainous environments. The study area is located in the Kurdistan region (NE Iraq, within the Zagros orogenic belt, which is characterized by the High Folded Zone (HFZ, the Imbricated Zone and the Zagros Suture Zone (ZSZ. The available reference inventory includes 3,190 landslides mapped from sixty QuickBird scenes using manual delineation. The landslide types involve rock falls, translational slides and slumps, which occurred in different lithological units. Two hundred and ninety of these landslides lie within the ZSZ, representing a cumulated surface of 32 km2. The HFZ implicates 2,900 landslides with an overall coverage of about 26 km2. We first analyzed cumulative landslide number-size distributions using the inventory map. We then proposed a very simple and robust algorithm for automatic landslide extraction using specific band ratios selected upon the spectral signatures of bare surfaces as well as posteriori slope and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds. The index is based on the contrast between landslides and their background, whereas the landslides have high reflections in the green and red bands. We applied the slope threshold map to remove low slope areas, which have high reflectance in red and green bands. The algorithm was able to detect ~96% of the recent landslides known from the reference inventory on a test site. The cumulative landslide number-size distribution of automatically extracted landslide is very similar to the one based on visual mapping. The automatic extraction is therefore adapted for the quantitative analysis of landslides and thus can contribute to the assessment of hazards in similar regions.

  10. Estimating the effects of regional political climate on Russian tourists to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    ALVAREZ DIAZ MARCOS; MANUEL GONZÁLEZ-GÓMEZ; OTERO-GIRÁLDEZ MARÍA SOLEDAD

    2017-01-01

    Regional political climate has become an increasingly significant force influencing travel behaviour in many tourist destinations. This paper attempts to address impacts of regional political stability on Russian inbound tourism into Spain within a demand model framework and using a cointegration approach. The results show that visa openness as well as political instability and civil unrest in substitute destinations attract more Russian tourists boosting economic growth and reducing unemploy...

  11. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  12. The net effect of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem NE Spain: implications for the management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Yolanda; Arroyo, Antonio I.; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-05-01

    Degradation in arid and semiarid lands can be irreversible without human intervention, due to a positive plant-soil feedback where the loss of vegetation cover leads to soil degradation, which in turn hampers plant establishment. Human intervention in restoration actions usually involves the amendment of the degraded abiotic conditions, revegetation of bare areas, or both. However, abiotic amelioration is often expensive and too intrusive, and revegetation is not successful in many cases. Biotic interactions between plants, and more specifically facilitation by a "nurse" plant, have been proposed as a new via to take profit of improved abiotic conditions without intervention, and to increase the success rate of revegetation actions. But "nurse" plants can also interfere with others (i.e. by competition for resources or the release of allelopathic compounds), and the net balance between facilitation and interference could depend on plant types involved. We present recent observational and experimental studies performed in the semiarid ecosystems of the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain) about the role of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in the productivity, dynamics and diversity of plant communities under different stress conditions (aridity and grazing). We found that all plant types studied (shrubs and perennial grasses) improved abiotic conditions (soil temperature and water availability for plants) with respect to open areas. However, only some shrubs (mainly Salsola vermiculata) had a positive net balance in the biotic interactions between plants, while other shrubs (Artemisia herba-alba) and perennial grasses (Lygeum spartum) showed interference with other plants. Moreover, the net balance between facilitation and interference among plants in the community shifted from competitive to neutral or from neutral to facilitative with increasing aridity. Grazing status did not strongly change the net biotic interactions between plants. Our results suggest that

  13. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Deformation and seismic anisotropy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in NE Spain: EBSD data on xenoliths from the Catalan Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2017-02-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene-Quaternary basaltic rocks related to the European Cenozoic Rift System serve to assess the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Catalan Volcanic Zone in NE Spain. Crystallographic preferred orientations, major element composition of minerals, and temperature and pressure estimates have been used to this end. The mantle consists of spinel lherzolites, harzburgites and subordinate websterites. Protogranular microstructures are found in all peridotites and websterites, but lherzolites also display finer-grained porphyroclastic and equigranular microstructures. The dominant olivine deformation fabric is [010] fiber, but subordinate orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types are also present, especially in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. The fabric strength (J index = 10.12-1.91), equilibrium temperature and pressure are higher in xenoliths with [010]-fiber fabric and decrease in those with orthorhombic and [100]-fiber type. Incoherence between olivine and pyroxene deformation fabric is mostly found in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Seismic anisotropy, estimated from the crystal preferred orientations, also decreases (AVp = 10.2-2.60%; AVs max = 7.95-2.19%) in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. The olivine [010]-fiber fabric points to deformation by simple shear or transpression which is likely to have occured during the development of late-Hercynian strike-slip shear zones, and to subsequent annealing during late Hercynian decompression, Permian and Cretaceous rifting. Also, it cannot be excluded that the percolation of mafic magmas during these extensional events provoked the refertilization of the lithospheric mantle. However, no clear relationship has been observed between fabric strength and mineral mode and composition. Later transtensional deformation during late Alpine orogenesis, at higher stress and decreasing temperature and pressure, transformed the earlier fabric into

  15. Hepatitis E in liver transplant recipients in the Rhône-Alpes region in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffaz, C; Scholtes, C; Dron, A-G; Chevallier-Queyron, P; Ritter, J; André, P; Ramière, C

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen, but prevalence seems highly variable according to previous European studies. As HEV can lead to chronic infections in immunosuppressed patients, it is thus essential to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of this infection. We determined retrospectively, in a cohort of 206 pediatric and adult liver transplant recipients from the Rhône-Alpes region in France, pre-transplant anti-HEV-IgG prevalence and incidence of HEV infections during post-transplant follow-up (HEV IgG and IgM ± HEV-RNA). Transplantations were carried out between 2005 and 2012 and mean post-transplant follow-up was 32.8 months. Global pre-transplant prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 29%, increasing regularly with age from 7% for children under 15 to 49% for patients older than 60. From the 142 seronegative patients before transplant, 11 seroconversions (7.7%) were observed during follow-up (incidence of 2.83 cases per 100 person-years). HEV RNA-tested at transaminases peak or randomly-was detected in only one case of seroconversion. For at least 2 HEV-seropositive patients, who had negative RNAemia before transplantation, viral RNA was detected chronically during follow-up, suggesting reinfection with HEV. Acute infections were largely more frequent than chronic infections and were asymptomatic or misdiagnosed, suggesting that liver transplant patients may not be particularly prone to developing severe HEV hepatitis. In addition, the presence of IgG anti-HEV may not protect against re-infection. Serological testing, therefore, appears to be of limited interest for the diagnosis of HEV infections in liver transplant recipients.

  16. Cost of osteoporotic hip fracture in Spain per Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, A; Caeiro, J-R; Mesa-Ramos, M; Etxebarría-Foronda, I; Montejo, J; Carpintero, P; Sorio-Vilela, F; Gatell, S; Canals, L

    2018-05-21

    We estimated the health resource utilization (HRU) and associated costs during the 12months after a first osteoporotic hip fracture (OHF) in six Spanish Regions. Observational, prospective study including patients ≥65years-old hospitalized due to a first OHF in: Andalusia, Catalonia, Valencian Community, Galicia, Madrid and the Basque Country. HRU related to OHF, quality of life and patient autonomy were collected, and HRU-associated costs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (mean age: 83.1years, 77% women) were included, with demographic characteristics that were similar across the Regions. Mean hospital stay was longest in Madrid and Galicia (women/men: 15.0/18.6 and 16.9/12.6days, respectively) and shortest in Andalusia and the Valencian Community (8.2/7.2 and 8.4/9.4days). There were more rehabilitation sessions and formal home care days in Catalonia and Madrid (women/men: 16/21 and 17/29 sessions; 19/20 and 30/27days) and fewer in Andalusia and Galicia (4/1 and 3/0 sessions; 3/1 and 1/0days). Mean HRU costs were higher in Madrid and lower in Andalusia (women/men: 12,321€/12,297€ and 7,031€/6,115€, respectively). OHF place a large burden on Spanish Regional Health Systems, including high economic costs. We found notable differences in mean costs across the Regions, mainly caused by the differential length of the first hospital stay and the outpatient care in subsequent months. These differences may be associated with differences in surgical delay. A national consensus on the management of OHF is desirable; moreover, agreeing common guidelines could have major socio-economic and healthcare benefits. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Scenario analysis of climate change and tourism in Spain and other European regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.M.

    2005-06-15

    The aim of the study is to determine the possible impact of climate change on the tourist industry in Spain, with an especial focus on coastal regions. This includes the identification of potential areas suffering a decrease in the tourist flows, as well as different regions that could see a benefit on increasing temperatures and more reliable weather predictions. To do so, a Tourism Climate Index will be used, studying the potentiality of an area for tourism considering different elements of the climate which are relevant for the tourism activities. Current and future climatological scenarios over the main tourist sites in Spain will be built. In addition, the study will include an evaluation of the context around Spain, including case studies in other 5 different countries and a global description for the rest of the continent. Chapter 2 focuses mainly on the tourist sector. The global importance of this activity, together with the international tourism flows, serves as introduction to a more detailed assessment of the significant role that Spain plays as a tourist destination. The complex interrelations between climate (change) and tourism are reviewed in chapter 3. First, a brief introduction about climate change and descriptions of major projections about future climate world wide. This description is further detailed for Spain. Additionally, the interactions between tourism and climate are described thoroughly. Chapter 4 discusses the concept of 'Tourist Comfort Index', addressing key issues such as factors included and weighting. This section gives also a brief overview of the analysis and the data that was needed in the elaboration of the thesis. The implementation of the index and the results for current climate and future climate is presented. After the data analysis, chapter 5 provides an in-depth discussion of the results and compares them with other studies. This chapter is followed by the conclusions and recommendations in chapter 6.

  18. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  19. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.; Gilbert, O.; Bernat, X.; Valhondo, C.; Kock-Schulmeyer, M.; Huerta-Fontela, M.; Colomer, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  20. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere–ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013–2037 (2025) and 2038–2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface–subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall–runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights:

  1. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela, Lucila, E-mail: lucila.candela@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Tamoh, Karim [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel [Flumen Research Institute, UPC Gran Capitan s.n. Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 Degree-Sign C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights

  2. Regional modelling of the confined aquifers below the Boom clay in NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersteen, K.; Gedeon, M.; Marivoet, J.; Wouters, L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). The hydrogeological program at SCK.CEN supports the long-term performance assessments of the geological disposal of radioactive waste by performing a phenomenological research of the aquifer systems surrounding the studied disposal system. One of the important components of this programme is the regional hydrogeological modelling. The regional hydrogeology is studied using two main models - the steady state Neogene aquifer model (NAM) and the transient deep aquifer pumping model (DAP), developed to characterize and quantify the regional groundwater flow in, respectively, the aquifers lying above the Boom Clay in the Nete catchment area (NAM), and the aquifers lying below the Boom Clay in the Campine area (DAP). This paper describes the most recent update of the DAP model. The DAP model represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay. This includes the parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer buried under the Boom Clay. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. In the DAP model, the shallow aquifer system overlying the Boom Clay is replaced by fixed head boundaries: this aquifer system is dominated by close-to-surface hydrological processes and the heads fluctuate seasonally without any apparent long-term trend. In the horizontal direction, the model extends to the south as far as the outcrops of the major aquitards: the Maldegem Formation confining the Ledo

  3. Measuring Poverty at the Regional Level in Spain: A Reflexive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Zugasti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the utility of adjusting the poverty threshold for regional areas of Spain and of using thresholds anchored in time. It also offers a critical review of equivalence scales as a central element in estimating poverty. To do this, data from the Income and Living Conditions Surveys from 2007 to 2012 is used. The results show that poverty rates obtained with national thresholds are strongly influenced by intra-regional inequalities in income. They also show that regional thresholds capture differences in the well-being of the population, controlling for the effects of regional disparities in economic development. In addition, they demonstrate that anchored thresholds avoid inconsistencies in poverty rates tied to changes in income levels of the general population and not to changes in socially necessary resources.

  4. Fault rocks and veins formation in the crystalline Palaeozoic basement of the N margin of the Littoral Chain (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías, Gemma; Belmonte, Alba; Cantarero, Irene; Inglés, Montserrat; Travé, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The Littoral Chain corresponds to a horst of NE-SW direction formed during the Neogene extension which in the studied area (Collserola-Montnegre massif) is mainly composed by Paleozoic materials. At the northern margin the horst limits with the Vallès basin which is infilled by Miocene detrital materials. In the Forques Hill, two km to the est of Martorell, an excellent outcrop of Ordovician phyllites summarise an spread tectonic evolution from Hercynian to Neogene deformation. This work evaluates the behaviour of phyllites during the Hercynian ductile deformation and later during the fragile Mesozoic and Neogene tectonics. The weakness of these rocks together with the situation very close to the Vallès Fault favour that this area concentrates many deformation structures related to extensional tectonics, such as veins, cataclasites and gouges. Phyllites present a pervasive regional hercynian foliation oriented WNW-ESE and dipping moderately to the NNE; a huge amount of quartz veins, up to 20% of the rock volume, were injected during and immediately after the main foliation development. Two groups of fractures cutting the phyllites can be distinguished in the field according to the fault rock products, the vein infilling, the orientation and the geometry. The first one corresponds to Mesozoic fractures that have a NE-SW trend and dip indistinctly to the NW or SE, in a conjugate system. They are characterized by the formation of a broad zone of 0,2 m up to 1,5 m formed either by cataclasites or en echelon veins that indicate a normal movement. The cataclasites are cohesive greenish rocks, with 50% of clasts of wall rock from mm to dm in size. Neoformed minerals in the matrix are chlorite - albite - barite ± titanite and rutile. Veins are white to pinkish in colour and two types of infill have been identified: albite - chlorite - iron oxides± rutile and dolomite - chlorite. The second group belongs to Neogene fractures which although similar orientation than those

  5. Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

  6. Situations and problems of renewable energy in the Region of Murcia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Lopez, M. Dolores; Garcia-Cascales, M. Socorro; Ruiz-Delgado, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energies in Spain have been promoted since 2002, proof of this lies in the fact that in 2007 renewable energy accounted for 6.9% of the consumption of primary energy. The renewable energies market is one of the sectors with the greatest growth in recent years in Spain and is key to the energy policies at national level. Both at national and regional level diverse targets have been set for the production of renewable energies, this article seeks to analyse the potential, current state, and perspectives of renewable energies in the Region of Murcia, investigating the possibilities of fulfilling the objectives established. The solar energy potential should be highlighted, where most of the territory has more than 5.0 kWh/m 2 ; also the wind power potential, where in certain areas there are winds of more than 6 m/s; and the biogas potential due to the extensive livestock herds. With reference to the targets for photovoltaic and wind power, these have been reached; but in the rest of the energy sources the fulfilment of the objectives depends on favourable management and administration policies. Likewise, a comparative study of the state of the Region of Murcia has also been carried out, taking the national situation as the reference. (author)

  7. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Gomis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  8. Oceanographic conditions in the NEMO region during the KM3NeT project (April 2006-May 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparnocchia, Stefania; Pietro Gasparini, Gian; Schroeder, Katrin; Borghini, Mireno

    2011-01-01

    An intense observational activity was conducted in the NEMO region, western Ionian Sea, 40 nm south-east of Capo Passero (Sicily), in the framework of the KM3NeT project. Several oceanographic cruises were performed from 2006 to 2009 and current measurements carried out. The new data describe the present status of the deep layer and its evolution after the occurrence of a notable change that affected the Eastern Mediterranean water masses and circulation during the 1990's. In particular, they evidence the presence of a newly formed water mass in the abyssal layer of the Ionian Sea, coming likely from the Adriatic. Deep currents in the region are quite energetic, as already known, and highly variable both spatially and in strength. They are organized in a cyclonic circuit, with a prevalent north-west direction corresponding to the NEMO site.

  9. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Lope, Virginia; Vidal, Enrique; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9 th and 10 th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  10. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  11. Determinants of regional labour productivity growth: A study for the hospitality sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Ortega Aguaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determinants of labour productivity growth in the hospitality industry in Spain using regional data over the period 1996-2004. The results obtained suggest that the increase in the number of 3-star hotels and the reduction process in the stock of physical capital per worker are factors which may have contributed to the fall in productivity growth. However, increased regional tourism intensity has a positive impact on the growth of labour productivity. Nonetheless, changes in demand-related factors, such as average length of stay and the seasonality of demand, have not had a significant aggregate impact on labour productivity growth during this period.

  12. Atmospheric turbulent structures and their correlative factor leading to the thunderstorm events at the NE region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahan, Y.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Pathak, K.; Ray, K. P.

    2017-08-01

    Starting with the seasonal occurrence characteristics of thunderstorm (TS) over North Eastern (NE) part of India, the paper addresses hydrodynamic factors leading to TS. Further, atmospheric structure constant (Cn2) and Reynolds number (Re) the two turbulence parameters are analysed in association with TS, on the background that these two variabilities and TS events are associated with atmospheric temperature and humidity. The analysis result shows that during the growth and development processes of TS, the correlation coefficient between Cn2 and Re is enhanced by 50% compared to non-thunderstorm days. These observations are explained in terms of eddies and vortices generated in a moving fluid system of an atmosphere as represented by Cn2 and Re. The vortices are the turbulent pockets of fluid that move randomly within the medium and ultimately dissipate their kinetic energy in the form of heat. This process leads to the transfer of energy between atmospheric layers by changing the buoyancy that may cause dry, wet or storm conditions of the weather. Such kind of energy transfer processes may be widespread or localized. The active movement of the fluid during localized condition produces rapid changes in Cn2 and Re which in turn may provide storm conditions. In this background, the paper examines the role of these parameters in the growth and development of TS over NE region.

  13. Stratigraphic and structural controls on groundwater flow in an outcropping fossil fan delta: the case of Sant Llorenç del Munt range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albert; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological models of mountain regions present the opportunity to understand the role of geological factors on groundwater resources. The effects of sedimentary facies and fracture distribution on groundwater flow and resource exploitation are studied in the ancient fan delta of Sant Llorenç de Munt (central Catalonia, Spain) by integrating geological field observations (using sequence stratigraphy methods) and hydrogeological data (pumping tests, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). A comprehensive analysis of data portrays the massif as a single unit, constituted by different compartments determined by specific layers and sets of fractures. Two distinct flow systems—local and regional—are identified based on pumping test analysis as well as hydrochemical and isotopic data. Drawdown curves derived from pumping tests indicate that the behavior of the saturated layers, whose main porosity is given by the fracture network, corresponds to a confined aquifer. Pumping tests also reflect a double porosity within the system and the occurrence of impervious boundaries that support a compartmentalized model for the whole aquifer system. Hydrochemical data and associated spatial evolution show the result of water-rock interaction along the flow lines. Concentration of magnesium, derived from dolomite dissolution, is a tracer of the flow-path along distinct stratigraphic units. Water stable isotopes indicate that evaporation (near a 5% loss) occurs in a thick unsaturated zone within the massif before infiltration reaches the water table. The hydrogeological analysis of this outcropping system provides a methodology for the conceptualization of groundwater flow in similar buried systems where logging and hydrogeological information are scarce.

  14. THE DAΦNE INTERACTION REGION FOR THE KLOE-2 RUN

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, Catia; Raimondi, Pantaleo

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and Crab-Waist compensation of the beam-beam interaction has been proposed and implemented on DAΦNE. The new configuration has been used to provide beam-beam events to the SIDDHARTA experiment, a compact device without solenoidal field, heir of DEAR, providing a simple environment for the Crab-Waist test. The luminosity has been increased by a factor 3 with a peak value of 4.53x1032 cm-2s-1 letting in collision currents slightly lower than those corresponding to the old records. The highest daily integrated luminosity measured in a moderate injection regime, suitable for SIDDHARTA operation, has been L∫day ~15 pb-1. An almost continuous injection regime provided L∫1 hour ~1.0 pb-1 hourly integrated luminosity which opened significant perspectives for the KLOE-2 experiment. Scaling this best integrated luminosity measured over two hours, it is reasonable to expect more than 20 pb-1 per day, and assuming 80% collider uptime as during the past ru...

  15. Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Rocio; Vivanco, Marta G.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ignacio; Bermejo, Victoria; Palomino, Inmaculada; Garrido, Juan Luis; Elvira, Susana; Salvador, Pedro; Artinano, Begona

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O 3 concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O 3 since removing this green area increased O 3 levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: → Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O 3 pollution in Madrid (Spain). → The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. → Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O 3 concentrations over the surrounding areas. → Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O 3 than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

  16. [Medication adherence and use of health services in patients with psychosis in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarola-Ginesta, Joan; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Bleda-García, Francesc; Villa-Ribas, Ester; Arrufat-Nebot, Francesc Xavier

    2014-04-01

    To describe and analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence and use of health resources by country of birth of psychosis diagnosed patients treated with long-term antipsychotic injectable drugs in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain). Descriptive observational study in psychosis diagnosed patients over 18 years old, receiving long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment and treated at a Mental Health Center for adults in Vic (Catalonia, Spain). 185 patients were included, of them: 163 (88.1%) were born in Spain and 22 (17.9%) abroad. The sample was gender homogeneous with differences in age, employment status, family situation and diagnosis (p Spain-born patients and 9.1% of abroad-born patients received the injectable treatment at Primary Care Center (p Spain and 6 (27.3%) abroad (p = 0.012). All patients diagnosed with psychosis, either born or not in Spain, describe good adherence to long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment, with similar use of health resources from a quantitative point of view and some differences in the type of visits.

  17. Modelling past hydrology of an interfluve area in the Campine region (NE Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Beerten, Koen; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at hydrological model verification of a small lowland interfluve area (18.6 km²) in NE Belgium, for conditions that are different than today. We compare the current state with five reference periods in the past (AD 1500, 1770, 1854, 1909 and 1961) representing important stages of landscape evolution in the study area. Historical information and proxy data are used to derive conceptual model features and boundary conditions specific to each period: topography, surface water geometry (canal, drains and lakes), land use, soils, vegetation and climate. The influence of landscape evolution on the hydrological cycle is assessed using numerical simulations of a coupled unsaturated zone - groundwater model (HYDRUS-MODFLOW). The induced hydrological changes are assessed in terms of groundwater level, recharge, evapotranspiration, and surface water discharge. HYDRUS-MODFLOW coupling allows including important processes such as the groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Major land use change occurred between AD 1854 and 1909, with about 41% of the study area being converted from heath to coniferous forest, together with the development of a drainage network. Results show that this led to a significant decrease of groundwater recharge and lowering of the groundwater table. A limitation of the study lies in the comparison of simulated past hydrology with appropriate palaeo-records. Examples are given as how some indicators (groundwater head, swamp zones) can be used to tend to model validation. Quantifying the relative impact of land use and climate changes requires running sensitivity simulations where the models using alternative land use are run with the climate forcing of other periods. A few examples of such sensitivity runs are presented in order to compare the influence of land use and climate change on the study area hydrology.

  18. Turbulent fluxes in atmospheric boundary layer of a semi-arid region of N-E Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S. R.; De Fatima Correia, M.; Da Silva, E. M.; Costa, A. M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of the Experiment 'Experimento de Microfisica de Nuvens-EmfiN' (Experiment of microphysics of clouds) conducted by Universidade Estatual de Ceara-UECE at Fortaleza, a semi-arid region of N-E Brazil, are presented. The mean kinematic fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor of the surface boundary layer are estimated by the thermodynamic energy and water vapor conservation equations; and by the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The results of the two methods are in good agreement. It is shown that in the absence of sophisticated fast-response turbulence instrumentation and wind data the conservations equations methods are better option for estimation of heat and water vapor fluxes. Further they are useful to study the turbulent fluxes in inhomogeneous condition in time like early morning and late evening boundary layer transitions

  19. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  20. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  1. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  2. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: ‘La Salada de Chiprana’ (NE Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonkers, Henk M.; Ludwig, Rebecca; De Wit, Rutger

    2003-01-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, ‘La Salada de Chiprana’, northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium...

  3. Political and Territorial Construction of Regional and National Identities in Spain since 1978

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlebæk, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the Statute-related parliamentary debates of the Catalan and Valencian autonomous regions and analyses the conceptions of the political communities defended by the political parties, both of Spain, Valencia and Catalonia and the relationship between them. The goal...... is to analyse the differences over time and across ideologies of the identification patterns and the preferences with regards to the territorial organisation of the Spanish state and the arguments used to legitimise these positions. Unsurprising, the investigation shows that the secessionist crisis in Catalonia...... is reflected in many ways, but it also shows indications of conflict or of highly sensitive areas with conflict potential as early as 1979. Furthermore there are significant differences in the ways the political parties act in Valencia and Catalonia, respectively. The results suggest that the decentralisation...

  4. Increased risk of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Region of Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olcina Cantos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, episodes of flooding on the coast of Alicante (Spain have led to substantial losses in human life in economic terms. With increased exposure to these phenomena comes also increased vulnerability. Given the various effects of flooding in areas of similar exposure, differences in vulnerability across regions at risk need to be analysed also in terms of the socioeconomic factors of the groups of society that may be affected, and of their perception of risk. This paper studies the increased risk of flooding in three locations on the Alicante coast as a result of urban occupation of areas subject to this hazard. The consequences of the most recent episodes in this area are analysed and a risk assessment, using survey-based research in the affected areas, is performed.

  5. Regional water footprint and water management: the case of Madrid region (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Rovira, José; Arroyo Sanz, Juan Manuel; Conde Marcos, Hugo; Sanz Zudaire, Carlos; Mesa Moreno, Alfredo; Gil Pascual, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Water resources and water footprint of the production and consumption in Madrid region were estimated, considering blue water (water resources), green water (soil moisture), grey water (polluted water) and virtual water (water trade in products imported and exported in the region). Water resources in Madrid relay mainly in surface waters and rainfall, so the periodic occurrence of meteorological droughts implies the scarcity of water supply. The main users of blue water are households, munici...

  6. Evolution of the stature in a backward region of Spain: Castile and Leon, 1830-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno Lázaro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the field of anthropometric history, recently of great interest to social and economic historians. An analysis of the height of adult males in Spain’s interior provides a reflection of the nutritional state and biological wellbeing of the society of that region during Spain’s industrialization. Some 29,000 registers relating to military drafts between 1830 and 1940 provide a series of samples of the rural and urban populations of Castilla-León which allow for an analysis of territorial, environmental, and social inequalities, as well as cyclical changes. This analysis reveals that height in this region developed according to a cyclical model determined by environmental and economic factors, diminishing during the second half of the nineteenth century, when malnutrition and under-nutrition were more prevalent in Castilla-León than in other Spanish regions, and not picking up again before the early twentieth century. This reduction in height was more evident in urban environments and among day-labourers. The nutritional status of this region’s population improved significantly during the first half of the twentieth century. Although it was affected during the Civil War and post-war period, this decline was not as great as that experienced in other regions of Spain.

  7. Bulk mineralogy of the NE Syrtis and Jezero crater regions of Mars derived through thermal infrared spectral analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Goudge, T. A.; Bramble, M. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Amador, E. S.; Mustard, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the area to the northwest of the Isidis impact basin (hereby referred to as "NW Isidis") using thermal infrared emission datasets to characterize and quantify bulk surface mineralogy throughout this region. This area is home to Jezero crater and the watershed associated with its two deltaic deposits in addition to NE Syrtis and the strong and diverse visible/near-infrared spectral signatures observed in well-exposed stratigraphic sections. The spectral signatures throughout this region show a diversity of primary and secondary surface mineralogies, including olivine, pyroxene, smectite clays, sulfates, and carbonates. While previous thermal infrared investigations have sought to characterize individual mineral groups within this region, none have systematically assessed bulk surface mineralogy and related these observations to visible/near-infrared studies. We utilize an iterative spectral unmixing method to statistically evaluate our linear thermal infrared spectral unmixing models to derive surface mineralogy. All relevant primary and secondary phases identified in visible/near-infrared studies are included in the unmixing models and their modeled spectral contributions are discussed in detail. While the stratigraphy and compositional diversity observed in visible/near-infrared spectra are much better exposed and more diverse than most other regions of Mars, our thermal infrared analyses suggest the dominance of basaltic compositions with less observed variability in the amount and diversity of alteration phases. These results help to constrain the mineralogical context of these previously reported visible/near-infrared spectral identifications. The results are also discussed in the context of future in situ investigations, as the NW Isidis region has long been promoted as a region of paleoenvironmental interest on Mars.

  8. Understanding the Effects of Homeownership and Regional Unemployment Levels on Migration during the Economic Crisis in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomares Linares, M.I.; van Ham, M.

    The Spanish labour market is characterised by high levels of unemployment, which have increased during the global economic crisis. Spain is also a country which is characterised by a very high percentage of homeownership, with more than 83% of households being owner-occupiers. Both regional levels

  9. Analysis of Measures for Attention to Diversity in Compulsory Secondary Education: The Case of the Region of Murcia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Martinez, Rogelio; de Haro, Remedios; Escarbajal, Andres

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the implementation of measures of attention to diversity for students with special educational support needs studying Compulsory Secondary Education (12-16 years) in the Region of Murcia, Spain. Our aim is to learn about the organisational and curricular structures implemented in five secondary education…

  10. Radon exposure of school population in Friuli Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale survey was carried out, comprising over than 5000 measurements with passive track detectors LR115 or CR39 in every school of the region. The main conclusions are as follows: (i) The average concentration in Friuli Venezia Giulia schools results is 100 Bq/m3; (ii) Building characteristics of dwellings and schools are quite similar in Friuli Venezia Giulia region: the same radon concentration mean values were observed in the two kinds of buildings apart from kindergartens that are usually developed only at the ground floor level; (iii) About 4 % schools shows include at least one room exceeding the Italian reference level of 500 Bq/m3. The same results has been found for dwelling s during the regional part of a National survey: 4 % dwellings exceeded the European recommended levels of 400 Bq/m3. (iv) The fact that soil is the main source of indoor radon in the region has been confirmed. Radon concentration distribution maps of various kinds could be constructed: in any case areas with higher radon indoor concentrations as compared to the average could be identified. The estimated mean effective doses for students and workers are about 0.5 mSv/y, although values up to 4 mSv/year are not uncommon in some schools. (P.A.)

  11. The relationship between precipitation and insurance data for floods in a Mediterranean region (northeast Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès, Maria; Turco, Marco; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria Carmen

    2018-03-01

    Floods in the Mediterranean region are often surface water floods, in which intense precipitation is usually the main driver. Determining the link between the causes and impacts of floods can make it easier to calculate the level of flood risk. However, up until now, the limitations in quantitative observations for flood-related damages have been a major obstacle when attempting to analyse flood risk in the Mediterranean. Flood-related insurance damage claims for the last 20 years could provide a proxy for flood impact, and this information is now available in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia, in northeast Spain. This means a comprehensive analysis of the links between flood drivers and impacts is now possible. The objective of this paper is to develop and evaluate a methodology to estimate flood damages from heavy precipitation in a Mediterranean region. Results show that our model is able to simulate the probability of a damaging event as a function of precipitation. The relationship between precipitation and damage provides insights into flood risk in the Mediterranean and is also promising for supporting flood management strategies.

  12. Comparison of absolute biochemical parameters of undisturbed soils in Mediterranean environments (NE Spain) with corresponding parameters relative to soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez de Ridder, Patrícia; Marando, Graciela; Josa March, Ramon; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Ras Sabido, Antoni; Bonmati Pont, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The study of soil quality requires the establishment of quality standards. To this end, several authors have highlighted the need to create databases of quality indicators, such as biochemical properties, for different types of undisturbed soils under various climates and to establish standardised methodologies for their development. In Spain, studies of the quality of native soils were initiated > 15 years ago by several groups of authors from differing locations, but little is known regardi...

  13. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  14. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza Usuga, Juan Carlos; Jarauta Bragulat, Eusebio; Porta Casanellas, Jaume; Poch Claret, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  15. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  16. Radon remedial actions in schools of Friuli Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the last four years the Regional Agency of Environmental Protection (ARPA) of Friuli Venezia Giulia carried out a survey to determine the radon concentration in the schools of the area. During the survey all the 1320 schools and kindergartens of the region were investigated with more than 5000 measurements. In about 2% of cases, radon concentrations exceeded the reference levels of Italian law and remedial actions were performed. In collaboration with the Building Engineering Department of Udine University, ARPA FVG edited a manual concerning indications and proposals for building protection against radon. The environmental physics section of ARPA FVG, was heavily involved in the remedial action, both in the design of the action and in the investigation of effectiveness. In more than 20 schools the owners following ARPA indications solved the problem of high radon concentrations. In this paper the authors report the main type of applied remedial actions grouped taking into account the different remedial methodology. In Friuli Venezia Giulia region the main radon source is represented by soil. The contribution of building materials to high radon concentrations is negligible. The most common remedial actions consisted in natural or artificial depressurization of the soil or the crawlspace with respect to indoor building. Sometimes air was pumped into the building or air exchange number was increased. The authors show in detail the design of the performed investigations: these involved different measurement sets with passive electrets and active instruments for continuous data collection. Measurements usually last 3 contiguous weeks and are followed by long period measurements with solid track detectors. Optimization of remedial action performance was investigated when remedial action consisted in active air extraction from the soil under the buildings and fan time regulation was possible. Very often simple and cheap actions allowed a reduction of 90% in radon

  17. Inter-regional changes in the performance and interpretation of spirometry in Spain: 3E study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Soriano, Joan B; Calle, Myriam

    2014-11-01

    This report shows the results of a nation-wide survey on spirometry to assess regional differences. Observational cross-sectional study conducted by means of a telephone survey in 805 primary care (PC) and specialized centers (SC) in all regions. The survey contacted technicians in charge of spirometry and consisted of 36 questions related to the test. The results showed major differences between regions. Most centers had 1-2 spirometers. The number of spirometry tests per week ranged from 2 to 8.9 in PC and between 34.3 and 98.3 in SC. Some training had been given in most centers (63.6-100% in PC and 60.0-100% in SC) but not on a regular basis. Most centers used several short-acting bronchodilators for the bronchodilation test, but with insufficient inhalations (2.0-3.8 in PC and 2.0-3.3 in SC) and frequently incorrect waiting time (29.4-83.3% PC and 33.3-87.5% in SC). Daily calibration was not performed in all centers (0-100% in PC and 66.7-100% in SC). Significant inter-regional differences in spirometry quality criteria were observed, with 6 or more criteria met in 9.1-84.6% of PC centers and 37.5-100% in SC. Our results show the current situation of spirometry in primary and specialized care in Spain, highlighting considerable variability and areas for improvement. This information should be considered by health officials to improve the quality and accessibility of such tests. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbonaceous PM(2.5) and secondary organic aerosol across the Veneto region (NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Di Gilio, Alessia; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pavoni, Bruno

    2016-01-15

    Organic and elemental carbon (OC-EC) were measured in 360 PM2.5 samples collected from April 2012 to February 2013 at six provinces in the Veneto region, to determine the factors affecting the carbonaceous aerosol variations. The 60 daily samples have been collected simultaneously in all sites during 10 consecutive days for 6 months (April, June, August, October, December and February). OC ranged from 0.98 to 22.34 μg/m(3), while the mean value was 5.5 μg/m(3), contributing 79% of total carbon. EC concentrations fluctuated from 0.19 to 11.90 μg/m(3) with an annual mean value of 1.31 μg/m(3) (19% of the total carbon). The monthly OC concentration gradually increased from April to December. The EC did not vary in accordance with OC. However the highest values for both parameters were recorded in the cold period. The mean OC/EC ratio is 4.54, which is higher than the values observed in most of the other European cities. The secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributed for 69% of the total OC and this was confirmed by both the approaches OC/EC minimum ratio and regression. The results show that OC, EC and SOC exhibited higher concentration during winter months in all measurement sites, suggesting that the stable atmosphere and lower mixing play important role for the accumulation of air pollutant and hasten the condensation or adsorption of volatile organic compounds over the Veneto region. Significant meteorological factors controlling OC and EC were investigated by fitting linear models and using a robust procedure based on weighted likelihood, suggesting that low wind speed and temperature favour accumulation of emissions from local sources. Conditional probability function and conditional bivariate probability function plots indicate that both biomass burning and vehicular traffic are probably the main local sources for carbonaceous particulate matter emissions in two selected cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  20. Precious metal-bearing epithermal deposits in western Patagonia (NE Lago Fontana region), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchini, Mabel Elena; Etcheverry, Ricardo Oscar; de Barrio, Raúl Ernesto; Recio Hernández, Clemente

    2013-04-01

    Precious metal-bearing quartz veins occur at the northeastern sector of the Lago Fontana region in southwestern Argentina, within the context of the Andean continental magmatic arc environment. The deposits and their associated alteration zones are spatially related to a Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism represented by silicic dikes and hypabyssal intrusions, and hosted by a Late Jurassic to Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence. The veins and related veinlets crop out discontinuously, in general terms in a NW-SE belt. The primary vein mineral assemblage is composed mostly of pyrite ± galena ± chalcopyrite > hematite ± arsenopyrite in silica gangue minerals. Chemical analyses of grab samples from selected quartz veins show as much as 5.7 ppm Au and 224 ppm Ag, as well as elevated Pb, Cu, and Zn. Hydrothermal fluids caused an innermost silicification and adularia-sericite alteration assemblage, and an external propylitic halo. Sulfur isotope values measured for sulfides (δSS from -1.90 to +1.56‰), and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes measured on quartz crystals and extracted primary fluid inclusion waters (δOO = -2.85 to +5.40‰; δDO = -106.0 to -103.4‰) indicate that mineralization probably formed from magmatic fluids, which were mixed with meteoric waters. Also, fluid inclusion data from quartz veins point out that these fluids had low salinity (1.7-4.2 wt% NaCl equiv.), and temperatures of homogenization between 180 and 325 °C. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical features for mineralized surface exposures indicate a typical adularia-sericite, low sulfidation epithermal system in the Lago Fontana area that represents a promising target for further exploration programs.

  1. Heavy metal pollution associated with an abandoned lead-zinc mine in the Kirki region, NE Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Christos; Zafiriadis, Ilias; Mathioudakis, Vasileios; Constantinidis, Theodore

    2010-09-01

    The "Agios Philippos" mine in the Kirki region (NE Greece) has been abandoned in 1998 after half a century of ore exploration without a reclamation or remediation plan. This article aims at elucidating the potential environmental risks associated with this site by quantifying pollution in tailing basins, stream waters, stream sediments and agricultural fields. Concentrations of heavy metals in the abandoned mine tailings reached 12,567 mg/kg for Pb, 22,292 mg/kg for Zn, 174 mg/kg for Cd and 241 mg/kg for As. The geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor for these metals were indicative of extremely high contamination (I(geo) > 5) and extremely high enrichment (EF > 40), respectively. Stream waters in the proximity of the mine had an acidic pH equal to 5.96 and a high sulfate content (SO(4)(-2) = 545.5 mg/L), whereas concentrations of Mn, Zn and Cd reached 2,399 microg/L, 7,681 microg/L and 11.2 microg/L. High I(geo) and EF values for Cd, Zn and As in stream sediments indicates that surface water pollution has a historic background, which is typically associated with acid mine drainage. Agricultural fields in the proximity of the mine exhibited high I(geo) and EF values, which were in decreasing order Cd > Pb > Zn > As. These findings urge for an immediate remediation action of the afflicted area.

  2. New exposure ages for the Last Glacial Cycle in the Sanabria Lake region (northwestern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Domínguez-Cuesta, María Jose; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimon; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2013-04-01

    The Sanabria Lake region is located in the Trevinca Massif, a mid-latitude mountain area up to 2128 m asl in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (42oN 6oW). An ice cap glaciation took place during the Last Glacial Cycle in this massif, with an equilibrium line altitude of 1687 m for the Tera glacial outlet at its local maximum (Cowton et al., 2009). A well preserved glacial sequence occurs on an area of 45 km2 around the present Sanabria Lake (1000 m asl) and is composed by lateral and end moraines in close relationship with glaciolacustrine deposits. This sequence shows the ice snout oscillations of the former Tera glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle and offers a good opportunity to compare radiocarbon and OSL- based chronological models with new cosmogenic isotope dates. The new dataset of 10Be exposure ages presented here for the Sanabria Lake moraines is based on measurements conducted on 23 boulders and is compared with previous radiocarbon and OSL data conducted on ice related deposits (Pérez-Alberti et al., 2011; Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Our results are coherent with the available deglaciation radiocarbon chronology, and support a last deglaciation origin for the whole set of end moraines that are downstream the Sanabria Lake (19.2 - 15.7 10Be ka). Discrepancies between results of the different dating methods concern the timing of the local glacial maximum, with the cosmogenic exposure method always yielding the youngest minimum ages. As proposed to explain similar observations made elsewhere (Palacios et al., 2012), reconciling the ages from different dating methods would imply the occurrence of two glacial advances close enough in extent to generate an overlapping polygenic moraine. Cowton, T., Hughes, P.D., Gibbard, P.L., 2009. Palaeoglaciation of Parque Natural Lago de Sanabria, northwest Spain. Geomorphology 108, 282-291. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Rico, M.T., Valero-Garcés, B

  3. [Trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer in Murcia Region (Spain) from 1984 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Navarro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To study the trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer. We selected incident cases of thyroid cancer occurring in the Region of Murcia (Spain) in 1984-2008. The variables gathered were age, sex, date of diagnosis, and morphology. We calculated incidence rates and the annual percentage of change using Bayesian age-period-cohort models. During the study period, 1414 cases were diagnosed, representing an increase in adjusted rates from 2.9/100000 in 1984-1988 to 7.3 in 2004-2008. The incidence was 3.5 times higher in women than in men and the most frequent morphology was papillary carcinoma (67.7%). An increasing trend was found in both genders; these increments were more pronounced in papillary carcinoma. In women, the incidence increased with age, calendar year, and in those born in 1945-1963. The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma increased four-fold in women. Thyroid cancer used to be a rare cancer but has become an emerging tumor. The greatest changes were found in papillary thyroid cancer, including a gradual increase in the proportion of microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Industrial mining forecasts for the North East of Spain. La cuenca pirenaica-catalana: perspectivas para la industria minera en el NE de Espaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A

    1993-05-01

    The North-Eastern part of Spain shows a variety of lithologies morphologies and structures. A lot of different ores can be found but deposit reserves are very scarce and widespread. Metallic mines were important in the past but now are spent. All types of coal are present but deposits are small and exploitation has reduced very much the reserves. Only uranium and lignite are significant materials but the current trends of international prices makes them unworthy of their extraction. Gas and Petroleum are being extracted and their well known deposits will keep activity as nowadays. The paper makes an additional review on other non-energetic ores like special clays, sodium an potassium salts, sodium sulphates, gypsum and other.

  5. [Malama project in the Region of Murcia (Spain): environment and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega García, J A; Pastor Torres, E; Martínez Lorente, I; Bosch Giménez, V; Quesada López, J J; Hernández Ramón, F; Alcaráz Quiñonero, M; Llamas del Castillo, M M; Torres Cantero, A M; García de León González, R; Sánchez Solís de Querol, M

    2008-05-01

    To identify protective factors and risk factors for the initiation and length of breastfeeding and full breastfeeding, in the Region of Murcia (Spain). The Malama study (Medio Ambiente y Lactancia Materna) is a follow up study from birth up to years of 1,000 mother-child pairs. A description of breastfeeding practices are presented here, the survival curve of breastfeeding and a Cox regression model of the pilot study that includes 101 mother-child pairs and 6 months of follow-up. After six months the prevalence of breastfeeding was 35 %. The mean duration of full breastfeeding was 63 days (median 45 days) with six months prevalence of 8 %. Hazard ratios (HR) for full breastfeeding were, to be a smoker (1.89; 95 % CI: 1.18-3.02), older than 35 years of age (2.04; 95 % CI: 1.22-3.42), caesarean birth (1.63; 95 % CI: 1.00-2.66). As well as those previously mentioned risks for breastfeeding, there were also hazard ratios for primary school education or less (1.63; 95 % CI: 0.98-2.82); to have breastfed an earlier child for at least 16 weeks (0.33; 95 % CI: 0.13-0.79), and to be the first birth (0.50; 95 % CI: 0.27-0.95). The length of both breastfeeding and full breastfeeding increased with the length of the maternal leave (0.96; 95 % CI: 0.94-0.99). Pregestational occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors did not seem to interfere with the duration of breastfeeding. In order to improve quality and duration of breastfeeding programmes, paediatric research and training on breastfeeding practice should be encouraged, to reduce unnecessary caesarean sections, promote tobacco cessation, focus human and economic resources to women with less education, and include legal mechanisms to ensure longer maternal leave.

  6. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  7. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  8. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: 'La Salada de Chiprana' (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Henk M; Ludwig, Rebecca; Wit, Rutger; Pringault, Olivier; Muyzer, Gerard; Niemann, Helge; Finke, Niko; Beer, Dirk

    2003-05-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, 'La Salada de Chiprana', northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium and sulfate, which were respectively 0.35 and 0.5 M at the time of sampling while the total salinity was 78 g l(-1). Community composition was analyzed by microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment analyses and by studying culturable bacteria from different functional groups. Therefore, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied on most probable number (MPN) dilution cultures. Microscopy revealed that a thin layer of Chloroflexus-like bacteria overlaid various cyanobacteria-dominated layers each characterized by different morphotypes. DGGE analysis of MPN dilution cultures from distinct mat layers showed that various phylotypes of anoxygenic phototrophic, aerobic heterotrophic, colorless sulfur-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were present. The mats were furthermore functionally studied and attention was focussed on the relationship between oxygenic primary production and the flow of carbon through the microbial community. Microsensor techniques, porewater and sediment photopigment analysis were applied in order to estimate oxygenic photosynthetic rates, daily dynamics of (in)organic carbon porewater concentration and migration behavior of phototrophs. Chiprana microbial mats produced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) both during the day and night. It was estimated that 14% of the mats gross photosynthetic production and 49% of the mats net photosynthetic production diffused out of the mat in the form of low molecular mass fatty acids, although these compounds made up only 2% of the total DOC pool. The high flux of dissolved fatty acids from the microbial mat to the water column may explain why in this system Chloroflexus-like bacteria

  9. Educational Achievement of Immigrant Adolescents in Spain: Do Gender and Region of Origin Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Panel de Families i Infancia), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement…

  10. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  11. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  12. Regional Analysis of Aids and Prices for Small-scale Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.

    2002-01-01

    Electricity production from small solar photovoltaic systems in Spain obtains a premium pnce of 0,36 ε/kWh over the electricity market price or a fix price of 0,40 ε/kWh. The development of these small systems in Spain clearly demonstrates that the established prime is not sufficient in the majority of locations. On the other hand, the prime revision set up by the RD 2818/98, considering the profitability of the renewable installations, demand a regional analysis of small PV systems profitability necessary in Spain. The accomplished results permit to conclude that the amount of the current prime is by itself insufficient to make profitable the small grid-connected PV systems in anywhere of the national geography. To guarantee the profitability of these systems it should be necessary to place the fix price at around 0,93 ε/kWh. However, if the duplication of the current price obtained by these installations was considered, this could ensure the profitability of these small systems in at least the 77% of the land. (Author) 12 refs

  13. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2014-07-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  14. Taxes, cost and demand shifters as determinants in the regional gasoline price formation process: Evidence from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Contín-Pilart, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pass-through of regional tax changes and spot price variations to regional gasoline prices in Spain. It also analyzes the impact of all major cost and demand shifters that contribute to regional gasoline price formation. To address these research issues, a reduced form price equation using monthly time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data from January 2004 through December 2008 is estimated. Strong and consistent evidence of full shifting of regional tax changes to regional gasoline prices is found. Gasoline spot price changes are more than proportionally passed through to retail prices. In addition, the empirical evidence shows, on the one hand, that regional gasoline price differences before taxes continue to be quite narrow and, on the other hand, that there is still a margin for larger gasoline price differences among regions. This suggest that “traditional practices” from the monopoly era (i.e. relatively uniform regional gasoline prices) persist after the market has been liberalized, which may have been facilitated by the strong and uniform presence of the major Spanish-based refining companies in the retail sector over the whole country. - Highlights: ► The paper analyzes the impact of all major demand and cost shifters that contribute to regional gasoline price formation. ► It shows that the relatively uniform regional gasoline prices persist after the Spanish gasoline market has been liberalized. ► It shows that regional tax changes are fully passed on to regional gasoline prices. ► It also shows that gasoline spot price changes are fully passed on to consumer prices.

  15. Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers.

  16. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  17. The 5th July 1930 earthquake at Montilla (S Spain). Use of regionally recorded smoked paper seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlló, J.; Stich, D.; Macià, R.; Morales, J.

    2009-04-01

    On the night of 5th July 1930 a damaging earthquake struck the town of Montilla (near Córdoba, S-Spain) and its surroundings. Magnitude estimation for this earthquake is M=5, and its epicentral intensity has been evaluated as VIII (MSK). Even it is an earthquake of moderate size, it is the largest one in-strumentally recorded in this region. This makes this event of interest for a better definition of the regional seismicity. For this reason we decided to study a new its source from the analysis of the available contemporary seismograms and related documents. A total of 25 seismograms from 11 seismic stations have been collected and digitized. Processing of some of the records has been difficult because they were obtained from microfilm or contemporary reproductions on journals. Most of them are on smoked paper and recorded at regional distances. This poses a good opportunity to test the limits of the use of such low frequency - low dynamics recorded seismograms for the study of regional events. Results are promising: Using such regional seismograms the event has been relocated, its magnitude recalculated (Mw 5.1) and inversion of waveforms to elucidate its focal mechanism has been performed. We present the results of this research and its consequences for the regional seismicity and we compare them with present smaller earthquakes occurred in the same place and with the results obtained for earthquakes of similar size occurred more to the East on 1951.

  18. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Tvarijonaviciute

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs, 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7–9/9, 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs (P < 0.001 including all dogs diagnosed with ORMD. In conclusion, in the studied obesogenic region of Spain, the prevalence of canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.

  19. THE WIND EMPLOYMENT IN SPAIN (1995-2010: A THEORETICAL APPROXIMATION APPLIED TO THE REGION OF GALICIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Regueiro Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the renewable energies, and especially of the wind power, in the last decades has stayed out of any discussion. The advantages associated with the energy of the odd wind have considered in occasions authentic information that they them should corroborate. For example, about the streghness of creating jobs, there do not exist official statistics that gather the dimension of the created employment, without forgetting that the field of the energy stands out for being intensive in the capital. In this paper, there is realized an analysis of the different bibliographical sources relative to the generation of employment in the wind sector in Spain, establishing a few margins of the creation of the same one for categories for the region of Galicia, in the period (1995-2010.

  20. Short communication. A survey of potential insect vectors of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in three regions of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao R. S. Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a rapid-spreading olive disease associated with Xylella fastidiosa in southern Italy represents a high risk to susceptible crops in other countries of the Mediterranean basin, if insect vectors occur in the region. The goal of this study was to identify xylem-feeding Auchenorrhyncha that could potentially act as vectors of X. fastidiosa in three regions of Spain (Andalucía, Murcia and Madrid. Samplings with sweep net and stem tap were carried out in October/2004 on grapevines and adjacent crops (olives, nectarine, citrus, Prunus spp., ornamental trees and herbaceous weeds. Yellow sticky cards were placed in ten vineyards located across 100 km in Andalucía and in three vineyards distant 10-15 km apart in Murcia. Specimens of frequently-trapped species were tested by nested- or multiplex-PCR for the presence of X. fastidiosa. The Typhlocybinae leafhopper, Austroasca (Jacobiasca lybica (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae was the most abundant species in vineyards and citrus orchards. Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea and psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea were prevalent on olives. Cicadellinae leafhoppers (known as sharpshooters, which are major vectors of X. fastidiosa in the Americas, were not found in the samples. The only potential vectors were spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea collected on Populus sp., herbaceous and on conifer trees (Pinus halepense; the spittlebug Neophileanus sp. was common on conifer trees adjacent to a vineyard in Jumilla. None of the insect samples tested positive for X. fastidiosa by PCR assays. However, spittlebugs already associated with susceptible crops in Spain may allow fast spread of X. fastidiosa in case this pathogen is introduced.

  1. Fat intake in children with autism spectrum disorder in the Mediterranean region (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2016-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have alterations in dietary fat intake and fat quality. The fat intakes of the foods consumed by children with and without ASD were compared, and the deficiency and excess of these nutrients were examined. In a matched case-control study, 3-day food diaries were completed by 105 children with ASD and 495 typically developing (TD) 6- to 9-year-old children in Valencia (Spain). We used the probabilistic approach and estimated average requirement cut-point to evaluate the risk of inadequate nutrients intakes. These were compared between groups and with Spanish recommendations using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Groups did not differ significantly in age, total dietary intake, Healthy Eating Index, or food variety score. Children with ASD had lower saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intakes, but their total PUFAs and (PUFAs + monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)/SFAs, PUFAs/SFAs intakes and ω-6/ω-3 ratios were higher than TD children. The total fat and cholesterol intakes of both groups were slightly above Spanish recommendations. Both groups had low ω-6 intakes, very low ω-3 intakes, and high ω-6/ω-3 ratios. Further research is required to clarify associations between ASD symptomatology, fat-eating patterns and health status.

  2. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  3. [The voice of women subjected to female genital mutilation in the Region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Pastor Bravo, María del Mar; Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael

    2014-01-01

    To explore the perceptions of a group of women who underwent female genital mutilation on the impact of this practice on their sexual and reproductive health. We performed a phenomenological qualitative study in a sample of 9 sub-Saharan Africa women, whose mean age was 30 years old and who had lived in Spain for 1 to 14 years. These women underwent genital mutilation in their countries of origin. Data was collected using a socio-demographic survey and an in-depth, structured personal interview. Subsequently, we performed a thematic discourse analysis. The discourses were grouped into four categories related to participants' perceptions of female genital mutilation. These categories were intimate relationships, pregnancy, childbirth, and social impact. The practice of female genital mutilation is maintained due to social and family pressure, transmitted from generation to generation and silenced by women themselves. This practice affects their sexual and reproductive health, as demonstrated by anorgasmia and dyspareunia. The women were satisfied with the healthcare received during pregnancy and childbirth. Nevertheless, most of them were not satisfied with family planning. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  5. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  6. Consumption trends for specific drugs used to treat dementia in the region of Madrid (Spain) from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyos-Alonso, M C; Tapias-Merino, E; Meseguer Barros, C M; Sánchez-Martínez, M; Otero, A

    2015-09-01

    Analysing drug consumption in large population groups lets us observe consumption trends and compare them between different settings. to analyse the time trends for consumption and costs of specific drugs used to treat dementia in the region of Madrid (Spain) and compare trends by sex and age cohort. Descriptive study of cholinesterase inhibitors (N06DA) and memantine (N06DX01) dispensed in Madrid between 2002 and 2012 and covered by the Spain's national health system. Consumption was calculated by analysing changes in DDD (defined daily doses) to find total and yearly increases. The cost was estimated based on DDD price. To compare consumption rates by age and sex, we calculated DDD per 100 inhabitants/day. Between 2002 and 2012, consumption of drugs used to treat dementia increased sixfold. During this period, cholinesterase inhibitors accounted for 76.70% of the drugs consumed and memantine, 23.30%. The estimated cost rose by a by a factor of 5.7 over 11 years (or by a factor of 4 taking into account the use of generic drugs). In 2012, 2.42% of the patients aged 65 or over consumed cholinesterase inhibitors (women 2.82%, men 1.83%) and 0.90% consumed memantine (women 1.10%, men 0.61%). Consumption increased in age cohorts up to 86 to 90 (5.84% for cholinesterase inhibitors and 2.33% for memantine) and declined thereafter. Consumption of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine gradually increased, but consumption in 2012 did not reach levels equivalent to dementia prevalence figures. Pharmaceutical expenditure restraint measures may temporarily slow the cost increase temporarily but if the same trend of consumption persists, costs will rise. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  8. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  9. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  10. Inequities in visual health and health services use in a rural region in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Arteaga, Sergio; Fernández-Sáez, José; Gil-González, Diana

    2017-06-06

    To analyse perceived visual health and health services use in a rural population in relation to socioeconomic characteristics and compared with the general population in Spain. Cross-sectional study in a rural population using a structured questionnaire including questions comparable to the Spanish National Health Survey (2012). A descriptive analysis was carried out through the calculation of frequencies and prevalence, the χ 2 test for independent variables, contrasts of proportions and logistic regression to obtain associations between the rural and general populations and socioeconomic variables. For the rural population studied, the prevalence of poor perceptions of visual health is 40.8% in men and 39.4% in women, and is strongly associated with age, employment situation, income and presence of chronic diseases (p ˂0.001). Compared with the general population, the rural population has a higher risk of presenting with serious difficulties related to farsightedness (OR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.32-4.95) and make less use of optical correction (OR: 0.57; 95%CI: 0.44-0.74). The use of health services is not sufficient for adequate prevention, particularly in diabetics. For those affected by poor vision, the distance to travel to receive an eye exam, the belief that eyesight problems come with age and the cost of glasses are the principal reasons used to explain why eyesight problems are not resolved. The rural population presents worse visual health that is influenced by social and economic factors. Improving accessibility and reducing barriers is essential to tackle avoidable visual disability and reduce health inequities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  12. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; Ló pez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; McCabe, Matthew; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-01-01

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes

  13. Attribution of Regional Responsibilities for Public Services and Citizen Support of Decentralisation: Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO LÓPEZ LABORDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probit/logit techniques are applied to the data from Barometer No. 2,829 published by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas to examine three problems related with public sector decentralisation. The paper concludes, first, that citizens? perception of efficiency gains from decentralisation have a positive effect on their support for decentralised government. Second, that citizens are more likely to perceive the efficiency gains from decentralisation if they correctly ascribe responsibility for education and health services to regions. And third, that citizens who most accurately identify regional responsibility for the provision of those services tend to be better educated, older, engaged in paid work or public employment, concerned about regional politics and resident in one region with higher initial level of devolved powers.

  14. Labour Market Flexibility and Regional Unemployment Rate Dynamics: Spain (1980-1995)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Bande; Marika Karanassou

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to shed light in the dynamics of Spanish regional unemployment rates and determine the driving forces of their disparities. The Spanish economy has one of the highest unemployment rates in the EU and is characterised by severe regional disparities. We apply the chain reaction theory of unemployment according to which the evolution of unemployment is driven by the interplay of lagged adjustment processes and the spillover effects within the labour market system. Our model inclu...

  15. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: Application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, R.A., E-mail: rufino.ligero@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Barrera, M. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Barbero, L. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Melendez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cadiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the {sup 137}Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the {sup 210}Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  16. Recent and old groundwater in the Niebla-Posadas regional aquifer (southern Spain): Implications for its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Custodio, Emilio; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The Niebla-Posadas (NP) aquifer in southern Spain is one of the main groundwater sources for the lower Guadalquivir Valley, a semiarid region supporting an important population, agriculture and industry. To contribute to the understanding of this aquifer the assessment of sustainable use of groundwater, the residence time of groundwater in the NP aquifer has been estimated using 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Along the flow paths, recharged groundwater mixes with NaCl-type waters and undergoes calcite dissolution and is further modified by cation exchange (Ca-Na). Consequently, the water loses most of its calcium and the residual δ13CDIC in the groundwater is isotopically enriched. Further modifications take place along the flow path in deeper zones, where depleted δ13CDIC values are overprinted due to SO42- and iron oxide reduction, triggered by the presence of organic matter. Dating with 3H, 14C and 36Cl has allowed the differentiation of several zones: recharge zone (30 ky). An apparent link between the tectonic structure and the groundwater residence time zonation can be established. Regional faults clearly separates deep zone 1 from the distinctly older age (>30 ky) deep zone 2. From the estimated residence times, two groundwater areas of different behavior can be differentiated within the aquifer.

  17. Mutation Status and Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements in Patients from Northwest and Central Region of Spain with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. González-Gascón y Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV in a cohort of 224 patients from northwest and central region of Spain diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and to correlate it with cytogenetic abnormalities, overall survival (OS and time to first treatment (TTFT. 125 patients had mutated IGHV, while 99 had unmutated IGHV. The most frequently used IGHV family was IGHV3, followed by IGHV1 and IGHV4. The regions IGHV3-30, IGHV1-69, IGHV3-23, and IGHV4-34 were the most commonly used. Only 3.1% of the patients belonged to the subfamily IGHV3-21 and we failed to demonstrate a worse clinical outcome in this subgroup. The IGHV4 family appeared more frequently with mutated pattern, similar to IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-74. By contrast, IGHV1-69 was expressed at a higher frequency in unmutated CLL patients. All the cases from IGHV3-11 and almost all from IGHV5-51 subfamily belonged to the group of unmutated CLL.

  18. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for 60Co: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F.; Santos, Neide

    2014-01-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ( 60 Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to 60 Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses

  19. Incorporating the water footprint and virtual water into policy: reflections from the Mancha Occidental Region, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, M. Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Water resource management is often a controversial issue in semiarid regions. Most water resources experts admit that water conflicts are not caused by the physical water scarcity but they are mainly due to inadequate water management. The virtual water concept (the volume of water used in the

  20. The Consumption-Investment-Unemployment Relationship in Spain: an Analysis with Regional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bande, Roberto; Riveiro, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the consequences of changes in the consumption patterns on unemployment through an intermediate channel via investment. Specifically, after presenting our theoretical framework, we build a dynamic econometric multiequational model, in which we estimate a consumption function, an investment function and an unemployment rate equation, using a panel of 17 Spanish regions. This model is characterised by its dynamics and the cross equation relationships. After estimating t...

  1. Using PS-InSAR data in landslide hazard management: the case of Veneto Region (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Mario; Viganò, Alessandro; Busnardo, Enrico; Arziliero, Luciano; Zanette, Doriano

    2013-04-01

    The Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry, performed by the Italian Ministry of Environment and Territory of the Sea (METS) in the framework of the Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing, has made available a high quantity of data useful for local Authorities (Regions, Provinces, and Municipalities) in the management of the main geological hazards, such as landslides, subsidence, and sinkholes. The main output of the Project consists of ground displacements and velocities measured at target points over the entire Italian territory by using PS-InSAR processing technique applied to SAR data acquired by satellites ESA (European Space Agency) ERS-1 and ERS-2 (Earth Resources Satellite) and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) in the period 1992-2010. Description and results of the Project are available for public browsing at the geoportal of the METS (http://www.pcn.minambiente.it). On the basis of PS-InSAR data, several studies have been recently performed for the identification and characterization of landslides both at small and large scale. These studies led to a more precise delimitation of instable areas and to a better evaluation of the state of activity of mass movements. But, as now well known, interferometry techniques can't be applied to the whole territory due to geometric distortions in SAR data acquisition and to ground conditions. In this work we analyze the potentiality of PS-InSAR data from the Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry in landslide hazard management of the Veneto Region, located in the north-eastern part of Italy. A synthetic description on the main features of landslides affecting the Region is reported, then the percentage of instabilities where PS-InSAR data can be used, is calculated. At the scale of the entire Region we suggest to follow the method proposed in the scientific literature to evaluate the state of activity of landslides on the basis of the measured velocities at the ground surface, while at local

  2. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D Density Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere Affected by A Plume: A Case Study from the Greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Sippel, J.; Breivik, A. J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Meeßen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the density structure of the oceanic lithosphere north of Iceland is key for understanding the effects of the Iceland Plume on the mid-ocean ridges of the greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region. We use a data-integrative approach for 3D gravity modeling to develop new insights into the crust and upper mantle density structure of this region. First, we obtain the 3D density structure of the sediments and crust from interpretations of regional reflection and refraction seismic lines. Then, the temperature and density structure of the mantle between 50 and 250 km are derived from a published shear-wave velocity (Vs) tomography model. To assess the density configuration between the Moho and 50 km depth, we follow a combined forward and inverse 3D gravity modeling approach. The Vs tomography and derived density of the deeper mantle (>50 km depth) reveal that the low-density anomaly related to the Iceland plume gets weaker with increasing distance from the plume, i.e. from the strongly influenced Middle Kolbeinsey Ridge (MKR) to the Mohn's Ridge. The West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone is identified as a main mantle density contrast, indicative of differences in the thermal evolution of the ridge systems it separates. Beneath the MKR region, the low-density anomaly at depths of >50 km continues upwards into the uppermost mantle, where its lateral dimensions narrow considerably. This elongated density anomaly is consistent with a basement high and indicates a channelization of the Iceland plume effects. The NE-SW elongated mantle anomaly does not, however, coincide with the topographical NNE-SSW striking ridge axis. Thus, the modelled plume-affected oceanic lithosphere reveals discrepancies with the half-space cooling model. We discuss the 3D density model in terms of such spatial relations between deeper mantle anomalies and the shallow crustal structure.

  4. [Variations in antihypertensive drug utilization among primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Peiró, Salvador; Librero, Julián

    2010-01-01

    To estimate consumption of five subgroups of antihypertensive drugs by primary care areas and to analyze its variation. We performed an ecological, descriptive study of antihypertensive consumption in 239 primary care areas in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 followed by analysis of the variability observed. The 239 primary care areas were studied by descriptive analysis of dispensation [defined daily dose (DDD) per 1,000 inhabitants/day in pensioners (DDD/1000p/day) and in the active population (DDD/1000a/day)] and standardized consumption ratios. Small-area variation analysis was used to analyze the observed variability. Associations among dispensations of the distinct therapeutic subgroups were also analyzed. Overall antihypertensive use in the autonomous region of Valencia in 2005 was 235.6DDD/1000/day. This consumption was concentrated in pensioners (800DDD/1000p/day vs. 73DDD/1000a/day). Consumption of antihypertensive subgroups oscillated from 442DDD/1000p/day for drugs with action on the renin-angiotensin system to 32DDD/1000p/day for doxazosin. The active population showed similar patterns. Variation in consumption was moderate, with coefficients of variation from 0.20 to 0.40 (slightly greater for the active population). Associations among dispensations of the different therapeutic subgroups were strong. This study shows major variations in the overall consumption of antihypertensive drugs among primary care areas of the autonomous region of Valencia. These results suggest that variation may be associated with problems of underutilization in areas with lower consumption. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on environmental pollution in slurry ponds in the region of Murcia (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, A. B.; Faz, A.; Ramos, G.

    2009-01-01

    In Murcia the importance of the pig industry is both economically and environmentally, as it involves the proper management of organic waste produced. The necessary protection of the environment makes the development of appropriate studies to define the effects that this type of waste produced in the subsoil, in order to make appropriate recommendations to ensure the continuation of this activity, in a sustainable manner. In this way, this work studies different locations representing the Region on the slurry to be deposited, either with or without artificial waterproofing to check to what extent it has affected the underground waste. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2008-08-01

    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  7. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-12-18

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  8. Paleoclimatic implications of micromorphic features of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros Desert (NE-Spain Implicaciones paleoclimáticas de los rasgos micromorfológicos de un suelo policíclico en el Desierto de Monegros (NE-España Implicações paleoclimáticas das características micromorfológicas de um solo policíclico no Deserto de Monegros (NE-Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Badía

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedofeatures can be repositories of information about soil forming factors such as climate. The aim of this work is to provide a model of interpretation of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros desert (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain and its relationship to environmental changes during the Quaternary. To achieve this goal, the physical, chemical, mineralogical and especially the micromorphic pedofeatures of this profile were studied. Carbonate accumulations extend into all of the horizons of the profile. The paleosol has a thick petrocalcic horizon at the top, with a massive-laminar structure comprising layers of micrite and sparite that sometimes form pendants. Towards its base, the petrocalcic horizon contains a spaced framework of orthic micrite nodules packed between relatively pure micritic laminar bands. Below the petrocalcic horizon, coatings and infillings of microcrystalline calcite occur in old channels, and soft concretions (some of them geodic indicate an in situ accumulation process (Bkc, calcic horizon. Another calcic horizon with orthic nodules of calcite, impregnative and diffuse (Ckc, is present at the bottom part of the profile. Between the two nodular calcic horizons, two recarbonated argic horizons are found (Btkc and Btk with coarse orthic nodules of dense micrite superimposed on textural pedofeatures. These textural micromorphic pedofeatures are: (1 interbedded microlaminated clay pockets not associated with current or past pores and (2 microlaminated clay and silt (dusty clay present as weakly oriented coatings on channel walls. Reduction pedofeatures are associated with textural ones: (1 coatings of manganese oxides around pore channels and cracks, and (2 nodules of manganese and iron oxides within the peds. The presence of calcic horizons alternating with argic horizons, all positioned below the petrocalcic horizon, confirm fluctuations in paleohydrological conditions in the Pleistocene. Its presence indicates that the oldest soil

  9. New regulations regarding Postgraduate Medical Training in Spain: perception of the tutor's role in the Murcia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura-Llamas José

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently introduced regulatory changes have expanded the Tutor role to include their primary responsibility for Postgraduate Medical Training (PMT. However, accreditation and recognition of that role has been devolved to the autonomic regions. The opinions of the RT may be relevant to future decisions; Methods A comprehensive questionnaire, including demographic characteristics, academic and research achievement and personal views about their role, was sent to 201 RTs in the Murcia Region of Spain. The responses are described using median and interquartile ranges (IQR; Results There were 147 replies (response rate 73%, 69% male, mean age 45 ± 7 yrs. RTs perception of the residents' initial knowledge and commitment throughout the program was 5 (IQR 4-6 and 7 (IQR 5-8, respectively. As regards their impact on the PMT program, RTs considered that their own contribution was similar to that of senior residents. RTs perception of how their role was recognised was 5 (IQR 3-6. Only 16% did not encounter difficulties in accessing specific RT training programs. Regarding the RTs view of their various duties, supervision of patient care was accorded the greatest importance (64% while the satisfactory completion of the PMT program and supervision of day-to-day activities were also considered important (61% and 59% respectively. The main RT requirements were: a greater professional recognition (97%, protected time (95%, specific RT training programs (95% and financial recognition (86%; Conclusions This comprehensive study, reflecting the feelings of our RTs, provides a useful insight into the reality of their work and the findings ought to be taken into consideration in the imminent definitive regulatory document on PMT.

  10. Systematic layout planning of wineries: the case of Rioja region (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gómez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Winery design can be very varied - the consequence of different influences acting at different times of construction. Unlike the designs of other food industries, those of wineries are commonly influenced by aesthetics - sometimes to potentiate wine tourism, and sometimes to safeguard the agricultural landscape of which they are part. However, the functionality of the production space cannot be ignored; the efficient distribution of space in a winery contributes towards both economic and environmental sustainability - two requisites of an ever more demanding and competitive market. The present work gathers qualitative and quantitative information on the design of industrial wineries in Spain’s Rioja winemaking region. Different classes of winery are identified and, using the systematic layout planning method, several type layouts proposed. With the necessary adaptations made to suit particular circumstances, these could be used to guide future winery design in the same and other winemaking areas.

  11. New Directions in European Regional Policy and their Implications for Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Salmon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en la nueva arquitectura de la Política de Cohesión y del nuevo marco financiero europeo dentro del cual se establece. La discusión se divide en cinco secciones. La primera sección examina la estructura del nuevo marco financiero europeo, destacando su impacto en las transferencias financieras entre Europa y España. En la segunda sección se explica la nueva arquitectura de la Política de Cohesión, precisando que relaciones mantiene con las políticas agrícolas y pesqueras y se concluye con una presentación de las características principales de esta nueva arquitectura. La tercera sección examina los recursos financieros que sustentan la Política de Cohesión y su distribución en España. En la sección cuatro la discusión gira en torno a la consideración de los conceptos de convergencia y de la naturaleza de regiones. Finalmente, las conclusiones sugieren que existen implicaciones significativas en los ámbitos administrativos, financieros y en el planeamiento estratégico del nuevo marco financiero y de la renovada Política de Cohesión: para el desarrollo económico en general y para el desarrollo regional en particular en los próximos años.

  12. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  13. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  14. Vitamin D and Psoriasis Pathology in the Mediterranean Region, Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morales Suárez-Varela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects on psoriasis in the Mediterranean region. To measure vitamin D intake in subjects with and without psoriasis, and to find an association with relevant clinical features, a case-control study was performed using cases (n = 50, 50% participation rate clinically diagnosed with psoriasis and 200 healthy subjects (39.5% participation rate, leaving a final sample of 104 people. A survey was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire and clinical histories. Cases and controls were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed insufficient intake of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 for both cases and controls. Patients with psoriasis were at greater risk of associated pathologies: dyslipidaemia (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 0.8–15.2; metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.2–53.9; hypertension (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.4–7.2. Insufficient vitamin D intake in both psoriasis patients and controls in the Mediterranean population, and cardiovascular comorbility is more frequent in patients with psoriasis.

  15. Integration of spectral, spatial and morphometric data into lithological mapping: A comparison of different Machine Learning Algorithms in the Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan A.; Gloaguen, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Lithological mapping in mountainous regions is often impeded by limited accessibility due to relief. This study aims to evaluate (1) the performance of different supervised classification approaches using remote sensing data and (2) the use of additional information such as geomorphology. We exemplify the methodology in the Bardi-Zard area in NE Iraq, a part of the Zagros Fold - Thrust Belt, known for its chromite deposits. We highlighted the improvement of remote sensing geological classification by integrating geomorphic features and spatial information in the classification scheme. We performed a Maximum Likelihood (ML) classification method besides two Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA): Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) to allow the joint use of geomorphic features, Band Ratio (BR), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), spatial information (spatial coordinates) and multispectral data of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The RF algorithm showed reliable results and discriminated serpentinite, talus and terrace deposits, red argillites with conglomerates and limestone, limy conglomerates and limestone conglomerates, tuffites interbedded with basic lavas, limestone and Metamorphosed limestone and reddish green shales. The best overall accuracy (∼80%) was achieved by Random Forest (RF) algorithms in the majority of the sixteen tested combination datasets.

  16. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  17. Paleocene orthophragminids from the Lakadong Limestone, Mawmluh Quarry section, Meghalaya (Shillong, NE India): implications for the regional geology and paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ercan; Pignatti, Johannes; Pereira, Christer; Osman Yücel, Ali; Drobne, Katica; Barattolo, Filippo; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The late Paleocene orthophragminids, hitherto poorly known from the Himalayan foreland basins, are studied from the Lakadong Limestone in Meghalaya, northeastern India, in order to establish a systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographical framework for them in the eastern Tethys. In the Mawmluh Quarry section (MQS) on the Shillong Plateau, to the southeast of Tibet, orthophragminids are associated with typical Paleocene orbitoidiform taxa endemic to the Indian subcontinent, i.e., Lakadongia Matsumaru & Jauhri ( = Setia Ferràndez-Cañadell) and Orbitosiphon Rao, and various species of alveolinids, miscellaneids, and rotaliids, characterizing the Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) 3 and 4. The orthophragminids belong to two lineages of the genus Orbitoclypeus Silvestri: O. schopeni (Checchia-Rispoli) and O. multiplicatus (Gümbel), both well known from the peri-Mediterranean region and Europe (western Tethys). The latter species is identified here for the first time from the eastern Tethys. Previous records of the genus Discocyclina Gümbel from the Lakadong Limestone actually correspond to misidentified Orbitoclypeus; this implies that the late Paleocene orthophragminid assemblages from Meghalaya and eastern Tethys were less diverse than in the western Tethys. The lineage of Orbitoclypeus schopeni in the lower part of the Lakadong Limestone (SBZ 3) is identified as O. schopeni cf. ramaraoi based on the morphometry of a few specimens, whereas in the upper part (SBZ 4) it corresponds to a transitional development stage between O. schopeni ramaraoi and O. schopeni neumannae (with average Dmean values ranging between 192 and 199 µm). The embryon diameters of O. multiplicatus, recorded only in SBZ 4, range between 300 and 319 µm on average, corresponding to transitional development stages of O. multiplicatus haymanaensis and O. multiplicatus multiplicatus. Our data, along with a review of previous Paleocene and Eocene records from India and Pakistan, suggest that

  18. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  19. "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." : [luuletused] / Marina Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." ; "Inogo mesta vstretshi v mire net..." ; "Moi put lezhit tsherez Moskvu..." ; "Osvoboditelnaja ossen - ..." ; Pjuhtitskim aistam ; "Vesjolõje svetshi kanona..." ; Vjuga ; Materi Bozhijei Pjuhtitskoi ; "Pustõnja moja, pustõnja..." ; "Odinnadtsat let v mojo serdtse gljadjat kupola..."

  20. Water footprint, extended water footprint and virtual water trade of the Cantabria region, Spain. A critical appraisal of results, uncertainties and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Alcaide, Silvia; Martinez-Santos, Pedro; Willaarts, Barbara; Hernández-Moreno, Enrique; Llamas, M. Ramon

    2015-04-01

    Water footprint assessments have gradually gained recognition as valuable tools for water management, to the point that they have been officially incorporated to water planning in countries such as Spain. Adequate combinations of the virtual water and water footprint concepts present the potential to link a broad range of sectors and issues, thus providing appropriate frameworks to support optimal water allocation and to inform production and trade decisions from the water perspective. We present the results of a regional study carried out in Cantabria, a 5300 km2 autonomous region located in northern Spain. Our approach deals with the municipal, shire and regional scales, combining different methods to assess each of the main components of Cantabria's water footprint (agriculture, livestock, forestry, industry, mining, tourism, domestic use and reservoirs), as well as exploring the significance of different approaches, assumptions and databases in the overall outcomes. The classic water footprint method is coupled with extended water footprint analyses in order to provide an estimate of the social and economic value of each sector. Finally, virtual water imports and exports are computed between Cantabria and the rest of Spain and between Cantabria and the world. The outcome of our work (a) highlights the paramount importance of green water (mostly embedded in pastures) in the region's water footprint and virtual water exports; (b) establishes the role of the region as a net virtual water exporter; (c) shows the productivity of water (euro/m3 and jobs/m3) to be highest in tourism and lowest in agriculture and livestock; and (d) demonstrates that statistical databases are seldom compiled with water footprint studies in mind, which is likely to introduce uncertainties in the results. Although our work shows that there is still plenty of room for improvement in regional-scale water footprint assessments, we contend that the available information is sufficient to

  1. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  2. Constraining controls on carbonate sequences with high-resolution chronostratigraphy: Upper Miocene, Cabo de Gata region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P.; Farr, M.R.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been developed for Miocene shallow-water carbonate strata in the Cabo de Gata region of SE Spain for evaluation of local, regional and global factors that controlled platform architecture prior to and during the Messinian salinity crisis. Paleomagnetic data were collected from strata at three localities. Mean natural remanent magnetization (NRM) ranges between 1.53 ?? 10-8 and 5.2 ?? 10-3 Am2/kg. Incremental thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolated the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Rock magnetic studies show that the dominant magnetic mineral is magnetite, but mixtures of magnetite and hematite occur. A composite chronostratigraphy was derived from five stratigraphic sections. Regional stratigraphic data, biostratigraphic data, and an 40Ar/39Ar date of 8.5 ?? 0.1 Ma, for an interbedded volcanic flow, place the strata in geomagnetic polarity Chrons C4r to C3r. Sequence-stratigraphic and diagenetic evidence indicate a major unconformity at the base of depositional sequence (DS)3 that contains a prograding reef complex, suggesting that approximately 250 000 yr of record (Subchrons C3Br.2r to 3Br.1r) are missing near the Messinian-Tortonian boundary. Correlation to the GPTS shows that the studied strata represent five third- to fourth-order DSs. Basal units are temperate to subtropical ramps (DS1A, DS1B, DS2); these are overlain by subtropical to tropical reefal platforms (DS3), which are capped by subtropical to tropical cyclic carbonates (Terminal Carbonate Complex, TCC). Correlation of the Cabo de Gata record to the Melilla area of Morocco, and the Sorbas basin of Spain indicate that early - Late Tortonian ramp strata from these areas are partially time-equivalent. Similar strata are extensively developed in the Western Mediterranean and likely were influenced by a cool climate or influx of nutrients during an overall rise in global sea-level. After ramp deposition, a sequence boundary (SB3) in

  3. Study on some risk factors and effects of bovine ketosis on dairy cows from the Galicia region (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, C; Fouz, R; Camino, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2017-10-01

    The study was designed to determine the relation between β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in milk from dairy cows after calving and the length of the previous lactation, the dry period and the 305-day normalized production, and to assess the influence of BHB concentrations on culling and test-day milk productions and somatic cell counts (SCC) throughout the lactation that followed the BHB measurement. The data used in the study were obtained from 59 187 cows in the Galicia region (Spain). BHB determination was performed using Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometry from the milk samples collected from each cow on the first post-partum test day. For statistical analysis, the following methods were applied: (i) ordinal regression to assess the effect of the length of the previous lactation, the dry period and the 305-day normalized milk production on milk BHB, (ii) a Cox model to estimate the influence of the BHB concentration on risk of culling (overall and for a variety of reasons) and (iii) linear regression to assess the link between BHB and the milk yield and SCC obtained from each of the tests day performed throughout lactation. The probability of having higher BHB concentrations increased when the length of the previous lactation (p = 0.006), the dry period (p = 0.003) and the 305-day normalized milk yield (p = 0.005) increased. However, the slight increase observed (especially for the case of the dry period and the 305-day milk yield) would not justify that measures be implemented to reduce these traits. Higher concentrations of BHB led to an increased risk of culling due to 'death' (p ≤ 0.001) and 'urgent slaughter' (p ≤ 0.002) (both causes of involuntary culling). It also led to a reduction in milk production (p < 0.001) and an increase in SCC (p < 0.001) in the post-partum; from that moment onward (including peak lactation), there were no differences in those two parameters depending on the BHB levels. Journal of Animal

  4. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  5. Physics Motivations of SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraide, K.

    2007-01-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment for measuring neutrino-nucleus cross sections around one GeV region, which is important for the interpretaion of neutrino oscillation experiments. Physics motivations of the experiment are described here

  6. The integration of environmental geology methods and concepts within the framework of a regional administration; the case of the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenheimer, C.

    The process of transfer of jurisdictions on environmental matters from the central administration to an autonomous regional government is described. The main approaches taken by different autonomous regions in Spain, to deal with the problems of setting up an environmental administrative organization are also briefly commented here. Finally, the specific structure of the environmental administration in the Comunidad Valenciana and the main guidelines of its environmental policies are explained. It is concluded that earth science can provide a very useful basis for the drafting of these policies in the region, because of the specific nature of the problems to be dealt with, related mainly to water management, soil conservation, land occupation, natural hazards and preservation of natural areas.

  7. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and quality of primary care: their relation with socioeconomic and health care variables in the Madrid regional health service (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Purificación; Alberquilla, Angel; Otero, Angel; Ribera, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) have been proposed as an indirect indicator of the effectiveness and quality of care provided by primary health care. To investigate the association of ACSH rates with population socioeconomic factors and with characteristics of primary health care. Cross-sectional, ecologic study. Using hospital discharge data, ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. All 34 health districts in the Region of Madrid, Spain. Individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the region of Madrid between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Age- and gender-adjusted ACSH rates in each health district. The adjusted ACSH rate per 1000 population was 35.37 in men and 20.45 in women. In the Poisson regression analysis, an inverse relation was seen between ACSH rates and the socioeconomic variables. Physician workload was the only health care variable with a statistically significant relation (rate ratio of 1.066 [95% CI; 1.041-1.091]). These results were similar in the analyses disaggregated by gender. In the multivariate analyses that included health care variables, none of the health care variables were statistically significant. ACSH may be more closely related with socioeconomic variables than with characteristics of primary care activity. Therefore, other factors outside the health system must be considered to improve health outcomes in the population.

  8. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Alonso, J. Alberto; Bautista-Casta?o, Inmaculada; Pe?a, Cristina; Su?rez, Lourdes; Juste, M. Candelaria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD) in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs), 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7–9/9), 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, an...

  9. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  10. The MiniBooNE Detector

    OpenAIRE

    MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the mixing parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  11. Pardos Militias in the Region of New Galicia (Kingdom of New Spain. An Analysis of Social and Political Practices during the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rojas Galván

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is analyzed the sociopolitical aspects that promoted the prominence of the “pardos” from New Galicia into the colonial structure.  The research takes to theoretical reference the perspectives from regional History and social History because looking for prove the territory transformation respect to several conditions of the society. The documental resources come from the Spanish and Mexican History Archives. The results of this research show the reasons by what cause the Spanish Crown gave to militia “Pardos” certain benefits like militia status in regional codes of law, use weapon, free taxes and other privileges. Moreover is demonstrate what these practice were not enough to reach at the power group in the New Spain. In spite of the pardos achieved relational with other groups in low castas in New Galicia and attenuate the negative effects suffer in the groups originating from Africa.

  12. Environmental geochemistry of a highly polluted area: the Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine (Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Higueras, Pablo; Jurado, Verónica; María Esbrí, José; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2013-04-01

    Human activities, as mining, can alter the concentrations of metals in the environmental compartments and facilitate their dispersion (Moreno Grau, 2003). Total concentrations are usually evaluated, but they do not provide information about the bioavailability and toxicity of metals, since changes in the environmental conditions cause selective release of the total metal content (Sahuquillo et al., 2003). Thus, the bioavailability or toxic effects of the metals can only be studied by determining their chemical partitioning (Quevauviller, 1998). Leaching by selective chemical extracts is the conventional method for evaluating the availability of elements. The Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine, located in the Castilla-La Mancha region (central Spain), is an important case of abandoned Pb-Zn sulphide mine, with high concentrations of other highly toxic heavy metals such as Cu, As and Cd. The objectives of this work were to determine the extent of the heavy metal contamination and to study the heavy metal bioavailability, by the application of selective chemical extractions, in the Mazarambroz mine area. Soil and sediment samples were taken from the studied area according to a systematic sampling type (regular grid). Soil main parameters (reactivity and conductivity) were determined. Chemical extractions were made using two different selective reagents: i) CaCl2 (0.01M) (Novozamsky et al., 1993) and; ii) EDTA (0.05 M) (Quevauviller, 1996). The contents of heavy metals in the extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The compounds extracted with the CaCl2 solution represent the water soluble and exchangeable fractions, so they can be considered as the metal concentration that can be absorbed by plants. EDTA solution extracts metals on exchange sites of both inorganic and organic complexes. Additionally, it can dissolve calcareous materials through complexation of calcium and magnesium (Chao, 1984; Sahuquillo et al., 2003). Total geochemical

  13. Regional Analysis of Aids and Prices for Small-scale Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Spain; Analisis Regional de Precios y Ayudas para Sistemas fotovoltaicos de Pequena Escala Conectados a Red Electrica en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M; Ramirez, L; Mora, L; Sidrach de Cardona, M

    2002-07-01

    Electricity production from small solar photovoltaic systems in Spain obtains a premium pnce of 0,36 Euros/kWh over the electricity market price or a fix price of 0.40 Euros/kWh. The development of these small systems, in Spain clearly demonstrates that the established prime is not sufficient in the majority of locations. On the other hand, the prime revision set up by the RD 2818/98. considering the profitability of the renewable installations, demand a regional analysis of small PV systems profitability necessary in Spain. The accomplished results permit to conclude that the amount of the current prime is by itself insufficient to make profitable the small grid-connected PV systems in anywhere of the national geography. To guarantee the profitability of these systems is should be necessary to place the fix price at around 0,93 Euros/k Wh. However, if the duplication of the current price obtained by these installations was considered, this could ensure the profitability of these small systems in at least the 77% of the land. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. Two unusual hepatitis C virus subtypes, 2j and 2q, in Spain: Identification by nested-PCR and sequencing of a NS5B region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margall, N; March, F; Español, M; Torras, X; Gallego, A; Coll, P

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have reported the use of the NS5B gene to subtype hepatitis C virus (HCV). Other HCV genes, such as HCV-5' UTR, Core (C) and E1, have also been used. In some studies, NS5B have been used together with 5'-UTR or C genes to improve genotyping results obtained using commercial procedures. Only two studies in Spain have compared molecular techniques versus commercial procedures regarding the efficacy of HCV subtyping. The aim of this study was to determine whether nested PCR and sequencing of a NS5B region was more reliable than commercial procedures to subtype HCV. We analyzed the results of HCV genotyping in [726] serum specimens collected from 2001 to 2013. From 2001 to 2011, we used PCR and INNO-LiPA hybridization or its new version Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 assay (471 samples). From 2012 to 2013, we used nested PCR and sequencing of a NS5B region (255 cases). This method used two pairs of primers to amplify the RNA of the sample converted to DNA by retrotranscription. The amplification product of 270 base pairs was further sequenced. To identify the subtype, the sequences obtained were compared to those in the international database: http://hcv.lanl.gov./content/sequence/, HCV/ToolsOutline.html and Geno2pheno[hcv] http://hcv.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/index.php. Nested PCR of a NS5B region and sequencing identified all but one subtype (0.4%, 1/255), differentiated all 1a subtypes from 1b subtypes, and characterized all HCV 2-4 subtypes. This approach also distinguished two subtypes, 2j and 2q, that had rarely been detected previously in Spain. However, commercial procedures failed to subtype 12.7% (60/471) of samples and to genotype 0.6% of specimens (3/471). Nested PCR and sequencing of a NS5B region improved the subtyping of HCV in comparison with classical procedures and identified two rare subtypes in Spain: 2j and 2q. However, full length genome sequencing is recommended to confirm HCV 2j and 2q subtypes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  16. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic differences among regional public service broadcasters in Spain according to their management model. An empirical analysis for period 2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Orive Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This piece of research quantifies and analyses empirically the given economic differences among public service television in Spain according to the adopted management model (classic or outsourced. Design/methodology/approach: In so doing, an average contrast of different economic variables studied in the literature is conducted (audience share, total assets, public subsidies, cost of personnel, suppliers spending and profit after taxes. In addition, these variables are related so as to calculate productivity obtained by each two groups of television operators. This analysis is conducted for period 2010-2013, featured by a crisis context in the Spanish economy. Findings: Management model adopted by each regional broadcaster impacts on different economic variables as obtained share, total assets, public subsidies, cost of personnel, suppliers spending or profit after taxes. Moreover, those public corporations adopting an outsourced management model present better productivity values. Research limitations/implications: Only one country has been analyzed for a 4 years period. Practical implications: Regional public service broadcasters with an outsourced model present less economic losses and require less public subsidies by their corresponding regional governments. Social implications: Outsourcing part of the value chain can be useful so as to guarantee sustainability of regional public service television. Originality/value: It has been proven empirically that the management model of a regional public service television impacts its economic results.

  18. Regional origin assignment of red wines from Valencia (Spain) by (2)H NMR and (13)C IRMS stable isotope analysis of fermentative ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Miralles, J E; Salazar, D M; Solana, I

    1999-07-01

    The use of the stable hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of fermentative ethanol as suitable environmental fingerprints for the regional origin identification of red wines from Valencia (Spain) has been explored. Monovarietal Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Bobal, Tempranillo, and Monastrell wines have been investigated by (2)H NMR and (13)C IRMS for the natural ranges of site-specific (2)H/(1)H ratios and global delta(13)C values of ethanol over three vintage years. Statistically significant interregional and interannual (2)H and (13)C abundance differences have been noticed, which are interpreted in terms of environmental and ecophysiological factors of isotope content variation. Multivariate discriminant analysis is shown to provide a convenient means for integration of the classifying information, high discriminating abilities being demonstrated for the (2)H and (13)C fingerprints of ethanol. Reasonable differentiation results are achieved at a microregional scale in terms of geographic provenance and even grapevine genotypic features.

  19. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with NeQuick2 and IRI model predictions in the low latitude East African region during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, E.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nigussie, M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the performances of NeQuick2, the latest available IRI-2016, IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 models in describing the monthly and seasonal mean total electron content (TEC) over the East African region. This is to gain insight into the success of the various model types and versions at characterizing the ionosphere within the equatorial ionization anomaly. TEC derived from five Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers installed at Addis Ababa (ADD, 5.33°N, 111.99°E Geog.), Asab (ASAB, 8.67°N, 116.44°E Geog.), Ambo (ABOO, 5.43°N, 111.05°E Geog.), Nairobi (RCMN, -4.48°N, 108.46°E Geog.) and Nazret (NAZR, 4.78°N, 112.43°E Geog.), are compared with the corresponding values computed using those models during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015). We found that different models describe the equatorial and anomaly region ionosphere best depending on solar cycle, season and geomagnetic activity levels. Our results show that IRI-2016 is the best model (compared to others in terms of discrepancy range) in estimating the monthly mean GPS-TEC at NAZR, ADD and RCMN stations except at ADD during 2008 and 2012. It is also found that IRI-2012 is the best model in estimating the monthly mean TEC at ABOO station in 2014. IRI show better agreement with observations during June solstice for all the years studied at ADD except in 2012 where NeQuick2 better performs. At NAZR, NeQuick2 better performs in estimating seasonal mean GPS-TEC during 2011, while IRI models are best during 2008-2009. Both NeQuick2 and IRI models underestimate measured TEC for all the seasons at ADD in 2010 but overestimate at NAZR in 2009 and RCMN in 2008. The periodic variations of experimental and modeled TEC have been compared with solar and geomagnetic indices at ABOO and ASAB in 2014 and results indicate that the F10.7 and sunspot number as indices of solar activity seriously affects the TEC variations with periods of 16-32 days followed by the geomagnetic activity on

  20. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  1. HANDICRAFTS MOTIFS’ REFLECTION IN FOLKSAY IN KONYA REGION KONYA YÖRESİ EL SANATLARINDA ANLAM YÜKLÜ MOTİFLERİN HALK DİLİNE YANSIMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine NAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish folk culture which incorporates material and spiritual concepts like history, belief, language, philosophy, art which continually has a continually developing dynamic structure. Language which enables social and cultural communication within this structure is a living treasure which feeds on customs and traditions of the people’s lifestyle and reaches to literary relish, thinking and eloquence and which symbolically lives in varieties local handicrafts. When Turkish handicraft history is reviewed, Konya region stands out with its rich accumulation and cultural structure. Knitting and embroidery which can be regarded among Konya folk plastic arts includes a rich vocabulary about the motifs which people coined with regard to three main periods shaping human life; birth, marriage and death. This vocabulary treasure preserving its functions as consolidator of harmony, unity and solidarity in the society is a product of folklore and functions as transmitters of culture which maintain tradition in communication only among women. This study aims to document some of samples in this rich vocabulary which were coined in relation to motifs and thus contribute to database on Turkish cultural history. Türk halk kültürü; tarih, inanç, dil, felsefe, sanat gibi maddimanevi kavramlar bütününü bünyesinde barındıran ve sürekli gelişim gösteren dinamik bir yapıya sahiptir. Bu sistem içinde sosyal ve kültürel iletişimi sağlayan dil; halkın yaşam biçiminde gelenek ve göreneklerden beslenerek, edebî zevk, düşünce ve anlatım gücüne ulaşan varlığı ile yöresel el sanatı çeşitlerinde de sembolik olarak yaşayan bir hazinedir. Türk el sanatları geçmişine bakıldığında Konya yöresi, tarihi birikimi ve kültürel yapısı ile önem taşımaktadır. Konya halk plastik sanatları içinde değerlendirilebilecek; örücülük ve işlemecilik alanlarında; doğum, evlenme ve ölüm gibi insan yaşamını şekillendiren

  2. Phleboviruses detection in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a human leishmaniasis focus in South-West Madrid region, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Jiménez, Maribel; Fortuna, Claudia; Benedetti, Eleonora; Marchi, Antonella; Genovese, Domenico; Gramiccia, Marina; Molina, Ricardo; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-13

    Phlebotomus-borne (PhB-) viruses are distributed in large areas of the Old World and are widespread throughout the Mediterranean basin, where recent investigations have indicated that virus diversity is higher than initially suspected. Some of these viruses are causes of meningitis, encephalitis and febrile illnesses. In order to monitor the viral presence and the infection rate of PhB-viruses in a recently identified and well characterized human zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in southwestern Madrid, Spain, a sand fly collection was carried out. Sand fly insects were collected in four stations using CDC light traps during 2012-2013 summer seasons. Screening for Phlebovirus presence both via isolation on Vero cells and via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using degenerated primers targeting a portion of the L segment, was performed. The serological identity and phylogenetic relationships on the three genomic segments of the viral isolates were carried out. Six viral isolates belonging to different serological complexes of the genus Phlebovirus were obtained from fifty pools on a total of 963 P. perniciosus (202 females). Phylogenetic analysis and serological assays allowed the identification of two isolates of Toscana virus (TOSV) B genotype, three isolates strongly related to Italian Arbia virus (ARBV), and one isolate of a novel putative Phlebovirus related to the recently characterized Arrabida virus in South Portugal, tentatively named Arrabida-like virus. Positive male sand fly pools suggested that transovarial or venereal transmission could occur under natural conditions. Our findings highlighted the presence of different Phlebovirus species in the South-West area of the Madrid Autonomous Community where an outbreak of cutaneous and visceral human leishmaniasis has been recently described. The evidence of viral species never identified before in Spain, as ARBV and Arrabida-like virus, and TOSV B genotype focus stability was demonstrated. Environmental aspects

  3. Comparison of midlatitude ionospheric F region peak parameters and topside Ne profiles from IRI2012 model prediction with ground-based ionosonde and Alouette II observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyenko, G. I.; Yakovets, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    difference in the shape of the Alouette-, NeQuick-, IRI02-coorr, and IRI2001-derived Ne profiles, with overestimated Ne values at some altitudes and underestimated Ne values at others. The results obtained in the study showed that the observation-model differences were significant especially for the real observed (not median) data. For practical application, it is clearly important for the IRI2012 model to be adapted to the observed F2-layer peak parameters. However, the model does not offer a simple solution to predict the shape of the vertical electron density profile in the topside ionosphere, because of the problem with the topside shape parameters.

  4. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  5. Investigating the Potential market of a Serious Game for Training of Alzheimer’s Caregivers in a Northern Spain region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Arambarri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gamification can help training people with Alzheimer and their caregivers. In this paper are shown the benefits of gamification for this group of people and the technical and social feasibility of launching a game on the market. A Use Case in the north of Spain has been selected.A deep study about the state of the art in gamification and dementia aimed at training caregivers and families has been made but no available game have been reached out. For early states of analysing the technical and social feasibility of launching the serious game a group of highly skill both technicians and psychologists have been selected. To develop and launch products that fit Alzheimer patients and their family’s needs the learning by doing methodology has been selected - a mix of learning in everyday practices, learning from other people involved, learning from experience and learning from the affected person. In addition the following agents are involved: People with dementia, families, and professionals carers and expert people.

  6. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, J Alberto; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Peña, Cristina; Suárez, Lourdes; Juste, M Candelaria; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD) in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs), 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7-9/9), 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs ( P  canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.

  7. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  8. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria A.; Coll-Negre, Montserrat; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis. Methods In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012) was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined ‘selection on observables’ as (propensity scoring) matching and ‘selection on unobservables’ as (random coefficient) the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework. Results In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009), there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD), with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis. Conclusions Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis. PMID:26872210

  9. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  10. Drilling Predation on Serpulid Polychaetes (Ditrupa arietina) from the Pliocene of the Cope Basin, Murcia Region, Southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinell, Jordi; Kowalewski, Michał; Domènech, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We report quantitative analyses of drilling predation on the free-living, tube-dwelling serpulid polychaete Ditrupa arietina from the Cope Cabo marine succession (Pliocene, Spain). Tubes of D. arietina are abundant in the sampled units: 9 bulk samples from 5 horizons yielded ∼5925 specimens of D. arietina. Except for fragmentation, tubes were well preserved. Complete specimens ranged from 3.1 to 13.4 mm in length and displayed allometric growth patterns, with larger specimens being relatively slimmer. Drilled Ditrupa tubes were observed in all samples. Drillholes, identified as Oichnus paraboloides, were characterized by circular to elliptical outline (drillhole eccentricity increased with its diameter), parabolic vertical profile, outer diameter larger than inner diameter, penetration of one tube wall only, narrow range of drill-hole sizes, and non-random (anterior) distribution of drillholes. A total of 233 drilled specimens were identified, with drilling frequencies varying across horizons from 2.7% to 21% (3.9% for pooled data). Many tube fragments were broken across a drillhole suggesting that the reported frequencies are conservative and that biologically-facilitated (drill-hole induced) fragmentation hampers fossil preservation of complete serpulid tubes. No failed or repaired holes were observed. Multiple complete drillholes were present (3.9%). Drilled specimens were significantly smaller than undrilled specimens and tube length and drill-hole diameter were weakly correlated. The results suggest that drillholes were produced by a size-selective, site-stereotypic predatory organism of unknown affinity. The qualitative and quantitative patterns reported here are mostly consistent with previous reports on recent and fossil Ditrupa and reveal parallels with drilling patterns documented for scaphopod mollusks, a group that is ecologically and morphologically similar to Ditrupa. Consistent with previous studies, the results suggest that free-dwelling serpulid

  11. Drug use in patients with dementia: a register-based study in the health region of Girona (Catalonia/Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Castells, Pilar; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Alsina, Elisabet; Carmona, Olga; Perkal, Héctor; Roig, Anna Maria; Cuy, Josep Ma; Lozano, Manuela; Molins, Albert; Vallmajó, Natàlia; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pattern of drug consumption among patients with dementia in a geographically defined general population in Catalonia (Spain), and to determine its association with age, gender, type of dementia and severity indicators. Cross-sectional study that included 1,894 cases of dementia registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona from 2007 to 2009. Prescribed drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. A descriptive analysis of drug consumption was stratified according to age, gender, dementia subtypes and dementia severity. Binary logistic regression models were adjusted to detect the association of these variables with drug consumption according to the ATC groups. The most commonly prescribed drugs were for the central nervous system (CNS) (96.4 %), cardiovascular system (79.4 %) and digestive and metabolic system categories (77.7 %). No significant differences were found between the use of nervous system drugs and age, gender, dementia subtypes or dementia severity. The use of alimentary tract and metabolism related drugs, as well as cardiovascular and blood system drugs, were positively correlated with age and secondary dementia. The prevalence of use of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal drugs was higher in women than in men (OR: 1.34; OR: 1.26 respectively). A negative association was found between the severity of dementia and the use of musculoskeletal drugs (OR: 0.71), while its use was significantly higher in the youngest patients (OR: 1.71). Almost all patients with dementia received a CNS drug, being at risk of inappropriate treatment. Treatment for comorbidities in patients with dementia should not be withheld on the basis of age or dementia severity, but rather on the benefit/risk ratio of its prescription. Further studies are needed to evaluate potentially inappropriate drug use and possible untreated conditions in this population.

  12. Photoionization of Ne8+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  13. Costs of ulcerative colitis from a societal perspective in a regional health care area in Spain: A database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Xavier; Sicras-Mainar, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the management of UC associated costs from the societal perspective in Spain. Observational, longitudinal study with retrospective data collection based on reviews of outpatient health records. Socio-demographic, clinical and sick leave information was gathered. Patients diagnosed of UC between 2002 and 2012, older than 18 years, followed-up by a minimum of 12 months post diagnosis, with at least two clinical and use of resources data recorded, were included. 285 UC patients [51.2% men; 44.5 (SD: 15.6) years old; 88.4% without family history of UC; 39.3% proctitis; 5.6 (2.5) years disease follow-up] participated. More than half (65.6%) were active workers, 75.9% were on sick leave for reasons different from UC [mean 0.66 (0.70) times per year] during (mean) 28.43 (34.45) days. Only 64 patients were on UC-related sick-leaves, lasting (mean) 26.17 (37.43) days. Absenteeism due to medical visits caused loss of 29.55 (21.38) working hours per year. Mean direct and indirect annual cost per UC patient were €1754.10 (95%CI: 1473.37-2034.83) and €399.32 (282.31-422.69), respectively. Absenteeism was estimated at €88.21(32.72-50.06) per patient per year, in which sick-leaves were the main component of indirect costs (88.2%). Age, UC family history, diarrhea at diagnosis, blood and blood-forming organs diseases and psychological disorders were the main predictors of indirect costs. UC is a costly disease for the society and the Spanish National Healthcare System. Indirect costs imply a major burden by affecting the most productive years of patients. Further research is needed considering all components of productivity loss, including presenteeism-associated costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  14. Late Quaternary developments of Mediterranean oaks in the Atlantic domain of the Iberian Peninsula: The case of the Cantabrian region (N Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzquiano, P.; Ruiz-Zapata, MaB.; Gil-Garcia, MaJ.; Fernández, S.; Carrión, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    A synthesis of the occurrence of the evergreen oak (Quercus ilex-type) in the Cantabrian region (northern Spain) is presented on the basis of integrated charcoal and pollen analyses. Archaeological charcoal comes largely from sites along the littoral and pre-littoral territories of the Basque Country, Cantabria and Asturias dated from 45 to 3.7 Kyr cal BP, and culturally ranging from Mousterian to Iron Age. Pollen information is produced from a few archaeological sites but mainly from peats and lake sediments. Q. ilex-type is observed as early as at 45-30 Kyr cal BP, with sporadic occurrences in vegetation contexts dominated by Pinus sylvestris-type, which was widely exploited by Mousterian and Aurignacian inhabitants. Afterwards, during the Upper Palaeolithic, there is an important decline, and Q. ilex-type is hardly present between 29 and 15 Kyr cal BP, with open environments dominated by heathland shrubs. From Late Magdalenian onwards, Q. ilex-type expanded again, remaining in the landscape of the Cantabrian region throughout the Holocene, although subordinated in deciduous oak forests under the influence of oceanic climate conditions. Q. ilex-type had a more favourable position than deciduous Quercus across the Cantabrian southern slopes and northwest of the adjacent Iberian Cordillera, where oceanic influences have become attenuated by summer drought and continentality.

  15. How chemical pollution becomes a social problem. Risk communication and assessment through regional newspapers during the management of PCB pollutions of the Rhône River (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé

    2014-06-01

    The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: upper miocene, cabo de gata region, se Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  17. Age at Birth of First Child and Fecundity of Women Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (1987-2007): A Study of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region in France (ARCERRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freycon, Fernand; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Casagranda, Léonie; Berlier, Pascale; Bertrand, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Berger, Claire

    2015-05-01

    We studied the fecundity of 174 successive ALL (1987-2007) in females of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region (ARCERRA) with a median age at follow-up of 25.6 years (18.0-37.4). We distinguished five treatment groups: Group Ia, chemotherapy only (n = 130); Ib, chemotherapy with cranial radiotherapy (n = 10); II, TBI conditioning allograft (n = 27); III, chemotherapy conditioning allograft (n = 4); IV, TBI conditioning autograft (n = 3). Twenty-three women had their first child at the mean age of 25.8 ±3.0 years, i.e., 2.0 ±2.9 years earlier than the general population of the Rhône-Alpes region (P = 0.003). The standardized fertility ratio (SFR), expressed as the number of actual births observed (O) to the number that would be expected in women of the same age in the general population (E) (SFR = O/E) was decreased for Group Ia (0.62; 95%CI, 0.52-0.74) and collapsed in Group II (0.17; 0.11-0.25). In univariate analysis, TBI (P = 0.013) and alkylating agents (P = 0.01) were negatively correlated with fecundity, but not with the age at diagnosis or the anthracyclines doses. In multivariate analysis including TBI and alkylating agents, we still found a negative correlation between TBI (P = 0.035), as well as alkylating agents (P = 0.028), and fecundity. More precisely, fecundity was negatively correlated with cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (P = 0.001), with a fecundity decreased for ≥1g/m(2), but without any dose effect; results not found in the Group Ia. Age at first child seems younger but the young median age of the cohort not allows concluding; fecundity is collapsed after fractionated total body irradiation and decreased after chemotherapy without any demonstrable cause. A delay of fertility is not excluded.

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment of the exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers via fish and seafood consumption in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Olga; Beser, Maria Isabel; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-06-01

    The study was carried out to estimate the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Region of Valencia (Spain) in order to evaluate the resultant risk. The PBDE levels in fish and seafood (a total of 206 samples) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in fish and seafood marketed in the Region of Valencia over the period 2007-2012 and data of the first Valencian Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. Two scenarios were assumed for left-censored results: the lower-bound (LB) scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification (LOQ)) were set to zero and the upper-bound (UB) scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the LOQ and two approaches (deterministic and probabilistic) were compared. The mean PBDE concentration in fish and seafood from Valencian markets was between 0.97 and 3.87 ngg(-1) w.w. and was similar to that reported recently by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the analysed congeners, BDE-47 showed the highest levels and salmon, mackerel and swordfish were the most contaminated species. The average estimated daily intake of the sum of PBDEs (upper bound scenario; probabilistic approach) for adults and children were 0.137 ngkg(-1) body weight (b.w.) day and 0.180 ngkgb.w.(-1)d(-1), respectively. In relation to risk analysis, calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the BDE-47, -99 and -153 congeners for children and do not indicate a health concern with respect to current dietary exposure in the Valencian Region and only 0.05% of the adult population and a 0.1% of children could be in risk derived by BDE-99 intake through fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Competitive Success in Responsible Regional Ecosystems: An Empirical Approach in Spain Focused on the Firms’ Relationship with Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Sánchez-Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, any business manager is concerned about sustainability issues and is wondering how to implement social and environmental practices creating economic and social value at the same time. The implementation of social responsibility programs is justified by the benefits that result from a good relationship of the firm with key stakeholders. The present research investigates the links among firms’ relationship with stakeholders, firms’ champion behavior, stakeholders’ satisfaction and firms’ competitive success in regional contexts where social responsibility is promoted. Using the resource-based theory and the concept of shared value, a conceptual model is proposed in which a strong firm relationship with stakeholders will cause the stakeholder’ satisfaction and will help the firm to become a champion in the market, contributing to improved competitiveness. This empirical analysis was based on survey data through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM from 130 Spanish firms in the Region of Extremadura. Participants were firm managers in regional clusters involved in the social responsibility journey promoted by the local government. The results suggest that a good relationship of the frim with stakeholders directly and positively influences firm competitive success, and also, it is enhanced by improvements in stakeholders’ satisfaction and firm champion behavior.

  20. The semi-Arid integrated model (SIM), a regional integrated model assessing water availability, vulnerability, of ecossytems and society in NE-Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Jaeger, A.; Bronstert, A.; Krywkow, Jorg

    2001-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil, an example of vulnerable semi-arid regions on the earth, is characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress situations. Integrated studies involving hydrology, ecology, meteorology, climatology, pedology,

  1. Tiny Turtles Purchased at Pet Stores are a Potential High Risk for Salmonella Human Infection in the Valencian Region, Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Clara; Vega, Santiago; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Turtles may be considered unsafe pets, particularly in households with children. This study aimed to assess Salmonella carriage by turtles in pet stores and in private ownership to inform the public of the potential health risk, enabling informed choices around pet selection. During the period between September and October 2013, 24 pet stores and 96 private owners were sampled in the Valencian Region (Eastern Spain). Salmonella identification procedure was based on ISO 6579: 2002 recommendations (Annex D). Salmonella strains were serotyped in accordance with Kauffman-White-Le-Minor technique. The rate of isolation of Salmonella was very high from pet store samples (75.0% ± 8.8%) and moderate for private owners (29.0% ± 4.6%). Serotyping revealed 18 different serotypes among two Salmonella enterica subspecies: S. enterica subsp. enterica and S. enterica subsp. diarizonae. Most frequently isolated serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium (39.5%, 17/43) and Salmonella Pomona (9.3%, 4/43). Serotypes identified have previously been reported in turtles, and child Salmonella infections associate with pet turtle exposure. The present study clearly demonstrates that turtles in pet stores, as well as in private owners, could be a direct or indirect source of a high risk of human Salmonella infections. In addition, pet stores should advise their customers of the potential risks associated with reptile ownership.

  2. Assessment of the Evolution of a Landslide Using Digital Photogrammetry and LiDAR Techniques in the Alpujarras Region (Granada, Southeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Fernández

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work a detailed analysis of the temporal evolution of the Almegíjar landslide is presented. It is a rock slide located in the Alpujarras region (Granada, Spain that has developed over the last 30 years. Six datasets and photogrammetric flights corresponding to the years 1956, 1984, 1992, 2001, 2008, and 2010 were surveyed. The more recent flight of 2010 combined an aerial digital camera and a LiDAR sensor and was oriented by means of in-flight data and tie points. This 2010 flight allowed for the generation of a reliable and high-precision Digital Terrain Model (DTM. The other flights were oriented using second-order ground control points transferred from the 2010 flight, and the corresponding DTMs were prepared by automatic matching and subsequent editing from the stereoscopic models. After comparing the DTMs of different dates, it has been observed that the landslide was triggered after 1984 and since then has evolved in an irregular pattern with periods of variable activity. On average, the ground surface dropped more than 8 m in depleted zones and rose nearly 4 m in the accumulation zones, with a velocity catalogued as very slow (about 15–30 cm/year over a time span corresponding to a degree VIII of diachroneity. The total volume of the mobilized mass of this large contemporary slide was about 300 × 103 m3.

  3. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake.

  4. [Prevalence of oral anticoagulation and quality of its management in primary healthcare: A study by the Health Sentinel Network of the Region of Valencia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boned-Ombuena, Ana; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; López-Maside, Aurora; Miralles-Espí, Maite; Guardiola Vilarroig, Sandra; Adam Ruiz, Desamparados; Zurriaga, Oscar

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of patients with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) in the Region of Valencia and to evaluate the quality of management of OAT with vitaminK antagonists (VKA) carried out in primary healthcare. Observational cross-sectional study conducted through the Health Sentinel Network of the Region of Valencia, which includes a survey and the retrospective analysis of OAT monitoring. Primary healthcare, Region of Valencia, Spain. All patients aged 18years or older on OAT who consulted during the year 2014. The population covered by the 59 doctors of the Health Sentinel Network constitutes 2.2% of the adult population of the Region of Valencia, and it is representative of it. Demographic, socioeconomic and health data as well as information concerning OAT. Quality of OAT management with VKA was assessed by means of the percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR), computed using the Rosendaal method. A total of 1,144 patients were recorded (mean age 74.5±11 years; 49.7% women). Prevalence of OAT in the Region of Valencia is 1.3 cases per 100 population. The characteristic profile of these patients is an old person, with several comorbidities and a low level of education, who lives accompanied. Atrial fibrillation is the most common indication. 82.8% of patients on OAT with VKA were monitored in primary healthcare. The average TTR was 65.0%, and 53.9% of patients had a TTR ≥65%. Among inadequately controlled patients, 74.4% were perceived as well-controlled by their primary care doctor. Prevalence of OAT is high, and it is expected to increase. The degree of control achieved meets the generally accepted quality standard (mean TTR ≥65%), and it is comparable to that observed in other national and international studies. However, there is wide scope for improvement. It is crucial to optimize the management of this therapy in the most effective and cost-effective way. Among other measures, access of physicians to their patients' clinical information

  5. Regional-scale analysis of karst underground flow deduced from tracing experiments: examples from carbonate aquifers in Malaga province, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.; De la Torre, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tracer concentration data from field experiments conducted in several carbonate aquifers (Malaga province, southern Spain) were analyzed following a dual approach based on the graphical evaluation method (GEM) and solute transport modeling to decipher flow mechanisms in karst systems at regional scale. The results show that conduit system geometry and flow conditions are the principal factors influencing tracer migration through the examined karst flow routes. Solute transport is mainly controlled by longitudinal advection and dispersion throughout the conduit length, but also by flow partitioning between mobile and immobile fluid phases, while the matrix diffusion process appears to be less relevant. The simulation of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) suggests that diffuse and concentrated flow through the unsaturated zone can have equivalent transport properties under extreme recharge, with high flow velocities and efficient mixing due to the high hydraulic gradients generated. Tracer mobilization within the saturated zone under low flow conditions mainly depends on the hydrodynamics (rather than on the karst conduit development), which promote a lower longitudinal advection and retardation in the tracer migration, resulting in a marked tailing effect of BTCs. The analytical advection-dispersion equation better approximates the effective flow velocity and longitudinal dispersion estimations provided by the GEM, while the non-equilibrium transport model achieves a better adjustment of most asymmetric and long-tailed BTCs. The assessment of karst underground flow properties from tracing tests at regional scale can aid design of groundwater management and protection strategies, particularly in large hydrogeological systems (i.e. transboundary carbonate aquifers) and/or in poorly investigated ones.

  6. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  7. Assessment of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery Using Fire Severity and Geographical Data in the Mediterranean Region (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Viana-Soto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires cause disturbances in ecosystems and generate environmental, economic, and social costs. Studies focused on vegetation regeneration in burned areas acquire interest because of the need to understand the species dynamics and to apply an adequate restoration policy. In this work we intend to study the variables that condition short-term regeneration (5 years of three species of the genus Pinus in the Mediterranean region of the Iberian Peninsula. Regeneration modelling has been performed through multiple regressions, using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Geographic Weight Regression (GWR. The variables used were fire severity, measured through the Composite Burn Index (CBI, and a set of environmental variables (topography, post-fire climate, vegetation type, and state after fire. The regeneration dynamics were measured through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from Landsat images. The relationship between fire severity and regeneration dynamics showed consistent results. Short-term regeneration was slowed down when severity was higher. The models generated by GWR showed better results in comparison with OLS (adjusted R2 = 0.77 for Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster; adjusted R2 = 0.80 for Pinus halepensis. Further studies should focus on obtaining more precise variables and considering new factors which help to better explain post-fire vegetation recovery.

  8. An Input-Output Assessment of Water Productivity in the Castile and León Region (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dionisio Pérez Blanco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure in the past to acknowledge the limits of water supply and to decouple economic development from water demand has resulted in a water dependent growth model currently threatened by increasing scarcity and droughts. Consequently, there is now an urgent need to use sparse water resources in a more sustainable and efficient way. This demands a comprehensive understanding of water productivity and the linkages among economic sectors to illustrate the tradeoffs in water reallocations from productive sectors to priority uses (household and urban uses. This paper develops a methodology based on the Hypothetical Extraction Method to estimate inter-temporal direct and indirect water productivity. The method is applied to the Spanish region of Castile and León. Results confirm the existence of a relevant water productivity gap between the agriculture (the largest water consumer and that of the other sectors, which are nonetheless largely dependent on the agricultural output (and thus, on agricultural water demand. Results also show that Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth, say about 1%, results in an increase of indirect water productivity in the manufacturing blocks (0.49% and 0.38%, energy and water (0.39% and service blocks (0.41%, providing evidence of the existence of a Verdoorn’s Law for water.

  9. Analysis of the presence of cardiovascular and analgesic/anti-inflammatory/antipyretic pharmaceuticals in river- and drinking-water of the Madrid Region in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Y; Alonso, S González; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Maroto, R Romo; Gil, A; Catalá, M

    2011-02-01

    Interest in the presence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater, in the water of our rivers and, to a lesser extent, in our drinking water, has been growing in recent decades. Many of these substances, currently classified as "emerging pollutants", are biologically active compounds and continuously released in effluents. As sewage treatment plants (STPs) are not adequately equipped to eliminate all of these substances completely, some are discharged directly into rivers. In Spain, as in most of its neighbouring countries, there is an elevated use of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (which are extremely prevalent among the older adult population) and anti-inflammatory medications, which are obtainable over the counter without a medical prescription. This study therefore sought to determine to what degree pharmaceuticals with the highest regional prescription and/or use rates, such as cardiovascular and analgesic/anti-inflammatory/antipyretic medications, were present in the principal rivers (Jarama, Manzanares, Guadarrama, Henares and Tagus) and tap-water samples of the Madrid Region (MR). Samples were taken downstream the discharge of 10 of the most important region's STPs and the most frequently used drugs in the region were analysed for. Of the 24 drugs analysed, 21 were detected at concentrations ranging from 2 ng L⁻¹ to 18 μg L⁻¹. The highest drug concentrations corresponded to ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, atenolol, frusemide (furosemide), gemfibrozil and hydrochlorthiazide, and in most cases exceeded the amounts reported in the scientific literature. No traces of these groups of pharmaceuticals were detected in the drinking water analysed. On the basis of the high concentrations detected, we believe that an environmental surveillance system should be implemented to assess the continuous discharge of these pharmaceuticals and their possible ecotoxicological effects. At the same time, efforts to raise the awareness of the public

  10. Study on environmental pollution in slurry ponds in the region of Murcia (Spain); Estudio sobre contaminacion ambiental en balsas de purines en la Region de Murcia (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, A. B.; Faz, A.; Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    In Murcia the importance of the pig industry is both economically and environmentally, as it involves the proper management of organic waste produced. The necessary protection of the environment makes the development of appropriate studies to define the effects that this type of waste produced in the subsoil, in order to make appropriate recommendations to ensure the continuation of this activity, in a sustainable manner. In this way, this work studies different locations representing the Region on the slurry to be deposited, either with or without artificial waterproofing to check to what extent it has affected the underground waste. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. The role of soil physics in fighting soil degradation. A case study in the Valencia Region, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingelmo-Sánchez, Florencio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the peculiar characteristics of climate, topography, geology, soils and managing systems in the Valencia region, some proven general facts in soil Physics are presented, emphasizing some points needing further investigation which, as a whole, fall within the framework of actions in controlling soil degradation processes. The text is divided into two sections: the first, and longer, deals with the study of hydrological and erosion processes. Involving Soil Physics In the explanation of some behaviours and mechanisms; in the second, the various mechanisms of physical degradation leading to soil compaction are shown, and the main causes and Impacts are also determined.

    [es] Teniendo en cuenta las características peculiares del clima, topografía, geología, suelos y sistemas de manejo en la Región Valenciana, se exponen algunos hechos probados como suficientemente generales en la Física de suelos y algunos de los avances más significativos de dicha disciplina, enmarcando al mismo tiempo aspectos que necesitan ser Investigados, como base para la aplicación de un modelo conceptual de actuación para el control de los procesos de degradación del suelo. La exposición queda dividida, por consideraciones didácticas, en dos apartados. El primero, más extenso, se dedica al estudio de los procesos hidrológicos y erosivos, implicando a la Física del Suelo en la explicación de algunos comportamientos y mecanismos. En el segundo, se exponen los diferentes mecanismos de degradación física que conducen a la compactación del suelo, identificándose las principales causas y las repercusiones.
    [fr] Compte tenu des particulières caractéristiques du climat, topographie, géologie, sols et systèmes d'aménagement des sols dans la Région de Valence, on expose Ici quelques sujets bien connus, sur la Physique du Sol, et on signale certains rapports qui doivent être recherchés pour l'application d'un mod

  12. Religiousness/spirituality do not necessarily matter: Effect on risk perception and adaptive strategies in the semi-arid region of NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental changes is a major threat to livelihoods, especially for small farmers in semi-arid regions. Therefore, local communities undertake efforts to cope with these new environmental conditions and researchers try to understand the limits of possible adaptive strategies. Religiousness/spirituality are two important factors that can influence environmental awareness and adaptive responses to risks caused by natural phenomena. However, studies addressing the relationship between such factors are either scarce or based on anecdotal information. This article discusses the influence of religiousness/spirituality on the perception of environmental risks by farmers in a rural community in Brazil's northeast region, and their knowledge of adaptive strategies to deal with such concerns. Religiousness/spirituality can positively or negatively influence the perception of risk and knowledge of adaptive strategies when facing environmental uncertainty. We note that dimensions of religiousness/spirituality such as religious history, values/beliefs, commitment, and daily spiritual experiences influence wealth and the sharing of natural perceived risks, as well as adaptive strategies. Based on our results, we conclude that religiousness/spirituality dimensions exert both positive and negative effects on the perception of environmental risks and ways of coping with the impacts of rapid environmental changes.

  13. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

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    San Jose Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. Methods One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. Results The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p p p = 0.04. Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04. Conclusion The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate.

  14. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  15. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  16. Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region

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    Myriam Bouichou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, natural cements were extensively produced in the middle of the 19th century. In the French Alps, due to their ochre color, these cements were massively used, notably to produce cast stone, to simulate natural freestone. A preliminary survey revealed an overall good state of preservation of the buildings of this period. Two kinds of decays mechanisms were however identified : erosion affecting the surface of the majority of the buildings, inducing a gradual disappearance of the initial "fake-stone aspect", and a spalling phenomenon often combined with salts crystallization, observed only on a few buildings. Today, due to a lack of appropriate repair materials, the rehabilitation of these buildings mainly consists in the use of gray Portland-cement-based-mortars combined with a painting finishing, which is not satisfactory considering the conservation deontology, as the original appearance is lost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop and to test compatible repair materials to restore the culture heritage of this region. Based on the preliminary characterization of a set of representative ancient buildings, combined to a literature review, specifications concerning the composition and the main properties of repair materials, which could assure a compatibility with the ancient concrete of the region were established. Then, three Prompt-cement and one Portland-cement based mortars were selected, two of them being specifically formulated. Firstly, the appearance, the workability and the mechanical and physical properties of those mortars were characterized. Secondly, to evaluate the compatibility of the selected mortars with ancient concrete, Prompt-cement-based slabs were cast using a 19th century concrete formula, and were artificially eroded. After applying the 4 mortars on the slabs, visual observations and pull-out tests will be carried out before and after artificial aging. Finally, the repair mortar presenting the best

  17. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  18. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l. in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP and grass and sedge tundra (TUND communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae, alder (Duschekia fruticosa and willow (Salix species, is dated to 13.5–12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen.

  19. Modelling fire frequency and area burned across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    We develop fire occurrence and burned area models in peninsular Spain, an area of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of burned area. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of area burned and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal annual pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal annual cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-annual fire frequencies. Total area burned also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed annual burned area time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the burned area models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness

  20. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  1. Caractérisation de formations Miocène de la région de Taza pour des valorisations et exploitations industrielles Industrial value of the Miocene calcarenites in the region of Taza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahrach A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La valorisation de la formation Miocène dans la région de Taza, représentée par les calcarénites, a été menée selon deux axes ; tout d’abord une étude géologique, couplée à des études de terrain nous a permis d’évaluer l’épaisseur de la formation, une carte d’épaisseur a été dressée à cet effet. L’étude géotechnique de ces matériaux révèle que ces calcarénites ont des qualités intéressantes pour des utilisations industrielles. En effet, en se basant sur les différents tests de dureté (Los Angeles et Micro Duval, la résistance à la rupture et la porosité de nos quatre échantillons, une valeur ajoutée industrielle peut leur être attribuée dans beaucoup de domaines, comme: -Graves non traités pour couches de fondations pour les chaussées ou grave bitumeux de fondation; -Ajouts dans les bétons; -Roche marbrière et pierre de façade. En fin, sur la base de ces études géologiques et géotechniques, on peut considérer que les calcarénites de la région de Taza répondent à l’ensemble des critères d’une exploitation industrielle. The valuation of the Miocene formation in the Taza region, represented by calcarenites, was conducted according two axes; first geological survey, coupled with field studies allowed us to evaluate the thickness of the formation, a thickness map was derived from this purpose. The geotechnical study of these materials reveals that these calcarenites have interesting qualities for industrial uses. Indeed, based on the different hardness tests (Los Angeles and Micro Duval, the tensile strength and porosity of our four samples, an industrial added value can be attributed to them in many areas, such as: - Untreated Graves for layers of foundations for pavements or bituminous serious foundation; - Additions in concrete; - Roche marble and stone facade. Finally, on the basis of geological and geotechnical studies, we can consider that the calcarenites of the Taza region meet

  2. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  3. NE2561 and NE2611A - are they different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Boas, J.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.; Stucki, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Evidence is mounting that the nominally identical ionization chamber types NE2561 and NE2611A have significantly different energy dependences. This is revealed by comparing the radiation quality correction factors k q . The factor k q is the ratio of the absorbed dose to water calibration factors (for a particular type of ionization chamber) at radiation quality Q to that for 60 Co. k q values for NE2561 and NE2611A chambers have been compared for various kV and MV X-ray beams at several standards laboratories. Measurements at ARPANSA (Australia) on six NE2561 and five NE2611A show a consistent difference in k q of 1-2% for 16 and 19 MV X-rays. Work at OFMET (Switzerland) has shown similar differences at 6 and 18 MV. No such differences are seen at NPL (UK) - this inconsistency is currently ascribed to differences in the radiation beams. Consistent differences of up to 3% between these two chamber types have been observed at both ARPANSA and NRC (Canada) at the BIPM medium energy X-ray intercomparison qualities between 50 kV and 250 kV. We conclude that the two types of chamber should not be regarded as identical. ARPANSA and several other laboratories in Europe and North America will shortly participate in a Euromet project to be coordinated by OFMET, to investigate high energy X-ray beam quality specifiers. This project will provide additional data that may lead to a better understanding of this anomaly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  4. Physics at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk, I will give a brief description of the φ factory DAΦNE at Frascati, explaining why a φ factory is an interesting place to do new physics, and then discuss the physics that can be done at DAΦNE. I will concentrate on CP violation as it can be studied at DAΦNE. This is, after all, the raison d'etre of DAΦNE. I start with a brief general introduction to CP violation in the KK system, and the distinction between mass-mixing CP violation (ε) and intrinsic CP violation (ε'/ε). After presenting a summary of ε'/ε measurements up to now, and briefly discussing the theory of ε'/ε (the so-called 'penguins'), I will cover the particularities of measuring ε'/ε at a φ factory, such as tagging and interferometry. Finally, I will say a few words about searching for CP violation in modes where it has never before been seen. I will end my talk with a list of other physics topics at DAΦNE, and rare decay branching ratio limits that can be achieved there, just to give a flavor of what else can be done. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  5. Bioavailability of heavy metals in water and sediments from a typical Mediterranean Bay (Málaga Bay, Region of Andalucía, Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Castillo, M L; Sánchez Trujillo, I; Vereda Alonso, E; García de Torres, A; Cano Pavón, J M

    2013-11-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were measured in sediment and water from Málaga Bay (South Spain). In the later twentieth century, cities such as Málaga, have suffered the impact of mass summer tourism. The ancient industrial activities, and the actual urbanization and coastal development, recreation and tourism, wastewaters treatment facilities, have been sources of marine pollution. In sediments, Ni was the most disturbing metal because Ni concentrations exceeded the effects range low (ERL), concentration at which toxicity could start to be observed in 85% of the samples analyzed. The metal bioavailability decreased in the order: Cd>Ni>Pb>Cu>Cr. In the sea water samples, Cd and Pb were the most disturbing metals because they exceeded the continuous criteria concentration (CCC) of US EPA in a 22.5% and 10.0% of the samples, respectively. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, PCA, CA) were performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, energy intake and dietary caloric profile in university students from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    University students are a part of the population potentially vulnerable in relation to their nutritional status. To evaluate energy intake, energy profile of the diet and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students. The study was conducted in 223 students (53% female) from the University of Murcia (Spain), mean age 21.4 ± 2.7 years. Dietary intake was estimated by a continuous 7 days dietary record, previously validated. Afterwards, total energy intake and macronutrients distribution were obtained using the software "GRUNUMUR 2.0". Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated as [weight (kg)/height (m)(2)]. Average energy intake was lower than the recommendations. In relation with the energy profile of the diet, it was higher in protein and fat, and lower in carbohydrates compared with the recommendations in the balanced diet. The prevalence of overweight was of 9.3% in female and of 24.2% in males. However, 10.2% females and 1.1% males were underweight. Only a 35,4% of the studied collective usually practiced physical activity (3-4 hours/week). Significant correlations were found between age and percentage of energy from carbohydrate (negative) and lipids (positive), indicating that older students (young adults) had significantly higher dietary unbalances than younger (adolescents). Students from the University of Murcia have characteristics very similar to those described in other university populations of Spain and other Western countries: low energy intake, unbalances in the energy profile of the diet, and high percentages of overweight and also of underweight. Both physical inactivity and energy unbalance of the diet could be determinants of the overweight observed. Age is a factor in worsening the energy profile of the diet, which presumably will have undesirable consequences on the health of this young population group. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES

  7. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  8. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  9. Search for Ne in e−μ+ events at petra and pep energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamanashi

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a way to check the possible existence of an electron-type neutral heavy lepton Ne which decays into e−μ+νμ. In the region of cosθcoll < 0 eμ signals due to Ne are expected to exceed those due to τ± at PETRA and PEP energies.

  10. Regional subsidence modelling in Murcia city (SE Spain using 1-D vertical finite element analysis and 2-D interpolation of ground surface displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tessitore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982–1984, 1992–1995 and 2004–2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.

  11. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of meteorological droughts and dry spells in semiarid regions: a comparative analysis of probability distribution functions in the Segura Basin (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier

    2017-08-01

    Dry spells are an essential concept of drought climatology that clearly defines the semiarid Mediterranean environment and whose consequences are a defining feature for an ecosystem, so vulnerable with regard to water. The present study was conducted to characterize rainfall drought in the Segura River basin located in eastern Spain, marked by the self seasonal nature of these latitudes. A daily precipitation set has been utilized for 29 weather stations during a period of 20 years (1993-2013). Furthermore, four sets of dry spell length (complete series, monthly maximum, seasonal maximum, and annual maximum) are used and simulated for all the weather stations with the following probability distribution functions: Burr, Dagum, error, generalized extreme value, generalized logistic, generalized Pareto, Gumbel Max, inverse Gaussian, Johnson SB, Log-Logistic, Log-Pearson 3, Triangular, Weibull, and Wakeby. Only the series of annual maximum spell offer a good adjustment for all the weather stations, thereby gaining the role of Wakeby as the best result, with a p value means of 0.9424 for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (0.2 significance level). Probability of dry spell duration for return periods of 2, 5, 10, and 25 years maps reveal the northeast-southeast gradient, increasing periods with annual rainfall of less than 0.1 mm in the eastern third of the basin, in the proximity of the Mediterranean slope.

  13. Stress tolerant plant species spread in the road-ne

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, Vol.14 (2011), s. 45-46 ISSN 1644-7298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : weed * invasive * road-ne * salinity * Poaceae Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  14. The 11 May 2011 earthquake at Lorca (SE Spain) viewed in a structural-tectonic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, R.L.M.; Meijninger, B.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Lorca earthquake of 11 May 2011 in the Betic Cordillera of SE Spain occurred almost exactly on the Alhama de Murcia fault, a marked fault that forms part of a NE-SW trending belt of faults and thrusts. The fault belt is reminiscent of a strike-slip corridor, but recent structural studies have

  15. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  16. Production of the Ne Auger electrons by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-07-01

    The authors have bombarded Mg and Al surfaces with Ne/sup +/ ions and in this letter present evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy.

  17. Relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil attributes at an experimental parcel under pasture in a region of Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Mara de A.; Dafonte, Jorge D.; Armesto, Montserrat V.; Paz-González, Antonio; Raposo, Juan R.

    2013-04-01

    Spatial characterization of the variability of soil properties is a central point in site-specific agricultural management and precision agriculture. Geospatial measures of geophysical attributes are useful not only to rapidly characterize the spatial variability of soil properties but also for soil sampling optimization. This work reports partial results obtained at an experimental parcel under pasture located at Castro de Ribeira do Lea (Lugo/ Galicia/ Spain). An ECa automated survey was conducted in September 2011 employing an EM-38 DD (Geonics Ltd.) installed in a nonmetallic car, according to parallel lines spaced 10m one from each other and oriented at the east-west direction. The ECa values were recorded every second with a field computer and the locations were geo-referenced using a GPS. The entire survey was carried out in 1hour and 45 minutes and corrections due to differences in temperature were made. A total of 9.581 ECa registers were retained, configuring a sampling intensity of approximately 1 register per 1.5 m2. Employing the software ESAP 2.35 and the computational tool ESAP-RSSD, eighty positions were selected at the field to extract disturbed and undisturbed soil samples at two depths: 0.0-0.2m, 0.2-0.4m. Ten physical attributes (clay, silt, total sand, coarse sand and fine sand contents, soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, soil water content, percentage of gravels) and 17 chemical attributes (soil organic matter-SOM, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H+Al, Sum of bases-S, Cation exchange capacity-CEC, Base saturation-V%, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. The relationship between the geophysical variables and the soil attributes was performed using statistical and spatial analysis. There were significant correlations (pmanagement zones in the area. Acknowledgements: This work was funded in part by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) in the frame of project CGL2009-13700-C02. Financial support from CAPES

  18. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  19. Wind turbines in Spain: la vuelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.; Trancart, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ten years ago it was just the beginning of the wind industry in Spain. Today it takes the third place in Europe and the fourth in the world. The pilot regions are the Galicia and the Navarre. (A.L.B.)

  20. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  1. Políticas sanitarias de ámbito estatal y autonómico para la población inmigrante en España Health policies of national and regional level for the immigrant population in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Terraza Núñez

    2010-04-01

    Spain. Methods: A descriptive comparative study of central and regional healthcare policies for the immigrant population was conducted in Spain through content analysis. The selected regions were Andalusia, Valencia, Madrid and the Basque Country as these regions have specific policies, distinct proportions of immigrants and policy evaluations. National or regional health and immigration plans with health policies for immigrants were selected. Contents analysis was conducted of the following main dimensions: policy principles and objectives, strategies and results' evaluation. Subsequently, strategies were categorized according to the area of intervention. Results: Healthcare policies for the immigrant population are mainly included in national and regional immigration plans. The principles of these policies are based on equal rights to healthcare between the immigrant and native-born populations and the objectives aim to achieve this end. National objectives and actions address access to and adaptation of health services, health promotion, health needs assessment, and health personnel training in cultural competences. Regional policies follow the national guidelines but their actions are more specific. Policy evaluations are highly limited. Conclusions: The content of the health policies, especially national policies, address major issues in meeting immigrants' healthcare needs. However, the absence of assessments, together with persistent problems in the provision of care and inequalities in access, could indicate insufficient implementation and requires careful monitoring.

  2. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  4. [The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Region of Murcia, Spain: Differences by gender, age and location of residence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Martínez, Diego Pablo; Guillén Pérez, José Jesús

    2018-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent disorder in childhood and adolescence, and is seen as a public health problem. The recommended treatment includes pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the prescribing of the medicines used in ADHD treatment in the Region of Murcia, as well as their socio-demographic variability. A retrospective observational study was conducted using the dispensing of medicines for ADHD treatment by means of prescription in the Region of Murcia from 2010 to 2014. The consumption rates were determined as defined daily doses (DDD) per thousand inhabitants/day (DHD), stratified by gender and age. The reasons for prevalence of treatment by gender were also determined by comparing male and female consumption rates. The consumption of medicines for ADHD treatment had almost doubled in the period studied, from 5.58 DHD and 3.39 DHD in 2010 to 9.34 DHD and 6.71 DHD in 2014, for the age range of 10-14 and 15-19, respectively. Boys from 10-14 showed the highest consumption rates, showing a high geographical variability with less consumption in rural areas. The results showed a large increase in the use of medicines for ADHD treatment in the Region of Murcia, although the consumption rates are still lower than in other Autonomous Communities or neighbouring countries. A wide geographical variability was found, with a higher consumption in adolescents from urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservation of Sand Dune Vegetation in Coastal areas of the Valencian Region (Spain); Estado de conservacion de la vegetacion dunar en las costas de la comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertos, B.; San Miguel, E.; Draper, I.; Garilleti, R.; Lara, F.; Varela, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    The state of conservation of the coastal dune vegetation in Valencia region has been assessed within a survey of the vegetal communities present in these systems.The conservation status has been evaluated through a qualitative scale which integrates criteria such as dune extension, structure and diversity of the vegetal communities, level of ruderalization, presence of invasive species, and floristic rarity. Special attention has been paid to the usual aggressions to this type of ecosystem and the situation of the most aggressive invasive plants. (Author) 15 refs.

  6. Pardos Militias in the Region of New Galicia (Kingdom of New Spain). An Analysis of Social and Political Practices during the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    José Rojas Galván

    2016-01-01

    El artículo analiza los factores sociopolíticos que propiciaron que los milicianos pardos de Nueva Galicia fueran protagonistas dentro de la estructura colonial. La investigación toma como referentes teóricos las perspectivas de la historia regional y la historia social en tanto que buscan hacer evidentes las transformaciones de un territorio con respecto a las condiciones de la sociedad. Las fuentes documentales utilizadas provienen de archivos de España y México. Los resultados de la invest...

  7. EL PAPEL DE LAS MICROEMPRESAS EN EL DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO REGIONAL: LAS REDES DE COOPERACIÓN EMPRESARIAL EN ESPAÑA/THE ROLE OF MICRO-ENTERPRISES IN REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THE COOPERATION NETWORKS BUSINESS IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia BENITO HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende analizar las características de las microempresas así como la formación de redes empresariales en España, en aras de intentar demostrar que la cooperación de las microempresas, mediante de estas redes, puede contribuir al desarrollo económico del territorio donde se ubiquen, mediante la modernización, la generación de valor añadido y la creación empleo. La elevada representatividad de las microempresas en el tejido empresarial español, fenómeno extensible a la mayoría de los sistemas, hace más que interesante centrarse en el estudio de este segmento./This paper aims to analyze the characteristics of micro-business as well as to explore how business networks are built up in Spain. As a result, it is proved that cooperation among such companies -through business networks- may contribute to the economic development of the geographical area where they are located due to the generation of value added and job creation. The high representativeness of micro-business in the Spanish economic system makes very interesting to focus on such a segment – this phenomenon is extended to most economies, no matter the country it concerns.

  8. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  9. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  10. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan Nicolás; Cuesta, Pedro; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-01-24

    The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to those terrestrial movements

  11. Neutral bremsstrahlung radiation of Ne, Ar and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, R.T.V.; Chang, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral Bremsstrahlung cross-sections of Ne, Ar and atomic oxygen around the 3 and 10μ wavelength regions were measured in a high temperature plasma generated in a shock tube. The results were generally a factor of three higher than the theoretical values calculated by Geltman (Geltman, S., JQSRT vol.13, 601 (1973)). Agreement with the experimental results of Taylor and Caledonia (Taylor, R.L. and Caledonia, G., JQSRT vol.9, 657; 681, 1969) around 3μ was good except for the case of Ne. The cross-sections around 10μ are the first measurements in this wavelength region. Enhanced radiation due to atomic line emission on top of the Bremsstrahlung continuum, as predicted by Hyman (Hyman, H.A. and Von Rosenberg, C.W. Jr., JQSRT, vol.15, 919, 1975) was observed around 7.44μ. (author)

  12. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  13. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  14. Influence of diet in urinary levels of metals in a biomonitoring study of a child population of the Valencian region (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Rosa; Doménech, Eva; Conchado, Andrea; Sanchez, Alfredo; Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent

    2018-03-15

    Pollution by trace elements and its possible effect on organisms has become a worldwide concern due to the increasing presence of trace elements in the environment and especially in the food chain. Exposure to chemicals has traditionally been measured using environmental samples, however, human biomonitoring brings a different perspective, in which all sources and exposure pathways are integrated. The objective of this paper is to discern the possible relationship between children's diet and the metals found in children urine. With this aim in mind, a total of 120 voluntaries participated in a diet survey carried out in a school-aged population (age 6-11) from the Valencian region. In addition, twenty trace elements were analysed in children urine (arsenic, antimony, barium, beryllium, caesium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, selenium, thallium, thorium, uranium, vanadium and zinc). Results permitted to compare metal levels in urine with metal levels of other biomonitoring studies to conclude that values, including ours, were similar in most studies. On the other hand, children who ate more vegetables had the highest values in cadmium, copper, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, vanadium, and zinc, while those who ate more fish reached higher values in mercury. Finally, children who ate more cereals and baked products had higher values in total arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances and trends on earthquake-triggered landslide research in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García Mayordomo, Julián; Rodríguez Peces, Martín Jesús; Azañón, J.M.; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This work reviews the current situation of earthquake‐triggered landslide studies in Spain both from the point of view of regional assessment and site‐specific cases. Regional assessments have been undertaken in areas of the Betic Cordillera (South and Southeast Spain): Alcoy Basin, Lorca Basin, Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada Range; and Central Pyrenees (North Spain and Andorra). Specific studies are very scarce, outstanding those related to the Güevéjar landslide (Granada) –triggered by 175...

  16. [Emergency care in the autonomous regions of Spain. Improvement in pre-hospital emergency care and welfare coordination. SESPAS Report 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel García, Félix; Fernández Quintana, Ana Isabel; Díaz Prats, Amadeo

    2012-03-01

    The present article describes the general organization of pre-hospital emergency care in the autonomous regions and provides data on activity corresponding to 2010, drawn from the information available in the Primary Care Information System of the Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality. Emergency care is provided through various organizational structures covering 24-hour periods. Family medicine attended 17.8 million emergency consultations and nursing attended 10.2 million (year 2010, 14 autonomous communities, 79.7% of the National Health System population). Emergency department utilization ranged between 0.11 and 0.83 urgent family physician consultations per inhabitant/year and between 0.05 and 0.57 nursing consultations per inhabitant/year. Any reform in the management of pre-hospital emergency care will involve organizational changes and aims to produce measurable improvements in healthcare coordination. In the new organizational designs, most of the responsibility lies with human resources in order to achieve the new goals for the future aims to be presented in an operational teamwork structure. Undoubtedly, the main challenge is to achieve optimal coordination with other welfare levels, including the police, social services, nursing homes, etc. If optimal care of the population needs to count on the efforts of all these groups, mobility, individual differences, consistent achievement of high standards, and -most of all- the use of these services by citizens will determine the final result. The results can be quantified in various ways, but evaluation should concentrate on the resources used, the degree of satisfaction among all the parties involved and optimal management of demand, which will help to disseminate the need for a rational resource use. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Khakhalin, S.Ya.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l', 2s 2 2p 5 3l4l', 2s2p 6 3l3l' and 2s2p 6 3l4l' levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l'3l '' and 2s2p 6 3l3l'3l '' levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution λ/Δλ∼3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with λ/Δλ>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.)

  18. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE ν μ → ν e results, describe the first (bar ν) μ → (bar ν) e result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector

  19. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  20. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadrado, L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and

  1. The WELSONS experiment: overview and presentation of first results on the surface atmospheric boundary-layer in semiarid Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Frangi

    Full Text Available This study presents the preliminary results of the local energy budget and dynamic characteristics of the surface atmospheric boundary-layer (SBL during the WELSONS (wind erosion and losses of soil nutrients in semiarid Spain experiment. Some Mediterranean regions suffer land degradation by wind erosion as a consequence of their particular soil and climate conditions and inappropriate agricultural practice. In Spain, where land degradation by water erosion is well known, the lack of field studies to quantify soils losses by wind erosion resulted in the European Community organizing a scientific program for this specific issue. The European programme known as WELSONS was devoted to study the wind erosion process in central Aragon (NE Spain. This multidisciplinary experiment, which began in 1996 and finished in 1998, was carried out over an agricultural soil which was left fallow. Within the experimental field, two plots were delimited where two tillage treatments were applied, a mould-board ploughing (or conventional tillage denoted CT and chisel ploughing (reduced tillage denoted RT. This was to study on bare soil the influence of tillage method on surface conditions, saltation flux, vertical dust flux, erosion rates, dynamics characteristics such as friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget. The partitioning of the available energy, resulting from the dynamics of the SBL, are quite different over the two plots because of their own peculiar soil and surface properties. The first results show that the RT treatment seems to provide a wind erosion protection. Because of the long data recording time and particular phenomena (formation of a crust at the soil surface, very dry conditions, high wind speed for instance, these microclimatological data acquired during the WELSONS programmes may be helpful to test atmospheric boundary-layer models coupled with soil models.

    Key words: Hydrology (desertification - Meterology and

  2. The WELSONS experiment: overview and presentation of first results on the surface atmospheric boundary-layer in semiarid Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Frangi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the preliminary results of the local energy budget and dynamic characteristics of the surface atmospheric boundary-layer (SBL during the WELSONS (wind erosion and losses of soil nutrients in semiarid Spain experiment. Some Mediterranean regions suffer land degradation by wind erosion as a consequence of their particular soil and climate conditions and inappropriate agricultural practice. In Spain, where land degradation by water erosion is well known, the lack of field studies to quantify soils losses by wind erosion resulted in the European Community organizing a scientific program for this specific issue. The European programme known as WELSONS was devoted to study the wind erosion process in central Aragon (NE Spain. This multidisciplinary experiment, which began in 1996 and finished in 1998, was carried out over an agricultural soil which was left fallow. Within the experimental field, two plots were delimited where two tillage treatments were applied, a mould-board ploughing (or conventional tillage denoted CT and chisel ploughing (reduced tillage denoted RT. This was to study on bare soil the influence of tillage method on surface conditions, saltation flux, vertical dust flux, erosion rates, dynamics characteristics such as friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget. The partitioning of the available energy, resulting from the dynamics of the SBL, are quite different over the two plots because of their own peculiar soil and surface properties. The first results show that the RT treatment seems to provide a wind erosion protection. Because of the long data recording time and particular phenomena (formation of a crust at the soil surface, very dry conditions, high wind speed for instance, these microclimatological data acquired during the WELSONS programmes may be helpful to test atmospheric boundary-layer models coupled with soil models.Key words: Hydrology (desertification - Meterology and atmospheric

  3. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  4. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  5. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  6. The NeXus data format

    OpenAIRE

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamlin...

  7. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  8. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  9. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  10. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  11. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as 135 Cs, 137 Cs, and 129 I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Geomorphological criteria applied to the study of the neotectonic of the internal areas of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Elorza, M.; Pena, J.L.; Rodriguez Vidal, J.; Simon Gomez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some geomorphological criteria, based on the study of erosion surfaces, glacis, terraces and slopes, after a brief discussion of the geomorphological methodology, are here applied in several internal areas of NE. Spain, specially in the Iberian Cordillera. Several episodes of neotectonic activity are recognised within this Cordillera: a more intense one at the base of Villafranchian times, a second one at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transitional levels, and a latent, more sporadic, intraquaternary activity. (author)

  13. Wind energy in Spain. 2000 MW in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Spain ranks third in terms of wind energy in Europe. Its wind power capacity has been soaring for the past five years and development of renewable energies is seen as a way to stimulate economy and employment. Two regions are at the forefront in this: Galicia and Navarra. Each autonomous region has its own way to develop wind energy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Deteminants of interregional migration in Spain: new analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Maza Fernández

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of internal migration in Spain from a regional standpoint. For this purpose, it develops both a nonparametric and semiparametric approach. The general conclusion that it is drawn from the study is that migratory movements are very persistent and mainly respond, though weakly, to the differentials of per capita income, unemployment rates and housing costs between regions.

  15. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of [11C]NE-100 labeled in two different positions as a PET σ receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Noguchi, Junko; Ishii, Shin-Ichi; Hatano, Kentaro; Ito, Kengo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Senda, Michio

    1998-01-01

    N,N-Dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine (NE-100) was labeled with 11 C in two different positions by the alkylation of an N-despropyl precursor with [ 11 C]propyl iodide and of an O-desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl iodide and was evaluated for the potential as a tracer for mapping σ 1 receptors in the CNS and peripheral organs by PET. Following i.v. injection of [N-propyl- 11 C]NE-100 or [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100 into mice, the two tracers showed similar tissue distribution patterns except for the liver and brain. With the coinjected carrier NE-100 or haloperidol, the uptake of [N-propyl- 11 C]NE-100 by the liver, pancreas and spleen was significantly decreased at 15 min after injection, whereas the effect was not significant for [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100. The coinjection of NE-100 enhanced the brain uptake of the two tracers. Haloperidol also enhanced the brain uptake of [N-propyl- 11 C]NE-100, but not that of [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100. The regional brain distribution assessed with [O-methyl- 3 H]NE-100 was consistent with the distribution pattern of the σ receptors. Four σ drugs reduced the regional brain uptake of [O-methyl- 3 H]NE-100 to 70%-90% of the control. In an ex vivo autoradiographic study of the rat brain, the uptake of [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100 was blocked by carrier NE-100 or haloperidol (53%-59% of the control in the cortex), which suggests a receptor-specific distribution. These results show that [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100 has limited potential as a PET ligand for mapping σ 1 receptors in the peripheral organs and the CNS because of high nonspecific binding

  16. Catalan Nationalism and Challenges to the Territorial Integrity of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Volkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century Spain faced a number of challenges, primarily the growth of separatist sentiments in the regions fraught with the danger of its fragmentation on ethno-national basis. In the context of increased ethno-national mobilization of “small peoples” in Spain one of its most economically developed regions – Catalonia – envisages a rise of the regional identity. Against the backdrop of economic problems generated by the crisis of 2008-2014 the autonomous communities of Spain, including Catalonia, came across the rise of socio-political problems, particularly the growing distance between the society and the central administrative bodies formed in democratic conditions, as well as the two-party administrative system.

  17. Investigation of the inner structure of La Crosa de Sant Dalmai maar (Catalan Volcanic Zone, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Himi, Mahjoub; Lovera, Raúl

    2012-12-01

    La Crosa de Sant Dalmai volcano is the largest volcanic edifice of the Catalan Volcanic Zone (NE Spain). It is a very well preserved maar-type structure, 1.5 km in diameter, excavated at the contact between a hard substrate and a soft substrate formed by Palaeozoic granites and Pliocene and Quaternary gravels, respectively. In order to infer the uppermost inner structure of La Crosa de Sant Dalmai maar and to characterise its main geological and tectonic constraints, we have performed a multiparametric geophysical study including gravimetry, magnetometry, self-potential, and electrical resistivity tomography. The results obtained together with a field geology revision and additional geological data from two drill cores, provide a detailed picture of the post-eruptive maar infill sequence as well as of the uppermost part of the maar-diatreme structure. This information helps in understanding the origin and subsequent evolution of the volcano, which included an alternation of phreatomagmatic and Strombolian phases. Geophysical data show that the last Strombolian phase, which culminated with the formation of a scoria cone inside the maar, was associated with a NW-SE trending regional fault. The little erosion and degradation of the original tephra ring suggest a much younger age of La Crosa de Sant Dalmai maar than was previously stated.

  18. Echinococcus granulosus: biological comparison of cattle isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Spain Echinococcus granulosus: comparación biológica de aislados de bovinos de regiones endémicas de Argentina y España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Andresiuk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have compared cattle isolates of Echinococcus granulosus from Argentina and Spain. The aim was to compare and determine if there exist phenotypic and genetic differences within E. granulosus cattle isolates between an endemic area of Spain (where the disease is mainly restricted to a sheep-dog cycle and an endemic area of Argentina (where cattle are the most abundant intermediate hosts. The Spanish samples were previously identified as G1 genotype. The Argentinean samples were also identified as G1, but some variants were found for the cytochrome c oxidase-1 (CO1 and NADH dehydrogenase-1 (ND1 mitochondrial genes. When comparing the cyst features and the morphology of the larval rostellar hooks in both regions, some differences were found. The morphometric analyses of the larval rostellar hooks showed the existence of two distinct clearly separated groups (one corresponding to the Argentinean samples and the other to the Spanish ones. In conclusion, there are some genetic and phenotypic differences within E. granulosus cattle isolates from Argentina and Spain. Probably these differences, more important from an epidemiological point of view, are related to different steps in the disease control in both countries. Further studies involving other epidemiological, morphometric and molecular data, including other types of livestock, would contribute to clarify and expand the present work.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si existen diferencias fenotípicas y genéticas entre los aislados de Echinococcus granulosus de origen bovino provenientes de dos regiones geográficas donde la hidatidosis es endémica, una de España (donde predomina el ciclo perro-oveja y una de Argentina (donde el bovino es el hospedador intermediario más importante. Las muestras españolas fueron previamente identificadas como pertenecientes al genotipo G1. Las muestras argentinas también correspondían al genotipo G1, pero entre ellas se

  19. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  20. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  1. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterheld, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Khakhalin, S.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Faenov, A.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.

    1996-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l4l`, 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l` and 2s2p{sup 6}3l4l` levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`3l{sup ``} and 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l`3l{sup ``} levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.).

  3. Impacto de la violencia colectiva en la salud: Resultados del estudio ISAVIC en el País Vasco Impact of collective violence on health status: Results of the ISAVIC study in the Basque Region (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Larizgoitia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: A pesar de la ubicuidad de la violencia y de su posible importancia para la salud de las personas y las colectividades, su papel y mecanismos de acción en este sentido no están apenas analizados. Este estudio, realizado en los años 2005-2008 en el País Vasco, trata de estimar la asociación de la violencia colectiva con la salud de sus víctimas primarias. Métodos: Se emparejó una muestra intencional de 33 víctimas primarias (receptores directos de la violencia o familiares en primer grado de personas asesinadas, en función de su edad, sexo, nivel de estudios y provincia de residencia, con sujetos (en una proporción 1:5 procedentes de una muestra representativa de la población mayor de 16 años residente en el País Vasco. Todos completaron un cuestionario que incluía medidas de salud (WHO-DAS-II-12, GHQ-12, SF-12, escalas de soledad y estigma y variables potencialmente mediadoras (apoyo y clima social, y otras. Se compararon mediante regresiones condicionales a la experiencia de violencia colectiva. Resultados: Las víctimas primarias presentan entre cuatro y siete veces un mayor riesgo de padecer peor salud física y emocional, y ocho veces más de sufrir alteraciones funcionales. También perciben una mayor soledad y estigma, y valoran negativamente el apoyo y el clima social. No se observó asociación en los sujetos que declararon exposición a una violencia interpersonal leve. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la violencia colectiva se asocia a una pérdida considerable de salud en las víctimas primarias. Su asociación en la población general requiere una investigación más específica.Objectives: Despite the ubiquity of violence and its possible impact on individual and collective health, the role and causal pathways of this phenomenon as a health determinant have not been widely studied. The present study was conducted between 2005 and 2008 in the Basque Region of Spain and aimed to estimate the health

  4. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  6. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  7. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  8. Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported

  9. Could LC-NE-Dependent Adjustment of Neural Gain Drive Functional Brain Network Reorganization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Guedj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system is thought to act at synaptic, cellular, microcircuit, and network levels to facilitate cognitive functions through at least two different processes, not mutually exclusive. Accordingly, as a reset signal, the LC-NE system could trigger brain network reorganizations in response to salient information in the environment and/or adjust the neural gain within its target regions to optimize behavioral responses. Here, we provide evidence of the co-occurrence of these two mechanisms at the whole-brain level, in resting-state conditions following a pharmacological stimulation of the LC-NE system. We propose that these two mechanisms are interdependent such that the LC-NE-dependent adjustment of the neural gain inferred from the clustering coefficient could drive functional brain network reorganizations through coherence in the gamma rhythm. Via the temporal dynamic of gamma-range band-limited power, the release of NE could adjust the neural gain, promoting interactions only within the neuronal populations whose amplitude envelopes are correlated, thus making it possible to reorganize neuronal ensembles, functional networks, and ultimately, behavioral responses. Thus, our proposal offers a unified framework integrating the putative influence of the LC-NE system on both local- and long-range adjustments of brain dynamics underlying behavioral flexibility.

  10. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  12. New Strategies in Library Services Organization: Consortia University Libraries in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Duarte Barrionuevo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New political, economic, and technological developments, as well as the growth of information markets, in Spain have created a foundation for the creation of library consortia. The author describes the process by which different regions in Spain have organized university library consortia.

  13. {sup 17}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 21}Ne and {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne for the weak s process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.; Goerres, J.; Beard, M.; Couder, M.; Boer, R. de; Falahat, S.; Gueray, R. T.; Kontos, A.; Kratz, K.-L.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Li, Q.; O' Brien, S.; Oezkan, N.; Pignatari, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Talwar, R.; Tan, W.; Uberseder, E.; Wiescher, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States) and Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, Kacaeli University, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, Kacaeli University, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The ratio of the reaction rates of the competing channels {sup 17}O({alpha}{gamma}){sup 21}Ne and {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne determines the efficiency of {sup 16}O as a neutron poison in the s process in low metallicity rotating stars. It has a large impact on the element production, either producing elements to the mass range of A=90 in case of a significant poisoning effect or extending the mass range up to the region of A=150 if the {gamma} channel is of negligible strength. We present an improved study of the reaction {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne, including an independent measurement of the {sup 17}O({alpha},n{sub 1}){sup 20}Ne channel. A simultaneous R-Matrix fit to both the n{sub 0} and the n{sub 1} channels has been performed. New reaction rates, including recent data on the {sup 17}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 21}Ne reaction, have been calculated and used as input for stellar network calculations and their impact on the s process in rotating massive stars is discussed.

  14. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  15. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  16. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Cort?s, Maria Guadalupe; Fern?ndez-Garc?a, Jos? Luis; Habela Mart?nez-Est?llez, Miguel ?ngel

    2017-01-01

    Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence anti...

  17. Middle Jurassic shear zones at Cap de Creus (eastern Pyrenees, Spain) : a record of pre-drift extension of the Piemonte–Ligurian Ocean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Wilkinson, Camilla M.; Ganerød, Morgan

    The Cap de Creus peninsula in NE Spain consists of greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metasediments and granitoid bodies of the Variscan Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, overprinted in the north by anastomosed greenschist-facies shear zones. Current tectonic interpretations ascribe these shear zones to

  18. Fish fauna of the Camp dels Ninots locality (Pliocene; Caldes de Malavella, province of Girona, Spain) - first results with notes on palaeoecology and taphonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Gómez de Soler, B.; Oms, O.; Roubach, S.; Blain, H-A.; Agustí, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2016), s. 347-357 ISSN 0891-2963 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Camp dels Ninots * Cyprinidae * maar lake * NE Spain * Pliocene * Teleostei Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2016

  19. [Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Barreiro, S; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Bueno Lozano, G; López Siguero, J P; González Pelegrín, B; Rodrigo Val, M P; Compés Dea, M L

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological studies in many regions and countries have contributed to determining the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in children less than 15 years old. Studies in many regions of Spain have been published, but the national incidence is not really known. A review was made of the publications on the epidemiology of T1DM in Spain, selecting the references on patients less than 15 years old. Many epidemiological studies on T1DM in almost all regions in Spain have been published. The methodology of these studies is heterogeneous, with variations in geographical definition, duration, period of study, limit of age, and data collection. The incidence rates are variable, from 11.5 cases per 100,000/year in Asturias to 27.6 in Castilla-La Mancha. Some studies report the percentage of diabetic ketoacidosis at the time of diagnosis, which is usually in the range of 25-40%. Although there have been various epidemiological studies on T1DM in almost all regions in Spain, the methodology is heterogeneous. The mean incidence of T1DM in children less than 15 years old in Spain, stimated from the selected studies is 17,69 cases per 100,000/year. T1DM registers need to be created and updated, using standardized methodology, to get more reliable data of the epidemiology of T1DM in Spain in the near future. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  1. Carbon flow dynamics in the pelagic community of the Sau Reservoir (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Comerma, M.; García, J. C.; Romero, M.; Armengol, J.; Šimek, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 87-98 ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : reservoir * longitudinal plankton succession * carbon flow through microbial food webs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  2. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, J.; Seeger, M.; Badia, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverria, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical

  3. Groundwater Contamination by Uranium and Mercury at the Ridaura Aquifer (Girona, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of uranium and mercury have been detected in drinking water from public supply and agricultural wells in alluvial and granitic aquifers of the Ridaura basin located at Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR. The samples showed high concentrations of U above the U.S. standards and the World Health Organization regulations which set a maximum value of 30 µg/L. Further, high mercury concentrations above the European Drinking Water Standards (1 μg/L were found. Spatial distribution of U in groundwater and geochemical evolution of groundwater suggest that U levels appear to be highest in granitic areas where groundwater has long residence times and a significant salinity. The presence of high U concentrations in alluvial groundwater samples could be associated with hydraulic connection through fractures between the alluvial system and deep granite system. According to this model, oxidizing groundwater moving through fractures in the leucocratic/biotitic granite containing anomalous U contents are the most likely to acquire high levels of U. The distribution of Hg showed concentrations above 1 μg/L in 10 alluvial samples, mainly located near the limit of alluvial aquifer with igneous rocks, which suggests a possible migration of Hg from granitic materials. Also, some samples showed Hg concentrations comprised between 0.9 and 1.5 μg/L, from wells located in agricultural areas.

  4. Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Del Campo, P. Pérez; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M.; Sancho, C.

    1995-04-01

    The central Ebro Basin comprises thick evaporite materials whose high solubility produces typically karstic landforms. The sinkhole morphology developed in the overlying alluvium has been studied using gravimetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) on stream terraces, as well as analyzing the evolution of sinkhole morphologies observed in aerial photographs taken in 1928, 1957, and 1985. The sinkhole morphologies give some idea of possible subsurface processes as well as an indication of the final mechanisms involve in sinkhole development. On stream terraces and cover pediments the most commonly encountered dolines are bowl-shaped in their morphology with both diffuse and scarped edges. In contrast, dolines developed in the gypsiferous silt infilled valleys have a funnel and well-shaped morphology. The diffuse-edged bowl-shaped dolines are developed through the progressive subsidence of the alluvial cover, due to washing down of alluvial particles through small voids and cracks into deeper subsurface caves, resulting in a decrease alluvial density. Future compaction of the alluvial cover will produce surface subsidences. This type of dolines are associated with negative gravity anomalies. In contrast, the scarped-edge dolines are formed by the sudden collapse of a cavity roof. The cavities and cracks formed in the gypsum karst may migrate to the surface through the alluvial deposits by piping, and they may subsequently collapse. In this instance, the cavities can be detected by both gravity and GPR anomalies where the voids are not deeper than 4 5 m from the surface. These processes forming sinkholes can be enhanced by man-induced changes in the groundwater hydrologic regime by both inflows, due to irrigation, ditch losses, or pipe leakages, and by outflows from pumping activities.

  5. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated approach for sinkhole evaluation and evolution prediction in the Central Ebro Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pueyo Anchuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of karst hazards benefits from the integration of different techniques, methodologies and approaches. Each one presents a different signature and is sensitive to certain indicators related to karst hazards. In some cases, detailed analysis permits the evaluation of representativeness either from isolated approaches or by means of integrated analyses. In this study, we present the evaluation of an area with high density of karstic collapses at different evolutionary stages through the integration of surficial, historical, geomorphological and geophysical data in order to finally define the evolutionary model for karst activity development. The obtained dataset permits to identify different steps in sinkhole evolution: (i cavities and open sinkholes, (ii filling of these cavities, with materials having different signatures, (iii the progression from collapses to subsidence sinkholes and (iv enlargement through collapses in marginal areas of previous sinkholes. The presence of different stages of this evolutionary model permits to determine their own signatures that can be of application in contexts where analysis cannot be so systematic and also to evaluate the definition of the marginal areas of previous sinkholes as the most hazardous sectors.

  7. Drainage reorganization and divide migration induced by the excavation of the Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Bonnet, Stéphane; Mouthereau, Frédéric

    2018-05-01

    Intracontinental endorheic basins are key elements of source-to-sink systems as they preserve sediments eroded from the surrounding catchments. Drainage reorganization in such a basin in response to changing boundary conditions has strong implications on the sediment routing system and on landscape evolution. The Ebro and Duero basins represent two foreland basins, which developed in response to the growth of surrounding compressional orogens, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian mountains to the north, the Iberian Ranges to the south, and the Catalan Coastal Range to the east. They were once connected as endorheic basins in the early Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, new post-orogenic conditions led to the current setting in which the Ebro and Duero basins are flowing in opposite directions, towards the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although these two hydrographic basins recorded a similar history, they are characterized by very different morphologic features. The Ebro basin is highly excavated, whereas relicts of the endorheic stage are very well preserved in the Duero basin. The contrasting morphological preservation of the endorheic stage represents an ideal natural laboratory to study the drivers (internal and/or external) of post-orogenic drainage divide mobility, drainage network, and landscape evolution. To that aim, we use field and map observations and we apply the χ analysis of river profiles along the divide between the Ebro and Duero drainage basins. We show here that the contrasting excavation of the Ebro and Duero basins drives a reorganization of their drainage network through a series of captures, which resulted in the southwestward migration of their main drainage divide. Fluvial captures have a strong impact on drainage areas, fluxes, and their respective incision capacity. We conclude that drainage reorganization driven by the capture of the Duero basin rivers by the Ebro drainage system explains the first-order preservation of endorheic stage remnants in the Duero basin, due to drainage area loss, independently from tectonics and climate.

  8. Grazing effect on the species-area relationship: Variation along a climatic gradient in NE Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Bello, F.; Lepš, Jan; Sebastia, M.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1, (2007), s. 25-34 ISSN 1100-9233 Grant - others:University of Nuoro, the Government of Catalonia(ES) FI-2002-2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : competition * heterogeneity * land use Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.251, year: 2007

  9. Wind power development in Spain, the model of Navarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Ichaso, A. de [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra S.A. (EHN), Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Wind power implementation in Spain has undergone spectacular growth in recent years. From 834 Megawatts installed at the end of 1998, the figure of 1,500 MW was reached at the end of 1999 and forecasts expect well over 2,500 MW by the end of the year 2000. A favourable legislative framework and tariff structure have brought about this rate of development, which is mainly based on the implementation of large wind farms on high altitude sites in Spain. The region of Navarra (northern Spain) has played a special role in this development, and EHN, a company born in this region, has carried out major projects that have given it 30% of the Spanish wind power sector. The challenges for the sector in Spain over the next few years are: (1) Make its development compatible with the supply guarantees required by the national electricity supply operator, (2) ensure that the implementation of wind farms is done with respect for the environment, (3) harmonise the wind power development of the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, and (4) reduce the investment costs in order to obtain enough profitability with falling energy prices in the coming years. (orig.)

  10. First report of the exotic blue land planarian, Caenoplana coerulea (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae, on Menorca (Balearic Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Breugelmans

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2009 two specimens of a terrestrial flatworm were collected from under a rock in an orchard at Ciutadella de Menorca on the easternmost Balearic island of Menorca (Spain. Their external morphology suggested that both specimens belonged to the invasive blue planarian Caenoplana coerulea, a species which is native to eastern Australia. Sequence data of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and of the entire 18S ribosomal RNA confirm its identification. This is one of the first records of the species in Europe where it has only been found in one locality in the United Kingdom, France and NE Spain.

  11. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  12. Ne beam-Kr target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, V E; Kostin, V V; Vorob` ev, V S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center; Kulish, M I; Mintsev, V B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics; Hoffman, [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Energetic heavy ions of Ne - crystal Kr target interaction is investigated both experimentally and with the help of a 2-D computer code. The dynamics of the target matter heating, expansion, and destruction are described. A new equation of state for Kr was obtained and tested within a wide range of parameters. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs.

  13. The DAΦNE cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, M.

    1997-12-01

    The DAΦNE Project utilises superconductivity technology for a total of six superconducting magnets: the two Experiment magnets (KLOE and FINUDA) and the four Compensator Solenoid magnets needed to compensate the magnetic effect of the Experiment magnets on the electron and positron beams. This effect, on beams of 510 MeV (nominal DAΦNE Energy), is expected to be relevant, especially with the aim of achieving a very high luminosity, which is the main target of the Project. The KLOE superconducting magnet has two possible working positions: the first in the DAΦNE Hall, when the Experiment will be in operation, and the second one in the KLOE Assembly Hall. This second position is the first to be utilised for the KLOE magnet Acceptance Test and magnetic field mapping, prior to the mounting of all the experimental apparatus inside the magnet. This note intends to present the DAΦNE Cryogenic System and how the authors have converged to the definition of a common Cryogenic System compatible with all the six superconducting magnets

  14. History of health technology assessment: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Asua, Jose; Briones, Eduardo; Gol, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the introduction and diffusion of health technology assessment (HTA) in Spain. A survey to summarize the evolution of HTA was sent to representatives of different HTA initiatives in Spain. HTA was introduced in the late 1980s. The main factors were the trend to an increase in healthcare expenditure, concerns regarding efficiency in providing health care, as well as in the level of rationality introducing high technology. Spain has direct (i.e., regulation) and indirect (i.e., payment systems, evidence-based programs, HTA) mechanisms to control health technologies. A recent high priority regulation has established the need of HTA to decide the introduction of a new health technology in the lists of public healthcare coverage, although similar regulations existed in the past and were scarcely implemented. HTA initiatives started at the regional government level. Its introduction followed a progressive pattern among regions. In the beginning, resources were scarce and expertise limited, with work done at intramural level. With time, expertise increase, and promotion of commissioned work was implemented. HTA knowledge transfer in the healthcare system has been carried out through courses, publications, and commissioned research. Currently, there are seven HTA units/agencies, which coordinate their work. HTA in Spain is in its maturity. Facing the unavoidable change of health care environment over time, HTA is also evolving and, currently, there is a trend to broaden the areas of influence of HTA by devolving capacity to hospitals and applying principles to very early phases of health technology development, under the umbrella of regional HTA units/agencies. However, there are two main challenges ahead. One is to have a real impact at the highest level of healthcare policy coordination among Spanish regions, which is done at the Central Ministry of Health. The other is to avoid the influence of political waves

  15. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  16. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  17. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  18. Coal mining in Spain: first half year 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Statistical data from the first half of 1986 on coal mining in Spain. These figures cover anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite both nationally and for the coal-producing regions of Leon, Asturias, Palencia, Teruel and La Coruna. Special attention is paid to absenteeism and its causes.

  19. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  20. Diversity patterns in macrobenthos across a continental slope in the NE Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, E.; De Bruin, W.

    1999-01-01

    Different estimates were used to assess the diversity of the total macrofauna and its major taxonomic groups separately from a broad bathymetric range at a site in the NE Atlantic. In the Goban Spur region, a transect was sampled from the shelf to the abyssal plain over a depth range from similar to

  1. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 20Ne + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachouri, Dipti; Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the excitation functions (EFs) for radioactive residues produced in the interaction of 20 Ne ion with 27 Al have been measured in order to study the reaction dynamics, particularly in the low mass region using the off-line γ-ray measurement activation technique for bombarding energies below 150 MeV

  2. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Essential Fish Habitat Closure Areas. (1) In addition to the restrictions under paragraphs (a) through (e... vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Closed Area I (copies of a chart depicting this area... vessels are adversely affecting habitat or NE multispecies stocks, the Regional Administrator may, through...

  3. NE seeks to sell power directly to customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric, the state-owned company that operates nuclear power stations in England and Wales, has applied to compete directly with privatized electricity generating companies in the sale of electricity to major customers. Since its formation in 1990, NE has had to sell all of its electrical output through the so-called pool operated by the National Grid Company, and then to 12 regional distribution companies that have franchises for about 75 percent of electricity consumption in their regions. On the other hand, the two large companies that took over the fossil-fuel power stations at the time of privatization, and other new independent companies that are building combined-cycle gas-turbine plants, are allowed to conclude supply contracts directly with large industrial customers

  4. Mass spectra and fusion cross sections for 20Ne+24Mg interaction at 55 and 85 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Belery, P.; Delbar, T.; El Masri, Y.; Gregoire, G.; Janssens, R.; Vervier, J.; Paic, G.; Albinska, M.; Albinski, J.; Kopta, S.; Kozik, T.; Planeta, R.

    1981-01-01

    Inclusive γ spectra from the 20 Ne+ 24 Mg interaction have been measured using 55- and 85-MeV 20 Ne ions. The identification of γ lines allows the determination of mass spectra in the region 12< or =A< or =43. Experimental results are compared with statistical model calculations. The total reaction and fusion cross sections are extracted. Cross sections for inelastic scattering, few nucleon transfers, and deep inelastic scattering are estimated

  5. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  6. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  7. Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, H.; collaboration, for the MiniBooNE

    2004-01-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  8. Yrast and high spin states in 22Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, E.M.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1982-08-01

    High spin states in 22 Ne have been investigated by the reactions 11 B( 13 C,d) 22 Ne and 13 C( 11 B,d) 22 Ne up to E* approximately=19 MeV. Yrast states were observed at 11.02 MeV (8 + ) and 15.46 MeV (10 + ) excitation energy. A backbending in 22 Ne is observed around spin 8 + . The location of high spin states I [pt

  9. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  10. Groundwater dependence of coastal lagoons: The case of La Pletera salt marshes (NE Catalonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, A.; Casamitjana, X.; Mas-Pla, J.; Coll, N.; Compte, J.; Martinoy, M.; Pascual, J.; Quintana, X. D.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems of the world, playing an important role in coastal defense and wildlife conservation. These ecosystems, however, are usually affected by human activities, which may cause a loss and degradation of their ecological status, a decline of their biodiversity, an alteration of their ecological functioning, and a limitation of their ecosystem services. La Pletera salt marshes (NE Spain) are located in a region mainly dominated by agriculture and tourism activities. Part of these wetlands and lagoons has been affected by an incomplete construction of an urban development and in this moment is the focus of a Life+ project, whose aim is to restore this protected area. Several studies have analyzed the role of hydrological regime in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in this area, however, the role of groundwater was never considered as a relevant factor in the lagoon dynamics, and its influence is still unknown. In this study, the hydrogeological dynamics in La Pletera salt marshes has been analyzed, as a basis to set sustainable management guidelines for this area. In order to determine their dependence on groundwater resources, monthly hydrochemical (with major ions and nutrients) and isotopic (δ18OH2O and δD) campaigns have been conducted, from November 2014 to October 2015. In particular, groundwater from six wells, surface water from two nearby streams and three permanent lagoons, and sea water was considered in these surveys. Taking into account the meteorological data and the water levels in the lagoons, the General Lake Model has been conducted to determine, not only evaporation and rainfall occurring in the lagoons, but also the total inflows and outflows. In addition, the Gonfiantini isotopic model, together with equilibrium chemical-speciation/mass transfer models, has been used to analyze the evaporation and the physicochemical processes affecting the lagoons. Results show that during the dry

  11. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  12. Bank vole immunoheterogeneity may limit Nephropatia Epidemica emergence in a French non-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A; Castel, G; Murri, S; Pulido, C; Pons, J-B; Benoit, L; Loiseau, A; Lakhdar, L; Galan, M; Marianneau, P; Charbonnel, N

    2018-03-01

    Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.

  13. Collision-induced intramultiplet mixing for the Ne**[(2p)5(3p)] + He or Ne system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manders, M.P.I.

    1988-01-01

    For the Ne**-He case, experimental data are confronted with quantum mechanical calculations. Quantum mechanical coupled-channel calculations using model potentials as input are presented, followed by a semiclassical approach which provides more physical insight. Experimental results are presented for the Ne**-Ne system with a discussion of the general principles involved in symmetrization. 184 refs.; 93 figs.; 19 tabs

  14. UCB-NE-101 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig

  15. Measurement of the {sup 15}O(2p,{gamma}){sup 17}Ne cross section by Coulomb dissociation of {sup 17}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marganiec, Justyna [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas; Heil, Michael; Plag, Ralf; Wamers, Felix [Kernreaktionen und Nuklear Astrophysik, GSI Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For the production of proton-rich nuclei during the rp process two-proton capture plays an important role. This process can bridge long-lived waiting points which otherwise hamper the mass flow between CNO material and the FeNi mass region. One of these waiting points is {sup 15}O. The three-body radiative capture can proceed sequentially or directly from the three-body continuum. The rate of the {sup 15}O(2p,{gamma}){sup 17}Ne reaction obtained using the two-successive-proton-capture model has been discussed in J. Goerres et al. (Phys. Rev. C 51, 392, 1995). The role of continuum states ({sup 15}O+2p) for the rate calculation has been demonstrated in L.V Grigorenko, M.V. Zhukov (Phys. Rev. C 72, 015803, 2005). It has been suggested that the reaction rate can be enhanced by a few orders of magnitude by taking into account the three-body continuum. In order to verify these calculations, we have deduced the {sup 15}O(2p,{gamma}){sup 17}Ne cross section by studying the time-reversed process, the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 17}Ne, at the LAND/R{sup 3}B setup at GSI, using a {sup 17}Ne secondary beam from the fragment separator FRS.

  16. Nuclear structure effects in fusion-fission of compound systems 20,21,22Ne formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators has been successfully applied to the decay of number of hot and rotating compound nuclei in different mass regions, formed in low-energy heavy ion reactions. Recently, its application to the binary symmetric decay (BSD) of very light mass compound systems 20,21,22 Ne formed in 10,11 B+ 10,11 B reactions at E lab =48 MeV is extended, as the experimental data for σ BSD Expt . is available, namely, for 20 Ne (∼ 270 mb), 21 Ne ( 22 Ne ( BSD DCM for the BSD of the three Ne systems is calculated, comprising fusion-fission σ ff and deep inelastic scattering/orbiting σorb contributions (evaluated empirically here) from compound nucleus CN and non-compound nucleus nCN processes, respectively. The significant observation from this study is that, of the total σ BSD DCM , σ ff contribution is very strong for the decay of 20 Ne (=195.270 mb; >70%), followed by 21 Ne (=65.723 mb; ∼50%) and 22 Ne (=8.677 mb; almost 10%). This means that the process of collective clusterization within the DCM is playing very strong role for the decay of 20 Ne

  17. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  18. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  19. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  20. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  1. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  2. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  3. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  4. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Mateu

    Full Text Available To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain.The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0. Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6-12.2, mood 6.6% (5.5-8.1, impulse 0.3% (0.1-1.2 and substance use 1.0% (0.4-2.4 disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3-18.1, mood 15.6% (13.5-18.1, impulse 2.4% (1.4-4.0 and substance use 8.3% (6.2-11.0 disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8-39.4, moderate 35.6% (24.0-49.1 and mild severity 35.2% (29.5-41.5. Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders.Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous estimates for Spain. Prevalence was strongly associated with exposure

  6. Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the South-East of Spain, One of the European Regions Most Affected by the Economic Crisis: The Cross-Sectional PEGASUS-Murcia Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, Mª José; Salmerón, Diego; Vilagut, Gemma; Navarro, Carmen; Ruíz-Merino, Guadalupe; Escámez, Teresa; Júdez, Javier; Martínez, Salvador; Kessler, Ron C.; Alonso, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and age of onset distribution of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) disorders and to explore the association between socio-demographic variables and economic stressors with mental disorders during the economic crisis in the general population of Murcia (Spain). Methods and Findings The PEGASUS-Murcia Project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia administered between June 2010 and May 2012. DSM-IV disorders were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0). Main outcome measures were lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Anxiety, Mood, Impulse and Substance Disorders, Severity and Age of Onset. Sociodemographic variables and stressful economic life events during the preceding 12 months were entered as independent variables in a logistic regression analysis. A total of 2,621 participants (67.4% response rate) were interviewed, 54.5% female, mean age 48.6 years. Twelve-month prevalence (95%CI) of disorders: anxiety 9.7% (7.6–12.2), mood 6.6% (5.5–8.1), impulse 0.3% (0.1–1.2) and substance use 1.0% (0.4–2.4) disorders. Lifetime prevalence: anxiety 15.0% (12.3–18.1), mood 15.6% (13.5–18.1), impulse 2.4% (1.4–4.0) and substance use 8.3% (6.2–11.0) disorders. Severity among 12-month cases: serious 29.2% (20.8–39.4), moderate 35.6% (24.0–49.1) and mild severity 35.2% (29.5–41.5). Women were 3.7 and 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer 12-month anxiety and mood disorders, respectively. Substance use was more frequent among men. Younger age and lower income were associated with higher prevalence. Respondents exposed to multiple and recent economic stressors had the highest risk of anxiety disorders. Conclusions Mental disorders in the adult population of Murcia during the economic crisis were more prevalent and serious than those in previous

  7. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  8. Implications for air quality and the impact of financial and economic crisis in South Spain: Geochemical evolution of atmospheric aerosol in the ceramic region of Bailén

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; de la Rosa, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    A temporal series study of atmospheric aerosol was performed over the last ten years (2003-2012) in an urban background monitoring station with ceramic industrial influence, in Bailén, SE Spain. Temporal trends of major and minor chemical components of PM10 for a long term data series were investigated, showing that PM10 concentrations have been steadily decreasing over almost a decade, with a statistical significance. Measurements indicate a reduction of elements and components related to the industrial activity of brick-ceramic production (V, Cd, Rb, La, Cr, Ni, As, Pb and SO42-). Conversely, Cu levels define an increasing trend from the beginning of the study period but with the highest step trend since 2011-2012, coinciding with the beginning of the financial and economic crisis in 2008. A similar time evolution pattern of Cu and OC, EC, and K levels may be a tracer of domestic local combustion source, and a new biomass burning source has been identified. Chemical composition of olive tree logs suggest as the combustion of wood with high concentration of Cu can imply an increase of Cu concentration in the atmospheric particles compared with other sources such as traffic.

  9. Splitter magnets for DAΦNE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanelli, C.; Hsieh, H.

    1992-01-01

    A 510 MeV electron positron colliding beam facility is under design and construction. The project consists of two storage rings, accumulator, electron/positron linac and transfer lines. The design of the splitter magnets which separate the circulating beams immediately after passing through the DAΦNE interaction point is presented. The results of 2-D and 3-D magnetic calculations is presented, and the electrical and mechanical design of the magnet are described. A 1/3 length prototype of this magnet is under construction. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Investigating the reasons for Spain's falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, X

    1998-09-12

    On August 25, 1998, the Spanish National Institute of Statistics announced that Spain, which has had the most accelerated decrease in fecundity of all European countries during the last 25 years, had the lowest birth rate in Europe. Spain's average birth rate was 2.86 in 1970, 2.21 in 1980, and 1.21 in 1994. According to Eurostat, Spain's average birth rate in 1995 was 1.18, while the European Community's was 1.43. Although all the countries of the European Community have birth rates below 2.1, Spain's is 44% below this minimum rate needed to achieve generation replacement. In 1994 and 1997, in 5 northern communities, including the Basque country and Galicia, the birth rate was less than 1.0. The lowest birth rate (0.76 in 1997) was in the northern region of Asturias. Although southern autonomous regions have higher birth rates (between 1.21 and 1.44 for 1997) than northern ones, these are also decreasing (from 3.36 in 1970 to 1.29 in 1997 in Andalusia). Credit for the rapid decrease is given to improved quality of life and education, increased contraceptive usage, and social change. Employment of women has increased, and unemployed sons are remaining at home for longer periods. The most important reasons are 1) the increased number of single people and 2) the increased average age of women having their first child. The latter increase began in 1988. Most Spanish women now have their first child between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The average age was 28 years in 1975; in 1995, it was 30 years. Women from the northern autonomous regions have the highest average age at first birth (Basque women, 31.2 years in 1995). The pattern of fecundity in Spain is different from other countries in Europe. In Spain, the decrease started in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Until the 1980s, Spain had one of the highest birth rates in Europe. This was followed by a decrease in the 1990s. However, in 1997, there were 3000 more births than in 1996. The National Institute of Demography

  11. NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas VTEC predictions for low latitude and South American sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y.; Nava, B.; Cabrera, M. A.; Brunini, C.

    2018-04-01

    Using vertical total electron content (VTEC) measurements obtained from GPS satellite signals the capability of the NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas models to predict VTEC over the low latitude and South American sector is analyzed. In the present work both models were used to calculate VTEC up to the height of GPS satellites. Also, comparisons between the performance of IRI Plas and IRI 2007 have been done. The data correspond to June solstice and September equinox 1999 (high solar activity) and they were obtained at nine stations. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4°N to -64.7°N and the longitude ranges from 281.3°E to 295.9°E in the South American sector. The greatest discrepancies among model predictions and the measured VTEC are obtained at low latitudes stations placed in the equatorial anomaly region. Underestimations as strong as 40 TECU [1 TECU = 1016 m-2] can be observed at BOGT station for September equinox, when NeQuick2 model is used. The obtained results also show that: (a) for June solstice, in general the performance of IRI Plas for low latitude stations is better than that of NeQuick2 and, vice versa, for highest latitudes the performance of NeQuick2 is better than that of IRI Plas. For the stations TUCU and SANT both models have good performance; (b) for September equinox the performances of the models do not follow a clearly defined pattern as in the other season. However, it can be seen that for the region placed between the Northern peak and the valley of the equatorial anomaly, in general, the performance of IRI Plas is better than that of NeQuick2 for hours of maximum ionization. From TUCU to the South, the best TEC predictions are given by NeQuick2. The source of the observed deviations of the models has been explored in terms of CCIR foF2 determination in the available ionosonde stations in the region. Discrepancies can be also related to an unrealistic shape of the vertical electron density profile and or an erroneous prediction of

  12. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  13. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  14. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  15. Metastable He (n=2) - Ne potential interaction calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, H.

    1983-10-01

    Diabatic potential terms corresponding to He (2 1 S)-Ne and He (2 3 S)-Ne interactions are calculated. These potentials reproduce the experimental results thermal metastable atom elastic scattering on Ne target. A model which reduces the interaction to a one-electron problem is proposed: the He excited electron. Its interaction with the He + center is reproduced by a ''l'' dependent potential model with a 1/2 behaviour at short range. The electron interaction facing the Ne is described by a l-dependent pseudopotential reproducing with accuracy the electron elastic scattering on a Ne atom. The importance of the corrective term related to the Ne polarizations by the electron and the He + ion is showed in this work. In the modelling problems, the accuracy cannot be better than 0.1 MeV [fr

  16. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  17. Design of steady-state positron emission tomography protocols for neurobehavioral studies: CO15O and 19Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, K.J.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Volpe, B.T.

    1983-01-01

    Although the [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomographic technique for measuring regional glucose metabolic rate has been successfully employed for neurobehavioral studies, the long (greater than 30 min) equilibration time required may complicate the interpretation of experimental results. Positron emission tomography neurobehavioral protocols employing the continuous inhalation of CO 15 O and 19 Ne were developed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow during multiple control and stimulation periods. Timing, lung absorbed dose, statistical accuracy, and resolution were considered. Studies with 19 Ne require shorter equilibration and stimulation times than do CO 15 O studies but entail higher absorbed doses and yield poorer imaging statistics

  18. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  19. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  20. Prospects for Antineutrino Running at MiniBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Wascko, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like nuebar oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  1. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei

    2001-01-01

    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  2. Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Suicide became the first cause of death between the ages of 15 and 44 in Spain in the year 2013. Moreover, the suicide rate in Spain went up by more than 9 % with respect to the previous year. This increase could be related to the serious economic recession that Spain has been experiencing in recent years. In this sense, there is a lack of evidence to help assess to what extent these suicides have a social cost in terms of losses in human capital. Firstly, this article examines the relationship between the variables related to the economic cycle and the suicide rates in the 17 Spanish regions. Secondly, an estimate is made of the losses in labour productivity owing to these suicides. In this article, panel data models are used to consider different variables related to the economic cycle. Demographic variables and the suicide rates for regions across Spain from 2002 to 2013 also come into play. The present and future production costs owing to premature death from suicide are calculated using a human capital model. These costs are valued from the gross salary that an individual no longer receives in the future at the very moment he or she leaves the labour market. The results provide a strong indication that a decrease in economic growth and an increase in unemployment negatively affect suicide rates. Due to suicide, 38,038 potential years of working life were lost in 2013. This has an estimated cost of over 565 million euros. The economic crisis endured by Spain in recent years has played a role in the higher suicide rates one can observe from the data in official statistics. From a social perspective, suicide is a public health problem with far-reaching consequences.

  3. Can the periphery achieve core? The case of the automobile components industry in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lampón, Jesús F.; Lago-Peñas, Santiago; Cabanelas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses changes experienced by Spain, as a European Peripheral region, in the spatial concentration of value-added and high-skill activities, and generation of technology in the automobile components industry. The analysis of plants set up (investments) and relocated (divestments) by multinationals (MNEs) between 2001 and 2010 show that Spain is no longer a place for labour-intensive activities and standardized processes using simple technologies in comparison to other peripheral r...

  4. Study of 19F and 19Ne mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Claude.

    1976-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the mirror nuclei 19 F and 19 Ne were studied using the 18 O(d,nγ) 19 F, 17 O( 3 He,nγ) 19 Ne and 19 F(p,nγ) 19 Ne reactions. Lifetimes of 8 levels in 19 F and 11 levels in 19 Ne have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. Weak and strong components of M 1 , E 1 and E 2 transition strengths are compared with shell model predictions. M 1 and E 2 transition strengths of conjugated nuclei (A=18 to A=34) are compiled and compared with wide configuration space shell models [fr

  5. The state of the NeXus data format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, Mark

    2006-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange format for neutron, muon and X-ray scattering. NeXus has six levels: a physical file format, a file structure, rules for storing individual data items in a file, a dictionary of names, instrument definitions and an application programming interface (API) to NeXus files. The authors will present the large steps forward which have been made both with instrument definitions and the NeXus-API

  6. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated.

  7. α cluster structures in unbound states in 19Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Reiji; Iwasaki, Masataka; Ito, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) is solved, and the adiabatic energy surfaces, which are the series of the energy eigenvalues as a function of the He-O distance, are investigated. In the adiabatic energy curves, the several local minima are generated in the spatial region of the small core distance, where the neutron hole inside of the He or O nucleus is strongly coupled to the residual nuclei. The energy spectra, which are constructed from the strong coupling states, nicely reproduce the the low-lying energy levels in the 19Ne nucleus. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential is evaluated from the elastic scattering of the α + 15N system, and the resonant levels of the α + 15O system are calculated under the absorbing boundary condition. The potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling scheme of the α particle and one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The extended microscopic calculations of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) + (5He+14O) are performed in order to see the coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration, which corresponds to the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O cluster configuration. The extended calculation suggests that the 5He + 14O configuration plays an important role on the formation of the 3/2+ resonance at 0.5 MeV with respect to the α threshold.

  8. Implementation of PV plants in Spain: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Diez Mediavilla, Montserrat; Alonso Tristán, Cristina; Rodríguez Amigo, María del Carmen; Garcia Calderon, Teofilo

    2010-01-01

    The implementation process of a photovoltaic system and its connection to the national grid in Spain is examined from an economic, an administrative and a legal standpoint. In the first place, this case study describes the solar farm, and it goes on to examine the economic aspects of electricity production, its associated costs, and relevant grants and financial subsidies. Finally, problems related to the administration of the project and the issuing of permits by local and regional authoriti...

  9. Tourist Spaces and Tourism Policy in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Garcia, Fernando; Cortes-Macias, Rafael; Balbuena Vázquez, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between the development of the tourism policy of Spain and Portugal and their effects on regional imbalances. Despite the proximity of the two countries and their specialisation in tourism, there are few comparative studies on tourism of the two Iberian countries. The study focuses on the two major phases of tourism policy: the period of mass tourism and post-Fordist stage. In the conclusions we refer the debate on the existence of a model of development b...

  10. Implementation of PV plants in Spain: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Mediavilla, M.; Alonso-Tristan, C. [Dpto. Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior. Universidad de Burgos, Avda. Cantabria s/n, 09006 Burgos (Spain); Rodriguez-Amigo, M.C.; Garcia-Calderon, T. [Dpto. Matematicas y Computacion Escuela Politecnica Superior. Universidad de Burgos, Avda. Cantabria s/n, 09006 Burgos (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The implementation process of a photovoltaic system and its connection to the national grid in Spain is examined from an economic, an administrative and a legal standpoint. In the first place, this case study describes the solar farm, and it goes on to examine the economic aspects of electricity production, its associated costs, and relevant grants and financial subsidies. Finally, problems related to the administration of the project and the issuing of permits by local and regional authorities are discussed. (author)

  11. Phase transition and angular momentum dependence of correlations in the rotational spectra of Ne20 and Ne22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.; Schmid, K.W.; Krewald, S.; Faessler, A.

    1974-01-01

    Multi-Configuration-Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations with angular momentum projection before the variation of the internal degree of freedom have been performed for the nuclei Ne 20 and Ne 22 . This procedure yields different correlated intrinsic states for the different members of a rotational band. Thus, the angular momentum dependence of correlations has been studied. Experimentally, the ground state spectra of Ne 20 and Ne 22 show properties similar to the phase transitions observed in some rare earth nuclei which have been well reproduced through the present calculations. The calculated spectra show a significant improvement compared to the ones obtained by variation before the angular momentum projection is effected. (author)

  12. Is leishmaniasis widespread in Spain? First data on canine leishmaniasis in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Alcover, M M; Portús, M; Gállego, M

    2012-02-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a widespread disease present in 42 countries. It is considered of epidemiological importance because of its role as a reservoir of human leishmaniasis. Knowledge of the real distribution of CanL and its emergence and/or re-emergence is of great importance in order to determine the extension of the disease. This work reports the detection of CanL in a farm dog located in a Pyrenean area of northwest Catalonia (Spain) where the disease was previously unknown. Since the dog had never left the region and sandfly vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were present in the farm the case is considered as autochthonous and is the first to be published in this region of Spain. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiative corrections to the hadronic cross-section measurement at DA{phi}NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoze, V.A. [Durham Univ. of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Konchatnij, M.I.; Merenkov, NP.; Shekhovzova, O.N. [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Karkhov (Ukraine); Pancheri, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Trentadue, L. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2000-07-01

    The hadronic invariant mass distribution for the process of electron--positron annihilation into a pair of charged pions accompanied by a photon radiated from the initial state has been studied for the region of DA{phi}NE energies. The Born cross-section and the electromagnetic radiative corrections to it are calculated for realistic conditions of the KLOE detector. The dependence on the physical parameters which define the event selection is obtained.

  14. [Gender development inequalities epidemiology in Spain (1990-2000)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Gil-González, Diana; Díaz, Carlos Alvarez-Dardet; Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Gender is an important health determinant for public health policies. This study describes the changes in gender development inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions from 1990 to 2000. An ecological study using the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Development Index (GDI) was done. IDG both men and women was analysed according to indexes of education, income and life expectancy at birth. Although the GDI has had an increase of 5,05% in the 90 s, 51,5% of the population was located above the global GDI of Spain in 1990, moreover this number decreased to 46,3% in 2000. Gender inequalities have been reduced both at national and regional levels. The regions with the lowest increase were Asturias (3.37%), Cantabria (3.68%) and Baleares Islands (3.71%). The regions with the highest increase were Madrid (6,46%) and Extremadura (6,75%). All the autonomous regions showed a number of GDI lower than the value of HDI. Both sexes achieved similar increase in life expectancy (Men: 5% and Women: 4%). An unequal variation was detected according to the autonomous region (Basque Country; Men: 7% and Women: 3%; Madrid; Men:8% and Women:5%). Women have improved their educational level in comparison to men (Men: 3% and Women: 6%). In the 90 s, men obtained more income than women, but women improved their situation three times more than men. Inequalities in Human Development analysed by gender have been reduced in the 90 s in Spain. However, the improvement of education, income and life expectancy occurred only in some autonomous regions. This situation shows the differences among Spanish autonomous regions.

  15. DAΦNE magnet power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Stecchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The e + -e - , 1020 MeV at center of mass, Particle Accelerator Complex DAΦNE, consists of a linear accelerator (Linac), a damping ring (D.A.), nearly 180 m of transfer lines (T.L.) and two storage rings (S.R.), that intersect each other in two points (I.P.), for Φ particle production. The D.A., T.L. and S.R. magnets are powered by means of 462 power supplies, rating from 100 W to 1 MW. The very different output currents, from 10 A to 2300 A, and output voltages, from 8 V to 1300 V, imposed many different technical solution realized by the world industry. This paper describes the Power Supply System giving also a description of the different typologies, their characteristics and control systems. The paper reports also the power supply performances and gives information on their installation and first year operation period

  16. KN scattering at DA{Phi}NE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, A

    1995-06-01

    Existing measurements of the KN and K-bar N scattering lengths suffer from large uncertainties, particularly in the I=0 channel. The low energy kaons from {phi} decay available at DA{Phi}NE can be used to improve this situation. Three experimental approaches are discussed: a solid hydrogen target and silicon colorimeter surrounding the collision point. This would also use the magnet and tracking detectors of the FINUDA experiment; a hydrogen TPC is proposed as an active target in the magnetic field of the FINUDA magnet; the FINUDA detector with a CH{sub 2} target could be used to measure an important cross-section. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. Martin Szekely : ne plus dessiner

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Ce livret, publié à l’issue d’une exposition éponyme au Centre Pompidou en 2011-12, présente, sous la conduite de Françoise Guichon les « recherches » et les « projets industriels » du designer qui en 1996 avait déclaré « ne plus dessiner ». Un texte de Philippe-Alain Michaud explicite en deuxième partie de l’opuscule la rencontre de Martin Szekely avec l’artiste Mark Lewis qui réalisa un film à partir du miroir Soleil noir (2007) installé dans les salles de peinture hollandaise de la Nationa...

  18. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  19. Characterization of a newly established aggregation of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis and current status of the invader in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, X.; Roca, M.; Lumbierres, B.; Lucas, E.

    2015-07-01

    The multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), an invasive biocontrol agent introduced in North and South America, as well as in Europe for aphid control, drastically affected assemblages of native coccinellid species, local communities and people. Although the insect is common in several European countries and it was released in Spain for aphid control in 1995, no evidence of population establishment has been reported until 2011. In the present paper, 1) we summarize the records of the invasive ladybeetle in Spain and provide numerous new mentions, and 2) we follow for the first time an overwintering aggregation from autumn to spring and characterize some individual features which allow us to determine its phenology of the establishment and spreading. The results establish clearly that: 1) H. axyridis is (until now) restricted to Catalonia (NE Spain) but the invading process is in progress and the insect is able to occupy different habitats; 2) the ladybeetle overwinters successfully in Spain without significant natural mortality or parasitism; 3) the form succinea represents 73-81% of the overwintering individuals, and 4) the invasion takes probably its origin from Southern France. The potential impact of the invasion by H. axyridis in Spain is discussed. (Author)

  20. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  1. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  3. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U 3 O 8 ). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in

  5. Occurrence of Fe-Mg-rich smectites and corrensite in the Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit (Cabo de Gata region, Spain): A natural analogue of the bentonite barrier in a radwaste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M., E-mail: m.pelayo@ciemat.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Romero, E. [Departamento de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad C.C. Geologicas, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Labajo, M.A.; Perez del Villar, L. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > A hydrothermal process transformed Fe-Mg smectites into corrensite. > This transformation was favoured by the intrusion of the Morron de Mateo dome. > The intrusion caused a temperature increased and a supply of Fe-Mg rich solutions. > The system can be a good natural analogue of bentonite barrier in a radwaste disposal. > Experimental studies of stability of bentonite are in agreement with the results. - Abstract: The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on a bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes. This bentonite deposit and its host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the biocalcarenite beds close to the dome. In this work, the mineralogical and chemical features of the clay minerals of the hydrothermally altered pyroclastic (white tuffs) and epiclastic rocks (mass flow), located in the NE sector of the Morron de Mateo deposit are described. White tuffs have a high content of phyllosilicates, mainly composed of dioctahedral smectites, while mass flow have a higher proportion of inherited minerals, the neoformed phyllosilicates are dioctahedral smectites and an interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral of corrensite type. The chemical composition of smectites reflects the different nature of the parent rocks, in such a way that smectites from white tuffs have a quite homogeneous chemical composition and their structural formulae correspond to montmorillonite type, while smectites from mass flow show more chemical variability, higher Fe and Mg contents and a mean structural formulae corresponding to Fe-Mg-rich beidellite and/or to an intermediate smectite member between beidellite and saponite. In addition, chemical composition and textural features of corrensite-like clay minerals in relation to Fe-Mg-rich smectites in the samples have also been studied, suggesting

  6. Occurrence of Fe-Mg-rich smectites and corrensite in the Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit (Cabo de Gata region, Spain): A natural analogue of the bentonite barrier in a radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelayo, M.; Garcia-Romero, E.; Labajo, M.A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A hydrothermal process transformed Fe-Mg smectites into corrensite. → This transformation was favoured by the intrusion of the Morron de Mateo dome. → The intrusion caused a temperature increased and a supply of Fe-Mg rich solutions. → The system can be a good natural analogue of bentonite barrier in a radwaste disposal. → Experimental studies of stability of bentonite are in agreement with the results. - Abstract: The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on a bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository of high level radioactive wastes. This bentonite deposit and its host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the biocalcarenite beds close to the dome. In this work, the mineralogical and chemical features of the clay minerals of the hydrothermally altered pyroclastic (white tuffs) and epiclastic rocks (mass flow), located in the NE sector of the Morron de Mateo deposit are described. White tuffs have a high content of phyllosilicates, mainly composed of dioctahedral smectites, while mass flow have a higher proportion of inherited minerals, the neoformed phyllosilicates are dioctahedral smectites and an interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral of corrensite type. The chemical composition of smectites reflects the different nature of the parent rocks, in such a way that smectites from white tuffs have a quite homogeneous chemical composition and their structural formulae correspond to montmorillonite type, while smectites from mass flow show more chemical variability, higher Fe and Mg contents and a mean structural formulae corresponding to Fe-Mg-rich beidellite and/or to an intermediate smectite member between beidellite and saponite. In addition, chemical composition and textural features of corrensite-like clay minerals in relation to Fe-Mg-rich smectites in the samples have also been studied

  7. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  8. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E

    2010-01-01

    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, U.F.

    2009-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a cubic-kilometre scale neutrino telescope and nodes for associated sciences such as marine biology, oceanology and geophysics. The status of the KM3NeT project and the progress made in the EU-funded Design Study is reviewed. Some physics studies indicating the sensitivity of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope are highlighted and selected major technical design options to be further pursued are described. Finally, the remaining steps towards construction of KM3NeT will be discussed. This document reflects the status of the KM3NeT Conceptual Design Report (CDR), which has been presented to the public for the first time at the VLVnT08 Workshop.

  10. The burden of hospital malnutrition in Spain: methods and development of the PREDyCES® study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas Vila, M; Álvarez Hernández, J; García de Lorenzo, A; Celaya Pérez, S; León Sanz, M; García-Lorda, P; Brosa, M

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that hospital malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition associated to increase morbidity and mortality as well as related healthcare costs. Although previous studies have already measured the prevalence and/or costs of hospital nutrition in our country, their local focus (at regional or even hospital level) make that the true prevalence and economic impact of hospital malnutrition for the National Health System remain unknown in Spain. The PREDyCES® (Prevalence of hospital malnutrition and associated costs in Spain) study was aimed to assess the prevalence of hospital malnutrition in Spain and to estimate related costs. Some aspects made this study unique: a) It was the first study in a representative sample of hospitals of Spain; b) different measures to assess hospital malnutrition (NRS2002, MNA as well as anthropometric and biochemical markers) where used both at admission and discharge and, c) the economic consequences of malnutrition where estimated using the perspective of the Spanish National Health System.

  11. Quality Management Plan for EPA Region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The QMP describes policies, procedures & management systems within EPA NE that govern quality assurance & quality control activities supporting the transparency & scientific defensibility of environmental data collected, used & disseminated by the Region.

  12. Oscillatory behaviour of Rydberg state total cross sections in the collisions Ne+-He and He+-Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Veje, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Ne + -He and He + -Ne collisions have been studied by means of optical spectrometry in the projectile energy range 10-150 keV. Very similar and regular oscillations in the Rydberg state total cross sections are found for HeI in both collisions and for singlet as well as triplet excitation. These oscillations are well described by the Rosenthal model. The HeI 4d sup(1,3)D states display two superimposed oscillations for center-of-mass collision energies above 6.4 keV. This is interpreted as the opening of a third exit channel, believed to be the HeI 4f sup(1,3)F. No, or very little structure is found in the Rydberg state total cross sections for HeII, NeI, NeII and NeIII levels. (Auth.)

  13. ORGEST: Regional guidelines and silvicultural models for sustainable forest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqué, Míriam; Vericat, Pau; Beltrán, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To develop regional guidelines for sustainable forest management. Area of the study: Forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Material and methods: The process of developing the forest management guidelines (FMG) started by establishing a thorough classification of forest types at stand level. This classification hinges on two attributes: tree species composition and site quality based on ecological variables, which together determine potential productivity. From there, the management guidelines establish certain objectives and silvicultural models for each forest type. The forest type classifications, like the silvicultural models, were produced using both existing and newly-built growth models based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and expert knowledge. The effort involved over 20 expert working groups in order to better integrate the expertise and vision of different sectorial agents. Main results: The FMG consist in quantitative silvicultural models that include typical silvicultural variables, technical descriptions of treatments and codes of good practice. Guidelines now cover almost all forest types in Catalonia (spanning up to 90% of the Catalan forest area). Different silvicultural models have been developed for pure and mixed stands, different site quality classes (2–3 classes per species), and even- and multi-aged stands. Research highlights: FMG: i) orient the management of private and public forests, (ii) provide a technical scaffold for efficient allocation/investment of public subsidies in forest management, and (iii) bridge forest planning instruments at regional (strategic-tactical) and stand (operational) level.

  14. ORGEST: Regional guidelines and silvicultural models for sustainable forest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqué, Míriam; Vericat, Pau; Beltrán, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To develop regional guidelines for sustainable forest management. Area of the study: Forests of Catalonia (NE Spain). Material and methods: The process of developing the forest management guidelines (FMG) started by establishing a thorough classification of forest types at stand level. This classification hinges on two attributes: tree species composition and site quality based on ecological variables, which together determine potential productivity. From there, the management guidelines establish certain objectives and silvicultural models for each forest type. The forest type classifications, like the silvicultural models, were produced using both existing and newly-built growth models based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) and expert knowledge. The effort involved over 20 expert working groups in order to better integrate the expertise and vision of different sectorial agents. Main results: The FMG consist in quantitative silvicultural models that include typical silvicultural variables, technical descriptions of treatments and codes of good practice. Guidelines now cover almost all forest types in Catalonia (spanning up to 90% of the Catalan forest area). Different silvicultural models have been developed for pure and mixed stands, different site quality classes (2–3 classes per species), and even- and multi-aged stands. Research highlights: FMG: i) orient the management of private and public forests, (ii) provide a technical scaffold for efficient allocation/investment of public subsidies in forest management, and (iii) bridge forest planning instruments at regional (strategic-tactical) and stand (operational) level.

  15. Chemical provinces and dynamic melting of the NE Atlantic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnes, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Low-degree melting of fertile parts of the NE Atlantic mantle yields primitive alkaline basalts in the Icelandic off-rift zones and at Jan Mayen. Olivine tholeiites in the Icelandic rift zones and oceanic spreading ridges are formed by protracted decompressional melting. The V-shaped ridges SW and NE of Iceland indicate that rising, hot material is supplied by a pulsating plume and deflected laterally for distances of about 1000 km from Iceland (Jones et al. GGG 2002; Breivik et al. JGR 2006). Plume material deflected along the rift zones and spreading ridges undergoes mixing with the ambient asthenosphere and extensive melting at shallow level, whereas material deflected in other directions may flow laterally at deeper levels and remain largely unmelted and fertile. A recent investigation of a suite of primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen (Debaille et al., 2009, GCA) demonstrated an important source contribution from subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Available data on the primitive off-rift basalts and tholeiitic basalts from Iceland and the NE Atlantic ridges indicates the existence of three main composite mantle components, characterized by the following relative isotope ratios (H: high, I: intermediate and L: low ratio) for 87/86Sr, 143/144Nd, 206/204Pb, 187/188Os and 3/4He, respectively: 1. Iceland plume with depleted lower mantle mixed with recycled oceanic crust: I, I, H, H, H 2. Strongly depleted and later re-enriched SCLM: H, L, I, L, L 3. Depleted asthenosphere: L, H, L, I, L The two first composite components contain enriched and depleted subcomponents with distinct isotope signatures. The isotope ratio variations between the fertile components are larger than between the refractory components. The 3/4He ratio, however, is much higher in the depleted plume component than in the depleted SCLM and asthenospheric components. The old SCLM material could in principle be recycled and embedded in the lower mantle and supplied to the

  16. NOAA Miami Regional Library > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Collections Open Access Resources Research Tools E-resources NOAA S. and NOAA N.E. Library Institutional Repository DIVE INTO About the Library | Collections | Research Tools | Library Services & NOAA Miami Regional Library @ AOML & NHC NOAA Miami Regional Library at National Hurricane

  17. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  18. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  19. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  20. Reflections on the introduction of fast breeder reactors in the DeBeNeLux states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R.; Wagner, J.

    1975-06-01

    This report gives a survey of the impact of introducing sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and the BeNeLux countries (DeBeNeLux region). The supply situation with respect to electric and thermal energy is studied in particular, together with aspects of economy and environmental impact. The potential and consequences of a breeder economy, the present status and future r+d work are discussed. In addition to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors with oxide or carbide fuel, alternative solutions are touched: 1) light water and high temperature reactors, 2) helium-cooled fast breeder reactors, 3) geothermal energy, solar energy and fusion energy. (orig.) [de

  1. The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE CCQE neutrino-nucleus data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J; Ruiz Simo, I; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MiniBooNE CCQE dσ/dT μ d cos θ μ data using a theoretical model that has proved to be quite successful in the analysis of nuclear reactions with electron, photon and pion probes. We find that RPA and multinucleon knockout turn out to be essential for the description of the MiniBooNE data. We show these measurements are fully compatible with former determinations of nucleon axial mass M A , in contrast with several previous analyses, which have suggested an anomalously large value. We find, M A = 1.08 ± 0.03 GeV. We also argue that the procedure, commonly used to reconstruct the neutrino energy for QE events from the muon angle and energy, could be unreliable for a wide region of the phase space, due to the large importance of multinucleon events.

  2. 50 CFR 2.2 - Locations of regional offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232. (b) Albuquerque Regional Office (Region 2... Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and the Virgin Islands and...

  3. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  4. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  5. Velocity-Resolved [Ne III] from X-Ray Irradiated Sz 102 Microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-F.; Shang, H.; Walter, F. M.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2014-03-01

    Neon emission lines are good indicators of high-excitation regions close to a young stellar system because of their high ionization potentials and large critical densities. We have discovered [Ne III] .3869 emission from the microjet of low-mass young star Sz 102. Spectroastrometric analysis of the two-dimensional [Ne III] spectral image obtained from the archival high-dispersion (R - 33,000) Very Large Telescope/UVES spectra suggests that the emission consists of two velocity components spatially separated by ~ 0.''3. The stronger redshifted component is centered at ~ +21 km s-1 with a line width of ~ 140 km s-1, and the weaker blueshifted component at ~ -90 km s-1 with a larger line width of ~ 190 km s-1. Both components have large line widths that extend across the systemic velocity, suggesting their origin from diverging streamlines of a wide-angle wind. Optical line ratio diagnostics indicate that Sz 102 drives a pair of hot (T . 2 ◊ 104 K) and ionized (ne . 2 ◊ 104 cm-3) jets. The blueshifted jet has on average ~ 50% higher temperature and electron density. We suggest that the jet is ionized by an embedded hard X-ray source close to the driving region. Freezing-in of the ionization state is consistent with the flow speed and the Ne2+ recombination timescales. We postulate that these X-rays originate from hard coronae or stellar flares; the hard (keV) X-ray photons ionize neon in the inner wind, while the soft X-rays are mostly absorbed by the accretion funnel. These postulates await validation from high-sensitivity X-ray and subarcsecond resolution optical observations.

  6. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Y.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Aumann, T.; Panin, V.; Bertulani, C.A.; Borge, M.J.G.; Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Chartier, M.; Taylor, J.; Chulkov, L.V.; Egorova, I.A.; Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C.; Forssen, C.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Tengborn, E.; Zhukov, M.V.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.; Riisager, K.; Grigorenko, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Karakoc, M.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Mahata, K.; Muentz, C.; Stroth, J.; Parfenova, Y.L.; Paschalis, S.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500 MeV/u 17 Ne beams on a carbon target at the R 3 B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15 O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17 Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16 F momentum distribution resulted in an s 2 contribution in the 17 Ne ground state of about 40 %. (authors)

  7. About One Memorable Date in the History of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1714 the Catalans, being in the camp of the losers in the War of the Spanish Succession, finally lost any hope to gain independence. 300 years later, nationalists, who are in power now in Catalonia, want to take advantage of that memorable date by organizing a regional referendum in order to choose their own path of development. In the aggravating conflict of interests between Madrid and Barcelona both parties use not only political and propaganda measures, but also financial leverages of influence. The ethnonational issue in the multiethnic Spain is far from being solved, because for centuries the process of forming a unified Spanish state was characterized by political union of several genetically related (except Basque ethnic communities, although with significant socio-cultural and linguistic differences among them. It is not coincidental that regional identity in Spain is still extremely strong, while the interethnic consolidation of the Spanish nation can be characterized as incomplete, which can be seen, particularly, in the intensification in recent decades of radical nationalist and separatist sentiments in Catalonia, the Basque Country and some other autonomies. Among reasons which escalated confrontation between supporters and opponents of Catalonian independence, we should mention the global financial crisis that hit the regions of Spain as well as the overall national economy. The separatists have many barriers on their way, starting from the constitutional provisions proclaiming Spain a united and indivisible state which impede to carry out regional plebiscites, and ending by an ambiguous attitude towards the hypothetical independence of Catalonia by both the residents of the region and in other parts of the country. It is important to keep in mind that in today's world the possibility of breaking large multiethnic state into ethnically constituting elements is more possible than 40-50 years ago. Disintegration of Yugoslavia and

  8. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  10. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  11. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  12. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  13. Presenting SAPUSS: Solving Aerosol Problem by Using Synergistic Strategies in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB during September–October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations – both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively. SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the urban Mediterranean environment. This is well achieved only because of both the three dimensional spatial scale and the high sampling time resolution used. During SAPUSS different meteorological regimes were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant regional ones. The different meteorology of such regimes is herein described. Additionally, we report the trends of the parameters regulated by air quality purposes (both gaseous and aerosol mass concentrations; and we also compare the six monitoring sites. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night-time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3 were up to double compared to ground level ones. The examination of the vertical profiles clearly shows the predominant influence of NOx on ozone

  14. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  15. [Birth rates evolution in Spain. Birth trends in Spain from 1941 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés de Llano, J M; Alberola López, S; Garmendia Leiza, J R; Quiñones Rubio, C; Cancho Candela, R; Ramalle-Gómara, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse trends of births in Spain and its Autonomous Communities (CCAA) over a 70 year period (1941-2010). The crude birth rates per 1,000 inhabitants/year were calculated by CCAA using Joinpoint regression models. Change points in trend and annual percentage of change (APC) were identified. The distribution of 38,160,305 births between 1941 and 2010 shows important changes in trends both nationally and among the CCAA. There is a general pattern for the whole country, with 5 turning points being identified with changes in trend and annual percentage change (APC). Differences are also found among regions. The analysis of trends in birth rates and the annual rates of change should enable public health authorities to properly plan pediatric care resources in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  17. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  18. Electron-impact cross sections of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)

  19. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  20. Complementarity and completed trials: reforming the Ne bis in idem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper is concerned with the question whether article 20(3) of the Rome Statute is ... Rome Statute, Ne bis in idem, double jeopardy, International Criminal Court ...

  1. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  2. Searches for New Physics at MiniBooNE: Sterile Neutrinos and Mixing Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgi, Georgia S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment was designed to perform a search for vμ → ve oscillations in a region of Δm2 and sin2 2θ very different from that allowed by standard, three-neutrino oscillations, as determined by solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments. This search was motivated by the LSND experimental observation of an excess of $\\bar{v}$e events in a $\\bar{v}$μ beam which was found compatible with two-neutrino oscillations at Δm2 ~ 1 eV2 and sin2 2{theta} < 1%. If confirmed, such oscillation signature could be attributed to the existence of a light, mostly-sterile neutrino, containing small admixtures of weak neutrino eigenstates. In addition to a search for vμ → ve oscillations, MiniBooNE has also performed a search for vμ → ve oscillations, which provides a test of the LSND two-neutrino oscillation interpretation that is independent of CP or CPT violation assumptions. This dissertation presents the MiniBooNE vμ → ve and vμ → ve analyses and results, with emphasis on the latter. While the neutrino search excludes the two-neutrino oscillation interpretation of LSND at 98% C.L., the antineutrino search shows an excess of events which is in agreement with the two-neutrino vμ → ve oscillation interpretation of LSND, and excludes the no oscillations hypothesis at 96% C.L. Even though the neutrino and antineutrino oscillation results from MiniBooNE disagree under the single sterile neutrino oscillation hypothesis, a simple extension to the model to include additional sterile neutrino states and the possibility of CP violation allows for differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation signatures. In view of that, the viability of oscillation models with one or two sterile neutrinos is investigated in global fits to MiniBooNE and LSND

  3. Overview of the NARSTO-NE-OPS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbrick, C. R.; Ryan, W. F.; Clark, R. D.; Doddridge, B. G; Dickerson, R. R.; Gaffney, J.; Marley, N.; Coulter, R.

    2002-01-01

    The NARSTO-NE-OPS (NorthEast Oxidant and Particle Study) is an investigation of the coupling of the meteorological and chemical processes that control the evolution of air pollution events. The project includes three major field programs carried out at a field site in northeast Philadelphia during the summers of 1998, 1999 and 2001. The activity brings together the research groups from 13 universities, 5 government laboratories and representatives of the electric power industry to apply the most advanced measurement techniques to understanding the physical and chemical processes contributing to air quality issues. Results have been obtained from three ground sites, two instrumented aircraft, many different instrumented balloon platforms, and several remote sensing techniques including satellites. In addition, the database used includes the ground-based measurements conducted at several surrounding state and city operated sites in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, New York and Maryland. The results have shown the importance of developing the 3-dimensional regional scale picture of the atmosphere to understand and properly model air pollution events. It has been shown that only from such a perspective, which includes the vertical distribution and a regional context, can one hope to properly model and predict ozone and particulate pollution. A combination of photochemical and dynamical processes transport, both horizontal and vertical, accumulate pollutants that then mix with the locally produced chemical species to cause the more severe episodes of air pollution. Efforts have also focused on developmental testing of several new approaches to improved measuring techniques for better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the airborne particulate matter

  4. Effects of confinement on the Rydberg molecule NeH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, J M H; Klobukowski, M; Bielinska-Waz, D; Diercksen, G H F; Schreiner, E W S

    2005-01-01

    Ab initio potential energy curves of the Rydberg NeH molecule in the presence of cylindrical spatial confinement were computed by the method of multi-reference configuration interaction with extended basis sets. The influence of the applied potential to the structures and spectra of the ground and excited states of NeH was analysed in terms of perturbation theory. In addition, the phenomenon of field-induced ionization was discussed

  5. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mobility of 35 S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35 S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  6. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-02-24

    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high-intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  7. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  8. Application of LC-MS and tristimulus colorimetry to assess the ageing aptitude of Syrah wine in the Condado de Huelva D.O. (Spain), a typical warm climate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, B; Rodríguez-Pulido, F J; Mateus, N; Escudero-Gilete, M L; González-Miret, M L; Heredia, F J; de Freitas, V

    2012-06-30

    The study of the evolutions of different wine pigment families, copigmentation/polymerisation processes and colour characteristics during the first year of ageing in oak barrel has allowed the assessment of the ageing aptitude of Syrah wines from "Condado de Huelva D.O.", a warm climate region. A total of 32 anthocyanic pigments were identified, including 14 major compounds from grape and 18 minor derivatives formed during the vinification. The anthocyanin profile changed towards more chemical complexity, being vitisin-like pyranoanthocyanins the predominant minor pigments during the first month of ageing. As wine became older, a progressive increase on the content of 4-vinylcatechin, 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylcatechol compounds took place. Results showed that copigmentation occurred during the whole process of ageing inducing visual perceptible colour effects. Simultaneously to the copigmentation decrease, the degree of polymerisation increased during ageing, being maximum at 9 months old wines (77%). The colour of wines evolved progressively in a positive way from 3 to 9 months of ageing, becoming darker and with more vivid colour. However, from 9 to 12 months of ageing, the chemical structure of wines was negatively affected resulting in lighter, with more red-orange hues and less vivid colours. The inclusion of the chemical and colorimetric information on the PCA model allows us to reach very good discriminations among the Syrah wines with different wood contact period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Llasat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to introduce a systematic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain and to analyze its potential application to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those issues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalonia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compilation of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social impact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

  10. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margiotta, A

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed

  11. Comparison of electromagnetic and nuclear dissociation of 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lehr, C.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Riisager, K.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2018-03-01

    The Borromean drip-line nucleus 17Ne has been suggested to possess a two-proton halo structure in its ground state. In the astrophysical r p -process, where the two-proton capture reaction 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne plays an important role, the calculated reaction rate differs by several orders of magnitude between different theoretical approaches. To add to the understanding of the 17Ne structure we have studied nuclear and electromagnetic dissociation. A 500 MeV/u 17Ne beam was directed toward lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets. Oxygen isotopes in the final state were measured in coincidence with one or two protons. Different reaction branches in the dissociation of 17Ne were disentangled. The relative populations of s and d states in 16F were determined for light and heavy targets. The differential cross section for electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) shows a continuous internal energy spectrum in the three-body system 15O+2 p . The 17Ne EMD data were compared to current theoretical models. None of them, however, yields satisfactory agreement with the experimental data presented here. These new data may facilitate future development of adequate models for description of the fragmentation process.

  12. Micromammal biostratigraphy of the Alcoy Basin (Eastern Spain): remarks on the Mio-Pliocene boundary of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansino, S.; Fierro, I.; Tossal, A.; Montoya, P.; Ruiz-Sánchez, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The study of 13 micromammal localities in the southern section of the Gormaget ravine (Alcoi Basin, SE Spain) and another 4 localities in the northern section has allowed us to define four local biozones in the dawn of the Pliocene, possibly recording the Mio-Pliocene boundary. The great density of localities close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary has enabled us to achieve a great resolution in the biozonation of the earliest Pliocene, only comparable in the Iberian Peninsula to the record of the Teruel Basin (NE Spain). We interpret these biozones in the light ofthe Neogene Mammal units and the European Land Mammal Ages, and correlate them with other local biozones defined for the same time span in the Iberian Peninsula.

  13. Micromammal biostratigraphy of the Alcoy Basin (Eastern Spain): remarks on the Mio-Pliocene boundary of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansino, S.; Fierro, I.; Tossal, A.; Montoya, P.; Ruiz-Sánchez, F.J.

    2017-11-01

    The study of 13 micromammal localities in the southern section of the Gormaget ravine (Alcoi Basin, SE Spain) and another 4 localities in the northern section has allowed us to define four local biozones in the dawn of the Pliocene, possibly recording the Mio-Pliocene boundary. The great density of localities close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary has enabled us to achieve a great resolution in the biozonation of the earliest Pliocene, only comparable in the Iberian Peninsula to the record of the Teruel Basin (NE Spain). We interpret these biozones in the light ofthe Neogene Mammal units and the European Land Mammal Ages, and correlate them with other local biozones defined for the same time span in the Iberian Peninsula.

  14. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  15. Drugs of abuse, cytostatic drugs and iodinated contrast media in tap water from the Madrid region (central Spain):A case study to analyse their occurrence and human health risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Zonja, B; Mastroianni, N; Negreira, N; López de Alda, M; Pérez, S; Barceló, D; Gil, A; Valcárcel, Y

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the presence of forty-eight emerging pollutants, including twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites, seventeen cytostatic drugs and six iodinated contrast media, in tap water from the Madrid Region. Analysis of the target compounds in the tap water was performed by means of (on-line or off-line) solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A preliminary human health risk characterization was undertaken for each individual compound and for different groups of compounds with a common mechanism of action found in tap water. The results of the study showed the presence of eight out of the twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites analysed, namely, the cocainics cocaine and benzoylecgonine, the amphetamine-type stimulants ephedrine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methamphetamine, the opioid methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and, finally caffeine at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 502 ng L(-1). Four out of the six analysed iodinated contrast media, namely, diatrizoate, iohexol, iomeprol and iopromide, were detected in at least one sample, with concentration values varying between 0.4 and 5 ng L(-1). Cytostatic compounds were not detected in any sample. Caffeine was the substance showing the highest concentrations, up to 502 ng L(-1), mainly in the drinking water sampling point located in Madrid city. Among the other drugs of abuse, the most abundant compounds were cocaine and benzoylecgonine, detected at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 86 ng L(-1) and from 0.11 to 53 ng L(-1), respectively. Regarding iodinated contrast media, iohexol was the most ubiquitous and abundant compound, with a frequency of detection of 100% and concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 ng L(-1) in basically the same range in all sampling points. Taking into account the results and types of treatment applied, ozonisation plus granular activated carbon filtration appears to be

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  17. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  18. Enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en niños de la Región de Murcia Invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the region of Murcia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Espín

    2002-10-01

    vaccine, the incidence and characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the region of Murcia should be determined. This would provide information that could be useful for properly establishing the indications for vaccination. Methods: A retrospective search was conducted for cases of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in children aged less 15 years old treated in hospitals in Murcia from 1991-2000. The data sources were the databases of the microbiology services, the Minimum Data Set, the Pediatric Admissions Register and the EDO Register. Results: The incidence rate for the period 1996-2000 was 18.25 per 10(5 children per year for children aged under 1 year in the case of invasive disease (10.6 for meningitis, 13.6 for those under 2 years for invasive disease (6 for meningitis, 8.9 for those under 5 years (1.35 for meningitis and 3.7 for those under 15 years (1.3 for meningitis. Twenty-eight percent of the patients presented risk factors. Complications occurred in 35.2% and sequelae occurred in 5%. The mortality rate was 11.8%. The prevalent serogroups were 19, 6, 18, 5, 14 and 23. Conclusions: The high percentage of patients with risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease suggests the need to implement vaccination programs aimed at risk groups. Although the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in the region of Murcia differs from that in other areas, the incidence of meningitis is similar to that reported by other studies. Because of the severity of the disease, cost-effectiveness studies to evaluate the possible incorporation of the vaccine in the vaccination calendar are justified.

  19. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  20. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  1. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  2. Comments on Auger electron production by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S V; Ferrante, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1979-09-01

    In this letter, the authors first report rather conclusive experimental evidence showing that the Ne Auger signal is due to asymmetric Ne-metal collisions and not symmetric Ne-Ne collisions. Next it is shown that the Ne Auger signal is in fact observable by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Si and with signal strength comparable to that of the Si Auger signal for 3 keV incident ion energy. Finally, they comment on some trends in the relative amplitudes of the 21.9 and 25.1 eV Ne Auger signals as a function of incident ion energy and target species.

  3. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author)

  4. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G. (Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Lab. de Radioactividad Ambiental)

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author).

  5. Burial, Uplift and Exhumation History of the Atlantic Margin of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; Cobbold, Peter R.; Chiossi, Dario; Lilletveit, Ragnhild

    2010-05-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of landscape development and thermo-tectonic evo-lution of NE Brazil. Our results reveal a long history of post-Devonian burial and exhuma-tion across NE Brazil. Uplift movements just prior to and during Early Cretaceous rifting led to further regional denudation, to filling of rift basins and finally to formation of the Atlantic margin. The rifted margin was buried by a km-thick post-rift section, but exhumation began in the Late Cretaceous as a result of plate-scale forces. The Cretaceous cover probably extended over much of NE Brazil where it is still preserved over extensive areas. The Late Cretaceous exhumation event was followed by events in the Paleogene and Neogene. The results of these events of uplift and exhumation are two regional peneplains that form steps in the landscape. The plateaux in the interior highlands are defined by the Higher Surface at c. 1 km above sea level. This surface formed by fluvial erosion after the Late Cretaceous event - and most likely after the Paleogene event - and thus formed as a Paleogene pene-plain near sea level. This surface was reburied prior to the Neogene event, in the interior by continental deposits and along the Atlantic margin by marine and coastal deposits. Neo-gene uplift led to reexposure of the Palaeogene peneplain and to formation of the Lower Surface by incision along rivers below the uplifted Higher Surface that characterise the pre-sent landscape. Our results show that the elevated landscapes along the Brazilian margin formed during the Neogene, c. 100 Myr after break-up. Studies in West Greenland have demonstrated that similar landscapes formed during the late Neogene, c. 50 Myr after break-up. Many passive continental margins around the world are characterised by such elevated plateaus and it thus seems possible, even likely, that they may also post-date rifting and continental separation by many Myr.

  6. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d'éthylène

  7. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  8. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  9. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  10. Anomalous intensities of Ne-like ion resonance line in plasma produced by picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryunetkin, B.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Kalashnikov, M.P.; Nikles, P.; Shnyupep, M.

    1995-01-01

    An anomalous structure of intensities of spectral lines of CuXX and GeXXX Ne-like ions emitted by plasma produced by laser pulses of picosecond duration and up to 2x10 18 W/cm 2 flux density is recorded for the first time. It is shown that spectrum maximum of these ions is emitted from a plasma region whose density is significantly above the critical value of the length of heating laser radiation wave. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  11. Physico-chemical modification of polyethersulphone induced by high energy proton, C+ and Ne6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodh Kumar, S.; Biswavarathi, V.; Jal, P.; Dey, K.; Krishna, J.B.M.; Saha, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyehersulphone (PES) was irradiated with 4 MeV proton, 3.6 MeV C + and 145 MeV Ne 6+ ions at different ion fluences. The ion induced spectral changes were analyzed by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The increase in optical absorption, which shifts gradually from near UV to the visible region with increase in fluence for the three different types of bombarding ions was observed. A significant loss in fluorescence intensity with increase in fluence for three different ions was observed. (author)

  12. Geotermometría de rocas ígneas. Su aplicación a los basaltos alcalinos de la región volcánica del NE de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebriá Gómez, J. M.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The most common geothermometers for igneous basic rocks are reviewed in the first part of the present work. In the second part, several of these geothermometers are applied to the basaltic rocks from the NE Spain region. The temperatures calculated in the principal petrologic types of this region, suggest that the olivine appears at 1240° C in the leucite-basanites; at 1230° C in the nepheline-basanites; and at 1190° C in the olivine basalts. Clinopyroxene temperatures are around 1020° C in the three petrologic types. Finally, plagioclase crystallized at lower temperatures than 1000° C, although this estimation could not be confirmed by the geothermometers used. Concerning the oxygen fugacity, this parameter oscillated between 10-7.54 and 10-8.87 atmospheres,when the olivine crystallized.En la primera parte de este trabajo se revisan los geotermómetros más usuales utilizados en rocas igneas básicas. En la segunda parte se aplican estos geotermómetros a las rocas basálticas de la región volcánica del NE de España. Las temperaturas calculadas en los tipos petrológicos mayoritarios de los tres sectores de dicha región, sugieren que la aparición de olivino se produjo en torno a los 1240° C en las basanitas leuciticas; a unos 1230° C en las basanitas nefelínicas; y alrededor de los 1190° C en los basaltos olivínicos. El clinopiroxeno cristalizó alrededor de los 1020° C en los tres tipos petrológicos. Finalmente, la plagioclasa debió cristalizar por debajo de los 1000° C, aunque esta temperatura no puede fijarse adecuadamente, con los geotermómetros utilizados. En lo que concierne a la fO2, las estimaciones realizadas indican que el valor de la misma ha oscilado entre 10-7.54 y 10-8.87 atmósferas, en el inicio de la cristalización.

  13. Helmint eggs elimination performance during lammelar settling and sand filters in Beniel WWTP (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Cardin Mifsut, C.; Pacheco Ballarin, S.; Martinez Muro, M. A.; Vicente Gonzalez, J. A.; Llosar Llacer, C.

    2010-01-01

    With this study, it was observed Ascaris suum eggs elimination yield of tertiary treatment in Beniel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Murcia Region (Spain). It was inoculated a sample of Ascaris suum eggs in the treatment in maximum flow conditions and it was calculated the retention yield of the lamellar settling and sand filters. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Language Attitudes of Asturian Students in the Area of Navia-Eo (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riaño, Xosé; Hevia-Artime, Isabel; Fernández-Costales, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a pioneering study that approaches the sociolinguistic and educational reality of the area of Navia-Eo, a region in the western part of Asturias (Spain). This research aims to provide an insight into the language attitudes and the sociolinguistic awareness of students in the final year of primary education. Using…

  15. The species of the genus Pseudoniphargus Chevreux, 1901 (Amphipoda) from northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Jos

    1986-01-01

    Based on new material collected in 1983, 1984, and 1985, the genus Pseudoniphargus proves to be distributed in northern Spain from Asturias, in the western part of the Cordillera Cantabrica, to Navarra and Huesca, in the headlands of the Pyrenees; and from coastal Atlantic regions up to the northern

  16. Education, Dictatorship and Democracy in Spain: An Analysis of Administrative Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    Spain's transition from dictatorship to pacific and stable democracy without producing major national convulsions is remarkable in a world where many such attempts have been made and most have failed. Within the context of government reform, this study identifies and examines strengths and weaknesses of the regionalization process in education 10…

  17. Language Learning Motivation and Language Attitudes in Multilingual Spain from an International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagabaster, David

    2017-01-01

    In Spain, more than 40% of the population lives in officially bilingual regions in which the minority language is used as a means of instruction at school and university. In addition, the increasing importance attached to learning English has led to the proliferation of multilingual school programs in which different languages are used to teach…

  18. C282Y and H63D Mutation Frequencies in a Population from Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alvarez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency of hereditary hemochromatosis gene mutations, C282Y and H63D, from 125 autochthonous blood donors originating from a Central region of Spain, to provide epidemiological data about HFE gene in the Iberian Peninsula.

  19. Flaking and blistering on He and Ne bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, K.; Naramoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    Large scale exfoliation formed by 300 keV He + bombardment of niobium without any preceding blistering is investigated, in comparison with the blistering due to 450 and 850 keV Ne + bombardments. In-situ observations of the erosion processes were performed in a scanning electron microscope connected to the Van de Graaff. Critical doses of 7.2 x 10 17 He + /cm 2 , 2.4 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 and 4.0 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 were obtained for the 300 keV He flaking, 450 keV Ne blistering and 850 keV Ne blistering, respectively. The He flaking was presumed to be due to brittle fashion peeling-off of the surface layer by the bending moment driven by the internal gas pressure. The blistering, on the other hand, was presumed to be the result of the ductile fashion spreading of the lenticular bubble in the sub-surface layer. The necessary pressure for the peeling-off of the cover was calculated, and was speculated to be able to work as the driving force for the flaking from its unexpectedly low values. Fractographies under the exfoliations were discussed for both flaking and blistering. (author)

  20. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  1. Topside Electron Density Representations for Middle and High Latitudes: A Topside Parameterization for E-CHAIM Based On the NeQuick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themens, David R.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Bilitza, Dieter; Erickson, Philip J.; Häggström, Ingemar; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo V.; Reid, Benjamin; Varney, Roger H.; Pustovalova, Ljubov

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we present a topside model representation to be used by the Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM). In the process of this, we also present a comprehensive evaluation of the NeQuick's, and by extension the International Reference Ionosphere's, topside electron density model for middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Using data gathered from all available incoherent scatter radars, topside sounders, and Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation satellites, we show that the current NeQuick parameterization suboptimally represents the shape of the topside electron density profile at these latitudes and performs poorly in the representation of seasonal and solar cycle variations of the topside scale thickness. Despite this, the simple, one variable, NeQuick model is a powerful tool for modeling the topside ionosphere. By refitting the parameters that define the maximum topside scale thickness and the rate of increase of the scale height within the NeQuick topside model function, r and g, respectively, and refitting the model's parameterization of the scale height at the F region peak, H0, we find considerable improvement in the NeQuick's ability to represent the topside shape and behavior. Building on these results, we present a new topside model extension of the E-CHAIM based on the revised NeQuick function. Overall, root-mean-square errors in topside electron density are improved over the traditional International Reference Ionosphere/NeQuick topside by 31% for a new NeQuick parameterization and by 36% for a newly proposed topside for E-CHAIM.

  2. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  3. Erosion processes acting in semi-arid climate zone of the Ebro Basin (Bardenas Reales, NE of Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, C.; Desir, G.

    2009-01-01

    Bardenas Reales is an erosive depression located in the central-western part of the Ebro Depression. May different erosion processes act on this zone: gullying, piping, mud slides and armoured mud balls among others that contribute to export great quantity of material outside the basin. Depending on lithology and physico-chemical properties erosion acting processes differ. The knowledge of that processes help us to understand the great amount of soil loss that take place on the studied zone, bigger than those recommended. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Effectiveness of mechanical thinning and prescribed burning on fire behavior in Pinus nigra forests in NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Míriam; Domènech, Rut

    2018-03-15

    Fuel treatments can mitigate present and future impacts of climate change by reducing fire intensity and severity. In recent years, Pinus nigra forests in the Mediterranean basin have been dramatically affected by the new risk of highly intense and extreme fires and its distribution area has been reduced. New tools are necessary for assessing the management of these forests so they can adapt to the challenges to come. Our main goal was to evaluate the effects of different fuel treatments on Mediterranean Pinus nigra forests. We assessed the forest response, in terms of forest structure and fire behavior, to different intensities of low thinning treatments followed by different slash prescriptions (resulting in: light thinning and lop and scatter; light thinning and burn; heavy thinning and lop and scatter; heavy thinning and burn; and, untreated control). Treatments that used fire to decrease the resulting slash were the most effective for reducing active crown fires decreasing the rate of spread and flame length more than 89%. Low thinning had an effect on torching potential, but there was no difference between intensities of thinning. Only an outcoming crown fire could spread actively if it was sustained by a high-enough constant wind speed and enough surface fuel load. Overall, treatments reduce fire intensity and treated areas have a more homogenous fire behavior response than untreated areas. This provides opportunities to extinguish the fire and reduce the probability of trees dying from the fire. It would be helpful to include ecological principles and fire behavior criteria in silvicultural treatment guidelines in order to perform more efficient management techniques in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of the Early Permian (Autunian) in the subsurface of the Ebro Basin, NE Spain, and its paleogeographic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; Díez, J.B.; López-Gómez, José

    2007-01-01

    [EN] The Early Permian (Autunian) has not been identifi ed up to now in the subsurface of the Tertiary Ebro Basin because of the scarcity of oil well boreholes reaching the Variscan basement and the systematic attribution of a Carboniferous age, without any paleontological data, to the unmetamorfosed siliciclastic sediments found at the base of some of them, clearly above the Early Paleozoic basement. Grey and black shale samples recovered from cores preserved in the REPSOL-YPF archi...

  6. Astronomical forcing in continental sediments. An integrated stratigraphic study of Miocene deposits from the Calatayud and Teruel basins, NE Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    During the last decades, there is an increasing concern about global climate change as a consequence of anthropogenic influences. Recently, a report presented by the working group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that there is convincing evidence that most of the

  7. Spinels of Variscan olivine hornblendites related to the Montnegre granitoids revisited (NE Spain): petrogenetic evidence of mafic magma mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán, G.; Enrique, P.; Butjosa, L.; Fernández-Roig, L.

    2017-07-01

    Olivine hornblendites (cortlandtites) form part of the Montnegre mafic complex related to late-Variscan I-type granitoids in the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Two generations of spinel are present in these hornblendites: Spl1 forms euhedral crystals included in both olivine and Spl2. Spl2 forms euhedral to anhedral crystals associated with phlogopite and fibrous colourless amphibole forming pseudomorphs after olivine. Compositions of Spl1 are picotite-Al chromite (Fe#: 77.78-66.60; Cr#: 30.12-52.22; Fe3+/R3+: 6.99-21.89; 0.10< TiO2%< 0.62). Compositions of Spl2 are pleonaste (Fe#: 37.86-52.12; Cr#: 1.00-15.45; Fe3+/R3+: 0.31-5.21; TiO2% <0.10%). The two types of spinel follow a CrAl trend, mainly due to the substitution (Fe2+)-1Cr-1= MgAl, which is interpreted as the result of mixing between two different mantle-derived melts. The compositions of early Spl1 crystals included in olivine are characteristic of Al-rich basalts. More aluminous Spl2 would result from reaction of olivine with a less evolved, Al and K-rich mantle-derived melt after new refilling of the magma chamber or channel. As a whole, spinels from similar examples of Variscan olivine hronblendites also follow a CrAl trend with high Fe# and starting at higher Cr# than other trends of this type. Cr# heterogeneity in the early spinels from these Variscan hornblendites would be inherited from the variable Al content of the mafic melts involved in their genesis.

  8. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems are prone to soil loss mainly due to the accelerated erosion as a consequence of human induced changes from agriculture and grazing practices over the last centuries and the climatic conditions (i.e. irregular and scarce precipitations and drought periods). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation inducing the loss of soil functions. The progressive decline of soil functions thereof soil quality is associated to a decrease of soil productivity and can threat the sustainability of cultivated soils. The use of fallout 137Cs as a soil movement tracer provides useful data to identify areas where loss and gain of 137Cs occurs and that of soil. This study aims to address soil movement and soil nutrient dynamics closely related to the status of soil degradation. A rain-fed cereal field (1.6 ha) representative of Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscapes (42°25'41''N 1°13'8''W) was selected to examine the effects of soil redistribution processes on the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) and their relationships with soil properties and topographic characteristics. From the hydrological point of view, the field is isolated due to the effect of landscape features and man-made structures. Climate is continental Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and soils are Calcisols. The reference inventories of 137Cs and soil nutrients were established from 21 soil samples collected in nearby undisturbed areas under typical Mediterranean vegetation cover. A total of 156 bulk soil samples (30-50 cm depth) and 156 topsoil samples (5 cm) were collected on a 10 m grid. 137Cs and soil nutrients loss and gain areas were identified by comparing the reference inventories with the values of inventories at the sampling points. A new approach to characterize and measure active (ACF) and stable (SCF) carbon fraction contents by using a dry combustion method based on the oxidation temperature of carbon fractions to analyze the SOC pool dynamics is presented in this study. A detailed field topographic survey and mapping of the spatial variability of soil properties and nutrient contents from soil analyses displayed similar spatial patterns of 137Cs and soil nutrients that also were directly and significantly correlated (p≤0.01). As much as 70% of the surface of the study field had lower values of 137Cs inventory indicating a predominance of soil loss linked to a generalized loss of soil nutrients. SOC gain was found in less than 1% of the study field and there was a large loss of SON compared to the undisturbed reference site. Higher and significant (p≤0.01) contents of soil nutrients were found in topsoil samples than in the bulk ones. Furthermore, there was an enrichment of the relative contribution of ACF to total SOC in sampling points where there was a 137Cs gain in both bulk and topsoil samples. Understanding patterns of soil nutrients can be useful for developing and implementing land management strategies to preserve soil quality in Mediterranean agricultural areas.

  9. The combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess water quality in two low-stream rivers (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Denise; Potrykus, Joanna; Morsiani, Cinzia; Raldua, Demetrio; Lavado, Ramon; Porte, Cinta

    2002-01-01

    Carps (Cyprinus carpio) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were sampled from two low- stream Mediterranean rivers (Anoia and Cardener) receiving extensive urban and industrial waste water discharges. Tissue residues of selected pollutants (organo chlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were determined in conjunction with different biochemical responses (cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes) with the aim of investigating whether resident organisms were responsive to changes in water quality. Biota inhabiting those rivers were highly exposed to complex mixtures of polychlorobiphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (up to 9 ng/g w.w.) and PAHs (up to 6097 ng/g of hydroxylated PAHs in bile), the highest residues being observed in carps from Cardener. This has a reflection n 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity; that in carps from ardener ranged between 350 and 550 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas in carps from Anoia ranged between was 90 and 250 pmol/min/mg protein. The highest activity recorded was downstream of the sewage treatment plants in both rivers. Phase II enzymes were less sensitive to pollutant exposure than EROD; nonetheless, both glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase ere higher in carps from Cardener. The results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical responses to assess and diagnose pollution in highly stressed ecosystems

  10. Designing a gradual transition to a hydrogen economy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. J.; Brey, R.; Carazo, A. F.; Contreras, I.; Hernández-Díaz, A. G.; Gallardo, V.

    The lack of sustainability of the current Spanish energy system makes it necessary to study the adoption of alternative energy models. One of these is what is known as the hydrogen economy. In this paper, we aim to plan, for the case of Spain, an initial phase for transition to this energy model making use of the potential offered by each Spanish region. Specifically, the target pursued is to satisfy at least 15% of energy demand for transport by 2010 through renewable sources. We plan to attain this target gradually, establishing intermediate stages consisting of supplying 5 and 10% of the energy demand for transport by 2006 and 2008, respectively. The results obtained allow us to determine, for each region, the hydrogen production and consumption, the renewable energy sources used to obtain hydrogen and the transport requirements between regions.

  11. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the degree of female wage discrimination in the Spanish region of Galicia relative to the rest of Spain. The analysis starts from an established fact: women's average earnings are lower than men's. First, we try to show the causes behind this wage differential. Next, we discuss the evolution of the wage gap between 1995 and 2002, in order to bring some light on the factors potentially accounting for wage discrimination persistence in Galicia and Spain. We w...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Pena-Boquete

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the degree of female wage discrimination in the Spanish region of Galicia relative to the rest of Spain. The analysis starts from an established fact: women’s average earnings are lower than men’s. First, we try to show the causes behind this wage differential. Next, we discuss the evolution of the wage gap between 1995 and 2002, in order to bring some light on the factors potentially accounting for wage discrimination persistence in Galicia and Spain. We w...

  14. Trends in the International Academic Migration: A Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mihi-Ramírez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyses how undergraduate students’ mobility has changed after the last economics recession. Research Design & Methods: The study analysed the last data about public and private Universities of higher education system of Spain comparing it at international level in order to find the problems and challenges of the last few years. Findings: The results showed significant imbalances in mobile students’ trends by home and host region, especially after a deep restructuration of the higher education system of Spain due to the last crisis. In particular there are substantial differences in tuition fees, scholarships, number of teachers and their skills according to the region and type of university. Consequently international inflows and international study programs and agreements became very important. Implications & Recommendations: A growing number of students who study abroad, especially after the economic collapse of 2008, represents an excellent opportunity for the host countries due to an incomes growth and recruitment opportunities of highly skilled workers. Therefore to adapt the academic offer taking in account the language, needs and diversity of mobile students would increase their number. Also to increase the highly skilled teachers could help to attract these mobile students, and it would improve the quality of higher education system too. Contribution & Value Added: This research provided a value information to understand the current problems, challenges, changes and opportunities of the higher education mobility through the analysis of the case of Spain and international comparisons.

  15. Preventing erosive risks after wildfire in Spain: advances and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Filgueira, Cristina; Vega Hidalgo, José A.; Fontúrbel Lliteras, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Galicia (NW Spain) is one of the most wildfire-affected areas in Western Europe and where the highest soil losses following fire are recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade, mitigation of hydrological and erosive risk has been an important objective for researchers and forest managers. For this reason, research carried out has focused on three main issues: i) the development of operational tools to prioritize post-fire soil stabilization actions, based on soil burn severity indicators and remote sensed information, and testing of their ability to reflect degradation risk in relevant soil properties and subsequent soil erosion, ii) the development and testing of different soil stabilization treatments and their effectiveness for reducing erosion, following their application at broad scale, under the specific environmental conditions of Galicia and iii) the assessment of the performance of current erosion models as well as the development of empirical models to predict post-fire soil losses. On the other hand, the use of forest resources is an essential component of the regional incomes in NW Spain and consequently there is a pressing necessity for investigation on techniques suitable for reconciling soil conservation and sustainable use of those resources. In the framework of wildfire impacts this involve many and complex challenges. This scenario contrast with most of the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean influence where salvage logging is not a priority. As in other regions, post-fire hydrologic and erosive risk modeling, including threatened resources vulnerability evaluation is also a capital research need, particularly in a climate change context where dramatic changes in drivers such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and fire regime are expected. The study was funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Spain (INIA) through project RTA2014-00011-C06-02, cofunded by FEDER and the Plan de Mejora e Innovación Forestal de

  16. DSA lifetime measurements in 21Ne at high recoil velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, H.; Heidinger, F.; Kaendler, K.

    1977-01-01

    States in 21 Ne up to 5 MeV excitation energy have been populated using the inverted reaction 2 H( 20 Ne,pγ). The Doppler shift attenuation (DSA) analysis of the pγ coincidence spectra taken in a Ge(Li) detector at 45 0 and 135 0 and an annular silicon surface barrier detector near 0 0 yielded the lifetimes of 8 states in 21 Ne. Due to the large recoil of vi/c approximately equal to 4% three new lifetimes were determined for the short lived levels at 2.80, 4.68 and 4.73 MeV, namely 10 +- 4 fs, 16 +- 4 fs and 10 +- 4 fs, respectively. The results are compared with rotational and shell model calculations. (orig.) [de

  17. Enhanced diffusion of Zn in Al under Ne irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion rate of Zn in Al has been enhanced by factors approximately 10 2 --10 4 under 80 keV Ne irradiation at 130 0 C. Diffusion couples were formed by ion implantation of Zn, and the concentration profiles were determined by ion backscattering. The data are analyzed by numerically solving the coupled diffusion equations for vacancies, interstitials and atoms, and by scaling the profiles of vacancy and interstitial production rates from the theoretical profile of Ne energy into atomic processes. The enhanced diffusion rate is linear in flux, indicating that the mobile point defects annihilate predominantly at fixed sinks. The average distance to annihilation is approximately 700 A, except for the first approximately 500 A of the solid where it is much less. Free vacancies and interstitials are found to be created by the Ne at a smaller rate than the atomic displacement rate, suggesting a high annihilation probability within the parent damage cascade

  18. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  19. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.

    1998-01-01

    The low energy kaons from the φ meson produced at DAΦNE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DAΦNE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DAΦNE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors

  20. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the