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Sample records for region ne germany

  1. Sediment cores from kettle holes in NE Germany reveal recent impacts of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberg, Andreas; Neyen, Marielle; Schkade, Uwe-Karsten; Kalettka, Thomas; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Glacial kettle holes in young moraine regions receive abundant terrigenous material from their closed catchments. Core chronology and sediment accumulation were determined for two semi-permanent kettle holes, designated RG and KR, on arable land close to the villages of Rittgarten and Kraatz, respectively, in Uckermark, NE Germany. Core dating ((210)Pb, (137)Cs) revealed variable sediment accretion rates through time (RG 0.4-23.1 mm a(-1); KR 0.2-35.5 mm a(-1)), with periods of high accumulation corresponding to periods of intensive agricultural activity and consequent erosional inputs from catchments. Sediment composition (C, N, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Pb, Cd, Zr) was used to determine sediment source and input processes. At RG, annual P input increased from 0.65 kg ha(-1) in the early nineteenth century to 1.67 kg ha(-1) by 2013. At KR, P input increased from 0.6 to 4.1 kg ha(-1) over the last century. There was a concurrent increase in Fe input in both water bodies. Thus, Fe/P ratios showed no temporal trend and did not differ between RG (18.5) and KR (18.4), indicating similar P mobility. At RG, the S/Fe ratio increased from 0.4 to 2.3, indicating more iron sulphides and thus higher P availability, coinciding with high coverage of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza (L.)) and soft hornwort (Ceratophyllum submersum L.). At KR, however, this ratio remained low and relatively unchanged (0.3 ± 0.4), indicating more efficient Fe-P binding and lower hydrophyte productivity. Trends in sediment composition indicate a shift towards eutrophication in both kettle holes, but with differences in timing and magnitude. Other morphologically similar kettle holes in NE Germany that are prone to erosion could have been similarly impacted but may differ in the extent of sediment infilling and degradation of their ecological functions.

  2. Seasonal Trace Gas Dynamics on Minerotrophic Fen Peatlands in NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual trace gas balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest balances in both years. For implementing a

  3. Seasonal Carbon Dynamics on Selected Fen Peatland Sites in NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual carbon balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest CO2 balances in both years. For implementing a

  4. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  5. Late Carboniferous remagnetisation of Palaeozoic rocks in the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwing, A.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    During stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetisation experiments on Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonate and clastic rocks from the north-eastern part of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, three components of magnetisation (A, B, C) are identified. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the local present day geomagnetic field. Component B is mainly observed from 260 up to 550 °C during thermal demagnetisation and is carried by magnetite. In two localities, where red siltstones and red carbonate rocks were sampled, component B is stable up to 670 °C, indicating the presence of hematite. Three clusters of in situ B directions can be identified, which are controlled by the tectonic position of the sampling areas. These are from NW to SE: the Remscheid anticline (RA), the Lüdenscheid syncline (LS) and the Attendorn and Wittgenstein synclines (AS/WS). Standard and inclination-only fold tests, using parametric resampling, yield optimal statistical parameters at increasing amounts of untilting ranging from 0% in the South up to 57% in the North of the NE Rhenish Massif. Despite the variations in optimal untilting, the resulting site mean directions of component B do not differ significantly in inclination. These results are interpreted to reflect the acquisition of magnetisation during progressive northward migration of the deformation front in Late Carboniferous times. The resulting palaeolatitudes (RA: 1°S +2°-3°; LS: 2°S +3°-2°; AS/WS: 1°S +3°-4°) are in good agreement with the predicted position of the sampling area in the Late Carboniferous, as derived from a published Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica and Laurentia. The unblocking temperature spectra and the synfolding nature of B yield strong evidence that chemical processes, possibly driven by fluid migration during orogenesis, caused this remagnetisation. A third component C was observed in zones of tight folding with steeply dipping to overturned bedding planes and is

  6. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach, Karl W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  7. Climate signals derived from cell anatomy of Scots pine in NE Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Heinrich, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Helle, Gerhard; Liñán, Isabel Dorado; Heinken, Thilo

    2013-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies of Pinus sylvestris L. from latitudinal and altitudinal limits of the species distribution have been widely used for climate reconstructions, but there are many sites within the temperate climate zone, as is the case in northeastern Germany, at which there is little evidence of a clear climate signal in the chronologies. In this study, we developed long chronologies of several cell structure variables (e.g., average lumen area and cell wall thickness) from P. sylvestris growing in northeastern Germany and investigated the influence of climate on ring widths and cell structure variables. We found significant correlations between cell structure variables and temperature, and between tree-ring width and relative humidity and vapor pressure, respectively, enabling the development of robust reconstructions from temperate sites that have not yet been realized. Moreover, it has been shown that it may not be necessary to detrend chronologies of cell structure variables and thus low-frequency climate signals may be retrieved from longer cell structure chronologies. The relatively extensive resource of archaeological material of P. sylvestris covering approximately the last millennium may now be useful for climate reconstructions in northeastern Germany and other sites in the temperate climate zone.

  8. Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region centrale du togo : pratiques familiales et communautaires avant la mise en oeuvre de la strategie « prise en charge integree des maladies de l'enfant »

  9. Aeolian sands and buried soils in the Mecklenburg Lake District, NE Germany: Holocene land-use history and pedo-geomorphic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Kaiser, Knut; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The present study is a pedo-geomorphic approach to reconstructing Holocene aeolian sand dynamics in the Mecklenburg Lake District (NE Germany). Stratigraphical, sedimentological and soil research supplemented by morphogenetic interpretations of the genesis of dunes and aeolian sands are discussed. A complex Late Holocene aeolian stratigraphy within a drift sand area was developed at the shore of Lake Müritz. The results were confirmed using palynological records, archaeological data and regional history. Accelerated aeolian activity was triggered by the intensification of settlement and land-use activities during the 13th and in the 15th to 16th century AD. After a period of stability beginning with population decline during the ‘Thirty Years War' and continuing through the 18th century, a final aeolian phase due to the establishment of glassworks was identified during the 19th century AD. We assume a direct link between Holocene aeolian dynamics and human activities. Prehistoric Holocene drift sands on terrestrial sites have not been documented in the Mecklenburg Lake District so far. This might be explained either by erosion and incorporation of older aeolian sediments during younger aeolian phases and/or a lower regional land-use intensity in older periods of the Holocene. The investigated drift sands are stratigraphically and sedimentologically characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, reflecting the spatial and temporal variability of Holocene human impact.

  10. Rock Magnetic Properties of Remagnetised Devonian and Carboniferous Carbonate and Clastic Rocks From The NE Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwing, A.; Matzka, J.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    Previous studies on remagnetised carbonate rocks from the North American and Eu- ropean Variscides reported characteristic rock magnetic properties which are thought to be diagnostic for a chemical remagnetisation event. Their hysteresis properties with high ratios of Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc indicate the presence of a mixture of single-domain and superparamagnetic magnetite (Jackson, et al. 1990). In order to test if this fin- gerprint can be identified in remagnetised carbonate and clastic rocks from the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany, a series of rock magnetic experiments has been carried out. The hysteresis properties of the remagnetised clastic rocks indicate the domi- nance of large MD particles, as can be expected for detrital sediments. The carbon- ates yield significantly higher ratios of Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc than the clastic rocks, but only partly correspond to the characteristic properties of remagnetised carbon- ates described above. The latter might be attributed to detrital input into the carbonate platforms. Additional low-temperature remanence measurements show a wide vari- ety of phenomena, including Verwey transitions and indications for the presence of superparamagnetic grains. However, the low-temperature experiments do not allow a straightforward discrimination between the clastic and carbonate rocks and suggest more complex magnetomineralogies than expected from the hysteresis measurements alone.

  11. Weather types and strokes in the Augsburg region (Southern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Naumann, Markus; Seubert, Stefanie

    2017-04-01

    Strokes are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main reason for longterm care dependency in Germany. Concerning the economical impact on patients and healthcare systems it is of particular importance to prevent this disease as well as to improve the outcome of the affected persons. Beside the primary well-known risk factors like hypertension, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and others, also weather seems to have pronounced influence on the occurrence and frequency of strokes. Previous studies most often focused on effects of singular meteorological variables like ambient air temperature, air pressure or humidity. An advanced approach is to link the entire suite of daily weather elements classified to air mass- or weather types to cerebrovascular morbidity or mortality. In a joint pilot study bringing together climatologists, environmental scientists and physicians from the University of Augsburg and the clinical centre Augsburg, we analysed relationships between singular meteorological parameters as well as combined weather effects (e.g. weather types) and strokes in the urban area of Augsburg and the surrounding rural region. A total of 17.501 stroke admissions to Neurological Clinic and Clinical Neurophysiology at Klinikum Augsburg between 2006 and 2015 are classified to either "ischaemic" (16.354) or "haemorrhagic" (1.147) subtype according to etiology (based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision). Spearman correlations between daily frequencies of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and singular atmospheric parameters (T, Tmin, Tmax, air pressure, humidity etc.) measured at the DWD (German weather service) meteorological station at Augsburg Muehlhausen are rather low. However, higher correlations are achieved when considering sub-samples of "homogenous weather conditions" derived from synoptic circulation classifications: e.g. within almost all of 10 types arising from a classification of

  12. Regional differences in prediction models of lung function in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäper Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ between subpopulations within Germany and whether prediction equations developed for one subpopulation are also adequate for another subpopulation. Methods Within three studies (KORA C, SHIP-I, ECRHS-I in different areas of Germany 4059 adults performed lung function tests. The available data consisted of forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate. For each study multivariate regression models were developed to predict lung function and Bland-Altman plots were established to evaluate the agreement between predicted and measured values. Results The final regression equations for FEV1 and FVC showed adjusted r-square values between 0.65 and 0.75, and for PEF they were between 0.46 and 0.61. In all studies gender, age, height and pack-years were significant determinants, each with a similar effect size. Regarding other predictors there were some, although not statistically significant, differences between the studies. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the regression models for each individual study adequately predict medium (i.e. normal but not extremely high or low lung function values in the whole study population. Conclusions Simple models with gender, age and height explain a substantial part of lung function variance whereas further determinants add less than 5% to the total explained r-squared, at least for FEV1 and FVC. Thus, for different adult subpopulations of Germany one simple model for each lung function measures is still sufficient.

  13. Five centuries of regional development in Northwest Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Germany and the Netherlands have developed very differently over the centuries. A close examination of Dutch and German regions show the differentiated way in which regions profit from the changing developmental opportunities of the world-system. This article studies long-term regional development

  14. Analysis of Regional Unemployment in Russia and Germany: Spatial-Econometric Approach

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    Elena Vyacheslavovna Semerikova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was supported by the Government of the Russian Federation, grant No.11.G34.31.0059. This paper analyzes the regional unemployment in Russia and Germany in 2005-2010 and addresses issues of choosing the right specification of spatial-econometric models. The analysis based on data of 75 Russian and 370 German regions showed that for Germany the choice of the spatial weighting matrix has a more significant influence on the parameter estimates than for Russia. Presumably this is due to stronger linkages between regional labor markets in Germany compared to Russia. The authors also proposed an algorithm for choosing between spatial matrices and demonstrated the application of this algorithm on simulated Russian data. The authors found that 1 the deviation of the results from the true ones increases when the spatial dependence between regions is higher and 2 the matrix of inverse distances is more preferable than the boundary one for the analysis of regional unemployment in Russia (because of the lower value of the mean squared error. The authors are also planning to apply the proposed algorithm for simulated data of Germany. These results allow accounting the spatial dependence more correctly when modeling regional unemployment which is very important for making proper regional policy

  15. The long persistence of regional entrepreneurship culture: Germany 1925 - 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Michael; Wyrwich, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the persistence of levels of self-employment and new business formation in different time periods and under different framework conditions. The analysis shows that high levels of regional self-employment and new business formation tend to be persistent for periods as long as 80 years and that such an entrepreneurial culture can even survive abrupt and drastic changes in the politic-economic environment. We thus conclude that regional entrepreneurship cultures do exist and that ...

  16. Knowledge Creation and Regional Spillovers: Empirical Evidence from Germany

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    Akhvlediani Tinatin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effects of intra- and inter-regional knowledge spillovers on innovative activities in German states using the augmented Griliches-Jaffe knowledge production function. The “Harris market potential” type index is calculated to proxy for inter-regional knowledge transfers of two types: industrial knowledge transfers generated from the business enterprise sector and academic spillovers generated from universities across all German states. The model also includes the concentration of high-tech enterprises, in order to capture the agglomeration effect in the local economy. The estimation results reveal that not only do local private and university research efforts have a positive and significant effect on local innovative activities, but there are also important interregional knowledge spillovers across the German regions.

  17. Income differentials on regional labour markets in Southwest Germany

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    Guyot Alice

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to identify explanatory variables for income disparities between women and men across different regional types. Using data from the BA Employment Panel (BEP descriptive statistics show that the gender pay gap grows wider from core regions to periphery. The main explanatory variables for the income differentials are vocational education in the men's case and size of enterprise in the women's case. Whereas in the case of women the importance of vocational status increases and the importance of size of enterprise decreases from rural areas to urban areas.

  18. Vaccine Preventability of Meningococcal Clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M.; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Martin, Diana R.; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city

  19. Regional Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in Germany: Results From Two Population-Based Surveys

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    Nicole Aumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Due to the increasing prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD, kidney dysfunction becomes a major public health problem. We investigated the CKD prevalence and determined to what extent the variation of risk factors explains the different CKD prevalence in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data from 6,054 participants, aged 31 to 82 years, from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 in Northeast Germany and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 Study in Southern Germany. Regional differences in selected percentiles corresponding to the cutpoints for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, ≥30 mg/g were tested using quantile regression models that adjusted for CKD risk factors. Results: The prevalence of decreased eGFRcreatinine-cystatinC (5.9 vs. 3.1 %, p creatinine-cystatinC and high ACR. Conclusions: The CKD prevalence is higher in Northeast than in Southern Germany. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors partly explain the higher disease burden of CKD in Northeast than in Southern Germany.

  20. The relative importance of fertilization and soil erosion on C-dynamics in agricultural landscapes of NE Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Madlen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Hagemann, Ulrike; Jurisch, Nicole; Remus, Rainer; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The hummocky ground moraine landscape of north-east Germany is characterized by distinct small-scale soil heterogeneity on the one hand, and intensive energy crop cultivation on the other. Both factors are assumed to significantly influence gaseous C exchange, and thus driving the dynamics of soil organic carbon stocks in terrestrial, agricultural ecosystems. However, it is not yet clear to which extent fertilization and soil erosional status influence soil C dynamics and whether one of these factors is more relevant than the other. We present seasonal and dynamic soil C balances of biogas maize for the growing season 2011, recorded at different sites located within the CarboZALF experimental area. The sites differ regarding soils (non-eroded Albic Luvisols (Cutanic), extremely eroded Calcaric Regosol and depositional Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol,) and applied fertilizer (100% mineral N fertilizer, 50% mineral and 50% N organic fertilizer, 100% organic N fertilizer). Fertilization treatments were established on the Albic Luvisol (Cutanic). Net-CO2-exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were measured every four weeks using a dynamic flow-through non-steady-state closed manual chamber system. Gap filling was performed based on empirical temperature and PAR dependency functions to derive daily NEE values. At the same time, daily above-ground biomass production (NPP) was estimated based on biomass samples and final harvest, using a sigmoidal growth function. In a next step, dynamic soil C balances were generated as the balance of daily NEE and NPP considering the initial C input due to N fertilizers. The resulted seasonal soil C balances varied from strong C losses at the Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol (602 g C m-2) to C gains at the Calcaric Regosol (-132 g C m-2). In general, soils exerted a stronger impact on seasonal and dynamic C balances compared to differences in applied N fertilizer. There are indications that inter-annual variations in climate conditions

  1. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  2. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for an Abandoned Quarry in the Evros Region (NE Greece

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    Sapfo Τsolaki-Fiaka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the impacts of abandoned quarries and to examine scenarios for their restoration. Two quarries were selected as case studies, which are located in the Evros Region (NE Greece. Initially, the current state of the abandoned quarries was recorded and evaluated, including slopes, landscape, land use, as well as cultural elements. Four alterative scenarios for the exploitation of each quarry were proposed, taking into account the specifics of each site. Financial, environmental, and socioeconomic criteria were then used to evaluate these scenarios. The PROMETHEE method is a multi-criteria decision analysis approach and was applied to rank the alterative scenarios. The results show that the “do nothing” scenario is the worst solution for both quarries. In the quarry at Αsvestades, the restoration of the area by returning the land to pre-quarry use with the shaping of the slopes and planting is considered the best solution. On the other hand, in the quarry Mikro Derio two scenarios are proposed; one provides restoring the site to its pre-quarry land use and the other is the restoration of the quarry combined with the creation of a wildlife observatory and places for alternative forms of tourism.

  3. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and its tholeiitic melt metasomatism beneath NE termination of the Eger Rift (Europe): the case study of the Steinberg (Upper Lusatia, SE Germany) xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    The ca. 30 Ma Steinberg basanite occurs at the NE termination of the Eger (Ohře) Rift in the NW Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, and belongs to the Cenozoic alkaline Central European Volcanic Province. The basanite hosts a suite of mantle xenoliths, most of which are harzburgites containing relatively magnesian olivine (Fo 90.5-91.6) and Al-poor (0.04-0.13 a pfu) orthopyroxene (mg# 0.90-0.92). Some of these harzburgites also contain volumetrically minor clinopyroxene (mg# 0.92-0.95, Al 0.03-0.13 a pfu) and have U-shaped LREE-enriched REE patterns. The Steinberg harzburgites are typical for the Lower Silesian - Upper Lusatian domain of the European subcontinental lithospheric mantle. They represent residual mantle that has undergone extensive partial melting and was subsequently affected by mantle metasomatism by mixed carbonatite-silicate melts. The Steinberg xenolith suite comprises also dunitic xenoliths affected by metasomatism by melt similar to the host basanite, which lowered the Fo content in olivine to 87.6 %. This metasomatism happened shortly before xenolith entrainment in the erupting lava. One of the xenoliths is a wehrlite (olivine Fo 73 %, clinopyroxene mg# 0.83-0.85, subordinate orthopyroxene mg# 0.76-0.77). Its clinopyroxene REE pattern is flat and slightly LREE-depleted. This wehrlite is considered to be a tholeiitic cumulate. One of the studied harzburgites contains clinopyroxene with similar trace element contents to those in wehrlite. This type of clinopyroxene records percolation of tholeiitic melt through harzburgite. The tholeiitic melt might be similar to Cenozoic continental tholeiites occurring in the Central European Volcanic Province (e.g., Vogelsberg, Germany).

  4. De novo synthesis and functional analysis of the phosphatase-encoding gene acI-B of uncultured Actinobacteria from Lake Stechlin (NE Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; McMahon, Katherine D; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-12-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/guide/taxonomy/] database enlists more than 15,500 bacterial species. But this also includes a plethora of uncultured bacterial representations. Owing to their metabolism, they directly influence biogeochemical cycles, which underscores the the important status of bacteria on our planet. To study the function of a gene from an uncultured bacterium, we have undertaken a de novo gene synthesis approach. Actinobacteria of the acI-B subcluster are important but yet uncultured members of the bacterioplankton in temperate lakes of the northern hemisphere such as oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (NE Germany). This lake is relatively poor in phosphate (P) and harbors on average ~1.3 x 10 6 bacterial cells/ml, whereby Actinobacteria of the ac-I lineage can contribute to almost half of the entire bacterial community depending on seasonal variability. Single cell genome analysis of Actinobacterium SCGC AB141-P03, a member of the acI-B tribe in Lake Stechlin has revealed several phosphate-metabolizing genes. The genome of acI-B Actinobacteria indicates potential to degrade polyphosphate compound. To test for this genetic potential, we targeted the exoP-annotated gene potentially encoding polyphosphatase and synthesized it artificially to examine its biochemical role. Heterologous overexpression of the gene in Escherichia coli and protein purification revealed phosphatase activity. Comparative genome analysis suggested that homologs of this gene should be also present in other Actinobacteria of the acI lineages. This strategic retention of specialized genes in their genome provides a metabolic advantage over other members of the aquatic food web in a P-limited ecosystem. [Int Microbiol 2016; 19(1):39-47]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. Automatic Extraction and Size Distribution of Landslides in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan A. Othman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the localization and size distribution of landslides using automatic remote sensing techniques in (semi- arid, non-vegetated, mountainous environments. The study area is located in the Kurdistan region (NE Iraq, within the Zagros orogenic belt, which is characterized by the High Folded Zone (HFZ, the Imbricated Zone and the Zagros Suture Zone (ZSZ. The available reference inventory includes 3,190 landslides mapped from sixty QuickBird scenes using manual delineation. The landslide types involve rock falls, translational slides and slumps, which occurred in different lithological units. Two hundred and ninety of these landslides lie within the ZSZ, representing a cumulated surface of 32 km2. The HFZ implicates 2,900 landslides with an overall coverage of about 26 km2. We first analyzed cumulative landslide number-size distributions using the inventory map. We then proposed a very simple and robust algorithm for automatic landslide extraction using specific band ratios selected upon the spectral signatures of bare surfaces as well as posteriori slope and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds. The index is based on the contrast between landslides and their background, whereas the landslides have high reflections in the green and red bands. We applied the slope threshold map to remove low slope areas, which have high reflectance in red and green bands. The algorithm was able to detect ~96% of the recent landslides known from the reference inventory on a test site. The cumulative landslide number-size distribution of automatically extracted landslide is very similar to the one based on visual mapping. The automatic extraction is therefore adapted for the quantitative analysis of landslides and thus can contribute to the assessment of hazards in similar regions.

  6. Incidence, time trends and regional variation of childhood leukaemia in Germany and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatsch, P.; Mergenthaler, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents data on the German and Europe-wide incidence, time trends and regional variations of childhood leukaemia. Data were provided by the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR), a population-based cancer registry recording all cases of malignant diseases in children under 15 y of age residing in Germany and by the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System (ACCIS) co-ordinated at International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, that combines and evaluates data from several European population-based cancer registries. The incidence of leukaemia (44.0 per million) has increased in Europe as well as in Germany in the last decades (0.6% annually on average). Germany shows no systematic aggregation of regions with low or high cancer incidence in terms of regional clustering. Incidence rates differ between European regions with the highest rates in Northern Europe (48.0 per million) and the lowest rates in Eastern Europe (39.1). Altogether, the results from ACCIS and the GCCR show good agreement. (authors)

  7. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  8. Hepatitis E in liver transplant recipients in the Rhône-Alpes region in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffaz, C; Scholtes, C; Dron, A-G; Chevallier-Queyron, P; Ritter, J; André, P; Ramière, C

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered an emerging pathogen, but prevalence seems highly variable according to previous European studies. As HEV can lead to chronic infections in immunosuppressed patients, it is thus essential to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of this infection. We determined retrospectively, in a cohort of 206 pediatric and adult liver transplant recipients from the Rhône-Alpes region in France, pre-transplant anti-HEV-IgG prevalence and incidence of HEV infections during post-transplant follow-up (HEV IgG and IgM ± HEV-RNA). Transplantations were carried out between 2005 and 2012 and mean post-transplant follow-up was 32.8 months. Global pre-transplant prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 29%, increasing regularly with age from 7% for children under 15 to 49% for patients older than 60. From the 142 seronegative patients before transplant, 11 seroconversions (7.7%) were observed during follow-up (incidence of 2.83 cases per 100 person-years). HEV RNA-tested at transaminases peak or randomly-was detected in only one case of seroconversion. For at least 2 HEV-seropositive patients, who had negative RNAemia before transplantation, viral RNA was detected chronically during follow-up, suggesting reinfection with HEV. Acute infections were largely more frequent than chronic infections and were asymptomatic or misdiagnosed, suggesting that liver transplant patients may not be particularly prone to developing severe HEV hepatitis. In addition, the presence of IgG anti-HEV may not protect against re-infection. Serological testing, therefore, appears to be of limited interest for the diagnosis of HEV infections in liver transplant recipients.

  9. On the Implications of Knowledge Bases for Regional Innovation Policies in Germany

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    Hassink Robert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional innovation policies have been criticised for being too standardised, one-size-fits-all and place-neutral in character. Embedded in these debates, this paper has two aims: first, to analyse whether industries with different knowledge bases in regions in Germany have different needs for regional innovation policies, and secondly, to investigate whether knowledge bases can contribute to the fine-tuning of regional innovation policies in particular and to a modern, tailor-made, place-based regional innovation policy in general. It concludes that although needs differ due to differences in knowledge bases, those bases are useful only to a limited extent in fine-tuning regional innovation policies

  10. Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany - Spatial variability and driving factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cora; Jaconi, Angélica; Jacobs, Anna; Don, Axel

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in the soil. Sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools, as labile pools with a high turnover may be accumulated much faster but are also more vulnerable to losses. The aims of this study were to (1) assess how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed among SOC fractions on a national scale in Germany, (2) identify factors influencing this distribution and (3) identify regions with high vulnerability to SOC losses. The SOC content and proportion of two different SOC fractions were estimated for more than 2500 mineral topsoils (soil texture, bulk soil C / N ratio, total SOC content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history of the sites. Arable topsoils in central and southern Germany were found to contain the highest proportions and contents of stable SOC fractions, and therefore have the lowest vulnerability to SOC losses. North-western Germany contains an area of sandy soils with unusually high SOC contents and high proportions of light SOC fractions, which are commonly regarded as representing a labile carbon pool. This is true for the former peat soils in this area, which have already lost and are at high risk of losing high proportions of their SOC stocks. Those black sands can, however, also contain high amounts of stable SOC due to former heathland vegetation and need to be treated and discussed separately from non-black sand agricultural soils. Overall, it was estimated that, in large areas all over Germany, over 30 % of SOC is stored in easily mineralisable forms. Thus, SOC-conserving management of arable soils in these regions is of great importance.

  11. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

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    Razum Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution. Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that

  12. Regional modelling of the confined aquifers below the Boom clay in NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersteen, K.; Gedeon, M.; Marivoet, J.; Wouters, L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). The hydrogeological program at SCK.CEN supports the long-term performance assessments of the geological disposal of radioactive waste by performing a phenomenological research of the aquifer systems surrounding the studied disposal system. One of the important components of this programme is the regional hydrogeological modelling. The regional hydrogeology is studied using two main models - the steady state Neogene aquifer model (NAM) and the transient deep aquifer pumping model (DAP), developed to characterize and quantify the regional groundwater flow in, respectively, the aquifers lying above the Boom Clay in the Nete catchment area (NAM), and the aquifers lying below the Boom Clay in the Campine area (DAP). This paper describes the most recent update of the DAP model. The DAP model represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay. This includes the parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer buried under the Boom Clay. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. In the DAP model, the shallow aquifer system overlying the Boom Clay is replaced by fixed head boundaries: this aquifer system is dominated by close-to-surface hydrological processes and the heads fluctuate seasonally without any apparent long-term trend. In the horizontal direction, the model extends to the south as far as the outcrops of the major aquitards: the Maldegem Formation confining the Ledo

  13. [Regional analysis of drug treatment prevalence and medication of diabetes mellitus in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, T; Walker, J; Schramm, W

    2012-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread chronic disease. Diabetes prevalence was already analyzed in multiple complex studies. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the regional drug treatment prevalence and medication of diabetes mellitus in Germany. Simultaneously, we examined and validated the applicability of prescription data of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) as the basis for reliable and comparable prevalence estimations. For the analysis, we used anonymized data from a prescription database as well as the member statistics of the German federal Ministry of Health. By using defined prescription profiles with anti-diabetic medication, we determined the diabetic patients and treatment schemes per Association of SHI Physicians. Subsequently, we calculated and described the drug treatment prevalence and medication. A differentiation between type 1 and type 2 diabetes was not possible. The total prevalence of drug-treated patients in Germany was 7.77%. The regional values ranged from 6.40% in Schleswig-Holstein until 11.37% in Saxony-Anhalt. The highest numbers of drug treatment prevalence were found in the East of Germany. Insulin treatment was frequent in Hamburg, but rare in Bavaria. Insulin combined with oral anti-diabetic medication was mainly dispensed in Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg, least in Hamburg. A treatment with one or more oral anti-diabetics was most common in Bavaria and Bremen, lowest in Rhineland-Palatinate and Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. We developed an easy to use evaluation algorithm for prescription data to estimate the drug treatment prevalence of a chronic disease. The estimated prevalence confirms the increasing trend reported from other studies and appears to be plausible in comparison. More research is required to validate and enhance the method. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Regional radiation protection center in the Federal Republic of Germany - Tasks and Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1988-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany 220,000 staff members are classified at the moment as occupationally radiation exposed persons. For the maintenance of industrial health and safety for the workers in the companies and for the medical, professional and social rehabilitaion after an accident the so-called ''Berufsgenossenschaften'' (professional trade associations) are responsible. For employees in nuclear industry two trade associations are competent: - the Trade Association for Precision Engineering and Electrical Engineering for the 6,000 employees in nuclear power plants, - the Trade Association of the Chemical Industry for the 4,000 employees in fuel element fabrication and the reprocessing companies. In case of an accident workers from service companies e.g. construction and installation companies could be affected as well. Therefore these trade associations have founded a couple of years ago an ''Institute for Radiation Protection''. A special task of this institute is First Aid to overexposed people in case of radiation accidents. In addition, it organizes the 24-hours-service of the seven Regional Radiation Protection Centers of Federal Republic of Germany. The institute provides special training of radiation protection physicians and occupationally radiation exposed persons. (author) [pt

  15. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

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    Damià Gomis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  16. Oceanographic conditions in the NEMO region during the KM3NeT project (April 2006-May 2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparnocchia, Stefania; Pietro Gasparini, Gian; Schroeder, Katrin; Borghini, Mireno

    2011-01-01

    An intense observational activity was conducted in the NEMO region, western Ionian Sea, 40 nm south-east of Capo Passero (Sicily), in the framework of the KM3NeT project. Several oceanographic cruises were performed from 2006 to 2009 and current measurements carried out. The new data describe the present status of the deep layer and its evolution after the occurrence of a notable change that affected the Eastern Mediterranean water masses and circulation during the 1990's. In particular, they evidence the presence of a newly formed water mass in the abyssal layer of the Ionian Sea, coming likely from the Adriatic. Deep currents in the region are quite energetic, as already known, and highly variable both spatially and in strength. They are organized in a cyclonic circuit, with a prevalent north-west direction corresponding to the NEMO site.

  17. Atmospheric turbulent structures and their correlative factor leading to the thunderstorm events at the NE region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahan, Y.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Pathak, K.; Ray, K. P.

    2017-08-01

    Starting with the seasonal occurrence characteristics of thunderstorm (TS) over North Eastern (NE) part of India, the paper addresses hydrodynamic factors leading to TS. Further, atmospheric structure constant (Cn2) and Reynolds number (Re) the two turbulence parameters are analysed in association with TS, on the background that these two variabilities and TS events are associated with atmospheric temperature and humidity. The analysis result shows that during the growth and development processes of TS, the correlation coefficient between Cn2 and Re is enhanced by 50% compared to non-thunderstorm days. These observations are explained in terms of eddies and vortices generated in a moving fluid system of an atmosphere as represented by Cn2 and Re. The vortices are the turbulent pockets of fluid that move randomly within the medium and ultimately dissipate their kinetic energy in the form of heat. This process leads to the transfer of energy between atmospheric layers by changing the buoyancy that may cause dry, wet or storm conditions of the weather. Such kind of energy transfer processes may be widespread or localized. The active movement of the fluid during localized condition produces rapid changes in Cn2 and Re which in turn may provide storm conditions. In this background, the paper examines the role of these parameters in the growth and development of TS over NE region.

  18. THE DAΦNE INTERACTION REGION FOR THE KLOE-2 RUN

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, Catia; Raimondi, Pantaleo

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new collision scheme based on large Piwinski angle and Crab-Waist compensation of the beam-beam interaction has been proposed and implemented on DAΦNE. The new configuration has been used to provide beam-beam events to the SIDDHARTA experiment, a compact device without solenoidal field, heir of DEAR, providing a simple environment for the Crab-Waist test. The luminosity has been increased by a factor 3 with a peak value of 4.53x1032 cm-2s-1 letting in collision currents slightly lower than those corresponding to the old records. The highest daily integrated luminosity measured in a moderate injection regime, suitable for SIDDHARTA operation, has been L∫day ~15 pb-1. An almost continuous injection regime provided L∫1 hour ~1.0 pb-1 hourly integrated luminosity which opened significant perspectives for the KLOE-2 experiment. Scaling this best integrated luminosity measured over two hours, it is reasonable to expect more than 20 pb-1 per day, and assuming 80% collider uptime as during the past ru...

  19. Modelling past hydrology of an interfluve area in the Campine region (NE Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Beerten, Koen; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at hydrological model verification of a small lowland interfluve area (18.6 km²) in NE Belgium, for conditions that are different than today. We compare the current state with five reference periods in the past (AD 1500, 1770, 1854, 1909 and 1961) representing important stages of landscape evolution in the study area. Historical information and proxy data are used to derive conceptual model features and boundary conditions specific to each period: topography, surface water geometry (canal, drains and lakes), land use, soils, vegetation and climate. The influence of landscape evolution on the hydrological cycle is assessed using numerical simulations of a coupled unsaturated zone - groundwater model (HYDRUS-MODFLOW). The induced hydrological changes are assessed in terms of groundwater level, recharge, evapotranspiration, and surface water discharge. HYDRUS-MODFLOW coupling allows including important processes such as the groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Major land use change occurred between AD 1854 and 1909, with about 41% of the study area being converted from heath to coniferous forest, together with the development of a drainage network. Results show that this led to a significant decrease of groundwater recharge and lowering of the groundwater table. A limitation of the study lies in the comparison of simulated past hydrology with appropriate palaeo-records. Examples are given as how some indicators (groundwater head, swamp zones) can be used to tend to model validation. Quantifying the relative impact of land use and climate changes requires running sensitivity simulations where the models using alternative land use are run with the climate forcing of other periods. A few examples of such sensitivity runs are presented in order to compare the influence of land use and climate change on the study area hydrology.

  20. Turbulent fluxes in atmospheric boundary layer of a semi-arid region of N-E Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S. R.; De Fatima Correia, M.; Da Silva, E. M.; Costa, A. M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of the Experiment 'Experimento de Microfisica de Nuvens-EmfiN' (Experiment of microphysics of clouds) conducted by Universidade Estatual de Ceara-UECE at Fortaleza, a semi-arid region of N-E Brazil, are presented. The mean kinematic fluxes of sensible heat and water vapor of the surface boundary layer are estimated by the thermodynamic energy and water vapor conservation equations; and by the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The results of the two methods are in good agreement. It is shown that in the absence of sophisticated fast-response turbulence instrumentation and wind data the conservations equations methods are better option for estimation of heat and water vapor fluxes. Further they are useful to study the turbulent fluxes in inhomogeneous condition in time like early morning and late evening boundary layer transitions

  1. Regional flood impact assessment for Kiel and Eckernförde, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustikova, Iuliia; Viavattene, Christophe; Seiß, Guntram

    2017-04-01

    It is well-observed that extreme flood events bring considerable destruction to coastal communities. The estimates of damage increases when direct and indirect losses are both considered in the assessment. This study applied the INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model which is designed to estimate and compare not only tangible but also intangible losses such as risk to life, recovery mechanisms and household displacement. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was performed in order to compare hotspots of high flood risk on the regional scale and detect which impact indicators influence results the most. INDRA allowed assessing the following impact indicators: direct damages to buildings and roads, transport disruption, risk to life and financial recovery mechanisms of private households and businesses. The focus was on two hotspots of flood risk, where direct and indirect impacts from 200 years flood were assessed and analyzed in terms of relative importance to the region. The region here was defined as municipalities located on the Baltic Sea coast within the Schleswig-Holstein state, Germany. The hotspots are the towns of Kiel and Eckernförde. They are urban areas with a high concentration of people and assets, which previously experienced extreme flood events. From the performed investigation it was found out that modeled flood differently impacts Kiel and Eckernförde. The results produced by MCA show that the scores of direct and indirect damage are slightly higher in Eckernförde than in Kiel. Transport disruption is a compelling element in the performed regional impact assessment and demonstrated immense weight. Extreme events may pose significant direct and indirect impacts on the coastal roads, obstructing not only the access to important landmarks such as hospitals, train stations, harbors, etc. but also to contiguous municipalities. Yet, the analysis showed that other impact indicators are rather of local importance and would not cause vast damage on a

  2. Regional and temporal variations in coding of hospital diagnoses referring to upper gastrointestinal and oesophageal bleeding in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbe Edeltraut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health insurance claims data are increasingly used for health services research in Germany. Hospital diagnoses in these data are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, German modification (ICD-10-GM. Due to the historical division into West and East Germany, different coding practices might persist in both former parts. Additionally, the introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany in 2003/2004 might have changed the coding. The aim of this study was to investigate regional and temporal variations in coding of hospitalisation diagnoses in Germany. Methods We analysed hospitalisation diagnoses for oesophageal bleeding (OB and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB from the official German Hospital Statistics provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Bleeding diagnoses were classified as "specific" (origin of bleeding provided or "unspecific" (origin of bleeding not provided coding. We studied regional (former East versus West Germany differences in incidence of hospitalisations with specific or unspecific coding for OB and UGIB and temporal variations between 2000 and 2005. For each year, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for former East versus West Germany were estimated with log-linear regression models adjusting for age, gender and population density. Results Significant differences in specific and unspecific coding between East and West Germany and over time were found for both, OB and UGIB hospitalisation diagnoses, respectively. For example in 2002, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for East versus West Germany were 1.24 (95% CI 1.16-1.32 for specific and 0.67 (95% CI 0.60-0.74 for unspecific OB diagnoses and 1.43 (95% CI 1.36-1.51 for specific and 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.87 for unspecific UGIB. Regional differences nearly disappeared and time trends were less marked when using combined specific and unspecific diagnoses of OB or UGIB, respectively. Conclusions During the study

  3. Bulk mineralogy of the NE Syrtis and Jezero crater regions of Mars derived through thermal infrared spectral analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Goudge, T. A.; Bramble, M. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Amador, E. S.; Mustard, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the area to the northwest of the Isidis impact basin (hereby referred to as "NW Isidis") using thermal infrared emission datasets to characterize and quantify bulk surface mineralogy throughout this region. This area is home to Jezero crater and the watershed associated with its two deltaic deposits in addition to NE Syrtis and the strong and diverse visible/near-infrared spectral signatures observed in well-exposed stratigraphic sections. The spectral signatures throughout this region show a diversity of primary and secondary surface mineralogies, including olivine, pyroxene, smectite clays, sulfates, and carbonates. While previous thermal infrared investigations have sought to characterize individual mineral groups within this region, none have systematically assessed bulk surface mineralogy and related these observations to visible/near-infrared studies. We utilize an iterative spectral unmixing method to statistically evaluate our linear thermal infrared spectral unmixing models to derive surface mineralogy. All relevant primary and secondary phases identified in visible/near-infrared studies are included in the unmixing models and their modeled spectral contributions are discussed in detail. While the stratigraphy and compositional diversity observed in visible/near-infrared spectra are much better exposed and more diverse than most other regions of Mars, our thermal infrared analyses suggest the dominance of basaltic compositions with less observed variability in the amount and diversity of alteration phases. These results help to constrain the mineralogical context of these previously reported visible/near-infrared spectral identifications. The results are also discussed in the context of future in situ investigations, as the NW Isidis region has long been promoted as a region of paleoenvironmental interest on Mars.

  4. Radon exposure of school population in Friuli Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale survey was carried out, comprising over than 5000 measurements with passive track detectors LR115 or CR39 in every school of the region. The main conclusions are as follows: (i) The average concentration in Friuli Venezia Giulia schools results is 100 Bq/m3; (ii) Building characteristics of dwellings and schools are quite similar in Friuli Venezia Giulia region: the same radon concentration mean values were observed in the two kinds of buildings apart from kindergartens that are usually developed only at the ground floor level; (iii) About 4 % schools shows include at least one room exceeding the Italian reference level of 500 Bq/m3. The same results has been found for dwelling s during the regional part of a National survey: 4 % dwellings exceeded the European recommended levels of 400 Bq/m3. (iv) The fact that soil is the main source of indoor radon in the region has been confirmed. Radon concentration distribution maps of various kinds could be constructed: in any case areas with higher radon indoor concentrations as compared to the average could be identified. The estimated mean effective doses for students and workers are about 0.5 mSv/y, although values up to 4 mSv/year are not uncommon in some schools. (P.A.)

  5. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain

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    M. Turco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.

  6. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  7. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  8. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  9. Radon remedial actions in schools of Friuli Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the last four years the Regional Agency of Environmental Protection (ARPA) of Friuli Venezia Giulia carried out a survey to determine the radon concentration in the schools of the area. During the survey all the 1320 schools and kindergartens of the region were investigated with more than 5000 measurements. In about 2% of cases, radon concentrations exceeded the reference levels of Italian law and remedial actions were performed. In collaboration with the Building Engineering Department of Udine University, ARPA FVG edited a manual concerning indications and proposals for building protection against radon. The environmental physics section of ARPA FVG, was heavily involved in the remedial action, both in the design of the action and in the investigation of effectiveness. In more than 20 schools the owners following ARPA indications solved the problem of high radon concentrations. In this paper the authors report the main type of applied remedial actions grouped taking into account the different remedial methodology. In Friuli Venezia Giulia region the main radon source is represented by soil. The contribution of building materials to high radon concentrations is negligible. The most common remedial actions consisted in natural or artificial depressurization of the soil or the crawlspace with respect to indoor building. Sometimes air was pumped into the building or air exchange number was increased. The authors show in detail the design of the performed investigations: these involved different measurement sets with passive electrets and active instruments for continuous data collection. Measurements usually last 3 contiguous weeks and are followed by long period measurements with solid track detectors. Optimization of remedial action performance was investigated when remedial action consisted in active air extraction from the soil under the buildings and fan time regulation was possible. Very often simple and cheap actions allowed a reduction of 90% in radon

  10. Scale dependency of regional climate modeling of current and future climate extremes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Schefczyk, Lukas; Gutjahr, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    A warmer climate is projected for mid-Europe, with less precipitation in summer, but with intensified extremes of precipitation and near-surface temperature. However, the extent and magnitude of such changes are associated with creditable uncertainty because of the limitations of model resolution and parameterizations. Here, we present the results of convection-permitting regional climate model simulations for Germany integrated with the COSMO-CLM using a horizontal grid spacing of 1.3 km, and additional 4.5- and 7-km simulations with convection parameterized. Of particular interest is how the temperature and precipitation fields and their extremes depend on the horizontal resolution for current and future climate conditions. The spatial variability of precipitation increases with resolution because of more realistic orography and physical parameterizations, but values are overestimated in summer and over mountain ridges in all simulations compared to observations. The spatial variability of temperature is improved at a resolution of 1.3 km, but the results are cold-biased, especially in summer. The increase in resolution from 7/4.5 km to 1.3 km is accompanied by less future warming in summer by 1 ∘C. Modeled future precipitation extremes will be more severe, and temperature extremes will not exclusively increase with higher resolution. Although the differences between the resolutions considered (7/4.5 km and 1.3 km) are small, we find that the differences in the changes in extremes are large. High-resolution simulations require further studies, with effective parameterizations and tunings for different topographic regions. Impact models and assessment studies may benefit from such high-resolution model results, but should account for the impact of model resolution on model processes and climate change.

  11. Carbonaceous PM(2.5) and secondary organic aerosol across the Veneto region (NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Di Gilio, Alessia; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pavoni, Bruno

    2016-01-15

    Organic and elemental carbon (OC-EC) were measured in 360 PM2.5 samples collected from April 2012 to February 2013 at six provinces in the Veneto region, to determine the factors affecting the carbonaceous aerosol variations. The 60 daily samples have been collected simultaneously in all sites during 10 consecutive days for 6 months (April, June, August, October, December and February). OC ranged from 0.98 to 22.34 μg/m(3), while the mean value was 5.5 μg/m(3), contributing 79% of total carbon. EC concentrations fluctuated from 0.19 to 11.90 μg/m(3) with an annual mean value of 1.31 μg/m(3) (19% of the total carbon). The monthly OC concentration gradually increased from April to December. The EC did not vary in accordance with OC. However the highest values for both parameters were recorded in the cold period. The mean OC/EC ratio is 4.54, which is higher than the values observed in most of the other European cities. The secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributed for 69% of the total OC and this was confirmed by both the approaches OC/EC minimum ratio and regression. The results show that OC, EC and SOC exhibited higher concentration during winter months in all measurement sites, suggesting that the stable atmosphere and lower mixing play important role for the accumulation of air pollutant and hasten the condensation or adsorption of volatile organic compounds over the Veneto region. Significant meteorological factors controlling OC and EC were investigated by fitting linear models and using a robust procedure based on weighted likelihood, suggesting that low wind speed and temperature favour accumulation of emissions from local sources. Conditional probability function and conditional bivariate probability function plots indicate that both biomass burning and vehicular traffic are probably the main local sources for carbonaceous particulate matter emissions in two selected cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  13. Precious metal-bearing epithermal deposits in western Patagonia (NE Lago Fontana region), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchini, Mabel Elena; Etcheverry, Ricardo Oscar; de Barrio, Raúl Ernesto; Recio Hernández, Clemente

    2013-04-01

    Precious metal-bearing quartz veins occur at the northeastern sector of the Lago Fontana region in southwestern Argentina, within the context of the Andean continental magmatic arc environment. The deposits and their associated alteration zones are spatially related to a Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism represented by silicic dikes and hypabyssal intrusions, and hosted by a Late Jurassic to Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence. The veins and related veinlets crop out discontinuously, in general terms in a NW-SE belt. The primary vein mineral assemblage is composed mostly of pyrite ± galena ± chalcopyrite > hematite ± arsenopyrite in silica gangue minerals. Chemical analyses of grab samples from selected quartz veins show as much as 5.7 ppm Au and 224 ppm Ag, as well as elevated Pb, Cu, and Zn. Hydrothermal fluids caused an innermost silicification and adularia-sericite alteration assemblage, and an external propylitic halo. Sulfur isotope values measured for sulfides (δSS from -1.90 to +1.56‰), and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes measured on quartz crystals and extracted primary fluid inclusion waters (δOO = -2.85 to +5.40‰; δDO = -106.0 to -103.4‰) indicate that mineralization probably formed from magmatic fluids, which were mixed with meteoric waters. Also, fluid inclusion data from quartz veins point out that these fluids had low salinity (1.7-4.2 wt% NaCl equiv.), and temperatures of homogenization between 180 and 325 °C. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical features for mineralized surface exposures indicate a typical adularia-sericite, low sulfidation epithermal system in the Lago Fontana area that represents a promising target for further exploration programs.

  14. Heavy metal pollution associated with an abandoned lead-zinc mine in the Kirki region, NE Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Christos; Zafiriadis, Ilias; Mathioudakis, Vasileios; Constantinidis, Theodore

    2010-09-01

    The "Agios Philippos" mine in the Kirki region (NE Greece) has been abandoned in 1998 after half a century of ore exploration without a reclamation or remediation plan. This article aims at elucidating the potential environmental risks associated with this site by quantifying pollution in tailing basins, stream waters, stream sediments and agricultural fields. Concentrations of heavy metals in the abandoned mine tailings reached 12,567 mg/kg for Pb, 22,292 mg/kg for Zn, 174 mg/kg for Cd and 241 mg/kg for As. The geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor for these metals were indicative of extremely high contamination (I(geo) > 5) and extremely high enrichment (EF > 40), respectively. Stream waters in the proximity of the mine had an acidic pH equal to 5.96 and a high sulfate content (SO(4)(-2) = 545.5 mg/L), whereas concentrations of Mn, Zn and Cd reached 2,399 microg/L, 7,681 microg/L and 11.2 microg/L. High I(geo) and EF values for Cd, Zn and As in stream sediments indicates that surface water pollution has a historic background, which is typically associated with acid mine drainage. Agricultural fields in the proximity of the mine exhibited high I(geo) and EF values, which were in decreasing order Cd > Pb > Zn > As. These findings urge for an immediate remediation action of the afflicted area.

  15. Protracted Regional Dissemination of GIM-1-Producing Serratia marcescens in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Andreas F; Kaase, Martin; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Peter, Silke; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Rieber, Heime; Pfeffer, Klaus; MacKenzie, Colin R; Willmann, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase GIM-1 has been found in various bacterial host species nearly exclusively in western Germany. However, not much is known about the epidemiology of GIM-1-positive Serratia marcescens Here we report on a surprisingly protracted regional dissemination. In-hospital transmission was investigated by using conventional epidemiological tools to identify spatiotemporal links. Strain typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Bayesian phylogeny was used to infer the time axis of the observed occurrence. Thirteen S. marcescens strains from 10 patients from 6 different German hospitals were investigated. Suspected in-hospital transmissions were confirmed by molecular typing at a higher resolution by WGS than by PFGE. A detailed sequence analysis demonstrated the spread of one predominant strain variant but also provided evidence for transfer of the bla GIM-1 gene cassette between different strains. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of the identified clonal cluster could be dated back to April 1993 (95% highest posterior density interval, January 1973 to March 2003) and that this strain might have already harbored the bla GIM-1 at that time and, therewith, years before the first detection of this resistance gene in clinical specimens. This study shows a long-standing clonal and plasmid-mediated expansion of GIM-1-producing S. marcescens that might have gone unnoticed in the absence of a standardized and effective molecular screening for carbapenemases. The systematic and early detection of resistance is thus highly advisable, especially for the prevention of potentially long-term dissemination that may progress beyond control. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Viscosity effects and anthropogenic impact on thermohaline flow in the Schleswig-Holstein region (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, F.; Bayer, U. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    Coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transport (i.e. thermohaline flow) simulations have been carried out in order to study the interactions between shallow and deep brine flow in an aquifer system which includes a salt dome close to the surface. Particular attention has been given to the role of young processes (i.e., faults, Quaternary channels, and shallow salt structures) in affecting groundwater flow at basin scale. The results show that beside topography-driven flow, different convective regimes play a role for extensive solute exchange between shallow and deep aquifers. Particularly, heavy brines sink from the shallow salt dome crest into deeper aquifers. Furthermore, the young basin features strongly control discharge and recharge processes. At this state, the issues to be solved are the role of a transition zone along the salt flank, the effects of variable fluid viscosity in affecting the system dynamics and the impact of anthropogenic activities such as pumping stations on brine migration and heat transport. So far, viscosity effects are well described for rising hot plumes, while their influence on sinking brines are not studied yet. With regard to anthropogenic impact, pumping groundwater in saline environment can provide severe problems. For instance, brines up-coning can disturb wells and pollute the freshwater resources. Although the presented studies focus on the Schleswig-Holstein region (Germany), the results are of great interest for many sedimentary basins in which the described features are commonly encountered. Investigations concerning the potential impact of anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of deep and shallow groundwater processes will provide additional knowledge concerning key factors controlling the formation and evolution of saline waters within basins. At the same time, this research has an important practical use for water resource management. (orig.)

  17. System of regional centres of first aid in cases of radiation accidents in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    When in the seventies the number of occupational radiation exposed persons in the Federal Republic of Germany increased from about 35,000 (1974) to about 160,000 (1978) the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes felt prompted to reflect about special measures to prevent radiation accidents and provide health care for this special cases. They did so without any actual occasion: accidents were persons have been exposed by ionizing radiation were in the seventies just as rare as today. But that fact does not allow the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes to neglect the existing potential for severe accidents. So the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Electrical Industry including Precision Mechanics and the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Chemical Industry created the Institute for Radiation Protection in 1978. The primary task of that Institute is to guarantee an effective first aid in the case of a radiation accident. To realize that task the Institute contracted 11 wellknown institutions like radiological departments of large hospitals or the medical departments of research centres where the i knowledge on diagnostic and therapy of radiation effects is present. They are called 'Regionale Strahlenschutzzentren', Regional Centres for Radiation Protection (RCRP). In the case of radiation accidents these RCRP are the logistical centres for all arising questions of treatment. They have facilities for reconstructing exposure situations and assessing and evaluating doses, including measurements of internal contamination as well as for medical inpatient or out-patient treating like internal or external decontamination. Another important task of the RCRP is to advise employers in ad radiation protection questions which arise with the industrial application of ionizing radiation. Of course the centres give also answer to many question from members of the public, for example the personal effects of the power plant accident at Chernobyl

  18. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  19. Four centuries of translocal development in cities and regions in Northwest Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how the fates of different peripheral localities (Emsland, Gütersloh, and Lippe in Germany) were linked to the outside world in the course of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries. In the first centuries, these localities' translocal relations with the world economy were

  20. Governing the energy challenge : Canada and Germany in a multi-level regional and global context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, B.; Doern, G.B.; Exeter Univ.,

    2009-01-01

    This book features essays by leading energy and public policy specialists from Canada and Germany. It originated in the Transatlantic Energy Conference which was hosted by the Canadian Centre for German and European Studies at Toronto's York University in September 2005. The conference was attended by leading energy scholars and experts from Canadian and European universities, research institutes and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this book was to compare the dynamics of multi-level energy regulatory governance in Germany and Canada, notably the energy policy challenges that include energy security, environmental sustainability and a competitive resource economy. Many strategies to produce more efficient and sustainable energy are presented in the book. Part 1 of the book focuses on the energy industry, with particular emphasise on electricity, nuclear energy and natural gas. Part 2 of the book focuses on domestic patterns of multi-level energy governance and regulation in the two countries. As a member of the European Union, Germany is more advanced in dealing with multi-level governmental and sustainability constraints than Canada is as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The book focuses on the influence that the energy sector and multi-level institutional arrangements have on energy governance, with particular attention to the link between environmental study, climate change issues and economic market reforms. The growing differences between NAFTA and European Union member countries were highlighted. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  2. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  3. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  4. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2014-07-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  5. The Challenging Task of Governing Cross-Border Investment in Peripheral Regions: Polish Investors in Northeast Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinder Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the challenging task of governing cross-border investment in peripheral regions. The main objective is to identify common opportunities and obstacles in the Pomerania Euroregion by taking the case study of Polish citizens/ entrepreneurs investing in northeast Germany. This relatively new phenomenon is accompanied by large uncertainties and risks, and lacks further empirical insights. At the same time it breaks new ground, creates alternatives, calls for the development of efficient modes of cross-border cooperation and addresses mutual governance issues on an inter-regional basis between manifold stakeholders on both sides of the border. The case study summarises findings from fieldwork, elaborates a quantitative and qualitative assessment of cross-border governance measures within formal and informal institutions, and tries to formulate policy recommendations for prospective approaches

  6. COMPARATIVE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC STUDY OF YOUTH PRO-NATALIST POLICY IN THE REGIONS OF GERMANY, FRANCE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Gokova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the results of three empirical studies conducted in Russia, Germany and France, which reveal value orientations of contemporary young people of these countries, the nature of their social behavior in the demographic context, as well as economic factors influencing it. The objectives of the study are the need to identify and systematize the factors that influence the reproductive behavior of today’s youth from typical regions of these countries, as well as the evaluation of the experience of the organization and implementation of the pro-natalist policy accumulated by these three states. In the process of the questionnaire survey of young people in three countries, we formed an information database for the comparative analysis of young respondents’ views on the issues of identifying their behaviour and value orientations in family life. We also use materials of the state statistics of these countries and the secondary analysis of the materials of sociological studies. On the basis of the conducted research and experience of implementation of pro-natalist policy in Germany and France, we have developed a number of measures of the Russian youth pro-natalist policy. The development of the labor market has a strong influence on the formation of the family value system of today’s youth in Germany, France and Russia. It specifies the need to achieve a balance between creating a family, birth of children and the desire to create oneself as a professional. The possibility of achieving such life harmony must be ensured and supported by government measures in the framework of the effective pro-natalist policy.

  7. Solar radiation in Germany - observed trends and an assessment of their causes. Pt. 1; Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepert, B [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Fabian, P [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Grassl, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-02-01

    The possible longterm variation of daily sums of global solar radiation (direct plus diffuse solar radiation) in West-Germany was analysed for twelve stations of the German Weather Service (DWD). The global solar radiation decreased remarkably at seven stations (List/Sylt, Norderney, Hamburg, Braunlage, Wuerzburg, Weihenstephan, Hohenpeissenberg) and showed no significant variations at the remaining five stations (Braunschweig, Bocholt, Gelsenkirchen, Trier and Freiburg). The average decline is 3.7[+-]1.3% per decade in the last 15 to 39 years. The locally varying causes for the decline are changes in cloud parameters, fog occurrence and tropospheric aerosol. In this part of the article some possible causes, such as solar variability, increased number of contrails, decreased surface reflectivity, increased volcanic aerosol load in the 1980's or increased water vapour column content could be excluded. With a more sophisticated statistical procedure the effect of changes in cloud parameters and the effect of changed clear sky turbidity could not only be separated for each month for Hohenpeissenberg and Wuerzburg but also made mainly responsible for the observed trend. In Part II (Grabbe, Grassl), more detailed observations of solar radiation hourly averages of Hamburg were analysed. (orig.)

  8. North Frisian: The North Frisian Language in Education in Germany, 3rd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alastair G. H., Comp.

    2015-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  9. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  10. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna; Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian V.; Welsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The EU energy policy aims at creating a single European electricity market through market couplings and grid expansions. To analyse the implications of such power market couplings, we propose a market-based multi-region energy system model. The model simulates a multi-region power market (by applying market optimization and network theory), with detailed representation of each region as an energy system (by simulation of both heat and power sectors). We examine the impact of further integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in Germany on the Nordic power market. The results indicate that the average electricity price slightly grows in the Nordic power market after Germany's Energy Transition (Energiewende). Hence, the economic surplus of Nordic consumers diminishes while Nordic producers improve their gain under new market conditions. Considering the gird congestion income, the overall system-level benefits (social welfare) will improve in the Nordic region after Germany's Energiewende. However, this gain is not equally distributed among different Nordic countries and across different stakeholders. Furthermore, the Energiewende slightly increases carbon emissions from power and district heating (DH) sectors, and reduces the flexibility in integration of VRE in some Nordic countries like Denmark. The direct interconnection of Norway and Germany through NordLink will contribute to the flexibility in wind integration in other Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Finland. - Highlights: • By an integrated hourly analysis, we model the energy systems of several networked countries and their common electricity market. • The proposed model can inform energy policy on implications of renewable energy integration in an international power market. • Among Nordic countries, Norway gains the highest economic benefits from Germany's energy transition. • Germany's energy transition constrains the flexibility of the Nordic countries in wind integration. • Nord

  11. Learning through EC directive based SEA in spatial planning? Evidence from the Brunswick Region in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B.; Kidd, Sue; Jha-Thakur, Urmila; Gazzola, Paola; Peel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of an international comparative research project, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Academy for Sustainable Communities (ASC) on the 'learning potential of appraisal (strategic environmental assessment - SEA) in spatial planning'. In this context, aspects of 'single-loop' and 'double-loop' learning, as well as of individual, organisational and social learning are discussed for emerging post-EC Directive German practice in the planning region (Zweckverband) of Brunswick (Braunschweig), focusing on four spatial plan SEAs from various administrative levels in the region. It is found that whilst SEA is able to lead to plan SEA specific knowledge acquisition, comprehension, application and analysis ('single-loop learning'), it is currently resulting only occasionally in wider synthesis and evaluation ('double-loop learning'). Furthermore, whilst there is evidence that individual and occasionally organisational learning may be enhanced through SEA, most notably in small municipalities, social learning appears to be happening only sporadically.

  12. DOES IT MATTER WHERE I LIVE IN WESTERN-EUROPE - AN ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL MORTALITY DIFFERENTIALS IN BELGIUM, GERMANY AND THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, WJ

    1994-01-01

    Regional differentials in life expectancy at birth during the 1980s in Belgium, The Netherlands and some parts of the former Federal Republic of Germany are presented and commented upon. Life expectancy at birth during the 1980s was highest in The Netherlands, and lowest in some parts of southern

  13. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    -level benefits (social welfare) will improve in the Nordic region after Germany's Energiewende. However, this gain is not equally distributed among different Nordic countries and across different stakeholders. Furthermore, the Energiewende slightly increases carbon emissions from power and district heating (DH......) sectors, and reduces the flexibility in integration of VRE in some Nordic countries like Denmark. The direct interconnection of Norway and Germany through NordLink will contribute to the flexibility in wind integration in other Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Finland....

  14. Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities from tropical (SE Caribbean) and temperate (NE England and SW Spain) regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2018-05-01

    This is the first quantitative study of temporal assemblage turnovers of the relationships between intertidal foraminifera. Time series datasets collected from tropical Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay (Trinidad, SE Caribbean) and temperate Cowpen Marsh (NE England, U.K.) and Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain) were used. The assemblage turnover index (ATI) examined species interrelationships through comparisons of monthly or biweekly species proportional abundances over one or two years. Species contributing to major assemblage turnovers (ATI > x + σ) were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). Foraminiferal species are heterogeneously distributed within the sediment; multiple sample stations at a study location cumulatively represent the foraminiferal metacommunity and clusters represent foraminiferal assemblages. The ATI and CoBI were applied to the proportional abundances of live specimens recorded for the metacommunity and assemblages at each location. At Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay, major assemblage turnovers were driven by the most abundant species and the majority coincided with seasonal change or the arrival of the seasonal Orinoco plume in the Gulf of Paria. Seasonal turnovers of the foraminiferal metacommunities at temperate Cowpen Marsh and Bay of Cádiz occurred during the summer and winter. Major assemblage turnovers in the upper Cowpen Marsh occurred in the summer, and the lower marsh in the winter. Foraminiferans are useful bioindicators for monitoring the health of coastal environments. Understanding foraminiferal population dynamics will allow cyclical changes to be differentiated from abrupt and persistent changes, which are related to anthropogenic disturbances or long-term climate change. The ATI and CoBI are useful indices for quantitatively exploring relationships of foraminiferal populations over time.

  15. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  16. Contributions of Tourism to the Development of Regions in Russia and Germany. Bashkortostan and Saxony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Wiesmeth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the growth of the tourism industry in Russia has slowed down, and its lack of competitiveness has been the topic of various publications. Similarly, the touristic potential of the Republic of Bashkortostan is not exhausted with tourism still making an unsatisfactory contribution to the GRP of the region. Bashkortostan and Saxony are of the same size — in terms of population. Population density, however, is much higher in Saxony. In addition, differing historic roots affect any efforts to develop the touristic potential of Bashkortostan. It is then the goal of this paper to provide recommendations for sustainable tourism with a long-term perspective by analyzing consequences of these facts on the touristic infrastructure, on competitive forces, on the tasks of a tourism-marketing bureau, among others — always in comparison to the situation in Saxony (the case study method. Thus, this comparative analysis helps to restructure tourism in Bashkortostan in a situation with insufficient reliable touristic data. In the conditions of deceleration of global economic growth, depletion of natural resources, it is highly important to secure proper functioning of economic systems by means of using the available potential possibilities and searching for new reserves of economic growth. Tourism has a huge potential of development and can be an additional source of economic growth in Bashkortostan.

  17. [Financing Regional Dementia Networks in Germany: Determinants of Sustainable Healthcare Networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowsky, B; Wübbeler, M; Thyrian, J R; Holle, B; Gräske, J; Schäfer-Walkmann, S; Fleßa, S; Hoffmann, W

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of practice-based financing concepts in German dementia networks (DN); Provision of sustainable financing structures and their determinants in DN. Qualitative expert interviews with leaders of 13 DN were conducted. A semi-structured interview guide was used to analyse four main topics: Finance-related organization, cost, sources of funding and financial sustainability. DN were primarily financed by membership fees, earnings of services provided, public funds and payments by municipalities or health care providers. 63% of the DN reported a financial sustainability. Funds to support the interpersonal expanding, a mix of internal and external financing sources and investments of the municipality were determinants of a sustainable financing. Overall, DN in rural areas seemed to be disadvantaged due to a lack of potential linkable service providers. DN in urban regions are more likely able to gather sustainable funding resources. A minimum funding of 50.000 €/year for human resources coordinating the DN, seems to be a threshold for a sustainable DN. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  19. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; Ló pez-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; McCabe, Matthew; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-01-01

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes

  20. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  1. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Local and Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Lupascu, A.; Cremonese, L.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous countries in Europe that possess domestic shale gas reserves are considering exploiting this unconventional gas resource as part of their energy transition agenda. While natural gas generates less CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, making it attractive as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables, production of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and air pollutants such as NOx, VOCs and PM. These gases in turn influence the climate as well as air quality. In this study, we investigate the impact of a potential shale gas development in Germany and the United Kingdom on local and regional air quality. This work builds on our previous study in which we constructed emissions scenarios based on shale gas utilization in these counties. In order to explore the influence of shale gas production on air quality, we investigate emissions predicted from our shale gas scenarios with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. In order to do this, we first design a model set-up over Europe and evaluate its performance for the meteorological and chemical parameters. Subsequently we add shale gas emissions fluxes based on the scenarios over the area of the grid in which the shale gas activities are predicted to occur. Finally, we model these emissions and analyze the impact on air quality on both a local and regional scale. The aims of this work are to predict the range of adverse effects on air quality, highlight the importance of emissions control strategies in reducing air pollution, to promote further discussion, and to provide policy makers with information for decision making on a potential shale gas development in the two study countries.

  2. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for 60Co: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F.; Santos, Neide

    2014-01-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ( 60 Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to 60 Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses

  3. Employment Effects of Renewable Energy Expansion on a Regional Level—First Results of a Model-Based Approach for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lehr

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available National studies have shown that both gross and net effects of the expansion of energy from renewable sources on employment are positive for Germany. These modeling approaches also revealed that this holds true for both present and future perspectives under certain assumptions on the development of exports, fossil fuel prices and national politics. Yet how are employment effects distributed within Germany? What components contribute to growth impacts on a regional level? To answer these questions (new methods of regionalization were explored and developed for the example “wind energy onshore” for Germany’s federal states. The main goal was to develop a methodology which is applicable to all renewable energy technologies in future research. For the quantification and projection, it was necessary to distinguish between jobs generated by domestic investments and exports on the one hand, and jobs for operation and maintenance of existing plants on the other hand. Further, direct and indirect employment is analyzed. The results show, that gross employment is particularly high in the northwestern regions of Germany. However, especially the indirect effects are spread out over the whole country. Regions in the south not only profit from the delivery of specific components, but also from other industry and service inputs.

  4. Using PS-InSAR data in landslide hazard management: the case of Veneto Region (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Mario; Viganò, Alessandro; Busnardo, Enrico; Arziliero, Luciano; Zanette, Doriano

    2013-04-01

    The Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry, performed by the Italian Ministry of Environment and Territory of the Sea (METS) in the framework of the Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing, has made available a high quantity of data useful for local Authorities (Regions, Provinces, and Municipalities) in the management of the main geological hazards, such as landslides, subsidence, and sinkholes. The main output of the Project consists of ground displacements and velocities measured at target points over the entire Italian territory by using PS-InSAR processing technique applied to SAR data acquired by satellites ESA (European Space Agency) ERS-1 and ERS-2 (Earth Resources Satellite) and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) in the period 1992-2010. Description and results of the Project are available for public browsing at the geoportal of the METS (http://www.pcn.minambiente.it). On the basis of PS-InSAR data, several studies have been recently performed for the identification and characterization of landslides both at small and large scale. These studies led to a more precise delimitation of instable areas and to a better evaluation of the state of activity of mass movements. But, as now well known, interferometry techniques can't be applied to the whole territory due to geometric distortions in SAR data acquisition and to ground conditions. In this work we analyze the potentiality of PS-InSAR data from the Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry in landslide hazard management of the Veneto Region, located in the north-eastern part of Italy. A synthetic description on the main features of landslides affecting the Region is reported, then the percentage of instabilities where PS-InSAR data can be used, is calculated. At the scale of the entire Region we suggest to follow the method proposed in the scientific literature to evaluate the state of activity of landslides on the basis of the measured velocities at the ground surface, while at local

  5. The effect of social networks and norms on the inter-regional migration intentions of knowledge-workers: The case of Saxony, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruenwald, Luise; Hirte, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the migration intentions of current and future knowledge-workers in Saxony, Germany. A structural equation model (SEM) is applied to analyze the impact of social networks and norms on inter-regional migration, in addition to lifestyle and utilitarian location factors....... The dataset comprises 2731 young knowledge workers. The results show that: (i) migration intentions positively associate with social networks in other cities, subjective norms that West-is better than East-Germany, and that other regions provide better life opportunities; (ii) staying intentions positively...... relate to having origins, close friends and family in Saxony, and positive consideration of Saxony as an option by the parent; (iii) the structure of the social networks and norms is related to socio-economic characteristics, travel habits, and on-line social networks. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  6. 3D Density Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere Affected by A Plume: A Case Study from the Greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Sippel, J.; Breivik, A. J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Meeßen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the density structure of the oceanic lithosphere north of Iceland is key for understanding the effects of the Iceland Plume on the mid-ocean ridges of the greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region. We use a data-integrative approach for 3D gravity modeling to develop new insights into the crust and upper mantle density structure of this region. First, we obtain the 3D density structure of the sediments and crust from interpretations of regional reflection and refraction seismic lines. Then, the temperature and density structure of the mantle between 50 and 250 km are derived from a published shear-wave velocity (Vs) tomography model. To assess the density configuration between the Moho and 50 km depth, we follow a combined forward and inverse 3D gravity modeling approach. The Vs tomography and derived density of the deeper mantle (>50 km depth) reveal that the low-density anomaly related to the Iceland plume gets weaker with increasing distance from the plume, i.e. from the strongly influenced Middle Kolbeinsey Ridge (MKR) to the Mohn's Ridge. The West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone is identified as a main mantle density contrast, indicative of differences in the thermal evolution of the ridge systems it separates. Beneath the MKR region, the low-density anomaly at depths of >50 km continues upwards into the uppermost mantle, where its lateral dimensions narrow considerably. This elongated density anomaly is consistent with a basement high and indicates a channelization of the Iceland plume effects. The NE-SW elongated mantle anomaly does not, however, coincide with the topographical NNE-SSW striking ridge axis. Thus, the modelled plume-affected oceanic lithosphere reveals discrepancies with the half-space cooling model. We discuss the 3D density model in terms of such spatial relations between deeper mantle anomalies and the shallow crustal structure.

  7. SR 3218. Study and questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany. AS 3.2 Development of action strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohmann, Bettina; Huenecke, Katja; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The report on the questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Assessment criteria. (3) Status and analysis of selected topics: information by the operator; communication and communication channels; participation - information exchange; cooperation; concerns and risks; compensation and compensatory payments. (4) Action strategies: superior aspects (credibility, reliance, public relations, resource conservation, aspects of information and communication); site-related action recommendations and summarized action strategies (Asse, Morsleben, Gorleben, Salzgitter).

  8. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2008-08-01

    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  9. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-12-18

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  10. Perinatal mortality after Chernobyl. - Excess perinatal deaths, stillborns and malformations in Germany, Europe and highly exposed regions of Germany and Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerblein, A.; Scherb, H.; Weigelt, E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1987, the year following the Chernobyl accident, perinatal mortality was significantly increased in Germany as well as in Poland. The numbers of excess perinatal deaths were 317 and 320, respectively. Monthly data from Germany, Poland and the region of Zhitomir, Ukraine, exhibit a significant association between perinatal mortality and the delayed caesium concentration in pregnant women with a time-lag of seven months. In addition to an increase in 1987, perinatal mortality in the most contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus show a second rise beginning in 1989 which can be related to the action of strontium. The cumulative effect from strontium outweighs the effect of caesium in 1987 by more than a factor of 10. Monthly data of malformation rates in newborn were only available for the State of Bavaria, Germany. No increase is observed in 1987 in the Bavarian average. But at the end of 1987, seven month after the highest caesium concentration in pregnant women in April and May 1987, a highly significant dependency of malformation rates on caesium soil contamination is found. There is a growing awareness of many lasting detrimental health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor eruption in large parts of central, eastern and northern Europe. A flexible synoptic spatial-temporal method based on logistic regression is suggested for the analysis of official national as well as district by district reproductive failure data. The main idea is to model a spatial-temporal annual or monthly data set by adjusting for country or region specific trend functions and either to test for local or global temporal jumps or broken sticks (change-points) associated with the years 1986 or 1987 or, alternatively, to test for a spatial effect of regionally stratified exposure or dosimetry data on reproductive outcome. In numerous official data sets of central, eastern, and northern European countries or regions absolute or relative increases of stillbirth proportions after

  11. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  12. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  13. Integration of spectral, spatial and morphometric data into lithological mapping: A comparison of different Machine Learning Algorithms in the Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan A.; Gloaguen, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Lithological mapping in mountainous regions is often impeded by limited accessibility due to relief. This study aims to evaluate (1) the performance of different supervised classification approaches using remote sensing data and (2) the use of additional information such as geomorphology. We exemplify the methodology in the Bardi-Zard area in NE Iraq, a part of the Zagros Fold - Thrust Belt, known for its chromite deposits. We highlighted the improvement of remote sensing geological classification by integrating geomorphic features and spatial information in the classification scheme. We performed a Maximum Likelihood (ML) classification method besides two Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA): Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) to allow the joint use of geomorphic features, Band Ratio (BR), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), spatial information (spatial coordinates) and multispectral data of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The RF algorithm showed reliable results and discriminated serpentinite, talus and terrace deposits, red argillites with conglomerates and limestone, limy conglomerates and limestone conglomerates, tuffites interbedded with basic lavas, limestone and Metamorphosed limestone and reddish green shales. The best overall accuracy (∼80%) was achieved by Random Forest (RF) algorithms in the majority of the sixteen tested combination datasets.

  14. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  15. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  16. Paleocene orthophragminids from the Lakadong Limestone, Mawmluh Quarry section, Meghalaya (Shillong, NE India): implications for the regional geology and paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ercan; Pignatti, Johannes; Pereira, Christer; Osman Yücel, Ali; Drobne, Katica; Barattolo, Filippo; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The late Paleocene orthophragminids, hitherto poorly known from the Himalayan foreland basins, are studied from the Lakadong Limestone in Meghalaya, northeastern India, in order to establish a systematic, biostratigraphic, and paleobiogeographical framework for them in the eastern Tethys. In the Mawmluh Quarry section (MQS) on the Shillong Plateau, to the southeast of Tibet, orthophragminids are associated with typical Paleocene orbitoidiform taxa endemic to the Indian subcontinent, i.e., Lakadongia Matsumaru & Jauhri ( = Setia Ferràndez-Cañadell) and Orbitosiphon Rao, and various species of alveolinids, miscellaneids, and rotaliids, characterizing the Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ) 3 and 4. The orthophragminids belong to two lineages of the genus Orbitoclypeus Silvestri: O. schopeni (Checchia-Rispoli) and O. multiplicatus (Gümbel), both well known from the peri-Mediterranean region and Europe (western Tethys). The latter species is identified here for the first time from the eastern Tethys. Previous records of the genus Discocyclina Gümbel from the Lakadong Limestone actually correspond to misidentified Orbitoclypeus; this implies that the late Paleocene orthophragminid assemblages from Meghalaya and eastern Tethys were less diverse than in the western Tethys. The lineage of Orbitoclypeus schopeni in the lower part of the Lakadong Limestone (SBZ 3) is identified as O. schopeni cf. ramaraoi based on the morphometry of a few specimens, whereas in the upper part (SBZ 4) it corresponds to a transitional development stage between O. schopeni ramaraoi and O. schopeni neumannae (with average Dmean values ranging between 192 and 199 µm). The embryon diameters of O. multiplicatus, recorded only in SBZ 4, range between 300 and 319 µm on average, corresponding to transitional development stages of O. multiplicatus haymanaensis and O. multiplicatus multiplicatus. Our data, along with a review of previous Paleocene and Eocene records from India and Pakistan, suggest that

  17. Climate impacts and adaptation in Germany. Phase 1. Regional climate scenarios for Germany. Final report; Klimaauswirkungen und Anpassung in Deutschland. Phase 1. Erstellung regionaler Klimaszenarien fuer Deutschland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Daniela; Goettel, Holger; Kotlarski, Sven; Lorenz, Philip; Sieck, Kevin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The regional climate scenarios were evaluated using the climate model REMO. The model calculations were actualized and compared with observed data. The validation of the modeling results was performed using data sets concerning the temporal behavior, the precipitation amounts in several altitudes and the analysis of the probability density function of the air temperature. The results of different climate scenarios are discussed for the mean monthly values of precipitation and temperature. The model allows the prediction of the temporal development and number of summer days and extremely hot days. The change of further indices due to the climatic change caused by increasing greenhouse gas emissions is discussed.

  18. From cities and towns to urban networks in Germany – intra regional competition versus regional co-operation and inter regional competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Mueller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the 20th century particular cities and towns were understood as integral parts of national and international urban systems. For many years the theory on central places and hierarchy of central places, first developed by Christaller and amended by Loesch, had a decisive influence on spatial research and regional development policies with guiding principles for urbanisation and the development of settlement patterns. However it is becoming ever more evident, that the planned effects of concepts for harmonising intra- and inter-regional differences were not reached. Moreover, inter-regional competition between neighbouring municipalities, as well as modern life styles and residential choices have caused the emergence of new settlement structures with dispersed spatial patterns and string functional ties. It is also true, that urban networking isn’t an easy task and that it inherently carries numerous obstacles.

  19. "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." : [luuletused] / Marina Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." ; "Inogo mesta vstretshi v mire net..." ; "Moi put lezhit tsherez Moskvu..." ; "Osvoboditelnaja ossen - ..." ; Pjuhtitskim aistam ; "Vesjolõje svetshi kanona..." ; Vjuga ; Materi Bozhijei Pjuhtitskoi ; "Pustõnja moja, pustõnja..." ; "Odinnadtsat let v mojo serdtse gljadjat kupola..."

  20. From cities and towns to urban networks in Germany – intra regional competition versus regional co-operation and inter regional competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Mueller

    2000-01-01

    For many decades of the 20th century particular cities and towns were understood as integral parts of national and international urban systems. For many years the theory on central places and hierarchy of central places, first developed by Christaller and amended by Loesch, had a decisive influence on spatial research and regional development policies with guiding principles for urbanisation and the development of settlement patterns. However it is becoming ever more evident, that the planned...

  1. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  2. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  3. Reflections on the introduction of fast breeder reactors in the DeBeNeLux states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R.; Wagner, J.

    1975-06-01

    This report gives a survey of the impact of introducing sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and the BeNeLux countries (DeBeNeLux region). The supply situation with respect to electric and thermal energy is studied in particular, together with aspects of economy and environmental impact. The potential and consequences of a breeder economy, the present status and future r+d work are discussed. In addition to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors with oxide or carbide fuel, alternative solutions are touched: 1) light water and high temperature reactors, 2) helium-cooled fast breeder reactors, 3) geothermal energy, solar energy and fusion energy. (orig.) [de

  4. Physics Motivations of SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraide, K.

    2007-01-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment for measuring neutrino-nucleus cross sections around one GeV region, which is important for the interpretaion of neutrino oscillation experiments. Physics motivations of the experiment are described here

  5. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  6. Developing Boundary-Spanning Capacity for Regional Sustainability Transitions—A Comparative Case Study of the Universities of Augsburg (Germany and Linz (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Pflitsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of universities to become ‘change agents’ for sustainability has increasingly been highlighted in the literature. Some largely open questions are how universities get involved in regional sustainability transitions and how that affects their role in these processes. This paper argues that universities need to develop a boundary-spanning capacity, which enables them to transcend disciplinary as well as sectoral boundaries in order to adopt a developmental role in regional sustainability transitions. It is investigated how universities develop this capacity within a particular regional context, using the method of a transition topology. Comparing how the relationships of universities with their surrounding regions developed in Augsburg (Germany and Linz (Austria, the paper shows why these processes are place-specific. A university’s boundary-spanning capacity develops over time and differs according to the actors involved. The primarily bottom-up driven process in Augsburg was thematically quite broad and involved diverse actors. In Linz, the top-down initiated process was fragmented and more narrowly focused. Individual value-driven actors that made use of their personal networks played an important role in both regions.

  7. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  8. The MiniBooNE Detector

    OpenAIRE

    MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the mixing parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  9. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...

  10. Analysis of the variability of extra-tropical cyclones at the regional scale for the coasts of Northern Germany and investigation of their coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Benjamin; Feser, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of long-term changes in wind speeds is very important for the coastal areas and the protection measures. Therefor the wind variability at the regional scale for the coast of Northern Germany shall be analysed. In order to derive changes in storminess it is essential to analyse long, homogeneous meteorological time series. Wind measurements often suffer from inconsistencies which arise from changes in instrumentation, observation method, or station location. Reanalysis data take into account such inhomogeneities of observation data and convert these measurements into a consistent, gridded data set with the same grid spacing and time intervals. This leads to a smooth, homogeneous data set, but with relatively low resolution (about 210 km for the longest reanalysis data set, the NCEP reanalysis starting in 1948). Therefore a high-resolution regional atmospheric model will be used to bring these reanalyses to a higher resolution, using in addition to a dynamical downscaling approach the spectral nudging technique. This method 'nudges' the large spatial scales of the regional climate model towards the reanalysis, while the smaller spatial scales are left unchanged. It was applied successfully in a number of applications, leading to realistic atmospheric weather descriptions of the past. With the regional climate model COSMO-CLM a very high-resolution data set was calculated for the last 67 years, the period from 1948 until now. The model area is North Germany with the coastal area of the North sea and parts of the Baltic sea. This is one of the first model simulations on climate scale with a very high resolution of 2.8 km, so even small scale effects can be detected. With this hindcast-simulation there are numerous options of evaluation. One can create wind climatologies for regional areas such as for the metropolitan region of Hamburg. Otherwise one can investigate individual storms in a case study. With a filtering and tracking program the course of

  11. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  12. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  13. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with NeQuick2 and IRI model predictions in the low latitude East African region during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, E.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nigussie, M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the performances of NeQuick2, the latest available IRI-2016, IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 models in describing the monthly and seasonal mean total electron content (TEC) over the East African region. This is to gain insight into the success of the various model types and versions at characterizing the ionosphere within the equatorial ionization anomaly. TEC derived from five Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers installed at Addis Ababa (ADD, 5.33°N, 111.99°E Geog.), Asab (ASAB, 8.67°N, 116.44°E Geog.), Ambo (ABOO, 5.43°N, 111.05°E Geog.), Nairobi (RCMN, -4.48°N, 108.46°E Geog.) and Nazret (NAZR, 4.78°N, 112.43°E Geog.), are compared with the corresponding values computed using those models during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015). We found that different models describe the equatorial and anomaly region ionosphere best depending on solar cycle, season and geomagnetic activity levels. Our results show that IRI-2016 is the best model (compared to others in terms of discrepancy range) in estimating the monthly mean GPS-TEC at NAZR, ADD and RCMN stations except at ADD during 2008 and 2012. It is also found that IRI-2012 is the best model in estimating the monthly mean TEC at ABOO station in 2014. IRI show better agreement with observations during June solstice for all the years studied at ADD except in 2012 where NeQuick2 better performs. At NAZR, NeQuick2 better performs in estimating seasonal mean GPS-TEC during 2011, while IRI models are best during 2008-2009. Both NeQuick2 and IRI models underestimate measured TEC for all the seasons at ADD in 2010 but overestimate at NAZR in 2009 and RCMN in 2008. The periodic variations of experimental and modeled TEC have been compared with solar and geomagnetic indices at ABOO and ASAB in 2014 and results indicate that the F10.7 and sunspot number as indices of solar activity seriously affects the TEC variations with periods of 16-32 days followed by the geomagnetic activity on

  14. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  15. HANDICRAFTS MOTIFS’ REFLECTION IN FOLKSAY IN KONYA REGION KONYA YÖRESİ EL SANATLARINDA ANLAM YÜKLÜ MOTİFLERİN HALK DİLİNE YANSIMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine NAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish folk culture which incorporates material and spiritual concepts like history, belief, language, philosophy, art which continually has a continually developing dynamic structure. Language which enables social and cultural communication within this structure is a living treasure which feeds on customs and traditions of the people’s lifestyle and reaches to literary relish, thinking and eloquence and which symbolically lives in varieties local handicrafts. When Turkish handicraft history is reviewed, Konya region stands out with its rich accumulation and cultural structure. Knitting and embroidery which can be regarded among Konya folk plastic arts includes a rich vocabulary about the motifs which people coined with regard to three main periods shaping human life; birth, marriage and death. This vocabulary treasure preserving its functions as consolidator of harmony, unity and solidarity in the society is a product of folklore and functions as transmitters of culture which maintain tradition in communication only among women. This study aims to document some of samples in this rich vocabulary which were coined in relation to motifs and thus contribute to database on Turkish cultural history. Türk halk kültürü; tarih, inanç, dil, felsefe, sanat gibi maddimanevi kavramlar bütününü bünyesinde barındıran ve sürekli gelişim gösteren dinamik bir yapıya sahiptir. Bu sistem içinde sosyal ve kültürel iletişimi sağlayan dil; halkın yaşam biçiminde gelenek ve göreneklerden beslenerek, edebî zevk, düşünce ve anlatım gücüne ulaşan varlığı ile yöresel el sanatı çeşitlerinde de sembolik olarak yaşayan bir hazinedir. Türk el sanatları geçmişine bakıldığında Konya yöresi, tarihi birikimi ve kültürel yapısı ile önem taşımaktadır. Konya halk plastik sanatları içinde değerlendirilebilecek; örücülük ve işlemecilik alanlarında; doğum, evlenme ve ölüm gibi insan yaşamını şekillendiren

  16. Experiences gained in the conditioning of radioactive wastes from regional depots by example of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, and recommendations for the establishment of regional depots in the new Federal States of unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, W.

    1992-01-01

    Details are given about radioactive waste management and radioactive waste management fundamentals as well as about the respective methods applied by the Baden-Wuerttemberg radioacive waste depot. The waste treatment, quality assurance and internal inspection methods applied by Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB), Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) are described, and recommendations are given for the establishment of regional depots in the new provinces of the Federal Republic of Germany. These recommendations which are based on Western German standards before unification suggest regional depots with combined administrative systems which watch over the depot use and charges, the foundation of a waste management association responsible for the disposal, transport, intermediate storage and conditioning of radioactive wastes in the new provinces, and the establishment of a facility to be run by the proposed waste management association for the intermediate storage of conditioned waste packages intended for final disposal. (orig.) [de

  17. Comparison of midlatitude ionospheric F region peak parameters and topside Ne profiles from IRI2012 model prediction with ground-based ionosonde and Alouette II observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyenko, G. I.; Yakovets, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    difference in the shape of the Alouette-, NeQuick-, IRI02-coorr, and IRI2001-derived Ne profiles, with overestimated Ne values at some altitudes and underestimated Ne values at others. The results obtained in the study showed that the observation-model differences were significant especially for the real observed (not median) data. For practical application, it is clearly important for the IRI2012 model to be adapted to the observed F2-layer peak parameters. However, the model does not offer a simple solution to predict the shape of the vertical electron density profile in the topside ionosphere, because of the problem with the topside shape parameters.

  18. Reduction of regional disparities in electric power prices by spatially effective measures and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G

    1984-01-01

    For a long time energy policy has been trying to reduce disparities in electric power prices by administrative and financial measures alone. Governmental planning was opening up new prospects when long-range fuel transport - and in particular the transport of hard coal by ship or by rail - was seeing a drop in prices in the mid seventies. Since fuel transport has been lower-priced than the transport of equivalent quantities of electric power, regional disparities in electric power prices which are due to the respective supply structures may be levelled by way of power plant site selection and power plant installation according to the specific regional loads. A decentralized expansion of power generation within reach of the consumer requires but a minimum of wiring. Structural price disparities are reduced in particular in regions importing electric power at excessive prices. In addition, costs may be saved by rational energy utilization consisting above all in the application of dual-purpose power plants and by the rationalization of network infrastuctures. The study abstracted is part of a research project of the Federal Research Institute for Land Studies and Planning. The project is dealing with concepts of decentralized electric power supply and space heating. It adds to already existing related studies which deal above all with the basic problems of scheduling and planning the contents and inner structure of decentralized energy concepts.

  19. A nonparametric random coefficient approach for life expectancy growth using a hierarchical mixture likelihood model with application to regional data from North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhning, Dankmar; Karasek, Sarah; Terschüren, Claudia; Annuß, Rolf; Fehr, Rainer

    2013-03-09

    Life expectancy is of increasing prime interest for a variety of reasons. In many countries, life expectancy is growing linearly, without any indication of reaching a limit. The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) in Germany with its 54 districts is considered here where the above mentioned growth in life expectancy is occurring as well. However, there is also empirical evidence that life expectancy is not growing linearly at the same level for different regions. To explore this situation further a likelihood-based cluster analysis is suggested and performed. The modelling uses a nonparametric mixture approach for the latent random effect. Maximum likelihood estimates are determined by means of the EM algorithm and the number of components in the mixture model are found on the basis of the Bayesian Information Criterion. Regions are classified into the mixture components (clusters) using the maximum posterior allocation rule. For the data analyzed here, 7 components are found with a spatial concentration of lower life expectancy levels in a centre of NRW, formerly an enormous conglomerate of heavy industry, still the most densely populated area with Gelsenkirchen having the lowest level of life expectancy growth for both genders. The paper offers some explanations for this fact including demographic and socio-economic sources. This case study shows that life expectancy growth is widely linear, but it might occur on different levels.

  20. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  1. Data on three-year pesticide monitoring in ditches of the apple orchard region of Altes Land, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lorenz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article 'Chemical and biological monitoring of the load of plant protection products and of zoocoenoses in ditches of the orchard region Altes Land' (Süß et al., 2006 [1], which is only available in the German language. The pesticide data presented here were acquired from four ditches (three ditches were located in apple orchards, and one ditch was located in a grassland region between 2001 and 2003 (Lorenz et al., 2018 [2]. Two different monitoring strategies were applied: event-driven sampling after pesticide applications and weekly integrated sampling using automatic water samplers. A total of 70 active substances were monitored while farmers applied 25 active substances. This article describes the study sites and the analytical methods used to quantify the pesticides in the water samples. The field data set is publicly available at the OpenAgrar repository under https://doi.org/10.5073/20180213-144359 (Lorenz et al., 2018 [2].

  2. Mapping carbon sequestration in forests at the regional scale - a climate biomonitoring approach by example of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, PO Box. 1553, Vechta (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognizes carbon (C) fixation in forests as an important contribution for the reduction of atmospheric pollution in terms of greenhouse gases. Spatial differentiation of C sequestration in forests either at the national or at the regional scale is therefore needed for forest planning purposes. Hence, within the framework of the Forest Focus regulation, the aim of this investigation was to statistically analyse factors influencing the C fixation and to use the corresponding associations in terms of a predictive mapping approach at the regional scale by example of the German federal state North Rhine-Westphalia. The results of the methodical scheme outlined in this article should be compared with an already-published approach applied to the same data which were used in the investigation at hand. Site-specific data on C sequestration in humus, forest trees/dead wood and soil from two forest monitoring networks were intersected with available surface information on topography, soil, climate and forestal growing areas and districts. Next, the association between the C sequestration and the influence factors were examined and modelled by linear regression analyses. The resulting regression equations were applied on the surface data to predicatively map the C sequestration for the entire study area. The computations yielded an estimation of 146.7 mio t C sequestered in the forests of North Rhine-Westphalia corresponding to 168.6 t/ha. The calculated values correspond well to according specifications given by the literature. Furthermore, the results are almost identical to those of another pilot study where a different statistical methodology was applied on the same database. Nevertheless, the underlying regression models contribute only a low degree of explanation to the overall variance of the C fixation. This might mainly be due to data quality aspects and missing influence factors in the analyses. In another

  3. Photoionization of Ne8+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  4. STAMMEX high resolution gridded daily precipitation dataset over Germany: a new potential for regional precipitation climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolina, Olga; Simmer, Clemens; Kapala, Alice; Mächel, Hermann; Gulev, Sergey; Groisman, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    We present new high resolution precipitation daily grids developed at Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn and German Weather Service (DWD) under the STAMMEX project (Spatial and Temporal Scales and Mechanisms of Extreme Precipitation Events over Central Europe). Daily precipitation grids have been developed from the daily-observing precipitation network of DWD, which runs one of the World's densest rain gauge networks comprising more than 7500 stations. Several quality-controlled daily gridded products with homogenized sampling were developed covering the periods 1931-onwards (with 0.5 degree resolution), 1951-onwards (0.25 degree and 0.5 degree), and 1971-2000 (0.1 degree). Different methods were tested to select the best gridding methodology that minimizes errors of integral grid estimates over hilly terrain. Besides daily precipitation values with uncertainty estimates (which include standard estimates of the kriging uncertainty as well as error estimates derived by a bootstrapping algorithm), the STAMMEX data sets include a variety of statistics that characterize temporal and spatial dynamics of the precipitation distribution (quantiles, extremes, wet/dry spells, etc.). Comparisons with existing continental-scale daily precipitation grids (e.g., CRU, ECA E-OBS, GCOS) which include considerably less observations compared to those used in STAMMEX, demonstrate the added value of high-resolution grids for extreme rainfall analyses. These data exhibit spatial variability pattern and trends in precipitation extremes, which are missed or incorrectly reproduced over Central Europe from coarser resolution grids based on sparser networks. The STAMMEX dataset can be used for high-quality climate diagnostics of precipitation variability, as a reference for reanalyses and remotely-sensed precipitation products (including the upcoming Global Precipitation Mission products), and for input into regional climate and operational weather forecast models. We will present

  5. How chemical pollution becomes a social problem. Risk communication and assessment through regional newspapers during the management of PCB pollutions of the Rhône River (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé

    2014-06-01

    The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Age at Birth of First Child and Fecundity of Women Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (1987-2007): A Study of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region in France (ARCERRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freycon, Fernand; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Casagranda, Léonie; Berlier, Pascale; Bertrand, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Berger, Claire

    2015-05-01

    We studied the fecundity of 174 successive ALL (1987-2007) in females of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region (ARCERRA) with a median age at follow-up of 25.6 years (18.0-37.4). We distinguished five treatment groups: Group Ia, chemotherapy only (n = 130); Ib, chemotherapy with cranial radiotherapy (n = 10); II, TBI conditioning allograft (n = 27); III, chemotherapy conditioning allograft (n = 4); IV, TBI conditioning autograft (n = 3). Twenty-three women had their first child at the mean age of 25.8 ±3.0 years, i.e., 2.0 ±2.9 years earlier than the general population of the Rhône-Alpes region (P = 0.003). The standardized fertility ratio (SFR), expressed as the number of actual births observed (O) to the number that would be expected in women of the same age in the general population (E) (SFR = O/E) was decreased for Group Ia (0.62; 95%CI, 0.52-0.74) and collapsed in Group II (0.17; 0.11-0.25). In univariate analysis, TBI (P = 0.013) and alkylating agents (P = 0.01) were negatively correlated with fecundity, but not with the age at diagnosis or the anthracyclines doses. In multivariate analysis including TBI and alkylating agents, we still found a negative correlation between TBI (P = 0.035), as well as alkylating agents (P = 0.028), and fecundity. More precisely, fecundity was negatively correlated with cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (P = 0.001), with a fecundity decreased for ≥1g/m(2), but without any dose effect; results not found in the Group Ia. Age at first child seems younger but the young median age of the cohort not allows concluding; fecundity is collapsed after fractionated total body irradiation and decreased after chemotherapy without any demonstrable cause. A delay of fertility is not excluded.

  7. The semi-Arid integrated model (SIM), a regional integrated model assessing water availability, vulnerability, of ecossytems and society in NE-Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Jaeger, A.; Bronstert, A.; Krywkow, Jorg

    2001-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil, an example of vulnerable semi-arid regions on the earth, is characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress situations. Integrated studies involving hydrology, ecology, meteorology, climatology, pedology,

  8. Identifying and closing gaps in environmental monitoring by means of metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics using the UNESCO biosphere reserve Rhoen (Germany) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther

    2006-03-01

    In Germany, environmental monitoring is intended to provide a holistic view of the environmental condition. To this end the monitoring operated by the federal states must use harmonized, resp., standardized methods. In addition, the monitoring sites should cover the ecoregions without any geographical gaps, the monitoring design should have no gaps in terms of ecologically relevant measurement parameters, and the sample data should be spatially without any gaps. This article outlines the extent to which the Rhoen Biosphere Reserve, occupying a part of the German federal states of Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia, fulfills the listed requirements. The investigation considered collection, data banking and analysis of monitoring data and metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics. Metadata on the monitoring networks were collected by questionnaires and provided a complete inventory and description of the monitoring activities in the reserve and its surroundings. The analysis of these metadata reveals that most of the monitoring methods are harmonized across the boundaries of the three federal states the Rhoen is part of. The monitoring networks that measure precipitation, surface water levels, and groundwater quality are particularly overrepresented in the central ecoregions of the biosphere reserve. Soil monitoring sites are more equally distributed within the ecoregions of the Rhoen. The number of sites for the monitoring of air pollutants is not sufficient to draw spatially valid conclusions. To fill these spatial gaps, additional data on the annual average values of the concentrations of air pollutants from monitoring sites outside of the biosphere reserve had therefore been subject to geostatistical analysis and estimation. This yields valid information on the spatial patterns and temporal trends of air quality. The approach illustrated is applicable to similar cases, as, for example, the harmonization of international monitoring networks.

  9. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  10. from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first and most important principle of marketing is focusing on the customer needs and wants, because regardless of that, companies will not be able to survive in today's competitive environment. These days, companies know that providing products and services according to customer needs and demands, is an important competitive advantage to gain more sales and benefit, so identifying customer needs and demands, and adopting appropriate strategies for supplying customers' desires are the most important activities in competitive markets. Considering the competitive environment in e-commerce and importance of focus on customer expectations in electronic markets, this study has been aimed to identify and prioritize the factors affecting customer satisfaction in electronic commerce. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model, questionnaire was designed and distributed between 221 people in Germany. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. The research model had found out that from six main factors and 25 sub factors, six factors and 17 sub factors affect satisfaction in online shopping. Also in this study, the type of goods, prices of purchased goods and age range of online buyers are investigated.

  11. Regional Variability of Lifestyle Factors and Hypertension with Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Population-Based KORA-F4 and SHIP-TREND Studies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Doris; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Krabbe, Christine; Völzke, Henry; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) shows regional differences in Germany. The purpose of the project was to compare the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2D in two regions in Germany, the Northeast and the South, and to evaluate their associations with regional variations in lifestyle factors and hypertension. Data from the KORA-F4 study (South Germany, 2006-2008) and the SHIP-TREND study (Northeast Germany, 2008-2012) were used. Participants aged 35-79 years without T2D with an overnight fasting of more than 8 hours and an oral glucose tolerance test were included: KORA-F4: n = 2,616 and SHIP-TREND: n = 1,968. The prevalence of prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D was especially high in men (about 60%) and women (about 50%) in the Northeast, followed by men (about 50%) and women (about 30%) in the South. Lifestyle factors associated with T2D varied between the regions: more participants in the Northeast were active smokers and the percentages of people with overweight or obesity were greater than in their southern counterparts. However, these differences could not explain the striking disparity in prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. The frequency of hypertension was also distinctly higher in the Northeast than in the South and clearly associated with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Especially in men living in the Northeast, screening individuals with blood pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg might reveal up to 70% of those with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Knowledge about regional variability in T2D and related risk factors is important for the planning of diabetes prevention programs. In our analyses, common lifestyle factors did not nearly explain these variations between the northern SHIP-TREND and the southern KORA-F4 studies. Further examinations of regional socioeconomic, political, environmental and other aspects are needed. Meanwhile, targeted diabetes prevention strategies with a special focus on men living in the northern parts of Germany are reasonable.

  12. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.

    2010-03-01

    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  13. Religiousness/spirituality do not necessarily matter: Effect on risk perception and adaptive strategies in the semi-arid region of NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental changes is a major threat to livelihoods, especially for small farmers in semi-arid regions. Therefore, local communities undertake efforts to cope with these new environmental conditions and researchers try to understand the limits of possible adaptive strategies. Religiousness/spirituality are two important factors that can influence environmental awareness and adaptive responses to risks caused by natural phenomena. However, studies addressing the relationship between such factors are either scarce or based on anecdotal information. This article discusses the influence of religiousness/spirituality on the perception of environmental risks by farmers in a rural community in Brazil's northeast region, and their knowledge of adaptive strategies to deal with such concerns. Religiousness/spirituality can positively or negatively influence the perception of risk and knowledge of adaptive strategies when facing environmental uncertainty. We note that dimensions of religiousness/spirituality such as religious history, values/beliefs, commitment, and daily spiritual experiences influence wealth and the sharing of natural perceived risks, as well as adaptive strategies. Based on our results, we conclude that religiousness/spirituality dimensions exert both positive and negative effects on the perception of environmental risks and ways of coping with the impacts of rapid environmental changes.

  14. Measurements of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    The SciBooNE experiment (FNAL-E954) is designed to measure neutrino-nucleous cross sections in the one GeV region. Additionally, SciBooNE serves as a near detector for MiniBooNE by measuring the neutrino flux. In this paper, we describe two analyses using neutrino charged current interactions at SciBooNE: a neutrino spectrum measurement and a search for charged current coherent pion production.

  15. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  16. Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Bouichou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, natural cements were extensively produced in the middle of the 19th century. In the French Alps, due to their ochre color, these cements were massively used, notably to produce cast stone, to simulate natural freestone. A preliminary survey revealed an overall good state of preservation of the buildings of this period. Two kinds of decays mechanisms were however identified : erosion affecting the surface of the majority of the buildings, inducing a gradual disappearance of the initial "fake-stone aspect", and a spalling phenomenon often combined with salts crystallization, observed only on a few buildings. Today, due to a lack of appropriate repair materials, the rehabilitation of these buildings mainly consists in the use of gray Portland-cement-based-mortars combined with a painting finishing, which is not satisfactory considering the conservation deontology, as the original appearance is lost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop and to test compatible repair materials to restore the culture heritage of this region. Based on the preliminary characterization of a set of representative ancient buildings, combined to a literature review, specifications concerning the composition and the main properties of repair materials, which could assure a compatibility with the ancient concrete of the region were established. Then, three Prompt-cement and one Portland-cement based mortars were selected, two of them being specifically formulated. Firstly, the appearance, the workability and the mechanical and physical properties of those mortars were characterized. Secondly, to evaluate the compatibility of the selected mortars with ancient concrete, Prompt-cement-based slabs were cast using a 19th century concrete formula, and were artificially eroded. After applying the 4 mortars on the slabs, visual observations and pull-out tests will be carried out before and after artificial aging. Finally, the repair mortar presenting the best

  17. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  18. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  19. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l. in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP and grass and sedge tundra (TUND communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae, alder (Duschekia fruticosa and willow (Salix species, is dated to 13.5–12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen.

  20. TURKISH TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON TURKISH AND TURKISHCULTURE COURSES IN GERMANY / ALMANYA’DAKİ TÜRK ÖĞRETMENLERİN TÜRKÇE VE TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ DERSİNE İLİŞKİN GÖRÜŞLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa ÇAKIR; Cemal YILDIZ

    2016-01-01

    The number of Turkish and Turkish Culture teachers in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013-2014 academic year amounts to 1047. Some of these teachers are assigned by the local authorities in Germany, and some are composed of teachers selected by the Ministry of National Education among the ones working in Turkey. There are 510 teachers assigned by the Turkish Ministry of Education to give Turkish and Turkish Culture lessons in Germany. Both the teachers sent from Turkey and the ones assign...

  1. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  2. Computing the biomass potentials for maize and two alternative energy crops, triticale and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), with the crop model BioSTAR in the region of Hannover (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauböck, Roland; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Kappas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lower Saxony (Germany) has the highest installed electric capacity from biogas in Germany. Most of this electricity is generated with maize. Reasons for this are the high yields and the economic incentive. In parts of Lower Saxony, an expansion of maize cultivation has led to ecological problems and a negative image of bioenergy as such. Winter triticale and cup plant have both shown their suitability as alternative energy crops for biogas production and could help to reduce maize cultivation. The model Biomass Simulation Tool for Agricultural Resources (BioSTAR) has been validated with observed yield data from the region of Hannover for the cultures maize and winter wheat. Predicted yields for the cultures show satisfactory error values of 9.36% (maize) and 11.5% (winter wheat). Correlations with observed data are significant ( P  alternative to maize in the region of Hanover and other places in Lower Saxony. The model BioSTAR simulated yields for maize and winter wheat in the region of Hannover at a good overall level of accuracy (combined error 10.4%). Due to input data aggregation, individual years show high errors though (up to 30%). Nevertheless, the BioSTAR crop model has proven to be a functioning tool for the prediction of agricultural biomass potentials under varying environmental and crop management frame conditions.

  3. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  4. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, I.; Seitz, G.; Hartmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  5. Cross-cultural differences in GPs' attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine: a survey comparing regions of the UK and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Jacobs, P A; Barton, A

    2002-09-01

    To investigate whether there is a difference in general practitioners' attitudes towards CAM in the UK and Germany. A descriptive questionnaire was developed and sent to 97 GPs in the UK and 99 GPs in Germany. The overall response rate was 68%. German GPs showed a (non-significant) overall more positive attitude towards CAM than did British GPs. British GPs made more referrals to complementary practitioners. The most popular CAM therapies that UK GPs referred their patients to were chiropractic treatment, acupuncture and osteopathy. German GPs referred their patients mainly to acupuncture treatment, chiropractic treatment and herbal medicine. A significantly higher number of German GPs reported having practised as a CAM practitioner before and having personally used CAM themselves. Seventy percent of British GPs and 76% of German GPs thought it is safe to prescribe complementary medicine and therapies to patients. There are small national differences in referring patients to various CAM modalities. Both nations have an overall positive attitude toward and a high interest in CAM. Lack of scientific evidence and information on training opportunities were important points that were continuously raised by GPs in both countries.

  6. Development of an internet based geothermal information system for Germany - region Baden-Wuerttemberg; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland - Landesteil Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, M.; Stober, I. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (RPF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Renewable energies as a part of the total energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be extended in the next years. In terms of geothermal resources the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports the project ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' (GeotIS). The total duration of the project is three years. Lead-managed by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institute) it is realized in a country wide joint venture project with different partners. Initially the geothermal information system will contain data only about hydrogeothermal resources. The object of the project is to improve quality in the planning stage of geothermal plants and to minimize explorations risks. Key parameters are production rate and temperature. The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg has been assigned to attend to the areas of the Upper Rhine Graben and the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Basin) both situated in Baden-Wuerttemberg. First intermediate results are presented. (orig.)

  7. Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschüren Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

  8. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  9. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  10. Caractérisation de formations Miocène de la région de Taza pour des valorisations et exploitations industrielles Industrial value of the Miocene calcarenites in the region of Taza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahrach A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La valorisation de la formation Miocène dans la région de Taza, représentée par les calcarénites, a été menée selon deux axes ; tout d’abord une étude géologique, couplée à des études de terrain nous a permis d’évaluer l’épaisseur de la formation, une carte d’épaisseur a été dressée à cet effet. L’étude géotechnique de ces matériaux révèle que ces calcarénites ont des qualités intéressantes pour des utilisations industrielles. En effet, en se basant sur les différents tests de dureté (Los Angeles et Micro Duval, la résistance à la rupture et la porosité de nos quatre échantillons, une valeur ajoutée industrielle peut leur être attribuée dans beaucoup de domaines, comme: -Graves non traités pour couches de fondations pour les chaussées ou grave bitumeux de fondation; -Ajouts dans les bétons; -Roche marbrière et pierre de façade. En fin, sur la base de ces études géologiques et géotechniques, on peut considérer que les calcarénites de la région de Taza répondent à l’ensemble des critères d’une exploitation industrielle. The valuation of the Miocene formation in the Taza region, represented by calcarenites, was conducted according two axes; first geological survey, coupled with field studies allowed us to evaluate the thickness of the formation, a thickness map was derived from this purpose. The geotechnical study of these materials reveals that these calcarenites have interesting qualities for industrial uses. Indeed, based on the different hardness tests (Los Angeles and Micro Duval, the tensile strength and porosity of our four samples, an industrial added value can be attributed to them in many areas, such as: - Untreated Graves for layers of foundations for pavements or bituminous serious foundation; - Additions in concrete; - Roche marble and stone facade. Finally, on the basis of geological and geotechnical studies, we can consider that the calcarenites of the Taza region meet

  11. Integrated landscape planning and remuneration of agri-environmental services. Results of a case study in the Fuhrberg region of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Haaren, Christina; Bathke, Manfred

    2008-11-01

    Until now, existing remuneration of environmental services has not sufficiently supported the goals of spending money more effectively on the environment and of motivating farmers. Only a small share of the budgets for agriculture in the EU, as well as in US and other countries, is available for buying environmental goods and services beyond the level of good farming practice (GFP). This combined with the insufficient targeting of compensation payments to areas where special measures are needed leads to an unsatisfactorily low impact of agri-environment measures compared to other driving forces that stimulate the intensification of farming. The goal of this paper is to propose a management concept that enhances the ecological and cost efficiency of agri-environment measures. Components of the concept are a comprehensive environmental information base with prioritised goals and targets (available in Germany from landscape planning) and new remuneration models, which complement conventional compensation payments that are based upon predetermined measures and cost. Comprehensive landscape planning locates and prioritises areas which require environmental action. It contains the information that authorities need to prioritise funding for environmental services and direct measures to sites which need environmental services beyond the level of GFP. Also appropriate remuneration models, which can enhance the cost efficiency of public spending and the motivation of the farmers, can be applied on the base of landscape planning. Testing of the planning methodology and of one of the remuneration models (success-oriented remuneration) in a case study area ("Fuhrberger Feld" north of Hanover, Germany) demonstrated the usability of the concept and led to proposals for future development of the methodology and its application in combination with other approaches.

  12. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  13. TURKISH TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON TURKISH AND TURKISHCULTURE COURSES IN GERMANY / ALMANYA’DAKİ TÜRK ÖĞRETMENLERİN TÜRKÇE VE TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ DERSİNE İLİŞKİN GÖRÜŞLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÇAKIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of Turkish and Turkish Culture teachers in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013-2014 academic year amounts to 1047. Some of these teachers are assigned by the local authorities in Germany, and some are composed of teachers selected by the Ministry of National Education among the ones working in Turkey. There are 510 teachers assigned by the Turkish Ministry of Education to give Turkish and Turkish Culture lessons in Germany. Both the teachers sent from Turkey and the ones assigned by local German authorities must cope with a number of problems. In this study, the results of 398 questionnaires, which consisted of three main open-ended questions and were sent to 510 teachers working in Germany, who formed the sample group for the study, were evaluated. According to the study, the observed problems are mainly about parents’ and students’ indifference to classes, the inadequacy of physical infrastructure in schools, school principals’ unwillingness to cooperate with the Turkish teachers and insufficiency of teaching materials.

  14. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber

    2014-01-01

    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  15. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  16. NE2561 and NE2611A - are they different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Boas, J.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.; Stucki, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Evidence is mounting that the nominally identical ionization chamber types NE2561 and NE2611A have significantly different energy dependences. This is revealed by comparing the radiation quality correction factors k q . The factor k q is the ratio of the absorbed dose to water calibration factors (for a particular type of ionization chamber) at radiation quality Q to that for 60 Co. k q values for NE2561 and NE2611A chambers have been compared for various kV and MV X-ray beams at several standards laboratories. Measurements at ARPANSA (Australia) on six NE2561 and five NE2611A show a consistent difference in k q of 1-2% for 16 and 19 MV X-rays. Work at OFMET (Switzerland) has shown similar differences at 6 and 18 MV. No such differences are seen at NPL (UK) - this inconsistency is currently ascribed to differences in the radiation beams. Consistent differences of up to 3% between these two chamber types have been observed at both ARPANSA and NRC (Canada) at the BIPM medium energy X-ray intercomparison qualities between 50 kV and 250 kV. We conclude that the two types of chamber should not be regarded as identical. ARPANSA and several other laboratories in Europe and North America will shortly participate in a Euromet project to be coordinated by OFMET, to investigate high energy X-ray beam quality specifiers. This project will provide additional data that may lead to a better understanding of this anomaly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Physics at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk, I will give a brief description of the φ factory DAΦNE at Frascati, explaining why a φ factory is an interesting place to do new physics, and then discuss the physics that can be done at DAΦNE. I will concentrate on CP violation as it can be studied at DAΦNE. This is, after all, the raison d'etre of DAΦNE. I start with a brief general introduction to CP violation in the KK system, and the distinction between mass-mixing CP violation (ε) and intrinsic CP violation (ε'/ε). After presenting a summary of ε'/ε measurements up to now, and briefly discussing the theory of ε'/ε (the so-called 'penguins'), I will cover the particularities of measuring ε'/ε at a φ factory, such as tagging and interferometry. Finally, I will say a few words about searching for CP violation in modes where it has never before been seen. I will end my talk with a list of other physics topics at DAΦNE, and rare decay branching ratio limits that can be achieved there, just to give a flavor of what else can be done. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  18. Methods for registration and mapping of waste heat emissions and their application to the regions of Rastatt, Baden-Baden and Karlsruhe-City (Federal Republic of Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaei, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    1978-05-01

    Methods are developed that allow the registration and mapping of waste heat emissions on a grid of 2 x 2 km 2 . They are directly applicable in the Federal Republik of Germany and may be extended to neighbouring countries. Such a mapping provides the distribution of anthropogeneous waste heat emissions in space and time and serves in the case of the upper Rhine Valley as a basis for the numerical evaluation of climate modification by man. In a close approximation the distribution of waste heat is equal to the distribution of energy consumption. Therefore, the first step is the registration and mapping of energy consumption. Data about the consumption of the most important types of energy such as coal, fuel oil, gas, electricity etc. are available only partially and on the level of administrative units which are considerably larger than the grid size. Therefore, models were developed which allow to determine energy consumption on the commune and grid level with the help of local structural data like the distribution of population, households, traffic etc. The second step to be taken is the transformation of energy of energy consumption into waste heat emissions categorized in terms of the components convection, radiation, latent heat and discharge of heated water. Energy consumption and waste heat were determined separately for the various sectors of economy. Large sources in the industrial and energy supply sectors were analyzed individually by questionnaires. The results obtained with foresaid methods in the districts of Rastatt and Baden-Baden and in the township of Karlsruhe are presented. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  19. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  20. Decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources as a chance for local economic development. A qualitative study of two pioneer regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klagge, Britta; Brocke, Tobias [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography

    2012-12-15

    Empirical research on the local economic effects associated with decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources has only just started. So far, most studies focus on quantifying economic effects and neglect the conditions and constellations which support and enable local economic development based on decentralized electricity generation. This, however, is the focus of this paper which looks at these issues, employing the value chain concept in combination with a governance perspective. Empirically, we take a qualitative approach and analyze two case studies of pioneer regions, in which decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources has developed very dynamically. The case study regions are Soltau, with a special focus on biogas production, and Emden, where wind energy plays a special role. Based on the early activities of some pioneers, these regions have developed specific actor constellations and organizational structures and have entered development paths in which renewable energies became an important economic factor. The analysis highlights the importance of institutional context and supportive governance structures for an early advancement of decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources, with a key role of local actors and governance constellations. It also points to the importance of cooperative relationships among local business actors for creating a competitive advantage for (some) regional firms. Our analysis shows that with the geographical proliferation of electricity generation from renewable sources, specialized firms tend to reach beyond their regions, thus offering first-mover advantages for firms in pioneer regions in comparison with latecomers.

  1. Calculating the purchasing power of tourists in a wine region – a case study from Germany / Kaufkraft von Touristen in einer Weinregion – eine Fallstudie aus Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szolnoki Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this consumer study was firstly to calculate the economic importance, in term of purchasing power, of visitors in the German wine growing region Rheingau, and secondly to examine their demographic and behavioural characteristics, as well as their the motivation using segmentation approach. In the framework of a face-to-face survey, conducted between April and May 2015, a total of 1,555 tourists were interviewed at 18 different locations in the Rheingau. Four wine tourist types were identified by using cluster analysis: 1 Wine and Rheingau lovers, who have a high interest in wine and visit the region several times a year; 2 wine-oriented tourists, who use the culinary offerings of the Rheingau with pleasure but do not come to the region very often; 3 new visitors, who come to the region mainly because of the nature and history; and 4 foreign tourists, who have less knowledge about the Rheingau and buy less wine in the region. With the help of the purchasing power calculation, we can state that approximately 18 % of the total production is purchased directly in the region by tourists.

  2. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  4. R and D work in maintenance and repair in DeBeNe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenbrugge, J.K. van; Visbach, D.

    2002-01-01

    The research and development work on maintenance and repair of steam generators in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands (DeBeNe), specifically in the Netherlands, covers three different fields: inspection techniques, cleaning and repair. In this paper each field is discussed and, where applicable, references to more detailed papers on each topic are given. Inspection tools for the steam generators constructed in ferritic steels, used in DeBeNe are: visual test; pressure test; helium test; dye-penetrant/magnetic crack detection; X-ray testing; and ultrasonic testing. All tools are used during fabrication and for inservice inspection

  5. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  6. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  7. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  8. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  9. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  10. Search for Ne in e−μ+ events at petra and pep energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamanashi

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a way to check the possible existence of an electron-type neutral heavy lepton Ne which decays into e−μ+νμ. In the region of cosθcoll < 0 eμ signals due to Ne are expected to exceed those due to τ± at PETRA and PEP energies.

  11. Stress tolerant plant species spread in the road-ne

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, Vol.14 (2011), s. 45-46 ISSN 1644-7298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : weed * invasive * road-ne * salinity * Poaceae Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  12. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  13. GP-support by means of AGnES-practice assistants and the use of telecare devices in a sparsely populated region in Northern Germany – proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scriba Sibylle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many rural regions in Germany, the proportion of the elderly population increases rapidly. Simultaneously, about one-third of the presently active GPs will retire until 2010. Often it is difficult to find successors for vacant GP-practices. These regions require innovative concepts to avoid the imminent shortage in primary health care. The AGnES-concept comprises the delegation of GP-home visits to qualified AGnES-practice assistants (AGnES: GP-supporting, community-based, e-health-assisted, systemic intervention. Main objectives were the assessment of the acceptance of the AGnES-concept by the participating GPs, patients, and AGnES-practice assistants, the kind of delegated tasks, and the feasibility of home telecare in a GP-practice. Methods In this paper, we report first results of the implementation of this concept in regular GP-practices, conducted November 2005 – March 2007 on the Island of Rügen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. This study was meant as a proof of concept. The GP delegated routine home-visits to qualified practice employees (here: registered nurses. Eligible patients were provided with telecare-devices to monitor disease-related physiological values. All delegated tasks, modules conducted and questionnaire responses were documented. The participating patients were asked for their acceptance based on standardized questionnaires. The GPs and AGnES-practice assistants were asked for their judgement about different project components, the quality of health care provision and the competences of the AGnES-practice assistants. Results 550 home visits were conducted. 105 patients, two GPs and three AGnES-practice assistants (all registered nurses participated in the project. 48 patients used telecare-devices to monitor health parameters. 87.4% of the patients accepted AGnES-care as comparable to common GP-care. In the course of the project, the GPs delegated an increasing number of both monitoring

  14. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: A socioecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Potter, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the topic entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. r...

  15. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  16. Multiculturalism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts out from the recent statement by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel that multiculturalism in Germany is dead. The author draws attention to the unfavourable conditions for the development of multiculturalism in Germany. The reasons are historical, especially the experience of Nazism as well as the German social state. Namely, foreign workers in Germany, although without political rights and socially non-integrated, enjoyed a high degree of working and social rights, including high employment security. In this respect their position significantly differed from that of American workers (immigrants, which is why the struggle for civil rights was not in the foreground for German immigrants. Therefore, “the crisis of multiculturalism” appeared with the immigrants’ “second generation” (children, who have been first hit in the current times of crisis and the increasing deregulation of the labour market. They have remained socially non-integrated and without civil and political rights. It is interesting that the churches, particularly the Protestant one, lead in Germany in the efforts to begin to look at immigrants in a cultural (human sense as well, and have thus been the first to acknowledge that Germany has become a multicultural society. But this term and concept in Germany have remained sketchy, both in the theoretical and political sense. However, they have gained certain sympathy, mainly in parts of liberal-democratic circles – the Green Party leading the way – but more in a symbolic sense in countering xenophobia and cultural exclusion in German society. When multiculturalism was accused of developing “parallel society”, both the right and the left renounced it in favour of the (seemingly neutral concept of integration. The author proves that Germany has become and has remained multicultural, although not a multiculturalist country.

  17. Application of trajectory clustering and source attribution methods for investigating regional CO2 and CH4 concentrations at Germany's highest mountain site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) represent the most important contributors to increased radiative forcing enhancing it together by contemporary 2.65 W/m2 on the global average (IPCC 2013). The unbroken increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) has been unequivocally attributed to human emissions mainly coming from fossil fuel burning and land-use changes, while the oceans and terrestrial ecosystems slightly attenuate this rise with seasonally varying strength. Short-term fluctuations in the GHG concentrations that superimpose the seasonal cycle and the climate change driven trend reflect the presence of regional sources and sinks. A perfect place for investigating the comprehensive influence of these regional emissions is provided by the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (47.42°N, 10.98°E, 2.650m a.s.l.) situated in the eastern Alps at the southern side of Zugspitze mountain. Located just 300m below the highest peak of the German Alps, the exposed site is one of the currently 30 global core sites of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme and thus provides ideal conditions to study source-receptor relationships for greenhouse gases. We propose a stepwise statistical methodology for examining the relationship between synoptic-scale atmospheric transport patterns and climate gas mole fractions to finally receive a characterization of the sampling site with regard to the key processes driving CO2 and CH4 concentration levels. The first step entails a reliable radon-based filtering approach to subdivide the detected air masses according to their regional or 'background' origin. Simultaneously, a large number of ten-day back-trajectories from Schneefernerhaus every two hours over the entire study period 2011 - 2015 is calculated with the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al. 2005) and subjected to cluster analysis. The weather- and emission strength-related (short

  18. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  19. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  20. Production of the Ne Auger electrons by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-07-01

    The authors have bombarded Mg and Al surfaces with Ne/sup +/ ions and in this letter present evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy.

  1. Social capital in a regional inter-hospital network among trauma centers (trauma network): results of a qualitative study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Julika; Weigl, Johannes; Ernstberger, Antonio; Nerlich, Michael; Koller, Michael; Curbach, Janina

    2018-02-26

    As inter-hospital alliances have become increasingly popular in the healthcare sector, it is important to understand the challenges and benefits that the interaction between representatives of different hospitals entail. A prominent example of inter-hospital alliances are certified 'trauma networks', which consist of 5-30 trauma departments in a given region. Trauma networks are designed to improve trauma care by providing a coordinated response to injury, and have developed across the USA and multiple European countries since the 1960s. Their members need to interact regularly, e.g. develop joint protocols for patient transfer, or discuss patient safety. Social capital is a concept focusing on the development and benefits of relations and interactions within a network. The aim of our study was to explore how social capital is generated and used in a regional German trauma network. In this qualitative study, we performed semi-standardized face-to-face interviews with 23 senior trauma surgeons (2013-14). They were the official representatives of 23 out of 26 member hospitals of the Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria. The interviews covered the structure and functioning of the network, climate and reciprocity within the network, the development of social identity, and different resources and benefits derived from the network (e.g. facilitation of interactions, advocacy, work satisfaction). Transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis. According to the interviews, the studied trauma network became a group of surgeons with substantial bonding social capital. The surgeons perceived that the network's culture of interaction was flat, and they identified with the network due to a climate of mutual respect. They felt that the inclusive leadership helped establish a norm of reciprocity. Among the interviewed surgeons, the gain of technical information was seen as less important than the exchange of information on political aspects. The perceived resources derived from

  2. Nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since September 1998 the Federal Government formed by a Red/Green Coalition declared its goal: irreversible phase out of nuclear power plants. The first attempt to stop reprocessing as well as the first attempt to change nuclear law failed. The present situation is as follows: existing nuclear power plants operate in a most satisfying way producing 170 TWh/a. i.e. 35% of total production; transport license is not granted; no new NPP is planned, but Germany will participate in the French European Power Reactor (EPR) project. Concerning fast reactors, no industrial activities exist in Germany. There is no intention to build a facility, but Germany participates in the European CAPRA project. Existing research items are related to neutronics, safety analysis, irradiation experiment TRABANT, accelerator driven systems, thermohydraulics, safety

  3. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  4. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC, is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1 what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2 how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  5. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  6. AREVA Germany. International competence in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)

  7. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  8. Atmospheric distribution and seasonality of airborne polyfluorinated compounds. Spatial and temporal concentration variations from ship- and land-based measurements in Northern Germany, the Atlantic Ocean, and Polar Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Annekatrin

    2010-07-01

    In order to assess the distribution of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) in ambient air on temporal as well as spatial scales, air samples were taken during several sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Permanent air monitoring stations close to Hamburg (Germany) as well as several research vessels operating in the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Baltic Sea were used as sampling platforms. Airborne PFC were sampled using glass fibre filters (particlebound PFC) and a sandwich polyurethane foam and the polymer resin XAD-2 (gaseous PFC). Samples were extracted by acetone: methyl-tert-butyl ether (1:1) or methanol and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Airborne PFC were detected in all of the collected air samples, even in Antarctica, with southern hemispheric concentrations being lower than those of the northern hemisphere which provides further evidence that this emerging group of contaminants is subject to atmospheric long-range transport from mainly northern hemispheric source regions towards remote areas. While the persistent perfluorinated acids (PFCA, PFSA) were only determined at concentrations below 1 pg m{sup -3} in the particulate phase, their neutral volatile precursors (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE)) occurred predominantly in the gas phase at concentrations that were usually two orders of magnitude higher and ranged from 4.5 pg m{sup -3} in the Southern Ocean to 335 pg m{sup -3} in source regions in ship-based samples and from 17 to 972 pg m{sup -3} in land-based samples. Furthermore, PFC in ambient air varied strongly over time as observed during a 14 months lasting sampling campaign close to Hamburg. Emissions from nearby local sources as well as long-range transport of PFC emitted from diffuse sources west and southwest of the sampling sites were considered as explanation for the observed pattern. (orig.)

  9. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  10. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  12. Library Consortia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Reinhardt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

  13. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  14. Neutral bremsstrahlung radiation of Ne, Ar and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, R.T.V.; Chang, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral Bremsstrahlung cross-sections of Ne, Ar and atomic oxygen around the 3 and 10μ wavelength regions were measured in a high temperature plasma generated in a shock tube. The results were generally a factor of three higher than the theoretical values calculated by Geltman (Geltman, S., JQSRT vol.13, 601 (1973)). Agreement with the experimental results of Taylor and Caledonia (Taylor, R.L. and Caledonia, G., JQSRT vol.9, 657; 681, 1969) around 3μ was good except for the case of Ne. The cross-sections around 10μ are the first measurements in this wavelength region. Enhanced radiation due to atomic line emission on top of the Bremsstrahlung continuum, as predicted by Hyman (Hyman, H.A. and Von Rosenberg, C.W. Jr., JQSRT, vol.15, 919, 1975) was observed around 7.44μ. (author)

  15. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Khakhalin, S.Ya.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l', 2s 2 2p 5 3l4l', 2s2p 6 3l3l' and 2s2p 6 3l4l' levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s 2 2p 5 3l3l'3l '' and 2s2p 6 3l3l'3l '' levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution λ/Δλ∼3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with λ/Δλ>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.)

  16. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE ν μ → ν e results, describe the first (bar ν) μ → (bar ν) e result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector

  17. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  18. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.

    1990-01-01

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  19. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  20. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  1. Environmental policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wey, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.) [de

  2. ECFA SURVEY: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Few nations can match the scope of German basic physics contributions. Earlier this century, illustrious names (Rontgen, Franck, von Laue, Planck, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, ) kept Germany among the front runners. Subsequent history has given German physics a very different profile - the country now participates massively in international projects and is the largest single contributing nation in CERN's research programme. At the same time, an impressive high energy programme at the German national Laboratory at DESY, Hamburg, centred around the 6.3 kilometre HERA ring, the world's only high energy electron-proton collider, attracts scientists from all over the world

  3. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  4. Near-death experiences, attacks by family members, and absence of health care in their home countries affect the quality of life of refugee women in Germany: a multi-region, cross-sectional, gender-sensitive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Jenny; Sönmez, Ekin; Abels, Ingar; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutermann, Jana; Kimbel, Renate; Krüger, Antje; Niklewski, Guenter; Richter, Kneginja; Stangier, Ulrich; Wollny, Anja; Zier, Ulrike; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Shouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2018-02-01

    The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to face during their journey. Herein, we investigated whether sociodemographic characteristics and traumatic experiences in the home country and during the flight affected the quality of life of refugee women arriving in Germany in 2015-2016. Six hundred sixty-three women from six countries (Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea) living in shared reception facilities in five distinct German regions were interviewed by native speakers using a structured questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and information about reasons for fleeing, traumatic experiences, symptoms, quality of life, and expectations towards their future were elicited. All information was stored in a central database in Berlin. Descriptive analyses, correlations, and multivariate analyses were performed. The most frequent reasons cited for fleeing were war, terror, and threat to one's life or the life of a family member. Eighty-seven percent of women resorted to smugglers to make the journey to Europe, and this significantly correlated to residence in a war zone (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.6, p = 0.003) and homelessness prior to fleeing (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1-4.3, p = 0.04). Overall the described quality of life by the women was moderate (overall mean = 3.23, range of 1-5) and slightly worse than that of European populations (overall mean = 3.68, p Refugee women experience multiple traumatic experiences before and/or during their journey, some of which are gender-specific. These experiences affect the quality of life in their current country of residence and might impact their integration. We encourage the early investigation of these traumatic experiences to rapidly identify women at higher risk and to improve health

  5. The NeXus data format

    OpenAIRE

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamlin...

  6. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  7. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  8. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  9. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  10. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  11. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  13. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  15. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as 135 Cs, 137 Cs, and 129 I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs

  16. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Soil and Water Assessment Tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (Ne Spain) in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Benites, Grace

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates soil loss due to water erosion in an area of 32,362 ha with a predominant land use of vineyards (Alt Penedès-Anoia region, Catalonia, Spain). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used incorporating daily climatic data for the period 2000-2010 and also detailed soil and land use maps. Particular attention was given to the universal soil loss equation cover and management factor (C factor) of vineyards, with a minimum value of 0·15 being determined for this crop. T...

  18. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henger, M.; Leydecker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the regional reports of the seismological observatories for the year 1983. There was no serious earthquake so far in the F.R.G. The data are presented in the form of maps showing the seismic centers in West Germany (including marginal regions). Explanations of seismological terminology and abbreviations used are given for the general reader. (DG) [de

  19. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of [11C]NE-100 labeled in two different positions as a PET σ receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Noguchi, Junko; Ishii, Shin-Ichi; Hatano, Kentaro; Ito, Kengo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Senda, Michio

    1998-01-01

    N,N-Dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine (NE-100) was labeled with 11 C in two different positions by the alkylation of an N-despropyl precursor with [ 11 C]propyl iodide and of an O-desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl iodide and was evaluated for the potential as a tracer for mapping σ 1 receptors in the CNS and peripheral organs by PET. Following i.v. injection of [N-propyl- 11 C]NE-100 or [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100 into mice, the two tracers showed similar tissue distribution patterns except for the liver and brain. With the coinjected carrier NE-100 or haloperidol, the uptake of [N-propyl- 11 C]NE-100 by the liver, pancreas and spleen was significantly decreased at 15 min after injection, whereas the effect was not significant for [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100. The coinjection of NE-100 enhanced the brain uptake of the two tracers. Haloperidol also enhanced the brain uptake of [N-propyl- 11 C]NE-100, but not that of [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100. The regional brain distribution assessed with [O-methyl- 3 H]NE-100 was consistent with the distribution pattern of the σ receptors. Four σ drugs reduced the regional brain uptake of [O-methyl- 3 H]NE-100 to 70%-90% of the control. In an ex vivo autoradiographic study of the rat brain, the uptake of [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100 was blocked by carrier NE-100 or haloperidol (53%-59% of the control in the cortex), which suggests a receptor-specific distribution. These results show that [O-methyl- 11 C]NE-100 has limited potential as a PET ligand for mapping σ 1 receptors in the peripheral organs and the CNS because of high nonspecific binding

  20. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  1. Laachite, (Ca,Mn){sub 2}Zr{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}TiFeO{sub 14}, a new zirconolite-related mineral from the Eifel volcanic region, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukanov, Nikita V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Pakhomova, Anna S. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Crystallography; Pekov, Igor V.; Vigasina, Marina F. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Geology; Schaefer, Christof [Suedwestdeutsche Salzwerke AG, Heilbronn (Germany); Van, Konstantin V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Experimental Mineralogy

    2014-02-15

    The new mineral laachite was discovered in a sanidinite specimen from the Laach Lake (Laacher See) volcano, Eifel region, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. Associated minerals are sanidine, allanite-(Ce), baddeleyite, hau¨yne, hedenbergite, intermediate members of the jacobsite-magnetite series, phlogopite, rhodonite, spessartine, tephroite, thorite, zircon, and a pyrochlore-group mineral. Laachite is deep brownish-red, has an adamantine lustre, and is translucent; the streak is brownish red. It forms longprismatic crystals up to 0.02 x 0.04 x 0.5 mm, which are present as random intergrowths and twins in cavities within sanidinite. The density calculated from the empirical formula is 5.417 g/cm{sup 3}. The mean refractive index calculated from the Gladstone-Dale relationship is 2.26. The Raman spectrum shows the absence of hydrogen-bearing groups. The chemical composition is (electron microprobe, mean of 5 analyses, wt. %): CaO 4.29, MnO 9.42, FeO 5.73, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2.56, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2.00, Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} 6.37, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} 2.22, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0.99, ThO{sub 2} 7.75, TiO{sub 2} 10.98, ZrO{sub 2} 19.39, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} 27.82, total 99.52. The empirical formula based on 14 O atoms is: (Ca{sub 0.66}Mn{sub 0.37}Th{sub 0.25}Y{sub 0.20}La{sub 0.11}Ce{sub 0.34}Nd{sub 0.11})(Zr{sub 1.3} {sub 6}Mn{sub 0.64})(Nb{sub 1.81}Ti{sub 1.19})(Fe{sub 0.69}Al{sub 0.17}Mn{sub 0.14})O{sub 14.00}. The simplified formula, taking into account the structural data, is: (Ca,Mn){sub 2}(Zr,Mn){sub 2}Nb{sub 2}TiFeO{sub 14}. Laachite is monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 7.3119(5), b = 14.1790(10), c = 10.1700(7)Aa, β = 90.072(2), V = 1054.38(1) Aa{sup 3}, Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Laachite is a monoclinic analogue of zirconolite-3O, CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, with Nb dominant over Ti in the octahedral sites Nb1 and Nb2 and Fe dominant in a site with four-fold coordination. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction

  2. Dielectronic satellites to the Ne-like yttrium resonance lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterheld, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Khakhalin, S.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Faenov, A.Ya. [MISDC, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.

    1996-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the n=2-3 and n=2-4 Ne-like yttrium resonance lines. Satellite lines from the double excited 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`, 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l4l`, 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l` and 2s2p{sup 6}3l4l` levels of Na-like Y as well as from 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}3l3l`3l{sup ``} and 2s2p{sup 6}3l3l`3l{sup ``} levels of Mg-like Y were observed in spectra from a laser-produced plasma. The X-ray spectra were recorded with high spectral resolution {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}3500-5000 in the wavelength region of the n=2-3 Ne-like resonance lines and with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}>1000 in the region of the n=2-4 Ne-like resonance lines. A total of more than 50 spectral features were identified, and their wavelengths were measured. A simple intensity model was developed, which agreed well with the measured spectra and assisted the line identification. The consistency of the model for different spectral regions demonstrates the potential of the Na-like and Mg-like satellite lines for diagnosing plasma conditions. (orig.).

  3. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  4. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  5. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  6. Coulomb breakup of 31Ne using finite range DWBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Coulomb breakup of nuclei away from the valley of stability have been one of the most successful probes to unravel their structure. However, it is only recently that one is venturing into medium mass nuclei like 23 O and 31 Ne. This is a very new and exciting development which has expanded the field of light exotic nuclei to the deformed medium mass region. In this contribution, an extension of the previously proposed theory of Coulomb breakup within the post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation to include deformation of the projectile is reported

  7. Could LC-NE-Dependent Adjustment of Neural Gain Drive Functional Brain Network Reorganization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Guedj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system is thought to act at synaptic, cellular, microcircuit, and network levels to facilitate cognitive functions through at least two different processes, not mutually exclusive. Accordingly, as a reset signal, the LC-NE system could trigger brain network reorganizations in response to salient information in the environment and/or adjust the neural gain within its target regions to optimize behavioral responses. Here, we provide evidence of the co-occurrence of these two mechanisms at the whole-brain level, in resting-state conditions following a pharmacological stimulation of the LC-NE system. We propose that these two mechanisms are interdependent such that the LC-NE-dependent adjustment of the neural gain inferred from the clustering coefficient could drive functional brain network reorganizations through coherence in the gamma rhythm. Via the temporal dynamic of gamma-range band-limited power, the release of NE could adjust the neural gain, promoting interactions only within the neuronal populations whose amplitude envelopes are correlated, thus making it possible to reorganize neuronal ensembles, functional networks, and ultimately, behavioral responses. Thus, our proposal offers a unified framework integrating the putative influence of the LC-NE system on both local- and long-range adjustments of brain dynamics underlying behavioral flexibility.

  8. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  9. {sup 17}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 21}Ne and {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne for the weak s process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.; Goerres, J.; Beard, M.; Couder, M.; Boer, R. de; Falahat, S.; Gueray, R. T.; Kontos, A.; Kratz, K.-L.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Li, Q.; O' Brien, S.; Oezkan, N.; Pignatari, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Talwar, R.; Tan, W.; Uberseder, E.; Wiescher, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States) and Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, Kacaeli University, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, Kacaeli University, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The ratio of the reaction rates of the competing channels {sup 17}O({alpha}{gamma}){sup 21}Ne and {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne determines the efficiency of {sup 16}O as a neutron poison in the s process in low metallicity rotating stars. It has a large impact on the element production, either producing elements to the mass range of A=90 in case of a significant poisoning effect or extending the mass range up to the region of A=150 if the {gamma} channel is of negligible strength. We present an improved study of the reaction {sup 17}O({alpha},n){sup 20}Ne, including an independent measurement of the {sup 17}O({alpha},n{sub 1}){sup 20}Ne channel. A simultaneous R-Matrix fit to both the n{sub 0} and the n{sub 1} channels has been performed. New reaction rates, including recent data on the {sup 17}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 21}Ne reaction, have been calculated and used as input for stellar network calculations and their impact on the s process in rotating massive stars is discussed.

  10. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  11. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  12. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  13. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  14. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  15. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  16. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - January 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (DeBeNe) agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about dose cooperation in the fast breeder field. The results of activities carried out by DeBeNe partners in 1985 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by the R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1985

  17. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  18. Ne beam-Kr target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, V E; Kostin, V V; Vorob` ev, V S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center; Kulish, M I; Mintsev, V B [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics; Hoffman, [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Energetic heavy ions of Ne - crystal Kr target interaction is investigated both experimentally and with the help of a 2-D computer code. The dynamics of the target matter heating, expansion, and destruction are described. A new equation of state for Kr was obtained and tested within a wide range of parameters. (author). 2 figs., 10 refs.

  19. The DAΦNE cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, M.

    1997-12-01

    The DAΦNE Project utilises superconductivity technology for a total of six superconducting magnets: the two Experiment magnets (KLOE and FINUDA) and the four Compensator Solenoid magnets needed to compensate the magnetic effect of the Experiment magnets on the electron and positron beams. This effect, on beams of 510 MeV (nominal DAΦNE Energy), is expected to be relevant, especially with the aim of achieving a very high luminosity, which is the main target of the Project. The KLOE superconducting magnet has two possible working positions: the first in the DAΦNE Hall, when the Experiment will be in operation, and the second one in the KLOE Assembly Hall. This second position is the first to be utilised for the KLOE magnet Acceptance Test and magnetic field mapping, prior to the mounting of all the experimental apparatus inside the magnet. This note intends to present the DAΦNE Cryogenic System and how the authors have converged to the definition of a common Cryogenic System compatible with all the six superconducting magnets

  20. Yearbook on energy from Central Germany 2012; Jahrbuch Energie aus Mitteldeutschland 2012. Die Energiewende beginnt im Kopf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Simone; Kresse, Olaf (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration promote the regional cooperation and networking in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia by means of the following contributions: (1) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - Where do we go?; (2) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - Opportunities for local communities; (3) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - Opportunities for companies in the area of energy efficiency; (4) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - A challenge for education and science; (5) Energy policy turnaround in Central Germany - A challenge for the human resource development of companies.

  1. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf...

  2. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  3. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  4. Diversity patterns in macrobenthos across a continental slope in the NE Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, E.; De Bruin, W.

    1999-01-01

    Different estimates were used to assess the diversity of the total macrofauna and its major taxonomic groups separately from a broad bathymetric range at a site in the NE Atlantic. In the Goban Spur region, a transect was sampled from the shelf to the abyssal plain over a depth range from similar to

  5. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 20Ne + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachouri, Dipti; Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the excitation functions (EFs) for radioactive residues produced in the interaction of 20 Ne ion with 27 Al have been measured in order to study the reaction dynamics, particularly in the low mass region using the off-line γ-ray measurement activation technique for bombarding energies below 150 MeV

  6. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Essential Fish Habitat Closure Areas. (1) In addition to the restrictions under paragraphs (a) through (e... vessel may enter, fish, or be in the area known as Closed Area I (copies of a chart depicting this area... vessels are adversely affecting habitat or NE multispecies stocks, the Regional Administrator may, through...

  7. NE seeks to sell power directly to customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric, the state-owned company that operates nuclear power stations in England and Wales, has applied to compete directly with privatized electricity generating companies in the sale of electricity to major customers. Since its formation in 1990, NE has had to sell all of its electrical output through the so-called pool operated by the National Grid Company, and then to 12 regional distribution companies that have franchises for about 75 percent of electricity consumption in their regions. On the other hand, the two large companies that took over the fossil-fuel power stations at the time of privatization, and other new independent companies that are building combined-cycle gas-turbine plants, are allowed to conclude supply contracts directly with large industrial customers

  8. Mass spectra and fusion cross sections for 20Ne+24Mg interaction at 55 and 85 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotowski, K.; Belery, P.; Delbar, T.; El Masri, Y.; Gregoire, G.; Janssens, R.; Vervier, J.; Paic, G.; Albinska, M.; Albinski, J.; Kopta, S.; Kozik, T.; Planeta, R.

    1981-01-01

    Inclusive γ spectra from the 20 Ne+ 24 Mg interaction have been measured using 55- and 85-MeV 20 Ne ions. The identification of γ lines allows the determination of mass spectra in the region 12< or =A< or =43. Experimental results are compared with statistical model calculations. The total reaction and fusion cross sections are extracted. Cross sections for inelastic scattering, few nucleon transfers, and deep inelastic scattering are estimated

  9. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  10. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  11. Current Status of the MiniBooNE Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, H.; collaboration, for the MiniBooNE

    2004-01-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND anti-nu_mu -> anti-nu_e oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of nu_mu -> nu_e in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  12. Yrast and high spin states in 22Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szanto, E.M.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1982-08-01

    High spin states in 22 Ne have been investigated by the reactions 11 B( 13 C,d) 22 Ne and 13 C( 11 B,d) 22 Ne up to E* approximately=19 MeV. Yrast states were observed at 11.02 MeV (8 + ) and 15.46 MeV (10 + ) excitation energy. A backbending in 22 Ne is observed around spin 8 + . The location of high spin states I [pt

  13. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  14. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  15. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  16. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reu...

  17. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...

  18. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  19. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  20. Bank vole immunoheterogeneity may limit Nephropatia Epidemica emergence in a French non-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A; Castel, G; Murri, S; Pulido, C; Pons, J-B; Benoit, L; Loiseau, A; Lakhdar, L; Galan, M; Marianneau, P; Charbonnel, N

    2018-03-01

    Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.

  1. Collision-induced intramultiplet mixing for the Ne**[(2p)5(3p)] + He or Ne system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manders, M.P.I.

    1988-01-01

    For the Ne**-He case, experimental data are confronted with quantum mechanical calculations. Quantum mechanical coupled-channel calculations using model potentials as input are presented, followed by a semiclassical approach which provides more physical insight. Experimental results are presented for the Ne**-Ne system with a discussion of the general principles involved in symmetrization. 184 refs.; 93 figs.; 19 tabs

  2. UCB-NE-101 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig

  3. Measurement of the {sup 15}O(2p,{gamma}){sup 17}Ne cross section by Coulomb dissociation of {sup 17}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marganiec, Justyna [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas; Heil, Michael; Plag, Ralf; Wamers, Felix [Kernreaktionen und Nuklear Astrophysik, GSI Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For the production of proton-rich nuclei during the rp process two-proton capture plays an important role. This process can bridge long-lived waiting points which otherwise hamper the mass flow between CNO material and the FeNi mass region. One of these waiting points is {sup 15}O. The three-body radiative capture can proceed sequentially or directly from the three-body continuum. The rate of the {sup 15}O(2p,{gamma}){sup 17}Ne reaction obtained using the two-successive-proton-capture model has been discussed in J. Goerres et al. (Phys. Rev. C 51, 392, 1995). The role of continuum states ({sup 15}O+2p) for the rate calculation has been demonstrated in L.V Grigorenko, M.V. Zhukov (Phys. Rev. C 72, 015803, 2005). It has been suggested that the reaction rate can be enhanced by a few orders of magnitude by taking into account the three-body continuum. In order to verify these calculations, we have deduced the {sup 15}O(2p,{gamma}){sup 17}Ne cross section by studying the time-reversed process, the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 17}Ne, at the LAND/R{sup 3}B setup at GSI, using a {sup 17}Ne secondary beam from the fragment separator FRS.

  4. Nuclear structure effects in fusion-fission of compound systems 20,21,22Ne formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators has been successfully applied to the decay of number of hot and rotating compound nuclei in different mass regions, formed in low-energy heavy ion reactions. Recently, its application to the binary symmetric decay (BSD) of very light mass compound systems 20,21,22 Ne formed in 10,11 B+ 10,11 B reactions at E lab =48 MeV is extended, as the experimental data for σ BSD Expt . is available, namely, for 20 Ne (∼ 270 mb), 21 Ne ( 22 Ne ( BSD DCM for the BSD of the three Ne systems is calculated, comprising fusion-fission σ ff and deep inelastic scattering/orbiting σorb contributions (evaluated empirically here) from compound nucleus CN and non-compound nucleus nCN processes, respectively. The significant observation from this study is that, of the total σ BSD DCM , σ ff contribution is very strong for the decay of 20 Ne (=195.270 mb; >70%), followed by 21 Ne (=65.723 mb; ∼50%) and 22 Ne (=8.677 mb; almost 10%). This means that the process of collective clusterization within the DCM is playing very strong role for the decay of 20 Ne

  5. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  6. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  7. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  8. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  9. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  10. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  11. Nuclear power perspectives for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 300 experts from the power industries, of research and politics, from Germany and abroad followed the invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) to meet at the traditional winter meeting held in Bonn on January 28 and 29, 1992, in order to discuss topical political issues, not only relating to nuclear power, but to primary energy supply in general. Bonn having been chosen as the place for the 1992 meeting, there were unusually many members of Parliament and members of the Federal German Government attending the conference. The four sessions of the conference were devoted to the following aspects: Perspectives, the world energy market, current issues of energy policy in Germany, and preventive risk management. (orig.) [de

  12. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  13. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  14. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  15. International Student Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Donata Bessey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...

  16. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  18. Steel Joint Consortium (Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, China, India and Germany in Herat, and the Economic, Political and Security Impacts in the Region, by Futuristic Approach with an Emphasis on SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Tavakoli Roody

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical weight has a direct relationship with the geopolitical prestige of the country in the global and regional system, which can increase the dignity and public reputation of the country among other larger, equal or smaller countries. The more credibility and dignity increases, the more provide new opportunities for visible or invisible power, to objectively and subjectively influence processes, decisions, actions and behaviors at different local, regional and global scales. The geopolitical position of eastern Iran, due to its proximity to the countries of central Asia and Afghanistan and its access to high-energy resources; its domination on the world's most important energy and commodity transfer pathways; the strategic location for the land locked countries in Central Asia, Caucasus and Afghanistan to access free waters, connecting China and the countries of Southeast Asia to Europe; and the formation of the KhafHerat-China triangle and the region as a gateway for east of the country. The formation of this consortium between relevant countries, particularly five powerful countries in the steel industry in Herat can be considered as a factor in the emergence of Iran's geopolitical power and expanding Iran's influence in the region and Central Asia. Generally, the presence of regional and trans-regional economic powers and the convergence of these countries in the formation of a joint consortium can create a massive geopolitical weight to prevent US threats .Although, this project shows a clear horizon, but there are definitely problems with this process to assess the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of the swot model, to better recognize the partnership environment. The research method in this paper is descriptiveanalytical and data collection is based on documentary-library method. In this research quantitative and qualitative resources are simultaneously used relative to the problem under discussion which is called

  19. Splitter magnets for DAΦNE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanelli, C.; Hsieh, H.

    1992-01-01

    A 510 MeV electron positron colliding beam facility is under design and construction. The project consists of two storage rings, accumulator, electron/positron linac and transfer lines. The design of the splitter magnets which separate the circulating beams immediately after passing through the DAΦNE interaction point is presented. The results of 2-D and 3-D magnetic calculations is presented, and the electrical and mechanical design of the magnet are described. A 1/3 length prototype of this magnet is under construction. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas VTEC predictions for low latitude and South American sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y.; Nava, B.; Cabrera, M. A.; Brunini, C.

    2018-04-01

    Using vertical total electron content (VTEC) measurements obtained from GPS satellite signals the capability of the NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas models to predict VTEC over the low latitude and South American sector is analyzed. In the present work both models were used to calculate VTEC up to the height of GPS satellites. Also, comparisons between the performance of IRI Plas and IRI 2007 have been done. The data correspond to June solstice and September equinox 1999 (high solar activity) and they were obtained at nine stations. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4°N to -64.7°N and the longitude ranges from 281.3°E to 295.9°E in the South American sector. The greatest discrepancies among model predictions and the measured VTEC are obtained at low latitudes stations placed in the equatorial anomaly region. Underestimations as strong as 40 TECU [1 TECU = 1016 m-2] can be observed at BOGT station for September equinox, when NeQuick2 model is used. The obtained results also show that: (a) for June solstice, in general the performance of IRI Plas for low latitude stations is better than that of NeQuick2 and, vice versa, for highest latitudes the performance of NeQuick2 is better than that of IRI Plas. For the stations TUCU and SANT both models have good performance; (b) for September equinox the performances of the models do not follow a clearly defined pattern as in the other season. However, it can be seen that for the region placed between the Northern peak and the valley of the equatorial anomaly, in general, the performance of IRI Plas is better than that of NeQuick2 for hours of maximum ionization. From TUCU to the South, the best TEC predictions are given by NeQuick2. The source of the observed deviations of the models has been explored in terms of CCIR foF2 determination in the available ionosonde stations in the region. Discrepancies can be also related to an unrealistic shape of the vertical electron density profile and or an erroneous prediction of

  1. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  2. Metastable He (n=2) - Ne potential interaction calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, H.

    1983-10-01

    Diabatic potential terms corresponding to He (2 1 S)-Ne and He (2 3 S)-Ne interactions are calculated. These potentials reproduce the experimental results thermal metastable atom elastic scattering on Ne target. A model which reduces the interaction to a one-electron problem is proposed: the He excited electron. Its interaction with the He + center is reproduced by a ''l'' dependent potential model with a 1/2 behaviour at short range. The electron interaction facing the Ne is described by a l-dependent pseudopotential reproducing with accuracy the electron elastic scattering on a Ne atom. The importance of the corrective term related to the Ne polarizations by the electron and the He + ion is showed in this work. In the modelling problems, the accuracy cannot be better than 0.1 MeV [fr

  3. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and

  4. Design of steady-state positron emission tomography protocols for neurobehavioral studies: CO15O and 19Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, K.J.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Volpe, B.T.

    1983-01-01

    Although the [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomographic technique for measuring regional glucose metabolic rate has been successfully employed for neurobehavioral studies, the long (greater than 30 min) equilibration time required may complicate the interpretation of experimental results. Positron emission tomography neurobehavioral protocols employing the continuous inhalation of CO 15 O and 19 Ne were developed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow during multiple control and stimulation periods. Timing, lung absorbed dose, statistical accuracy, and resolution were considered. Studies with 19 Ne require shorter equilibration and stimulation times than do CO 15 O studies but entail higher absorbed doses and yield poorer imaging statistics

  5. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  6. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  7. Prospects for Antineutrino Running at MiniBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Wascko, M. O.

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like nuebar oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  8. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei

    2001-01-01

    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  9. Study of 19F and 19Ne mirror nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, Claude.

    1976-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the mirror nuclei 19 F and 19 Ne were studied using the 18 O(d,nγ) 19 F, 17 O( 3 He,nγ) 19 Ne and 19 F(p,nγ) 19 Ne reactions. Lifetimes of 8 levels in 19 F and 11 levels in 19 Ne have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. Weak and strong components of M 1 , E 1 and E 2 transition strengths are compared with shell model predictions. M 1 and E 2 transition strengths of conjugated nuclei (A=18 to A=34) are compiled and compared with wide configuration space shell models [fr

  10. The state of the NeXus data format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, Mark

    2006-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange format for neutron, muon and X-ray scattering. NeXus has six levels: a physical file format, a file structure, rules for storing individual data items in a file, a dictionary of names, instrument definitions and an application programming interface (API) to NeXus files. The authors will present the large steps forward which have been made both with instrument definitions and the NeXus-API

  11. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Teoría ecológica y valores en la definición de objetivos de conservación: ejemplos de regiones templadas de Alemania, Estados Unidos de América y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Jax

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of conservation goals is a complex task, which involves both ecological sciences and social values. A brief history of conservation strategies in Germany (protection of cultural landscapes, United States (wilderness ideal, and southern Chile (preservation paradigm and the more recent interest in ecotourism illustrates a broad range of conservation goals. To encompass such an array of conservation dimensions and goals, the ecosystem approach adopted by the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity represents a good approach. However, to become effective, this kind of approach requires clarifying and agreeing upon basic concepts, such as ecosystem. To serve that purpose, we present a scheme that considers the selected phenomena, internal relationship, and the component resolution to define an ecosystem. We conclude that: (1 conservation traditions encompass interests in the preservation of both natural and cultural heritages, which also appear as mutually dependent dimensions. Hence, nature and humans are brought together as much in the goals as in the processes of conservation. (2 In the context of current global change, it is impossible to completely "isolate" protected areas from direct or indirect human influences. In addition, the current view of nature points out that biotas and ecosystems will change over time, even in protected areas. Hence, in order to preserve species or habitats it is not enough to isolate protected areas, but it often requires active management and conservation actions. The two former conclusions suggest the need to revise the conservation approach that has been undertaken in the southern region of Chile, because (a local people have been systematically excluded from protected areas, and (b these areas lack personnel and facilities to conduct appropriate conservation and/or management programs. (3 Our analyses of the views of nature and conservation goals in different regions

  12. α cluster structures in unbound states in 19Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Reiji; Iwasaki, Masataka; Ito, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) is solved, and the adiabatic energy surfaces, which are the series of the energy eigenvalues as a function of the He-O distance, are investigated. In the adiabatic energy curves, the several local minima are generated in the spatial region of the small core distance, where the neutron hole inside of the He or O nucleus is strongly coupled to the residual nuclei. The energy spectra, which are constructed from the strong coupling states, nicely reproduce the the low-lying energy levels in the 19Ne nucleus. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential is evaluated from the elastic scattering of the α + 15N system, and the resonant levels of the α + 15O system are calculated under the absorbing boundary condition. The potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling scheme of the α particle and one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The extended microscopic calculations of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) + (5He+14O) are performed in order to see the coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration, which corresponds to the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O cluster configuration. The extended calculation suggests that the 5He + 14O configuration plays an important role on the formation of the 3/2+ resonance at 0.5 MeV with respect to the α threshold.

  13. Demographic Trends in Germany and their Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rembrandt Scholz; Carsten Schröder

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores demographic trends in Germany, as well as the determinants of these trends, and the economic implications of these demographic changes for the country. A detailed spatial analysis reveals substantial differences in the speed and intensity of the processes of population aging and population decline across the German regions. The results indicate that these processes are particularly pronounced in the state of Mecklenburg Western-Pomerania. As a new contribution to th...

  14. Anti-Islamic PEGIDA beyond Germany : explaining differences in mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    BERNTZEN, Lars Erik; WEISSKIRCHER, Manès

    2016-01-01

    First published online: 28 October 2016 The rise of anti-Islamic PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes) is one of the latest sustained episodes of radical right mobilisation in Western Europe outside the electoral arena. This study provides a first comparative analysis of PEGIDA beyond Germany and its core region of Saxony. Combining protest event analysis with online data and network analysis, we identify why PEGIDA mustered low-scale support in some countr...

  15. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given on the seismic events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1986. Further articles deal with statistics on the earthquakes in the period from 1974 to 1986, reports on single regions as well as a list of the earthquakes world-wide and the damages resulting in the year 1986. (orig./HP) With 12 figs., 5 tabs [de

  16. Germany: the electricity bill soars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    As Germany is already one of the European countries where electricity prices are the highest for households (twice more than in France), the author comments the past evolution of these prices and shows that they will probably increase again in 2017 to finance energy transition. This increase is notably due to higher taxes (a comparison with the French CSPE tax is presented and commented), and to a costly grid renewal. As the energy transition appears to be very expensive (about 500 billions euros by 2025), the cost-benefit rate of the German energy transition is disastrous and the de-carbonation of the electricity sector does not progress

  17. Germany after March 11th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, A.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  18. Phase transition and angular momentum dependence of correlations in the rotational spectra of Ne20 and Ne22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, L.; Schmid, K.W.; Krewald, S.; Faessler, A.

    1974-01-01

    Multi-Configuration-Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculations with angular momentum projection before the variation of the internal degree of freedom have been performed for the nuclei Ne 20 and Ne 22 . This procedure yields different correlated intrinsic states for the different members of a rotational band. Thus, the angular momentum dependence of correlations has been studied. Experimentally, the ground state spectra of Ne 20 and Ne 22 show properties similar to the phase transitions observed in some rare earth nuclei which have been well reproduced through the present calculations. The calculated spectra show a significant improvement compared to the ones obtained by variation before the angular momentum projection is effected. (author)

  19. Radiative corrections to the hadronic cross-section measurement at DA{phi}NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoze, V.A. [Durham Univ. of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Konchatnij, M.I.; Merenkov, NP.; Shekhovzova, O.N. [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Karkhov (Ukraine); Pancheri, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Trentadue, L. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2000-07-01

    The hadronic invariant mass distribution for the process of electron--positron annihilation into a pair of charged pions accompanied by a photon radiated from the initial state has been studied for the region of DA{phi}NE energies. The Born cross-section and the electromagnetic radiative corrections to it are calculated for realistic conditions of the KLOE detector. The dependence on the physical parameters which define the event selection is obtained.

  20. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  1. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  2. DAΦNE magnet power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Stecchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The e + -e - , 1020 MeV at center of mass, Particle Accelerator Complex DAΦNE, consists of a linear accelerator (Linac), a damping ring (D.A.), nearly 180 m of transfer lines (T.L.) and two storage rings (S.R.), that intersect each other in two points (I.P.), for Φ particle production. The D.A., T.L. and S.R. magnets are powered by means of 462 power supplies, rating from 100 W to 1 MW. The very different output currents, from 10 A to 2300 A, and output voltages, from 8 V to 1300 V, imposed many different technical solution realized by the world industry. This paper describes the Power Supply System giving also a description of the different typologies, their characteristics and control systems. The paper reports also the power supply performances and gives information on their installation and first year operation period

  3. KN scattering at DA{Phi}NE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, A

    1995-06-01

    Existing measurements of the KN and K-bar N scattering lengths suffer from large uncertainties, particularly in the I=0 channel. The low energy kaons from {phi} decay available at DA{Phi}NE can be used to improve this situation. Three experimental approaches are discussed: a solid hydrogen target and silicon colorimeter surrounding the collision point. This would also use the magnet and tracking detectors of the FINUDA experiment; a hydrogen TPC is proposed as an active target in the magnetic field of the FINUDA magnet; the FINUDA detector with a CH{sub 2} target could be used to measure an important cross-section. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. Martin Szekely : ne plus dessiner

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Ce livret, publié à l’issue d’une exposition éponyme au Centre Pompidou en 2011-12, présente, sous la conduite de Françoise Guichon les « recherches » et les « projets industriels » du designer qui en 1996 avait déclaré « ne plus dessiner ». Un texte de Philippe-Alain Michaud explicite en deuxième partie de l’opuscule la rencontre de Martin Szekely avec l’artiste Mark Lewis qui réalisa un film à partir du miroir Soleil noir (2007) installé dans les salles de peinture hollandaise de la Nationa...

  5. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  6. Scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions. Workshop and establishment of a common knowledge base for nuclear safety and security. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-technischer Erfahrungsaustausch Deutschlands mit der GUS, den Baltischen und den MOE-Staaten sowie Laendern Zentralasiens und anderer Regionen. Arbeitstreffen und Schaffung gemeinsamer Wissensbasen fuer nukleare Sicherheit und Sicherung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, Anna

    2017-03-15

    The report on the workshop concerning scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions includes the following issues: Results an d success of know-how transfer from West to East, topical issues for mutual exchange of experience, scope of the project, concept of the realization of mutual exchange of experiences. The emphasis of the workshop covered the following issues: emergency preparedness, international requirements concerning nuclear safety and radiation protection, transport of radioactive wastes and communication in nuclear technology.

  7. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  8. Strategic Interests of Germany in the Balkans at the Turn of 20-21 Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Latkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the reunification of Germany and the transition of some countries of central and Eastern Europe under the control of the West, radical changes in the European political system have occurred. Germany turned into a powerful state and began to provide the strategy for independent foreign policy, in which the regional policy in the Balkans, Caucasus and Middle East took the significant place. Germany tried to expand its influence to the countries of Balkan Peninsula, in alliance with Austria-Hungary against Russia, as well as in the beginning of 21st century. However, in the end of 20th century, after several failures in the foreign policy, Germany turned to Russia. Despite its expansionist policy, Germany had to coordinate every step with international organizations or even transfer them issues of conflict resolution in the region. Constantly competing with its allies (mainly the U.S. and UK, Germany was trying to build its foreign policy strategy in the way of increasing its influence in the strategically important region.

  9. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  10. Stellar origin of the 22Ne excess in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.; Paul, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 22 Ne excess at the cosmic-ray source is discussed in terms of a 22 Ne-rich component injected and accelerated by carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet stars. The overabundance of 22 Ne relative to 20 Ne predicted at the surface of these stars is estimated to a factor approx.120 with respect to solar system abundances. In order to give rise to a 22 Ne excess of about 3 at the cosmic-ray sources as inferred from observations, the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet contribution to the primary cosmic-ray flux is to be at maximum 1/60. This component would be energized by strong stellar winds producing quasi-standing shocks around the Wolf-Rayet stars

  11. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E

    2010-01-01

    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, U.F.

    2009-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a cubic-kilometre scale neutrino telescope and nodes for associated sciences such as marine biology, oceanology and geophysics. The status of the KM3NeT project and the progress made in the EU-funded Design Study is reviewed. Some physics studies indicating the sensitivity of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope are highlighted and selected major technical design options to be further pursued are described. Finally, the remaining steps towards construction of KM3NeT will be discussed. This document reflects the status of the KM3NeT Conceptual Design Report (CDR), which has been presented to the public for the first time at the VLVnT08 Workshop.

  13. Neurosurgical Resident Training in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian

    2017-07-01

    Introduction  Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods  An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results  Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p  hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p  = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p  = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p  = 0.015). Conclusion  Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  15. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  16. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  17. Quality Management Plan for EPA Region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The QMP describes policies, procedures & management systems within EPA NE that govern quality assurance & quality control activities supporting the transparency & scientific defensibility of environmental data collected, used & disseminated by the Region.

  18. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  19. Renewable Energy CSOPs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lowitzsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy-CSOP facilitates broad equity participation of citizens without assets or savings in a regulated public energy utility. As the CSOP is designed for regulated markets with guaranteed prices, regulated market access and long-term relationships between producer and consumer, the energy market is predestined. A CSOP trust can be set up for a renewable energy plant (e.g., a biogas reactor, a solar panel, a windmill or a geothermic drill. European states have set an ambitious target to reach 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Germany as Europe’s green energy leader could become a pioneer in CSOP implementation. Small communities in Europe would benefit from the increased share of renewable energy resources.

  20. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  1. Oscillatory behaviour of Rydberg state total cross sections in the collisions Ne+-He and He+-Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Jensen, K.; Veje, E.

    1976-01-01

    The Ne + -He and He + -Ne collisions have been studied by means of optical spectrometry in the projectile energy range 10-150 keV. Very similar and regular oscillations in the Rydberg state total cross sections are found for HeI in both collisions and for singlet as well as triplet excitation. These oscillations are well described by the Rosenthal model. The HeI 4d sup(1,3)D states display two superimposed oscillations for center-of-mass collision energies above 6.4 keV. This is interpreted as the opening of a third exit channel, believed to be the HeI 4f sup(1,3)F. No, or very little structure is found in the Rydberg state total cross sections for HeII, NeI, NeII and NeIII levels. (Auth.)

  2. Chemical provinces and dynamic melting of the NE Atlantic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnes, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Low-degree melting of fertile parts of the NE Atlantic mantle yields primitive alkaline basalts in the Icelandic off-rift zones and at Jan Mayen. Olivine tholeiites in the Icelandic rift zones and oceanic spreading ridges are formed by protracted decompressional melting. The V-shaped ridges SW and NE of Iceland indicate that rising, hot material is supplied by a pulsating plume and deflected laterally for distances of about 1000 km from Iceland (Jones et al. GGG 2002; Breivik et al. JGR 2006). Plume material deflected along the rift zones and spreading ridges undergoes mixing with the ambient asthenosphere and extensive melting at shallow level, whereas material deflected in other directions may flow laterally at deeper levels and remain largely unmelted and fertile. A recent investigation of a suite of primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen (Debaille et al., 2009, GCA) demonstrated an important source contribution from subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Available data on the primitive off-rift basalts and tholeiitic basalts from Iceland and the NE Atlantic ridges indicates the existence of three main composite mantle components, characterized by the following relative isotope ratios (H: high, I: intermediate and L: low ratio) for 87/86Sr, 143/144Nd, 206/204Pb, 187/188Os and 3/4He, respectively: 1. Iceland plume with depleted lower mantle mixed with recycled oceanic crust: I, I, H, H, H 2. Strongly depleted and later re-enriched SCLM: H, L, I, L, L 3. Depleted asthenosphere: L, H, L, I, L The two first composite components contain enriched and depleted subcomponents with distinct isotope signatures. The isotope ratio variations between the fertile components are larger than between the refractory components. The 3/4He ratio, however, is much higher in the depleted plume component than in the depleted SCLM and asthenospheric components. The old SCLM material could in principle be recycled and embedded in the lower mantle and supplied to the

  3. NOAA Miami Regional Library > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Collections Open Access Resources Research Tools E-resources NOAA S. and NOAA N.E. Library Institutional Repository DIVE INTO About the Library | Collections | Research Tools | Library Services & NOAA Miami Regional Library @ AOML & NHC NOAA Miami Regional Library at National Hurricane

  4. The impact of climate change on tourism in Germany, the UK and Ireland: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Jacqueline; Tol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We downscale the results of a global tourism simulation model at a national resolution to a regional resolution. We use this to investigate the impact of climate change on the regions of Germany, Ireland and the UK. Because of climate change, tourists from all three countries would spend more

  5. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  6. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  7. The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE CCQE neutrino-nucleus data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J; Ruiz Simo, I; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MiniBooNE CCQE dσ/dT μ d cos θ μ data using a theoretical model that has proved to be quite successful in the analysis of nuclear reactions with electron, photon and pion probes. We find that RPA and multinucleon knockout turn out to be essential for the description of the MiniBooNE data. We show these measurements are fully compatible with former determinations of nucleon axial mass M A , in contrast with several previous analyses, which have suggested an anomalously large value. We find, M A = 1.08 ± 0.03 GeV. We also argue that the procedure, commonly used to reconstruct the neutrino energy for QE events from the muon angle and energy, could be unreliable for a wide region of the phase space, due to the large importance of multinucleon events.

  8. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  9. 50 CFR 2.2 - Locations of regional offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232. (b) Albuquerque Regional Office (Region 2... Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; and the Virgin Islands and...

  10. Velocity-Resolved [Ne III] from X-Ray Irradiated Sz 102 Microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-F.; Shang, H.; Walter, F. M.; Herczeg, G. J.

    2014-03-01

    Neon emission lines are good indicators of high-excitation regions close to a young stellar system because of their high ionization potentials and large critical densities. We have discovered [Ne III] .3869 emission from the microjet of low-mass young star Sz 102. Spectroastrometric analysis of the two-dimensional [Ne III] spectral image obtained from the archival high-dispersion (R - 33,000) Very Large Telescope/UVES spectra suggests that the emission consists of two velocity components spatially separated by ~ 0.''3. The stronger redshifted component is centered at ~ +21 km s-1 with a line width of ~ 140 km s-1, and the weaker blueshifted component at ~ -90 km s-1 with a larger line width of ~ 190 km s-1. Both components have large line widths that extend across the systemic velocity, suggesting their origin from diverging streamlines of a wide-angle wind. Optical line ratio diagnostics indicate that Sz 102 drives a pair of hot (T . 2 ◊ 104 K) and ionized (ne . 2 ◊ 104 cm-3) jets. The blueshifted jet has on average ~ 50% higher temperature and electron density. We suggest that the jet is ionized by an embedded hard X-ray source close to the driving region. Freezing-in of the ionization state is consistent with the flow speed and the Ne2+ recombination timescales. We postulate that these X-rays originate from hard coronae or stellar flares; the hard (keV) X-ray photons ionize neon in the inner wind, while the soft X-rays are mostly absorbed by the accretion funnel. These postulates await validation from high-sensitivity X-ray and subarcsecond resolution optical observations.

  11. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Y.; Boretzky, K.; Chatillon, A.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, J.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O.A.; Kurz, N.; Larsson, K.; Litvinov, Y.A.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Aumann, T.; Panin, V.; Bertulani, C.A.; Borge, M.J.G.; Galaviz, D.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Chartier, M.; Taylor, J.; Chulkov, L.V.; Egorova, I.A.; Ershova, O.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Wimmer, C.; Forssen, C.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Tengborn, E.; Zhukov, M.V.; Fraile, L.M.; Fynbo, H.; Riisager, K.; Grigorenko, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.H.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Karakoc, M.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Mahata, K.; Muentz, C.; Stroth, J.; Parfenova, Y.L.; Paschalis, S.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500 MeV/u 17 Ne beams on a carbon target at the R 3 B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15 O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17 Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16 F momentum distribution resulted in an s 2 contribution in the 17 Ne ground state of about 40 %. (authors)

  12. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  13. [How do authors of systematic reviews restrict their literature searches when only studies from Germany should be included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim; Palm, Rebecca; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-11-01

    The use of search filters (e. g. for study types) facilitates the process of literature searching. Regional limits might be helpful depending on the research question. Regional search filters are already available for some regions, but not for Germany. Our aim is to give an overview of applied search strategies in systematic reviews (SRs) focusing on Germany. We searched Medline (via Pubmed) applying a focused search strategy to identify SRs focusing on Germany in January 2016. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. The search strategies with a focus on Germany were analyzed in terms of reasonableness and completeness relying on the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) criteria. A narrative evidence synthesis was performed. In total, 36 SRs (13 written in English) were included. 78% were published in 2012 or later. The majority (89%) of SRs utilized at least two different sources for their search with databases and checking references being the most common. 17 SRs did not use any truncations, ten SRs did not restrict their search to Germany, six SRs reported to have searched for German OR Germany. Only ten articles searched for the term Germany (occasionally jointly with the term Deutschland) without any use of an adjective such as German. There is a high interest in regionally focused SRs. The identified search strategies revealed a need for improvement. It would be helpful to develop a regional search filter for Germany that is able to identify studies performed in Germany. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  15. Farming for Health: Aspects from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Konrad; Stephan, Ingrid; Hermanowski, Robert; Flake, Albrecht; Post, Franz-Joseph; van Elsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Until now, the term ‘Farming for Health’ is unknown in Germany but it would cover a wide spectrum of different kinds of social agriculture already existing in Germany, such as farms that integrate disabled people or drug therapy into their farming system, or farms that integrate children, pupils or older people. Relevant work in Germany is done in ‘Sheltered Workshops’, where supporting and healing powers of farming and gardening are used for disabled people with a diversity of work possibili...

  16. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  17. The Financial Equalization System in Germany and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehr Hans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experience of European countries, practical recommendations on improving the level of financial capacity of regions in Ukraine have been developed. In the article the comparative analysis of the financial equalization system in Germany and Ukraine has been conducted, different approaches to equalization on the basis of the actual redistribution have been determined, the efficiency and transparency of the use of budgetary resources in these countries have been analyzed. The research result is the substantiation of the necessity for decentralization of tax revenues in Ukraine to reduce the volume of transfers from the State Budget to the regions. Prospects for further research in this direction are developing a reform strategy for Germany and Ukraine in order to improve the socio-economic relations between the center and regions and to make the redistribution of budgetary resources more efficient. Improving the system of financial equalization involves the use of optimization techniques taking into account the inter-regional economic and geographic ties.

  18. Antidepressant sales and regional variations of suicide mortality in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blüml, V; Helbich, M.; Mayr, M; Turnwald, R; Vyssoki, B; Lewitzka, U; Hartung, S; Plener, P; Fegert, J; Kapusta, N

    2017-01-01

    Suicides account for over one million deaths per year worldwide with depression among the most important risk factors. Epidemiological research into the relationship between antidepressant utilization and suicide mortality has shown heterogeneous and contradictory results. Different methodological

  19. Determinants of regional growth and convergence in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weddige-Haaf, Katharina; Kool, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the sources of real per capita income growth and convergence in the 16 German states over the period 1995-2014 using a panel approach. The empirical analysis applies the popular growth – initial income equation. We augment the basic model specification with a trend term and

  20. Determinants of regional growth and convergence in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaf, K.; Kool, C.J.M.

    In this paper, we analyse the sources of real per capita income growth and convergence in the 16 German states over the period 1995-2014 using a panel approach. The empirical analysis applies the popular growth – initial income equation. We augment the basic model specification with a trend term and

  1. Electron-impact cross sections of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)

  2. Aseptic meningitis in Germany associated with echovirus type 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreier Eckart

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echoviruses are the commonest cause of aseptic meningitis. Echovirus type 13 which has not been isolated in Germany over a long period of time was the predominant enterovirus serotype associated with different local outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in Germany in 2000. Methods Virus isolation was performed from cerebrospinal fluid and stools. In order to study the genetic relationship of echovirus type 13 isolates, sequence analysis of a part of VP1 (~300 nt was carried out. Isolates from different geographic regions were compared to each other as well as to elder viruses (prototype strain from 1953, four isolates from 1965–1986. Results Overall, 55 isolates of echovirus type 13 were obtained from different parts of Germany. It was shown that the new isolated strains have a very high degree of homology on the nucleotide level (> 98% but differ significantly from the old strains (76–85%. Conclusions a Rare enterovirus serotypes can cause serious illness. b The molecular drift has also been shown for other enterovirus serotypes.

  3. Energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The tenor and consensus of energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany have been affected and shaken by the discussion of damage to forests at the beginning of 1985, the rapidly slumping petroleum prices, the Chernobyl reactor accident, and the resulting emotionalized energy policy debates overshadowing the elections for the Land government, the Senate and the Bundestag. However, the responsible decision making organs still seem to feel a strong need for a consensus of that kind. ET-editors have therefore been trying to find out about the situation of 'energy policy in the Federal Republic of Germany' late in 1986. The Federal Government, the parliamentary factions, the parties, Land governments, labor unions and BDI, the coal, petroleum and natural gas industry as well as the manufacturers and managers of nuclear power plants were asked to express their opinion on the following questions: How will the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany be provided for in the future. What are the pros and cons of a nuclear phase-out. Should energy economy be reorganized. What is expected from and desired for the development of individual regions or energy sources, respectively. All but a few of above organs answered the questions. The statements therefore give a representative survey of the opinions and attitudes of the relevant decision-making organs and of different institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  5. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  6. Complementarity and completed trials: reforming the Ne bis in idem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper is concerned with the question whether article 20(3) of the Rome Statute is ... Rome Statute, Ne bis in idem, double jeopardy, International Criminal Court ...

  7. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  8. Searches for New Physics at MiniBooNE: Sterile Neutrinos and Mixing Freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgi, Georgia S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment was designed to perform a search for vμ → ve oscillations in a region of Δm2 and sin2 2θ very different from that allowed by standard, three-neutrino oscillations, as determined by solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments. This search was motivated by the LSND experimental observation of an excess of $\\bar{v}$e events in a $\\bar{v}$μ beam which was found compatible with two-neutrino oscillations at Δm2 ~ 1 eV2 and sin2 2{theta} < 1%. If confirmed, such oscillation signature could be attributed to the existence of a light, mostly-sterile neutrino, containing small admixtures of weak neutrino eigenstates. In addition to a search for vμ → ve oscillations, MiniBooNE has also performed a search for vμ → ve oscillations, which provides a test of the LSND two-neutrino oscillation interpretation that is independent of CP or CPT violation assumptions. This dissertation presents the MiniBooNE vμ → ve and vμ → ve analyses and results, with emphasis on the latter. While the neutrino search excludes the two-neutrino oscillation interpretation of LSND at 98% C.L., the antineutrino search shows an excess of events which is in agreement with the two-neutrino vμ → ve oscillation interpretation of LSND, and excludes the no oscillations hypothesis at 96% C.L. Even though the neutrino and antineutrino oscillation results from MiniBooNE disagree under the single sterile neutrino oscillation hypothesis, a simple extension to the model to include additional sterile neutrino states and the possibility of CP violation allows for differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation signatures. In view of that, the viability of oscillation models with one or two sterile neutrinos is investigated in global fits to MiniBooNE and LSND

  9. Overview of the NARSTO-NE-OPS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbrick, C. R.; Ryan, W. F.; Clark, R. D.; Doddridge, B. G; Dickerson, R. R.; Gaffney, J.; Marley, N.; Coulter, R.

    2002-01-01

    The NARSTO-NE-OPS (NorthEast Oxidant and Particle Study) is an investigation of the coupling of the meteorological and chemical processes that control the evolution of air pollution events. The project includes three major field programs carried out at a field site in northeast Philadelphia during the summers of 1998, 1999 and 2001. The activity brings together the research groups from 13 universities, 5 government laboratories and representatives of the electric power industry to apply the most advanced measurement techniques to understanding the physical and chemical processes contributing to air quality issues. Results have been obtained from three ground sites, two instrumented aircraft, many different instrumented balloon platforms, and several remote sensing techniques including satellites. In addition, the database used includes the ground-based measurements conducted at several surrounding state and city operated sites in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, New York and Maryland. The results have shown the importance of developing the 3-dimensional regional scale picture of the atmosphere to understand and properly model air pollution events. It has been shown that only from such a perspective, which includes the vertical distribution and a regional context, can one hope to properly model and predict ozone and particulate pollution. A combination of photochemical and dynamical processes transport, both horizontal and vertical, accumulate pollutants that then mix with the locally produced chemical species to cause the more severe episodes of air pollution. Efforts have also focused on developmental testing of several new approaches to improved measuring techniques for better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the airborne particulate matter

  10. Effects of confinement on the Rydberg molecule NeH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, J M H; Klobukowski, M; Bielinska-Waz, D; Diercksen, G H F; Schreiner, E W S

    2005-01-01

    Ab initio potential energy curves of the Rydberg NeH molecule in the presence of cylindrical spatial confinement were computed by the method of multi-reference configuration interaction with extended basis sets. The influence of the applied potential to the structures and spectra of the ground and excited states of NeH was analysed in terms of perturbation theory. In addition, the phenomenon of field-induced ionization was discussed

  11. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mobility of 35 S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35 S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  12. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-02-24

    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high-intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  13. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  14. Determinants of the distribution and concentration of biogas production in Germany. A spatial econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The biogas production in Germany is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution and the formation of regional centers. In the present study the determinants of the spatial distribution and concentration are analyzed with methods of spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. In addition to the consideration of ''classic'' site factors of agricultural production, the analysis here focuses on the possible relevance of agglomeration effects. The results of the work contribute to a better understanding of the regional distribution and concentration of the biogas production in Germany. [de

  15. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  16. Status of the KM3NeT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margiotta, A

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed

  17. Comparison of electromagnetic and nuclear dissociation of 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffman, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lehr, C.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Riisager, K.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2018-03-01

    The Borromean drip-line nucleus 17Ne has been suggested to possess a two-proton halo structure in its ground state. In the astrophysical r p -process, where the two-proton capture reaction 15O(2 p ,γ )17Ne plays an important role, the calculated reaction rate differs by several orders of magnitude between different theoretical approaches. To add to the understanding of the 17Ne structure we have studied nuclear and electromagnetic dissociation. A 500 MeV/u 17Ne beam was directed toward lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets. Oxygen isotopes in the final state were measured in coincidence with one or two protons. Different reaction branches in the dissociation of 17Ne were disentangled. The relative populations of s and d states in 16F were determined for light and heavy targets. The differential cross section for electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) shows a continuous internal energy spectrum in the three-body system 15O+2 p . The 17Ne EMD data were compared to current theoretical models. None of them, however, yields satisfactory agreement with the experimental data presented here. These new data may facilitate future development of adequate models for description of the fragmentation process.

  18. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1996-01-01

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  19. Managing ageing workforces: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, H.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change (ageing populations and falling birth rates) affects all industrialised nations, including Germany. Traditionally, the problems associated with managing numbers of older workers were mitigated by the Altersteilzeitgesetz in Germany. Under this law, firms were offered financial support by the government to offer early retirement (Müller-Camen et al. 2009). As these provisions came to an end in 2010, the need to find alternative solutions to displacing older workers, as well ...

  20. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Overweight in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie-Charlotte Meyer

    2015-01-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...

  3. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  4. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  5. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  6. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  7. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  8. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  9. Radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident on West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    According to a preliminary estimate of the additional radiation exposure of West Germany's population due to the Chernobyl reactor accident, an effective dose of 150-200 mrem over the next 50 years is given as an average commitment throughout the country (accumulated natural radiation dose estimated for the same period of time is between 7 500 and 20 000 mrem). There are, however, strong regional variations. The Strahlenschutzkommission gives the calculated maximum dose to the adult population via the food chain to be 70 mrem in 1986, and 90 mrem to infants; the commission expects that real values will be about one fifth of the assessed values.

  10. Comments on Auger electron production by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S V; Ferrante, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1979-09-01

    In this letter, the authors first report rather conclusive experimental evidence showing that the Ne Auger signal is due to asymmetric Ne-metal collisions and not symmetric Ne-Ne collisions. Next it is shown that the Ne Auger signal is in fact observable by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Si and with signal strength comparable to that of the Si Auger signal for 3 keV incident ion energy. Finally, they comment on some trends in the relative amplitudes of the 21.9 and 25.1 eV Ne Auger signals as a function of incident ion energy and target species.

  11. Agora Energiewende (2016). What do Germany's climate protection goals mean for the brown coal regions? An analysis based on the eleven key points for a coal consensus; Agora Energiewende (2016). Was bedeuten Deutschlands Klimaschutzziele fuer die Braunkohleregionen? Eine Analyse auf Basis der elf Eckpunkte fuer einen Kohlekonsens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Praetorius, Barbara; Rosenkranz, Gerd; Litz, Philipp

    2016-04-15

    Since Paris's historical climate agreement, it has become clear that from now on energy supply will be discussed worldwide on the premise of decarbonisation. Germany as a traditional coal country and as a land of energy transition can no longer avoid this debate. After all, the climate targets that have been adopted several times for 2030, 2040 and 2050 will ultimately mean the end of coal-fired power generation. In January 2016, Agora Energiewende presented a proposal with the eleven cornerstones for a coal consensus on how such an exit from coal-fired power generation could look like. We are concerned with a cross-party consensus that is broadly anchored in society, which gives all parties involved planning security and reliability and at the same time paves the way for a socially balanced and fairly structured transition to the new energy system. The impacts are particularly relevant for the brown coal regions concerned. In order to make the gradual phasing out of coal-fired power generation socially and economically compatible, special attention must be paid to open-cast brown coal mines and power plants as well as to regional structural change. This publication therefore takes a closer look at precisely these aspects. [German] Seit dem historischen Klimaabkommen von Paris ist klar: Die Energieversorgung wird von nun an weltweit unter der Praemisse der Dekarbonisierung diskutiert. Deutschland als traditionelles Kohleland und als Land der Energiewende kann dieser Debatte nicht laenger ausweichen. Denn die fuer 2030, 2040 und 2050 mehrfach beschlossenen Klimaziele bedeuten letztlich den Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung. Agora Energiewende hat im Januar 2016 mit den Elf Eckpunkten fuer einen Kohlekonsens einen Vorschlag vorgelegt, wie ein solcher Ausstieg aus der Kohleverstromung aussehen koennte. Uns geht es um einen parteiuebergreifenden, gesellschaftlich breit verankerten Konsens, der allen Beteiligten Planungssicherheit und Verlaesslichkeit gibt und

  12. The use of IMRT in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [de

  13. Burial, Uplift and Exhumation History of the Atlantic Margin of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; Cobbold, Peter R.; Chiossi, Dario; Lilletveit, Ragnhild

    2010-05-01

    We have undertaken a regional study of landscape development and thermo-tectonic evo-lution of NE Brazil. Our results reveal a long history of post-Devonian burial and exhuma-tion across NE Brazil. Uplift movements just prior to and during Early Cretaceous rifting led to further regional denudation, to filling of rift basins and finally to formation of the Atlantic margin. The rifted margin was buried by a km-thick post-rift section, but exhumation began in the Late Cretaceous as a result of plate-scale forces. The Cretaceous cover probably extended over much of NE Brazil where it is still preserved over extensive areas. The Late Cretaceous exhumation event was followed by events in the Paleogene and Neogene. The results of these events of uplift and exhumation are two regional peneplains that form steps in the landscape. The plateaux in the interior highlands are defined by the Higher Surface at c. 1 km above sea level. This surface formed by fluvial erosion after the Late Cretaceous event - and most likely after the Paleogene event - and thus formed as a Paleogene pene-plain near sea level. This surface was reburied prior to the Neogene event, in the interior by continental deposits and along the Atlantic margin by marine and coastal deposits. Neo-gene uplift led to reexposure of the Palaeogene peneplain and to formation of the Lower Surface by incision along rivers below the uplifted Higher Surface that characterise the pre-sent landscape. Our results show that the elevated landscapes along the Brazilian margin formed during the Neogene, c. 100 Myr after break-up. Studies in West Greenland have demonstrated that similar landscapes formed during the late Neogene, c. 50 Myr after break-up. Many passive continental margins around the world are characterised by such elevated plateaus and it thus seems possible, even likely, that they may also post-date rifting and continental separation by many Myr.

  14. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraqué M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d'éthylène

  15. Anomalous intensities of Ne-like ion resonance line in plasma produced by picosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryunetkin, B.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Kalashnikov, M.P.; Nikles, P.; Shnyupep, M.

    1995-01-01

    An anomalous structure of intensities of spectral lines of CuXX and GeXXX Ne-like ions emitted by plasma produced by laser pulses of picosecond duration and up to 2x10 18 W/cm 2 flux density is recorded for the first time. It is shown that spectrum maximum of these ions is emitted from a plasma region whose density is significantly above the critical value of the length of heating laser radiation wave. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Physico-chemical modification of polyethersulphone induced by high energy proton, C+ and Ne6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodh Kumar, S.; Biswavarathi, V.; Jal, P.; Dey, K.; Krishna, J.B.M.; Saha, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyehersulphone (PES) was irradiated with 4 MeV proton, 3.6 MeV C + and 145 MeV Ne 6+ ions at different ion fluences. The ion induced spectral changes were analyzed by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The increase in optical absorption, which shifts gradually from near UV to the visible region with increase in fluence for the three different types of bombarding ions was observed. A significant loss in fluorescence intensity with increase in fluence for three different ions was observed. (author)

  17. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  18. Flaking and blistering on He and Ne bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, K.; Naramoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    Large scale exfoliation formed by 300 keV He + bombardment of niobium without any preceding blistering is investigated, in comparison with the blistering due to 450 and 850 keV Ne + bombardments. In-situ observations of the erosion processes were performed in a scanning electron microscope connected to the Van de Graaff. Critical doses of 7.2 x 10 17 He + /cm 2 , 2.4 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 and 4.0 x 10 17 Ne + /cm 2 were obtained for the 300 keV He flaking, 450 keV Ne blistering and 850 keV Ne blistering, respectively. The He flaking was presumed to be due to brittle fashion peeling-off of the surface layer by the bending moment driven by the internal gas pressure. The blistering, on the other hand, was presumed to be the result of the ductile fashion spreading of the lenticular bubble in the sub-surface layer. The necessary pressure for the peeling-off of the cover was calculated, and was speculated to be able to work as the driving force for the flaking from its unexpectedly low values. Fractographies under the exfoliations were discussed for both flaking and blistering. (author)

  19. Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelowa, A.

    2003-01-01

    Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

  20. Topside Electron Density Representations for Middle and High Latitudes: A Topside Parameterization for E-CHAIM Based On the NeQuick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themens, David R.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Bilitza, Dieter; Erickson, Philip J.; Häggström, Ingemar; Lyashenko, Mykhaylo V.; Reid, Benjamin; Varney, Roger H.; Pustovalova, Ljubov

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we present a topside model representation to be used by the Empirical Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Model (E-CHAIM). In the process of this, we also present a comprehensive evaluation of the NeQuick's, and by extension the International Reference Ionosphere's, topside electron density model for middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Using data gathered from all available incoherent scatter radars, topside sounders, and Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation satellites, we show that the current NeQuick parameterization suboptimally represents the shape of the topside electron density profile at these latitudes and performs poorly in the representation of seasonal and solar cycle variations of the topside scale thickness. Despite this, the simple, one variable, NeQuick model is a powerful tool for modeling the topside ionosphere. By refitting the parameters that define the maximum topside scale thickness and the rate of increase of the scale height within the NeQuick topside model function, r and g, respectively, and refitting the model's parameterization of the scale height at the F region peak, H0, we find considerable improvement in the NeQuick's ability to represent the topside shape and behavior. Building on these results, we present a new topside model extension of the E-CHAIM based on the revised NeQuick function. Overall, root-mean-square errors in topside electron density are improved over the traditional International Reference Ionosphere/NeQuick topside by 31% for a new NeQuick parameterization and by 36% for a newly proposed topside for E-CHAIM.

  1. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  2. Reservoir-driven heterogeneous distribution of recorded human Puumala virus cases in South-West Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drewes, S.; Turni, H.; Rosenfeld, U. M.; Obiegala, A.; Straková, Petra; Imholt, C.; Glatthaar, E.; Dressel, K.; Pfeffer, M.; Jacob, J.; Wagner-Wiening, C.; Ulrich, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2017), s. 381-390 ISSN 1863-1959 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * endemic region * incidence * bank vole * prevalence * Germany Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2016

  3. Comparing Episodes of Mathematics Teaching for Higher Achievers in England and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter; Kotthoff, Hans-Georg

    2016-01-01

    To illustrate similarities and differences in lower secondary level mathematics teaching with higher achievers and thereby explore privileging processes, we contrast a teaching episode in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with one in South West England. These have been selected from a larger study as typical within each region for higher achieving…

  4. Home installations for producing renewable energy: a comparison between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poize, Noemie; Rudinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    While home installations are on a strongly rising trend in neighbouring countries like Germany and Denmark, such initiatives are having difficulty in taking off in France. The Iddri (Institute for sustainable development and international relations) and the RAEE (Rhone-Alpes regional agency for energy and environment) reckon that regulatory obstacles can be rapidly adjusted at minimal, or no cost, for the State. (authors)

  5. Climatic change in Germany. Adaptation is necessary. 4. ed.; Deutschland im Klimawandel. Anpassung ist notwendig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Bastian; Wittig, Stefan [BioConsult Schuchardt und Scholle, Bremen (Germany); Mahrenholz, Petra; Kartschall, Karin; Maeder, Claudia; Hasse, Clemens; Daschkeit, Achim [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The report discusses the global climatic change and the regional consequences for Germany. The risk analysis covers selected examples concerning health hazards, agriculture, forestry, water management, environmental protection and biodiversity, traffic, tourism, flood control and prevention and settlement development. Possible German adaptation strategies for these selected sections are summarized.

  6. Innovation in European Vocational Education and Training: Network Learning in England, Finland and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, Eila

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative study of innovation in vocational education and training (VET) in three innovative European countries: England, Finland and Germany. The focus is on innovation emerging from VET practitioners' (directors, teachers, project coordinators, etc.) participation in inter-organisational networks with local, regional,…

  7. Citizen projects for renewable energy production: a France-Germany comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poize, Noemie; Ruedinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    While home installations are on a strongly rising trend in neighbouring countries like Germany and Denmark, such initiatives are having difficulty in taking off in France. The Iddri (Institute for sustainable development and international relations) and the RAEE (Rhone-Alpes regional agency for energy and environment) reckon that regulatory obstacles can be rapidly adjusted at minimal, or no cost, for the State

  8. DSA lifetime measurements in 21Ne at high recoil velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, H.; Heidinger, F.; Kaendler, K.

    1977-01-01

    States in 21 Ne up to 5 MeV excitation energy have been populated using the inverted reaction 2 H( 20 Ne,pγ). The Doppler shift attenuation (DSA) analysis of the pγ coincidence spectra taken in a Ge(Li) detector at 45 0 and 135 0 and an annular silicon surface barrier detector near 0 0 yielded the lifetimes of 8 states in 21 Ne. Due to the large recoil of vi/c approximately equal to 4% three new lifetimes were determined for the short lived levels at 2.80, 4.68 and 4.73 MeV, namely 10 +- 4 fs, 16 +- 4 fs and 10 +- 4 fs, respectively. The results are compared with rotational and shell model calculations. (orig.) [de

  9. Enhanced diffusion of Zn in Al under Ne irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The diffusion rate of Zn in Al has been enhanced by factors approximately 10 2 --10 4 under 80 keV Ne irradiation at 130 0 C. Diffusion couples were formed by ion implantation of Zn, and the concentration profiles were determined by ion backscattering. The data are analyzed by numerically solving the coupled diffusion equations for vacancies, interstitials and atoms, and by scaling the profiles of vacancy and interstitial production rates from the theoretical profile of Ne energy into atomic processes. The enhanced diffusion rate is linear in flux, indicating that the mobile point defects annihilate predominantly at fixed sinks. The average distance to annihilation is approximately 700 A, except for the first approximately 500 A of the solid where it is much less. Free vacancies and interstitials are found to be created by the Ne at a smaller rate than the atomic displacement rate, suggesting a high annihilation probability within the parent damage cascade

  10. New low pressure (LP) turbines for NE Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcic, K.; Novsak, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the evaluation of possible future maintenance strategies on steam turbine in very short period of time, engineering decision was made by NE Krsko in agreement with Owners to replace the existing two Low Pressure (LP) Turbines with new upgrading LP Turbines. This decision is presented with review of the various steam turbine problems as: SCC on turbine discs; blades cracking; erosion-corrosion with comparison of various maintenance options and efforts undertaken by the NE Krsko to improve performance of the original low pressure turbines. This paper presents the NEK approach to solve the possible future problems with steam turbine operation in NE Krsko as pro-active engineering and maintenance activities on the steam turbine. This paper also presents improvements involving retrofits, confined to the main steam turbine path, with major differences between original and new LP Turbines as beneficial replacement because of turbine MWe upgrading and return capital expenditures.(author)

  11. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianotti, P.

    1998-01-01

    The low energy kaons from the φ meson produced at DAΦNE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DAΦNE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DAΦNE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors

  12. Geophysical exploration in vicinity of the Unicorn Cave, South Harz Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko; Nielbock, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Unicorn Cave in the southern Harz Mountains in Germany is located in an outcrop of dolomite from the Zechstein formation, which is underlain by Grauwacke rocks. The cave, about 600 meters long, consists of several large chambers, which are connected by a gallery following the main fault alignments in E/W, NE/SW, and NW/SE direction. The overburden of the cave is shallow, between 10 and 30 m. We have used this cave site to perform a sensitivity test for both gravimetric and geoelectic methods above the cave. Additionally, geoelectic mapping has been used to assess the thickness of the cave sediments in one of the chambers. Our results show a clear signal in the Bouguer anomaly, which can only be explained by a combined model of the void space and the sediment filling. Geoelectric results are less clear, but support the gravimetry.

  13. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Emission reduction program in the unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, M.; Emsperger, W.; Termuehlen, H.

    1992-01-01

    High population density and intense industrialization in both parts of Germany resulted in high specific power demands. The domestic availability of hard coal and lignite made coal-fired power plants the backbone of power generation in all of Germany. The unification of Germany has brought together two power generation systems with similar basic needs and concepts. However, forty years existence within different economic systems has resulted in a quite different status in regard to installed generating capacity, availability of various fuels and environmental standards. To bridge the existing gap in a relatively short time is a huge challenge for the utilities, the power generation and distribution industry as well as for the federal and state authorities

  15. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Evropski zeleni pas – narava ne pozna meja. Od železne zavese do popkovine Evrope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Geidezis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Od Barentsovega do Črnega morja je železna zavesa Evropo delila skoraj štirideset let. Bila je politična, ideološka in fizična ovira, še najbolj izrazito v Nemčiji. Čeprav je bila docela nečloveška, je omogočila naravi premor: narava se je razbohotila in razvilo se je nekaj izjemno redkega v intenzivno uporabljeni krajini – t. i. zeleni pas. Od padca železne zavese leta 1989, poteka prek Evrope popkovina habitatov, dolga skoraj 8.500 km. Z izhodišči v projektu Green Belt Germany, nastalem na pobudo BUND, se je razvil projekt Zeleni pas Evrope ali Green Belt Europe. Lahko postane hrbtenica ekološkega omrežja, ki bo globalni simbol čezmejnega sodelovanja in ohranjanja narave ter vzdržnega razvoja. Še več, povezuje ljudi in kaže, da ima lahko povečana Evropska unija poleg kulturne tudi skupno naravno dediščino. To je enkratna priložnost za premagovanje starih meja in ovir med vzhodom in zahodom – živo znamenje skupne rasti v Evropi.

  17. DAΦNE Control System status and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Milardi, C.; Sannibale, F.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.

    1998-01-01

    The DAΦNE Control System allowed the step by step commissioning of the major subsystems as they were installed, proving to be modular and extensible. Recently the guidelines of the Control System evolution concerned the development of machine operational procedures and the integration of diagnostic tools. Particular attention has been reserved to the problem of saving and restoring element data sts as well as to the DAΦNE general data handling. A system overview including installation status, features, and operation results is presented

  18. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Ne-N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, A.F.V.; Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Santos, F.P.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Data on ion mobility is important to improve the performance of large volume gaseous detectors, such as the ALICE TPC or in the NEXT experiment. In the present work the method, experimental setup and results for the ion mobility measurements in Ne-N 2 mixtures are presented. The results for this mixture show the presence of two peaks for different gas ratios of Ne-N 2 , low reduced electric fields, E / N , 10–20 Td (2.4–4.8 kV·cm −1 ·bar −1 ), low pressures 6–8 Torr (8–10.6 mbar) and at room temperature.

  19. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-11

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of {sup 40}K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  1. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  2. 40 Years MAGLEV Vehicles in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Reinhold; Guangwei, Shu

    2011-01-01

    On May 6th 1971 the worldwide first MAGLEV vehicle was presented by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) in Ottobrunn near Munich, Germany. Till the year 2000 different test and application MAGLEV vehicles followed, but no commercial use in Germany. Since December 31st 2002 the Shang-hai MAGLEV Transportation System is successfully in operation, as the worldwide first and only one commercial used MAGLEV line. The paper in honour of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eveline Gottzein for her 80th birthday contains in...

  3. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  4. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  5. The Funnel Geometry of Open Flux Tubes in the Low Solar Corona Constrained by O VI and Ne VIII Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhring, Hanne S.; Esser, Ruth; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations show that observed outflow velocities of order 7-10 km/s of C IV and O VI ions, and 15-20 km/s of Ne VIII ions, are not only consistent with models of the solar wind from coronas holes, but also place unique constraints on the degree of flow tube expansion as well as the location of the expansion in the transition region/lower corona.

  6. The 1s-2p resonance photoionization measurement of O+ ions in comparison with an isoelectronic species Ne3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawatsura, K.; Yamaoka, H.; Oura, M.; Hayaishi, T.; Sekioka, T.; Agui, A.; Yoshigoe, A.; Koike, F.

    2002-01-01

    The photoion yields from O + to O 2+ were measured in the 1s-2p autoionizing resonance region of the 525-540 eV photon energy range. A multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculation was performed to interpret the experimental data and the results show fairly good agreement with the experimental ones. Photoionization of the N-like isoelectronic sequences of O + and Ne 3+ are discussed. (author)

  7. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands - February 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK); INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach; ALKEM, Wolfgang near Hanau; SCK/CEN, Mol; Belgonucleaire, Brussels; ECN, Petten; TNO, Apeldoorn; NERATOOM, The Hague. The three Germany institutions mentioned above have been associated since 1977 in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft (EG) Schneller Brueter. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1984 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants followed by a R and D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1984

  8. Status of Fast Breeder Reactor Development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hüper, R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1967 and 1968, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Kingdom of the Netherlands (''DeBeNe'') agreed to develop breeder reactors in a joint program. The following research organizations have taken part in this effort: - Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) - Interatom, Bergisch Gladbach Alkem, Hanau - SCK/CEN, Mol - Belgonucleaire, Brussels - ECN, Petten - TNO, Apeldoorn - Neratoom, The Hague. The first three institutions mentioned above have been associated in the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Schneller Brüter since 1977. KfK, INTERATOM, and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique entered into contracts in 1977 about close cooperation in the fast breeder field, to which the Belgian and Dutch partners acceded. The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1987 have been compiled in this report. The report begins with a survey of the fast reactor plants, which is followed by an R&D summary. In an additional chapter, a survey is given of international cooperation in 1987

  9. Comparison of Ne and Ar seeded radiative divertor plasmas in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T., E-mail: nakano.tomohide@jaea.go.jp

    2015-08-15

    In H-mode plasmas with Ne, Ar and a mixture of Ne and Ar injection, the divertor radiation power fractions amongst these impurities in addition to an intrinsic impurity, C, are investigated. In plasmas with the inner divertor plasma attached, carbon is the biggest radiator, whichever impurity, Ne, Ar or a mixture of Ar and Ne is injected. In contrast, in plasmas with the inner divertor plasma detached, Ne is the biggest radiator due to a significantly high recombination radiation from Ne VIII. Ar is always a minor contributor in plasmas with the inner divertor both attached and detached.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  11. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  12. Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)

  13. Measurement of the response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Arnold, W.; Herdtweck, J.; Mertens, G.

    1986-01-01

    The response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons has been measured via elastic neutron-proton and neutron-deuteron scattering using the two mixtures of C 6 H 12 /C 6 D 12 and C 6 H 6 /C 6 D 6 and ''pure'' scintillators. The energy range covered for protons and deuterons was about 1-16 MeV. The light output relation Lsub(p)(E)=(1/2)Lsub(d) (2E) has been observed. (orig.)

  14. Collective effects in {sup 17}F and {sup 19}Ne; Effets collectifs dans {sup 17}F et {sup 19}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P; Leveque, A; Grjebine, T; Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The quadrupolar transition periods {sup 17}F1/2+ {yields} 5/2+ and {sup 19}Ne5/2+ {yields} 1/2+ have been measured, and are compatible with the model of a weak coupling between core and external nucleons. (author) [French] Les periodes des transitions quadrupolaires {sup 17}F1/2+ {yields} 5/2+ et {sup 19}Ne5/2+ {yields} 1/2+ ont ete mesurees et sont compatibles avec le modele d'un couplage faible entre coeur et nucleons exterieures. (auteur)

  15. First evidences for 19F(α, p)22Ne at astrophysical energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Agata, G.; Spitaleri, C.; Pizzone, R.G.; Figuera, P.; Guardo, G.L.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Lattuada, M.; Sergi, M.L.; Blagus, S.; Mijatović, T.; Milin, M.; Miljanic, D.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Grassi, L.; Lamia, L.; Hayakawa, S.; Kshetri, R.

    2016-01-01

    19 F experimental abundances is overestimated in respect to the theoretical one: it is therefore clear that further investigations are needed. We focused on the 19 F(α, p) 22 Ne reaction, representing the main destruction channel in He-rich environments. The lowest energy at which this reaction has been studied with direct methods is E C.M. ≈ 0.91 MeV, while the Gamow region is between 0.39 ÷ 0.8 MeV, far below the Coulomb barrier (3.8 MeV). For this reason, an experiment at Rudjer Boskovic Institute (Zagreb) was performed, applying the Trojan Horse Method. Following this method we selected the quasi-free contribution coming from 6 Li( 19 F,p 22 Ne) 2 H at E beam =6 MeV at kinematically favourable angles, and the cross section at energies 0 < E C.M. < 1.4 MeV was extracted in arbitrary units, covering the astrophysical region of interest. (paper)

  16. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central l...

  17. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  19. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  20. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  1. Expansion in Germany; Expansion am Standort Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2011-05-05

    Germany is one of the key countries of the worldwide solar industry. For more than a decade, more than 100 German businesses have been active in all parts of the solar sector. During the past three years, the situation has changed dramatically, owing to increasing globalization and stronger competition.

  2. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  3. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  4. Towards a national ecosystem assessment in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Christian; Neßhöver, Carsten; Schröter, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present options for a National Ecosystem Assessment in Germany (NEA-DE) that could inform decision-makers on the state and trends of ecosystems and ecosystem services. Characterizing a NEA-DE, we argue that its cross-sectoral, integrative approach would have the advantages of increased...

  5. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  6. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing

  7. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  8. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  9. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  10. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  11. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  12. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  13. Ceux-ci ne sont pas : [luuletused] / Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusa, Kalju, pseud., 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Ceux-ci ne sont pas ; Köögivahet ; "Taara..." ; "Pakane pistab pisikesi ..." ; "Meri on kaet mattklaasiga ; Pydemise päivil ; "Toas muusika mängib ..." ; "Jäin juustu imetlema ; "Mu elu on mustikas ..." ; Hingepidetus ; ŁNo me gusta la cocina

  14. Hygiëne en infectiepreventie, constant voortschrijdende inzichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Crielaard, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat het voor het orale microbioom niet altijd gunstig is om patiënten te behandelen met chloorhexidine. Daarnaast baart de groeiende groep bacteriën die resistent zijn tegen alle ontwikkelde antibiotica zorgen en kunnen 'te veel' hygiëne en infectiepreventie ook

  15. "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." : [luuletused] / Georgi Kirillov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirillov, Georgi, 1952-2016

    2002-01-01

    Autorist lk. 187. Sisu: "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." ; "Za molitvoi molitva..." ; "Zaklannõi prezhde veka Agnets..." ; "Ja zhdal tebja i tõ voshol..." ; "Nepodrazhajemoje solntse..." ; "Tshto obshtshego mezh mnoju i toboi..." ; "Pogruzhenije v odinotshestvo..." ; "Shag za shagom - k stupenjam svjatõm..." ; "Nedvizhnõ dveri sozertsanja..." ; "Vessenni vozduh..." ; "Jesli mozhno - bud miloserdnõm..."

  16. Half-life of the superallowed β+ emitter Ne18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinyer, G. F.; Smith, M. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A. N.; Ball, G. C.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Daoud, J. J.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Williams, S. J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2007-08-01

    The half-life of Ne18 has been determined by detecting 1042-keV γ rays in the daughter F18 following the superallowed-Fermi β+ decay of samples implanted at the center of the 8πγ-ray spectrometer, a spherical array of 20 HPGe detectors. Radioactive Ne18 beams were produced on-line, mass-separated, and ionized using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ionization source at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. This is the first high-precision half-life measurement of a superallowed Fermi β decay to utilize both a large-scale HPGe spectrometer and the isotope separation on-line technique. The half-life of Ne18, 1.6656 ± 0.0019 s, deduced following a 1.4σ correction for detector pulse pile-up, is four times more precise than the previous world average. As part of an investigation into potential systematic effects, the half-life of the heavier isotope Ne23 was determined to be 37.11 ± 0.06 s, a factor of 2 improvement over the previous precision.

  17. LabVIEW Data Acquisition for NE213 Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2003-01-01

    A neutron spectroscopy system based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center measures neutron energies from a few MeV up to 800 MeV. The neutrons are produced from the electron beam and target interactions. The NE 213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into electric pulses for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. The processed pulses are then fed into a CAMAC analog to digital converter module (ADC). The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into one of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW version 7.0 acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy in MeVee is obtained, resulting in a calibration curve. This project is focused on the development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is also created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system

  18. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  19. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  20. Teorijske i praktične osnove TIG postupka zavarivanja

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko; Kondić, Veljko; Brezovački, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    TIG/GTAW postupak zavarivanja je elektrolučni postupak zavarivanja netaljivom elektrodom u zaštitnoj atmosferi inertnih plinova ili smjesa plinova. U radu je prikazana kratka povijest i teorijske osnove postupka, prednosti i nedostaci te osvrt na praktične osnove primjene postupka.

  1. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  2. Deformation effects in the 20Ne+12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Gupta, D.; Saha, R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present work has been performed with the aim to investigate the possible occurrence of highly deformed configurations of the 32 S di-nuclear systems which may be formed in the 20 Ne+ 12 C reaction by studying the properties of emitted light charged particles

  3. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  4. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  5. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  6. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  7. Fertility in Austria, Germany and Switzerland:Is there a Common Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major similarities and differences in period and cohort fertility in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. These three countries share a long history of low fertility and currently belong to countries with the lowest cohort fertility rates globally. The study highlights persistent differences in fertility and family patterns between Eastern and Western Germany, which are often rooted in pre-unification contrasts and can be partly linked to continuing differences in institutional set-up and norms on organised childcare, living arrangements and maternal employment. The remarkable stability in period fertility over the last 30 years (with the exception of Eastern Germany is illustrated with various indicators and discussed on the backdrop of recent reversals in European fertility trends. This stability in fertility levels contrasts with the long-term shift in childbearing towards less stable living arrangements (especially in Eastern Germany, including a high share of single mothers. The study also discusses a relatively small but persistent negative impact of the ongoing shift towards a late timing of childbearing on period fertility in the region. It highlights the educational gradient in fertility, which can be largely attributed to elevated childlessness rates among women with a higher educational degree. Migrant women have on average higher fertility rates than “native-born” women, but their net positive impact on aggregate fertility rates has diminished over time and has become negligible in Germany. A concluding discussion suggests that Austria, Germany and Switzerland share a common pattern of low fertility that sets these countries apart from other regions in Europe.

  8. Is Germany a model for managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  9. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin

    2002-07-01

    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  10. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  11. People’s Republic of China and Federal Republic of Germany in current international relations in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the current Sino-German relations in the context of world politics and dynamics of international relations as exemplified by the Central Asia region. Basic problems and prospects for cooperation between China and Germany in this region, as well as possible ways of cooperation of the SCO and the EU are under consideration.

  12. Local acceptance of wind energy. A comparison between Germany, Argentina and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno, Moira [Freie Univ. Berlin (DE). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (ffu)

    2011-07-01

    Commercial exploitation of wind parks started in the early 1990s in Germany, and in the mid 1990s in Spain and Argentina. Then, there have been an incremental use of wind turbines in rural areas. Many of them are characterised in economic terms by a diversified economic structure with a marginal significance. In the ''innovative democracy and concrete institutional economy'' approach one of the key problems regarding wind turbines, is the local acceptance. This raises the following questions: how is local acceptance, from the perspective of the innovative democracy, of the wind regions in Germany and Spain and why it was developed in this way. Another central question concerning the local acceptance of wind energy is how wind regions in Argentina (as an example of an emerging country investing in renewable energy) can learn from the European experiences. Based on this, I would like to make a comparative analysis between Germany, Spain and Argentina on the basis of various regions with the corresponding wind parks, within regional differences and similarities are to be worked out. First results tend to demonstrate that wind energy promotion programs will be most successful (in terms of their higher level of social acceptance) in locales that have participatory decision making structures and incorporate wind energy development into broader local or regional development programs. For example in touristic programs. In order to verify this the case study approach is focused on comparing selected regions based on the three countries. (orig.)

  13. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  14. [Travel times of patients to ambulatory care physicians in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schang, Laura; Kopetsch, Thomas; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2017-12-01

    The time needed by patients to get to a doctor's office represents an important indicator of realised access to care. In Germany, findings on travel times are only available from surveys or for some regions. For the first time, this study examines nationwide and physician group-specific travel times in the ambulatory care sector in Germany and describes demographic, supply-side and spatial determinants of variations. Using a full review of patient consultations in the statutory health insurance system from 2009/2010 for 14 physician groups (approximately 518 million cases), case-related travel times by car between patients' places of residence and physician's practices were estimated at the municipal level. Physicians were reached in less than 30 min in 90.8% of cases for primary care physicians and up to 63% of cases for radiologists. Patients between 18 and under 30 years of age travel longer to get to the doctor than other age groups. The average travel time at the county level systematically differs between urban and rural planning areas. In the case of gynecologists, dermatologists and ophthalmologists, the average journey time decreases with increasing physician density at the county level, but remains approximately constant from a recognisable point of inflection. There is no association between primary care physician density and travel time at the district level. Spatial analyses show physician group-specific patterns of regional concentrations with an increased proportion of cases with very long travel times. Patients' travel times are influenced by supply- and demand-side determinants. Interactions between influential determinants should be analysed in depth to examine the extent to which the time travelled is an expression of regional under- or over-supply rather than an expression of patient preferences.

  15. Low-threshold support for families with dementia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochgraeber Iris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-threshold support services are a part of the German health care system and help relieving family caregivers. There is limited information available on how to construct and implement low-threshold support services for people with dementia and their families in Germany. Some studies describe separately different perspectives of experiences and expectations, but there is no study combining all the different perspectives of those involved and taking the arrangements and organisation as well as their opinions on supporting and inhibiting factors into consideration. Findings This protocol describes the design of the study on low-threshold support services for families with a person with dementia in two German regions. The aim is to develop recommendations on how to build up these services and how to implement them in a region. A quantitative as well as a qualitative approach will be used. The quantitative part will be a survey on characteristics of service users and providers, as well as health care structures of the two project regions and an evaluation of important aspects derived from a literature search. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews will be carried out to get a deeper insight into the facilitators and barriers for both using and providing these services. All people involved will be included, such as the people with dementia, their relatives, volunteers, coordinators and institution representatives. Discussion Results of this study will provide important aspects for policymakers who are interested in an effective and low-threshold support for people with dementia. Furthermore the emerging recommendations can help staff and institutions to improve quality of care and can contribute to developing health and social care structures in Germany.

  16. He-Ne laser effects on blood microcirculation. An in vivo study through laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Silvia Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Blood microcirculation performs an important function in tissue repair process, as well as in pain control, allowing for greater oxygenation of the tissues and the accelerated expulsion of metabolic products, that may be contributing to pain. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) is widely used to promote healing, and there is an assumption that it is mechanism of action may be due to an enhancement of blood supply. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), the stated effects caused by radiation emitted by a He-Ne laser (λ=632.8 nm) on blood microcirculation during tissue repair. To this end, 15 male mice were selected and received a liquid nitrogen provoked lesion, above the dorsal region, and blood flow was measured periodically, during 21 days. Due to radiation emission by the LDF equipment, a control group was established to evaluate possible effects caused by this radiation on microcirculation. To evaluate the He-Ne laser effects, a 1.15 J/cm 2 dose was utilized, with an intensity of 6 mW/cm 2 . The results obtained demonstrate flow alterations, provoked by the lesion, and subsequent inflammatory response. There was no statistical difference between the studied groups. As per the analysis of the results there is no immediate effect due the radiation emitted by a He Ne laser on microcirculation, although a percentage increase was observed in day 7 on medium blood flow rate in irradiated specimens. New studies are necessary to validate the use of this wavelength, in order to promote beneficial alterations in blood supply in radiated areas. (author)

  17. An improved Neutrino Oscillations Analysis of the MiniBooNE Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis Armando

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the exclusion region in the parameter space of ν μ → ν e oscillations of the LSND type using a combined fit to the reconstructed energy distributions of neutrino candidate samples from the MiniBooNE data obtained with two different particle identification methods. The two ν e candidate samples are included together with a high statistics sample of ν μ events in the definition of a χ 2 statistic which includes the correlations between the energy intervals of all three samples and handles the event overlap between the ν e samples. The ν μ sample is introduced to constrain the effect of systematic uncertainties. This analysis increases the exclusion limit in the region Δm 2 ∼ 2 when compared with the result previously published by the collaboration, which used a different technique

  18. Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O--20Ne scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.; Schneider, W.F.W.; Jahnke, U.; Hendrie, D.L.; Mahoney, J.; Maguire, C.F.; Scott, D.K.; Wolschin, G.

    1975-01-01

    The cluster structure of the ground state rotational band of 20 Ne was studied via the elastic and inelastic scattering of 50 MeV 20 Ne from 16 O. Angular distributions are compared with microscopic calculations

  19. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  20. Excitation of giant resonances in 20Ne + 90Zr and 208Pb inelastic scattering at 40 MeV/u1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Chomaz, P.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Jacmart, J.C.; Roynette, J.C.; Kraus, L.; Link, I.

    1988-01-01

    The giant resonance region in the inelastic spectra from the reactions 20 Ne + 90 Zr and 20 Ne + 208 Pb at 40 MeV/nucleon has been studied with a good energy and angular resolutions. The strength distributions of the different multipolarities contributing to the cross section were obtained by a resonance shape independent analysis. In the case of 208 Pb the GDR strength was found to be strongly shifted towards lower excitation energies which can be explained by the exponentially decreasing Coulomb excitation probability. Furthermore, indications for a high multipolarity component in the resonance structure were found in both reactions

  1. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  2. Cross-sectional environmental study comparing two highly polluted areas in Germany (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) with a control region; Umweltmedizinische Untersuchungen im Raum Bitterfeld, im Raum Hettstedt und einem Vergleichsgebiet 1992-2000. Bd. 1: Textband. Bd. 2: Publikationen. Bd. 3: Untersuchungsdokumente und Frageboegen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J.; Frye, C.; Hoelscher, B.; Meyer, I.; Pitz, M.; Cyrys, J.; Schneller, H.; Wjst, M.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the environmental epidemiologic study was to determine possible negative effects on the health of children in the very polluted areas of Bitterfeld and Hettstedt in comparison to the less polluted areas of Anhalt-Zerbst (Eastern Germany). The time changes of the health parameters were recorded along with the running redevelopments during the time period of 6 years. The study design consisted of three repeated regional cross sectional studies in 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all, there was information of 7.611 questionnaires to be analysed (participation rate: 89%, 75% and 75%). Children living in the most polluted area of Hettstedt had a noticeable higher risk for non allergic respiratory diseases and symptoms compared to children living in the control area of Anhalt-Zerbst. During the time of the examinations in 1992 till 1999 a clear statistically significant decrease in the prevalences of these restrictions of health could be shown. Children without indoor pollutants in their homes profited most by the improvement of ambient air quality. The better lung function (FVC, FEV{sub 1}) between 1992 and 1999 underlines the improvement of the respiratory health. Children living in both polluted ares have allergies more often (physician's diagnosis, symptoms, allergy specific antibodies). The incidence of asthma, the bronchial hyperreactivity and atopic exzema increased, the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization did not increase. The body burden with lead and cadmium was higher in children living in polluted areas, but it decreased during the period of observation. In 1997, however, the lead concentration in blood increased a little, parallel to the higher lead concentration in settled dust in Hettstedt at that time. (orig.) [German] Ziel der umweltepidemiologischen Studie war es, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeitraechtigungen von Kindern in den Belastungsgebieten Bitterfeld und Hettstedt i. Vgl. zu dem wenig belasteten Gebiet Anhalt

  3. Cross-sectional environmental study comparing two highly polluted areas in Germany (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) with a control region; Umweltmedizinische Untersuchungen im Raum Bitterfeld, im Raum Hettstedt und einem Vergleichsgebiet 1992-2000. Bd. 1: Textband. Bd. 2: Publikationen. Bd. 3: Untersuchungsdokumente und Frageboegen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, J; Frye, C; Hoelscher, B; Meyer, I; Pitz, M; Cyrys, J; Schneller, H; Wjst, M; Wichmann, H E

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the environmental epidemiologic study was to determine possible negative effects on the health of children in the very polluted areas of Bitterfeld and Hettstedt in comparison to the less polluted areas of Anhalt-Zerbst (Eastern Germany). The time changes of the health parameters were recorded along with the running redevelopments during the time period of 6 years. The study design consisted of three repeated regional cross sectional studies in 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all, there was information of 7.611 questionnaires to be analysed (participation rate: 89%, 75% and 75%). Children living in the most polluted area of Hettstedt had a noticeable higher risk for non allergic respiratory diseases and symptoms compared to children living in the control area of Anhalt-Zerbst. During the time of the examinations in 1992 till 1999 a clear statistically significant decrease in the prevalences of these restrictions of health could be shown. Children without indoor pollutants in their homes profited most by the improvement of ambient air quality. The better lung function (FVC, FEV{sub 1}) between 1992 and 1999 underlines the improvement of the respiratory health. Children living in both polluted ares have allergies more often (physician's diagnosis, symptoms, allergy specific antibodies). The incidence of asthma, the bronchial hyperreactivity and atopic exzema increased, the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization did not increase. The body burden with lead and cadmium was higher in children living in polluted areas, but it decreased during the period of observation. In 1997, however, the lead concentration in blood increased a little, parallel to the higher lead concentration in settled dust in Hettstedt at that time. (orig.) [German] Ziel der umweltepidemiologischen Studie war es, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeitraechtigungen von Kindern in den Belastungsgebieten Bitterfeld und Hettstedt i. Vgl. zu dem wenig belasteten Gebiet Anhalt-Zerbst zu

  4. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  5. High probability of comorbidities in bronchial asthma in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, S; Al-Shobash, S; Rapp, D; Le, D D; Omlor, A; Bekhit, A; Flaig, M; Al-Kadah, B; Herian, W; Bals, R; Wagenpfeil, S; Dinh, Q T

    2017-04-21

    University Hospital in Homburg, Germany, and co-workers conducted a large-scale study of patients presenting with bronchial asthma in the Saarland region between 2009 and 2012. Patients with asthma made up 5.4% of the region's total population, with a higher prevalence occurring in females. They found that bronchial asthma was strongly associated with allergic comorbidities such as rhinitis. Indeed, asthmatic patients had a seven times higher chance to suffer from allergic rhinitis than the rest of the population, and were at higher risk of respiratory diseases like pneumonia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Further associations included cardiovascular, metabolic and mental disorders. Dinh's team call for asthma treatments to take such comorbidities into account.

  6. Proton capture in the nuclei 21Ne and 22Ne and its influence on the solar hydrogen burning in the neon-sodium cyclus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, J.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to remove the uncertainties in the reaction rates of 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na and 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na in order to can make founded statements about the hydrogen burning in the NeNa cyclus. After the description of the experimental arrangement the search for resonances in the reaction 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na below Esub(p)=355 keV is reported. While the theory of the direct radiation capture is discussed the experimental results of the search for this transitions in 21 Ne(p,γ) 22 Na respectively 22 Ne(p,γ) 23 Na are presented. The astrophysical aspects of the results of this thesis are discussed and summarizingly presented. (orig./HSI) [de

  7. The role of near-shore industrial waste releases in the dispersion of radionuclides in the NE Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 27 years, through the use of autoradiographic methods combined with field observations and laboratory studies, I have concluded that the behaviour and distribution of the α-active actinide radionuclides in the estuarine and marine sediments of the NE Irish Sea are significantly influenced by the releases of other non-radioactive industrial wastes. Since the 1700s, the various industrial activities in the Cumbrian coastal region have included: haematite mining, diverse non-ferric metal extraction industries, coal mining and a large number of blast furnaces for the manufacture of iron. More recently (1954-92), the Albright and Wilson phosphoric acid factory at Whitehaven, Cumbria, has discharged large quantities of phosphogypsum slurries into the NE Irish Sea. Iron wastes and slag products, together with phosphogypsum and its associated by-products containing the rare earth elements, are extremely reactive towards the actinides. These wastes are now slowly being removed from the region by natural processes following the rapid decline of heavy industry in the area. These wastes have been present since BNFL first started to discharge radionuclides into the NE Irish Sea and have not, so far, been considered in any models for the dispersion of radionuclides in the region. It is shown that sediments of the NE Irish Sea and local estuaries contain a significant part of the actinide content as coatings on two iron minerals, magnetite and haematite; there is also a significant diffuse distribution associated with hydrated iron oxides attached to quartz grains. However, not all magnetite and haematite grains from a given site show α-activity. Relative to the intensity of the α-activity of the constituent minerals in sediments, the two iron minerals can be regarded as hot particles and are associated with a further set of far more intense hot particles that either may be totally derived from BNFL Sellafield or may also include a contribution from the Albright

  8. Assessing the role of nuclear effects in the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, M; Giunti, C; Martini, M

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of the effect of multinucleon interactions in the reconstruction of the neutrino energy on the fit of the MiniBooNE data in terms of neutrino oscillations. We obtain some improvement of the fit of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess in the framework of two-neutrino oscillations and a shift of the allowed region in the $\\sin^2 2\\vartheta$--$\\Delta{m}^2$ plane towards smaller values of $\\sin^2 2\\vartheta$ and larger values of $\\Delta{m}^2$. However this effect is not enough to solve the problem of the appearance-disappearance tension in the global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  9. Assessing the role of nuclear effects in the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, M.; Garzelli, M. V.; Giunti, C.; Martini, M.

    2016-04-01

    We study the impact of the effect of multinucleon interactions in the reconstruction of the neutrino energy on the fit of the MiniBooNE data in terms of neutrino oscillations. We obtain some improvement of the fit of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess in the framework of two-neutrino oscillations and a shift of the allowed region in the sin22 ϑ -Δ m2 plane toward smaller values of sin22 ϑ and larger values of Δ m2. However, this effect is not enough to solve the problem of the appearance-disappearance tension in the global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  10. Assessing the role of nuclear effects in the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, M. [Lyon 1 Univ., CNRS/IN2P3 (France). INP Lyon; CERN Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Unit; Garzelli, M.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Giunti, C. [INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Martini, M. [ESNT, CEA-Saclay, IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Nucleaire

    2016-02-15

    We study the impact of the effect of multinucleon interactions in the reconstruction of the neutrino energy on the fit of the MiniBooNE data in terms of neutrino oscillations. We obtain some improvement of the fit of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess in the framework of two-neutrino oscillations and a shift of the allowed region in the sin{sup 2}2θ-Δm{sup 2} plane towards smaller values of sin{sup 2}2ν and larger values of Δm{sup 2}. However this effect is not enough to solve the problem of the appearance-disappearance tension in the global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  11. Assessing the role of nuclear effects in the interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.; Martini, M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the impact of the effect of multinucleon interactions in the reconstruction of the neutrino energy on the fit of the MiniBooNE data in terms of neutrino oscillations. We obtain some improvement of the fit of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess in the framework of two-neutrino oscillations and a shift of the allowed region in the sin 2 2θ-Δm 2 plane towards smaller values of sin 2 2ν and larger values of Δm 2 . However this effect is not enough to solve the problem of the appearance-disappearance tension in the global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  12. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  13. Velocity-resolved [Ne III] from X-ray irradiated Sz 102 microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Shang, Hsien [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Walter, Frederick M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-05-10

    Neon emission lines are good indicators of high-excitation regions close to a young stellar system because of their high ionization potentials and large critical densities. We have discovered [Ne III] λ3869 emission from the microjets of Sz 102, a low-mass young star in Lupus III. Spectroastrometric analyses of two-dimensional [Ne III] spectra obtained from archival high-dispersion (R ≈ 33, 000) Very Large Telescope/UVES data suggest that the emission consists of two velocity components spatially separated by ∼0.''3, or a projected distance of ∼60 AU. The stronger redshifted component is centered at ∼ + 21 km s{sup –1} with a line width of ∼140 km s{sup –1}, and the weaker blueshifted component at ∼ – 90 km s{sup –1} with a line width of ∼190 km s{sup –1}. The two components trace velocity centroids of the known microjets and show large line widths that extend across the systemic velocity, suggesting their potential origins in wide-angle winds that may eventually collimate into jets. Optical line ratios indicate that the microjets are hot (T ≲ 1.6 × 10{sup 4} K) and ionized (n{sub e} ≳ 5.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}). The blueshifted component has ∼13% higher temperature and ∼46% higher electron density than the redshifted counterpart, forming a system of an asymmetric pair of jets. The detection of the [Ne III] λ3869 line with the distinct velocity profile suggests that the emission originates in flows that may have been strongly ionized by deeply embedded hard X-ray sources, most likely generated by magnetic processes. The discovery of [Ne III] λ3869 emission along with other optical forbidden lines from Sz 102 supports the picture of wide-angle winds surrounding magnetic loops in the close vicinity of the young star. Future high-sensitivity X-ray imaging and high angular-resolution optical spectroscopy may help confirm the picture proposed.

  14. Velocity-resolved [Ne III] from X-ray irradiated Sz 102 microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Shang, Hsien; Walter, Frederick M.; Herczeg, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Neon emission lines are good indicators of high-excitation regions close to a young stellar system because of their high ionization potentials and large critical densities. We have discovered [Ne III] λ3869 emission from the microjets of Sz 102, a low-mass young star in Lupus III. Spectroastrometric analyses of two-dimensional [Ne III] spectra obtained from archival high-dispersion (R ≈ 33, 000) Very Large Telescope/UVES data suggest that the emission consists of two velocity components spatially separated by ∼0.''3, or a projected distance of ∼60 AU. The stronger redshifted component is centered at ∼ + 21 km s –1 with a line width of ∼140 km s –1 , and the weaker blueshifted component at ∼ – 90 km s –1 with a line width of ∼190 km s –1 . The two components trace velocity centroids of the known microjets and show large line widths that extend across the systemic velocity, suggesting their potential origins in wide-angle winds that may eventually collimate into jets. Optical line ratios indicate that the microjets are hot (T ≲ 1.6 × 10 4 K) and ionized (n e ≳ 5.7 × 10 4 cm –3 ). The blueshifted component has ∼13% higher temperature and ∼46% higher electron density than the redshifted counterpart, forming a system of an asymmetric pair of jets. The detection of the [Ne III] λ3869 line with the distinct velocity profile suggests that the emission originates in flows that may have been strongly ionized by deeply embedded hard X-ray sources, most likely generated by magnetic processes. The discovery of [Ne III] λ3869 emission along with other optical forbidden lines from Sz 102 supports the picture of wide-angle winds surrounding magnetic loops in the close vicinity of the young star. Future high-sensitivity X-ray imaging and high angular-resolution optical spectroscopy may help confirm the picture proposed.

  15. Ringing of White Storks Ciconia ciconia in NE Slovenia during the 1984–2013 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bračko Franc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a period of 30 years (1984-2013, 1,535 White Stork pulli were ringed on nest and 1,226 nests examined in NE Slovenia. The ringing was implemented in the regions of Dravsko polje, Slovenske gorice and Pomurje. In each season, from 9 to 85 nests were examined, the great majority of them built on overhead powerline pylons. On average, 51.16 pulli or 16.66% were ringed and 40.86 or 18.91% nests visited compared to the census of fledged pulli and inventoried nests in 1999 in NE Slovenia. A total of 71 finds or 4.6% were registered and 37 rings or 52% finds read. There were 26 (36.62% local recoveries, while in foreign countries 34 (47.88% recoveries of Slovenian-ringed storks were made. Two of our recoveries were registered abroad prior to 1984. There were 11 (15.49% foreign recoveries. Local recoveries (n = 26 indicate breeding relationship (mixing between the eastern and southern Slovenian breeding populations. The longest distance of breeding was 115 km in a beeline, the shortest 62 km (n = 4. Other 12 local recoveries at 1 to 38 km from the place of hatching concerns the native NE breeding area. Young sexually mature storks search for new breeding sites only in their fourth year of age. No ringed stork returned to the native nest as a young breeder. The oldest was 14 years old. Some of them breed in the wider area of the Pannonian Plain outside Slovenia, e.g. 3 in Austria, 2 in Serbia and 1 in Croatia. One of them bred in Slovakia 463 km away. In view of the presented recoveries it has been ascertained that the storks from NE Slovenia migrate across the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans and Asia Minor, down to the South African Republic of 8,923 km in a beeline (4 recoveries, using the eastern migration route. The western migration route was not ascertained. The majority of recoveries originated from the autumn migration period, with only one recovery known from the spring migration period. No less than 23 ringed storks, particularly young ones

  16. Potential and costs of renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, K.F.; Raede, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Set off by the oil crisis in the Seventies and nurtured by the critical stance of the public towards nuclear energy and its growing awareness of the climate problem, studies on possible applications of renewables in Germany have played an increasingly important role over the years. A large number of publications have been turned out on this issue. It therefore appears worthwhile to collect the various results given in the literature and compile them for easy comparison. The authors of the present article give a short synopsis of a study to this end that was completed in the autumn of last year. The chief aim of the compilation was to enable the reader to gain a quick overview of the known results and to facilitate his orientation, thus making the problems surrounding the application of renewables in Germany more transparent. (orig.) [de

  17. Second births in western Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  18. The future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.) [de

  19. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.

  20. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  2. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  3. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2013-01-01

    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are

  4. Summer mistral at the exit of the Rhône valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; Bastin, S.; Guenard, V.; Caccia, J. L.; Dabas, A. M.; Delville, P.; Protat, A.; Reitebuch, O.; Werner, C.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the mistral at the Rhône valley exit on 28 June 2001. The mistral refers to a severe wind that develops along the Rhône valley in southern France. This summer mistral event was documented in the framework of the ESCOMPTE field experiment. The dynamical processes driving the circulation of the mistral in the Rhône valley and particularly wake formation and planetary boundary layer (PBL) inhomogeneity at the scale of Rhône valley delta are investigated. Several important data sources are used (airborne Doppler lidar, radiosondes and surface stations) as well as non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulations. This paper analyses experimentally, numerically and theoretically the mechanism of wake formation. It shows that the flow impinging on the Alpine range and the Massif Central becomes supercritical all along the ridge line, including the Rhône valley and continues to accelerate in the lee regions until a hydraulic jump occurs. It leads to the formation of wakes behind and close to the mountain peaks. Compared to the Massif Central wake, the origin of the western Alps wake is rather complicated. In this study, the observations and simulations suggest a combined wall separation/gravity wave breaking mechanism to explain the western Alps wake. Indeed, it is shown that in addition to the flow descending the western Alps slopes and experiencing a strong hydraulic jump, the point where the mistral flow separates from the eastern flank of the Rhône valley located at about 44°N is associated with a 'flank-shock' which is an oblique hydraulic jump (i.e.the downstream Froude number is supercritical). Wake formation in the lee of the Alps and the Massif Central causes large inhomogeneity of the PBL with differences between land and sea. In the Massif Central and western Alps wakes, the continental PBL is deeper (1.8 km) than in the mistral flow (1 km), which is consistent with a subcritical regime associated

  5. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. Using administrative data, the paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large...... and varies between occupation and region. But temps already suffer from a marked wage decline before entering the temporary help sector. Nevertheless, temporary agency employment does not leave a long lasting scar. Two years after leaving the sector, temps no longer suffer from a wage penalty. A recent...... change in the law set a high incentive for temporary help agencies to pay their workers according to a sectoral collective agreement. Surprisingly, the unionization of the sector could not bring the widening wage gap to a halt....

  6. Typological Structure of German Phraseology Outside Germany. Quantitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Ya. Ostapovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern theoretical concept in study of the variation of German phraseology abroad Germany. It is based on the synthesis of the theory of equal-righted pluricentrism with the new achievements of the cognitive linguistics. As a result the national state linguistic variant is considered as different from the regional, normatively non-codified and dialectal variation, a kind of cluster variant idiomatic thesaurus. The hypothesis of the structural isomorphy of the variant phraseology compared to the common German one has been empirically verified and vice versa - the hypothesis of the quantitative predominance in the Austrian phraseology of the structural model Adj+Sub under the Slavic linguistic influence has also been falsified.

  7. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  8. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  9. The geology of uranium mineralization at Mika, N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtua, I.I.; Okujeni, C.P.; Elegba, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Uranium mineralization at Mike is located near Zing in Taraba State, N.E., Nigeria. The host rock consist of a sheared Pan-African medium-grained granite which is in places intruded by rhyolite and siliceous veins. Numerous joints, faults and fractures criss-cut the area. Some of the fractures are filled with secondary quartz. The ore occurs in two parallel N-S trending shear Zones with the western limb hosting a rhyolite body. Drill section reveals a subsurface extension of the mineralization. In the upper limb, mineralization consisting of metal autunite and coffinite occurs associated with the rhyolite body. In lower ore limb meta-autunite, coffinite and pitchblende occur along a set of two parallel shear surface. The pitchblende occurs massive and as vein lets in association with sulphides. The ore body is marked by distinct hydrothermal alteration zones which feature sericitization, silicification, hematization and kaolination. Reactivated regional structures of NE-SW and the N140oE and N170E played an important role in the formation of Mika mineralization. These acted as channel and as mechanical barrier for the mineralization fluid. The bimodal magmatism of the Burashika group is postulated to be related to the process of mineralization in view of the ubiquitous rhyolite in the mineralized bodies

  10. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  11. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  12. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  13. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  14. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  15. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  16. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing their loans portfolio. Most lending categories even show an increase following a monetary tightening. The main implication of our results is that a bank lending channel is not an important transmissio...

  17. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  18. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  19. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  20. DeBeNe Test Facilities for Fast Breeder Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storz, R.

    1980-10-01

    This report gives an overview and a short description of the test facilities constructed and operated within the collaboration for fast breeder development in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The facilities are grouped into Sodium Loops (Large Facilities and Laboratory Loops), Special Equipment including Hot Cells and Reprocessing, Test Facilities without Sodium, Zero Power Facilities and In-pile Loops including Irradiation Facilities