Sample records for region ne germany

  1. Seasonal and interannual dynamics of diatom assemblages in Sacrower See (NE Germany): A sediment trap study

    Kirilova, E.P.; Bluszcz, P.; Heiri, O.; Cremer, H.; Ohlendorf, C.; Lotter, A.F.; Zolitschka, B.


    Diatom assemblages from sediment trap samples collected during ten intervals between October 2003 and October 2005 in Sacrower See (NE Germany) were related to limnological and meteorological data. Sacrower See is a dimictic, 38 m deep, hypertrophic lowland lake (29.5 m a.s.l.). We identified distin

  2. Seasonal Trace Gas Dynamics on Minerotrophic Fen Peatlands in NE-Germany

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz


    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual trace gas balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest balances in both years. For implementing a

  3. Seasonal Carbon Dynamics on Selected Fen Peatland Sites in NE-Germany

    Giebels, Michael; Beyer, Madlen; Augustin, Jürgen; Minke, Merten; Juszczak, Radoszlav; Serba, Tomasz


    In Germany more than 99 % of fens have lost their carbon and nutrient sink function due to heavy drainage and agricultural land use especially during the last decades and thus resulted in compression and heavy peat loss (CHARMAN 2002; JOOSTEN & CLARKE 2002; SUCCOW & JOOSTEN 2001; AUGUSTIN et al. 1996; KUNTZE 1993). Therefore fen peatlands play an important part (4-5 %) in the national anthropogenic trace gas budget. But only a small part of drained and agricultural used fens in NE Germany can be restored. Knowledge of the influence of land use to trace gas exchange is important for mitigation of the climate impact of the anthropogenic peatland use. We study carbon exchanges of several fen peatland use areas between soil and atmosphere at different sites in NE-Germany. Our research covers peatlands of supposed strongly climate forcing land use (cornfield and intensive pasture) and of probably less forcing, alternative types (meadow and extensive pasture) as well as rewetted (formerly drained) areas and near-natural sites like a low-degraded fen and a wetted alder woodland. We measured trace gas fluxes with manual and automatic chambers in periodic routines since spring 2007. The used chamber technique bases on DROESLER (2005). In total we now do research at 22 sites situated in 5 different locations covering agricultural, varying states of rewetted and near-natural treatments. We present results of at least 2 years of measurements and show significant differences in their annual carbon balances depending on the genesis of the observed sites and the seasonal dynamics. Crosswise comparison of different site treatments combined with the seasonal environmental observations give good hints for the identification of main flux driving parameters. That is that a reduced intensity in land use as a supposed mitigating treatment did not show the expected effect, though a normal meadow treatment surprisingly resulted in the lowest CO2 balances in both years. For implementing a

  4. Linking varve-formation processes to climate and lake conditions at Tiefer See (NE Germany)

    Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Plessen, Birgit; Ott, Florian; Brademann, Brian; Pinkerneil, Sylvia; Brauer, Achim


    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments represent unique archives in continental areas providing both, precise chronologies and seasonally resolving proxy data. Monitoring of physical, chemical and biological processes influencing lake sediment formation are a suitable approach for detailed proxy understanding of varved sediment records. Lake Tiefer See (NE Germany) indicates deposition of varved sediments today as well as millennia ago (Dräger et al., 2016; Kienel et al., 2013). Therefore, the lake provides the possibility to trace current seasonal layer formation in the lake and to pair these data to climate and lake conditions (Kienel et al., 2016). Lake Tiefer See was formed during the last glaciation and is part of the Klocksin Lake Chain, a subglacial channel system that crosses the Pomeranian terminal moraine. The lake is a mesotrophic hard water lake with a maximum depth of 63 m and a surface area of 0.75 km2. During four consecutive years (2012-2015) the particulate matter deposition was trapped at bi-weekly to monthly resolution at three different water depths (5, 12 and 50 m). The sediment trap material was analysed for sediment flux and organic matter and calcite content. In addition, we monitored limnological parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, conductivity, oxygen content) as well as the meteorological conditions (e.g. temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation) with a monitoring and climate station installed on the lake. These data describe strength and duration of lake mixing and lake stagnation phases. Our results show distinct seasonal peaks in sediment formation, which correspond to the spring and summer productivity phases comprising of diatom blooms and calcite precipitation. This observation is in line with microfacies results from surface sediment cores. The content of biogenic calcite content decreases in the trapped material with increasing water depth indicating dissolution processes. However, the strength of calcite

  5. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia


    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  6. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Lauterbach, Karl W.


    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  7. Climate or vegetation change - what drove Holocene lake level fluctuations in NE-Germany?

    Theuerkauf, Martin; Blume, Theresa; Dreibrodt, Janek; Heidbüchel, Ingo


    Lake Tiefer See (N 53.59, E 12.53) is one of the rare lakes with a long sequence of annually laminated Holocene sediments in northern Germany. The lake is a valuable link between laminated lakes in more oceanic climates of the Eifel region and NW Germany and laminated lakes in the more continental climate of Poland. The lake provides great potential to study past climate, vegetation and human land use along that climate transition; it is thus a core study site of the ICLEA virtual institute. One prominent feature of Lake Tiefer See are pronounced lake level fluctuations during the Holocene. Such changes are often interpreted in terms of climatic fluctuations. However, climate fluctuations are supposed to be small during the Holocene. Groundwater formation and thus lake levels may on the other hand be strongly influenced by the plant cover. We therefore hypothesize that the lake level fluctuations have largely been driven by vegetation change in the catchment area. To validate this hypothesis, we test whether the magnitude and timing of the lake level changes corresponds to vegetation change in the catchment area. Analysis is based on quantitative vegetation analysis that includes both the REVEALS model and the extended downscaling approach (EDA). REVEALS translates pollen deposition from large lakes such as Tiefer See into regional vegetation cover. This method produces a continuous record of vegetation change, yet it is unable to reconstruct vegetation patterns in the catchment area. We therefore for specific time slices additionally apply the EDA to explore these patterns. Both methods are now available in the R package DISQOVER. Vegetation cover and estimates of climate variables are then used to estimate cumulative transpiration and ultimately groundwater recharge. Differences in groundwater recharge are likely to cause fluctuations in groundwater levels and thus also lake levels, as this lake is largely groundwater fed. While only rough estimates, these

  8. Unexpected spontaneous ignition of Late Glacial sediments from the palaeolake Wukenfurche (NE Germany)

    Dräger, Nadine; Brademann, Brian; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Tjallingii, Rik; Słowiński, Michał; Schlaak, Norbert; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim


    A new finely laminated sediment archive has been recovered from the palaeolake Wukenfurche, NE Germany, comprising the last Glacial to Interglacial transition. The site is located within the Eberswalde ice-marginal valley and south of the terminal moraine that was formed during the Pomeranian phase of the Weichselian glaciation. Two sediment cores were obtained from the presently swampy area in July 2014. From these individual profiles a 14.7 m long continuous composite profile has been compiled by correlation of distinct marker layers. Glacial sand deposits covered by basal peat are found at the base of the cores. A visible volcanic ash layer 6 cm above the transition from basal peat into the overlaying finely laminated lake sediments corresponds most likely to the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra (LST). Preliminary counting on core photographs of the 3.5 m thick package of reddish and black alternating laminae above the LST yields a total of ca. 2500 layer couplets. Further micro-facies analyses on large-scale thin sections will be applied to test if these couplets are of annual origin (i.e. varves). Standard preparation for large-scale thin sections involves freeze-drying (for 48 hours) of 10 cm-long sediment slabs stored in aluminum boxes. Immediately after releasing the vacuum of the freeze-dryer chamber we observed an unexpected spontaneous combustion of the sediment from a particular interval of the profile. The exothermic combustion process lasted for approximately 10 to 20 minutes during which temperatures of up to 350°C have been measured with an infrared camera. Preliminary results suggest that oxidation of iron sulfides contributes to the observed reaction. To our knowledge this is the first time that such spontaneous combustion of lake sediments after freeze-drying has been observed. Details of the combustion process and sediment characteristics will be provided. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape

  9. Late Carboniferous remagnetisation of Palaeozoic rocks in the NE Rhenish Massif, Germany

    Zwing, A.; Bachtadse, V.; Soffel, H. C.

    During stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetisation experiments on Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonate and clastic rocks from the north-eastern part of the Rhenish Massif, Germany, three components of magnetisation (A, B, C) are identified. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the local present day geomagnetic field. Component B is mainly observed from 260 up to 550 °C during thermal demagnetisation and is carried by magnetite. In two localities, where red siltstones and red carbonate rocks were sampled, component B is stable up to 670 °C, indicating the presence of hematite. Three clusters of in situ B directions can be identified, which are controlled by the tectonic position of the sampling areas. These are from NW to SE: the Remscheid anticline (RA), the Lüdenscheid syncline (LS) and the Attendorn and Wittgenstein synclines (AS/WS). Standard and inclination-only fold tests, using parametric resampling, yield optimal statistical parameters at increasing amounts of untilting ranging from 0% in the South up to 57% in the North of the NE Rhenish Massif. Despite the variations in optimal untilting, the resulting site mean directions of component B do not differ significantly in inclination. These results are interpreted to reflect the acquisition of magnetisation during progressive northward migration of the deformation front in Late Carboniferous times. The resulting palaeolatitudes (RA: 1°S +2°-3°; LS: 2°S +3°-2°; AS/WS: 1°S +3°-4°) are in good agreement with the predicted position of the sampling area in the Late Carboniferous, as derived from a published Apparent Polar Wander Path for Baltica and Laurentia. The unblocking temperature spectra and the synfolding nature of B yield strong evidence that chemical processes, possibly driven by fluid migration during orogenesis, caused this remagnetisation. A third component C was observed in zones of tight folding with steeply dipping to overturned bedding planes and is

  10. Heavy Metal Enrichment History in annually laminated Lake Tiefer See (NE-Germany) and Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim


    Within the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses (ICLEA) high-resolution geo-archives (e.g. lakes as natural data loggers) of the northeastern german and northern polish lowlands are investigated to identify influences of land-use on the landscape evolution. For two annually laminated lake sediment records, situated in rural environments in NE-Germany (Lake Tiefer See) and N-Poland (Czechowskie Lake), we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals. Both lakes show a similar pattern of relatively low heavy metal concentrations if compared to the so-called index of geoaccumulation (Müller 1979), which is based on the average global metal content in shales (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). Only Pb, Zn and Cd show a clear parallel pattern of enrichment in both lakes starting around 1850 according to mainly atmospheric input due to increasing industrialization within the framework of the Industrial Revolution. Highest input for Cd, Zn, and Pb occur around 1960 to 1980 and thereafter a clear pattern of declining anthropogenic input is registered. On the base of heavy-metal analysis of pre-industrial sediments and different sediment types (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) the local and specific geogenic background values for various metals are determined. These results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic heavy metal accumulations and enrichment factors as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact. Müller, G. (1979): Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins - Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79: 778-783. Turekian, K. and Wedepohl, K. (1961): Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust. Bull.Geol.Soc.Am. 72: 175-192.

  11. Organic pollutants in sediment cores of NE-Germany: Comparison of the marine Arkona Basin with freshwater sediments

    Ricking, M. [Free University Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail:; Koch, M. [Free University Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany); Rotard, W. [Free University Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)


    During a contamination survey in NE-Germany sediment cores were sampled at 5 locations with freeze-coring devices and conventional box-coring systems. In total more than 40 samples were analysed for several organic compounds (136 PCDD/F, 33 PCB, 39 PAH, 10 DDX, 4 HCH, 4 CB), sedimentological parameters (TOC, TC, TIC, LOI), some total trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn) and dated by measurement of the {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs activity. The deepest segment of the cores from the Arkona Basin and the freshwater lakes were dated back to the end of the 19th century. A comparison of marine versus freshwater data is presented. The contamination levels of Arkona Basin were often lower than anthropogenically influenced freshwater sediments and more similar to a freshwater sediment core only influenced by deposition, with an additional Oder River inflow. Differences in patterns and contamination levels are discussed.

  12. Reconstructing paleo- and initial landscapes using a multi-method approach in hummocky NE Germany

    van der Meij, Marijn; Temme, Arnaud; Sommer, Michael


    The unknown state of the landscape at the onset of soil and landscape formation is one of the main sources of uncertainty in landscape evolution modelling. Reconstruction of these initial conditions is not straightforward due to the problems of polygenesis and equifinality: different initial landscapes can change through different sets of processes to an identical end state. Many attempts have been done to reconstruct this initial landscape. These include remote sensing, reverse modelling and the usage of soil properties. However, each of these methods is only applicable on a certain spatial scale and comes with its own uncertainties. Here we present a new framework and preliminary results of reconstructing paleo-landscapes in an eroding setting, where we combine reverse modelling, remote sensing, geochronology, historical data and present soil data. With the combination of these different approaches, different spatial scales can be covered and the uncertainty in the reconstructed landscape can be reduced. The study area is located in north-east Germany, where the landscape consists of a collection of small local depressions, acting as closed catchments. This postglacial hummocky landscape is suitable to test our new multi-method approach because of several reasons: i) the closed catchments enable a full mass balance of erosion and deposition, due to the collection of colluvium in these depressions, ii) significant topography changes only started recently with medieval deforestation and recent intensification of agriculture and iii) due to extensive previous research a large dataset is readily available.

  13. Aeolian sands and buried soils in the Mecklenburg Lake District, NE Germany: Holocene land-use history and pedo-geomorphic response

    Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Kaiser, Knut; Ulrich, Jens


    The present study is a pedo-geomorphic approach to reconstructing Holocene aeolian sand dynamics in the Mecklenburg Lake District (NE Germany). Stratigraphical, sedimentological and soil research supplemented by morphogenetic interpretations of the genesis of dunes and aeolian sands are discussed. A complex Late Holocene aeolian stratigraphy within a drift sand area was developed at the shore of Lake Müritz. The results were confirmed using palynological records, archaeological data and regional history. Accelerated aeolian activity was triggered by the intensification of settlement and land-use activities during the 13th and in the 15th to 16th century AD. After a period of stability beginning with population decline during the ‘Thirty Years War' and continuing through the 18th century, a final aeolian phase due to the establishment of glassworks was identified during the 19th century AD. We assume a direct link between Holocene aeolian dynamics and human activities. Prehistoric Holocene drift sands on terrestrial sites have not been documented in the Mecklenburg Lake District so far. This might be explained either by erosion and incorporation of older aeolian sediments during younger aeolian phases and/or a lower regional land-use intensity in older periods of the Holocene. The investigated drift sands are stratigraphically and sedimentologically characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, reflecting the spatial and temporal variability of Holocene human impact.

  14. Cyanobacteria during low-wind summers indicate increased lake sensitivity to warming at high nutrient availability (Tiefer See, NE Germany)

    Kienel, Ulrike; Dräger, Nadine; Plessen, Birgit; Kirillin, Georgiy; Lami, Andrea; Ott, Florian; Brademann, Brian; Pinkerneil, Sylvia; Gerli, Stefano; Brauer, Achim


    relation of diatom silica determined by the duration of lake mixing in spring, which becomes weak during the period of strongest nutrient load (1987 - 2005) (Kienel et al. 2017). We show first results of pigment analyses from trap material and sediment record to scrutinize the cyanobacteria - δ13-C relation. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association; grant number VH-VI-415. Kienel U, Dulski P, Ott F, Lorenz S, Brauer A (2013) Recently induced anoxia leading to the preservation of seasonal laminae in two NE-German lakes. J Paleolimnol 50:535-544 Dräger N, Theuerkauf M, Szeroczyńska K, Wulf S, Tjallingii R, Plessen B, Kienel U, Brauer A (2016) Varve microfacies and varve preservation record of climate change and human impact for the last 6000 years at Lake Tiefer See (NE Germany). The Holocene, in press Kienel U, Kirillin G, Brademann B, Plessen B, Lampe R, Brauer A (2017) Effects of the spring warming and mixing duration on diatom deposition in the deep Tiefer See, NE Germany. J Paleolimnol 57:37-49

  15. Lithospheric architecture and deformation of NE Tibet: New insights on the interplay of regional tectonic processes

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Gao, Rui; Li, Sanzhong; Xu, Xiao; Huang, Xingfu; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui; Zhao, Shujuan; Li, Xiyao


    GPS measurements indicate rapid lateral extrusion of the NE Tibetan Plateau, which causes active NE-directed crustal shortening and has initiated oblique shearing along the margins of NE Tibet. However, the Tibetan highlands terminate around 103°E longitude and topographic relief disappears to the northeast. The exact reasons for this drop in elevation remain obscure due to widespread Tertiary sediments and Quaternary loess, which obscure details of the lithospheric structure. This study describes a new 310 km-long deep seismic reflection line striking NE-SW across the interior of NE Tibet. Integrating its data with a previously described 165 km-long deep seismic profile of the Tibet-Ordos transition zone together, these datasets provide a complete picture of the crustal architecture of the north-easternmost Tibetan Plateau. Gravity anomaly and previous geological evidence also help constrain complex deformation pattern in the region. Interpretations of these patterns indicate the importance of the large-scale sinistral Haiyuan fault zone and inherited vertical variation in mechanical properties of the lithosphere in the overall tectonic evolution of the NE Tibetan Plateau. The overall crustal architecture obtained in this study provides spatial context for the neotectonic evolution of NE Tibet and helps constrain the interplay of geologic and geodynamic processes affecting NE Tibet and adjacent regions.

  16. The influence of volcanic eruptions on growth of central European trees in NE Germany during the last Millennium

    Pieper, H.; Heinrich, I.; Heussner, K. U.; Helle, G.


    Large volcanic eruptions have strong impacts on the global climate, lowering the global temperature and increasing the diffuse light fraction for one to several years after the eruptions. It has been argued that due to scattering by volcanic sulfur aerosol the more diffuse light fraction can be used more efficiently by forests. However, other observations suggest a growth decrease because of the cooler conditions following large eruption. Trees growing to the north of the temperate zone are mainly temperature-limited and therefore a reduction in ring width after large volcanic eruptions seems inevitable. Since tree growth in the temperate zone is less limited by temperature than by other climate parameters such as precipitation, it was hypothesized that tree growth may not suffer from lower temperatures so much but profit from increased diffuse light and reduced water stress. Therefore, a database of long tree-ring chronologies originating from several sites in NE-Germany was used to test whether tree growth suffered or profited from the globally changed conditions after large eruptions. The growth relationships were tested against 49 individual large volcanic eruptions from the last 1000 years. High-resolution ice core records of sulfate measurements calibrated against atmospheric observations after modern eruptions identified the timing and magnitude of the eruptions since 1000 CE. A more negative influence on tree growth was detected in two tree-ring width chronologies of oak and pine (Quercus robur L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) originating from three different sites (Greifswald, Eberswalde and Saxony) in eastern Germany for up to four years after large eruptions. Overall, the long tree-ring chronologies covering more or less the last millennium indicated a more negative relationship to volcanic eruptions. In comparison, the chronologies of Q. robur reveal a more negative response after large eruptions than those of P. sylvestris. Only in Greifswald both tree

  17. A 430 year record of hydroclimate variability for NE-Germany based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes from pine and oak tree rings

    Helle, Gerhard; Baschek, Heiko; Heinrich, Ingo; Navabzadeh, Nadia; Riedel, Frank; Wilmking, Martin; Heußner, Karl-Uwe


    European lowlands experience many direct and indirect influences of global warming, particularly related to the hydrological cycle which lately faces increasing flood and drought events. Although important for humans and the ecosystems in which they live, little is known about the long-term spatiotemporal hydrological changes in various European regions. Here we present the first 430-year stable carbon and oxygen chronologies from tree ring cellulose in lowland oak and pine trees (P. sylvestris, Q. petraea) for the region of NE-Germany and provide annually resolved high quality hydroclimatic reconstructions. When compared to ring width data isotope data can be used with only minor adjustments to their means (besides correction of short juvenile trends) and sample depths of 4-5 trees are normally enough for a significant expressed population signal being representative for a site. For this study more than 20 individual tree ring sub-samples for isotopic analyses were obtained from well replicated tree ring chronologies built using living trees as well as historical timber originating from four different lowland sites (50-90m asl.). By a calibration and verification approach we have evaluated the response to instrumental climate and trends of atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (13C, only) data. While ring widths shows strong correlation to winter temperature, highly significant correlations with summer (JJA) hydroclimate conditions were found for both tree ring 13C and 18O. Strongest relationships were found with summer water vapour pressure deficit (13C and 18O) and Tmax (JJA). Although significant, relationships between 13C and climate data were found considerably weaker than climate/18O relations. On the other hand, the 13C record reveals high similarity with solar irradiance, whereas 18O does not. Based on this profound calibration the presentation will show and discuss annually resolved hydroclimatic variability of the region from our multi-centennial isotope

  18. GIS-based modeling of a complex hydrogeological setting in the younger Pleistocene of NE-Germany

    Brüning, Torben; Merz, Christoph; van Gasselt, Stephan; Steidl, Jörg


    The water balance of the young pleistocene landscape in northeastern Germany is exposed to strong threats by changing climate conditions. During the last two decades the landscape with its many lakes has been impacted by increasing periodic fluctuations of the climate. In addition, anthropogenic influence has been causing significant changes in the landscape in order to improve agriculture and forestry but with negative impact on the groundwater hydrology. For a sustainable ecological and economical water management it is therefore paramount to build precise groundwater data models allowing a complex spatial and multi-temporal data processing. Such models could potentially be used as sources of consistent data providing improved data sets for numerical groundwater modeling and quantitative assessments to avoid unrecoverable damage (e.g. intrusion of highly mineralised groundwater intrusion. Such assessments are cost intensive if data source are heterogeneous and not well-integrated. To allow an hydrogeologically elaborated examination of data, an effective geodata management is needed to homogenize and combine available digital and thematic map information. This work reports on a project conducted for the catchments of two streams, Quillow and Strom, located in the Uckermark, a region in northeastern Germany. The database comprises current geodatasets consisting of hydrological and hydrogeological content and old thematic maps of Quaternary geology. Available geodata, measurements and digitized map series data of this region from environmental agencies of the states Mecklenburg Western Pomerania and Brandenburg were included and homogenized considering publications and technical reports. As a result, a newly developed spatial data basis has been compiled as geodatabase using vector feature classes, raster data, TINs and relationship classes. The resulting three-dimensional image of aquifers and aquitards of the Quaternary deposits exhibit potential interfaces

  19. Influence of soil C stocks and interannual climatic variability on the CO2 and CH4 exchange of maize cultivated on mineral and organic soils in NE Germany

    Pohl, Madlen; Hagemann, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Mathias; Giebels, Michael; Albiac-Borraz, Elisa; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen


    Due to its glacially influenced genesis and land use history, the soils of the Great Plain Region of NE-Germany show large differences in groundwater levels and soil carbon (C) stocks over short distances. Although generally featuring a rather dry climate, trace gas exchange at individual sites may be influenced by i) interannual climatic variability, particularly with respect to precipitation; as well as by ii) variability of soil C stocks. However, it is still unclear how these factors affect fluxes of CO2 and CH4, and if there is any positive or negative feedback on the C source or sink function of different soil types. We present measured and modeled CO2 and CH4 fluxes of minerally fertilized grain maize for three sites located near Paulinenaue, within the so-called Rhin-Havelluch, a shallow and drained paludification mire complex in NE Germany. The sites are characterized by a distinct gradient of 0-1 m soil organic C stocks: i) Arenosol (AR: mineral soil/distant groundwater; 8 000 g C m-2), ii) Gleysol (GL: organic soil/groundwater-dependent; 35 000 g C m-2), and iii) Histosol (HS: organic soil/near groundwater; 45 000 g C m-2). CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and gross primary production (GPP; calculated as difference between NEE and Reco) were conducted every four weeks using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. Measurement gaps of Reco and NEE were filled by using temperature or radiation-based models, respectively. CH4 fluxes were measured bi-weekly using a static closed chamber system with interval sampling, with gap filling via linear interpolation. Cumulated fluxes of CO2-C (Reco, GPP, NEE) and CH4-C were calculated for a period of four consecutive years (2007-2010). The intensity of CO2-C fluxes increased with growing soil organic C stocks (AR exchange rates were generally very low exchange. However, the exceptionally wet summer of 2007 (May to July) resulted in drastically

  20. .NE.PA!) and competing regional claims on

    Work of regional integration, this paper attempts to foreground the role of multinational ...... this new retail investment is the opening up of new shopping malls with a ..... The Council for Development and Social Science Research in Africa.

  1. Active faulting in the Birjand region of NE Iran

    Walker, R. T.; Khatib, M. M.


    We use satellite imagery and field observations to investigate the distribution of active faults around Birjand in eastern Iran to determine how the transition between conjugate zones of faulting can be accommodated by diffuse active faulting. In the south of the study area, right-lateral strike-slip faults of the Sistan Suture Zone end in thrusts which die away westward from the strike-slip faults. These thrust terminations appear to allow a northward change to E-W thrusting in central parts of the study area. The introduction of E-W thrusting is, in turn, likely to facilitate a change to E-W left-lateral faulting north of the study region. The relatively diffuse pattern of active faulting at Birjand relates to the regional transition between N-S and E-W strike-slip faulting in northeast Iran, which involves a change from nonrotational to rotational deformation. The change from N-S to E-W faulting is likely to result from the orientation of preexisting structures in Iran and western Afghanistan, which are roughly parallel to the active fault zones. The features described at Birjand also show the influence of preexisting structure on the location and style of active faulting at a local scale, with the position of individual faults apparently controlled by inherited geological weaknesses. Very few modern earthquakes have occurred in the region of Birjand and yet destructive events are known from the historical record. The large number of active faults mapped in this study pose a substantial seismic hazard to Birjand and surrounding regions.

  2. Weather types and strokes in the Augsburg region (Southern Germany)

    Beck, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Naumann, Markus; Seubert, Stefanie


    Strokes are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main reason for longterm care dependency in Germany. Concerning the economical impact on patients and healthcare systems it is of particular importance to prevent this disease as well as to improve the outcome of the affected persons. Beside the primary well-known risk factors like hypertension, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and others, also weather seems to have pronounced influence on the occurrence and frequency of strokes. Previous studies most often focused on effects of singular meteorological variables like ambient air temperature, air pressure or humidity. An advanced approach is to link the entire suite of daily weather elements classified to air mass- or weather types to cerebrovascular morbidity or mortality. In a joint pilot study bringing together climatologists, environmental scientists and physicians from the University of Augsburg and the clinical centre Augsburg, we analysed relationships between singular meteorological parameters as well as combined weather effects (e.g. weather types) and strokes in the urban area of Augsburg and the surrounding rural region. A total of 17.501 stroke admissions to Neurological Clinic and Clinical Neurophysiology at Klinikum Augsburg between 2006 and 2015 are classified to either "ischaemic" (16.354) or "haemorrhagic" (1.147) subtype according to etiology (based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision). Spearman correlations between daily frequencies of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and singular atmospheric parameters (T, Tmin, Tmax, air pressure, humidity etc.) measured at the DWD (German weather service) meteorological station at Augsburg Muehlhausen are rather low. However, higher correlations are achieved when considering sub-samples of "homogenous weather conditions" derived from synoptic circulation classifications: e.g. within almost all of 10 types arising from a classification of

  3. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions in DAΦNE with KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    Zobov, M. [Frascati; Drago, A. [Frascati; Gallo, A. [Frascati; Milardi, C. [Frascati; Shatilov, D. [Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A. [Fermilab


    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e⁻ ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  4. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions In DA$\\Phi$NE With KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    Zobov, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Drago, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Gallo, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Milardi, C. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Shatilov, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics (BINP); Valishev, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e- ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  5. Antidepressant sales and regional variations of suicide mortality in Germany.

    Blüml, Victor; Helbich, Marco; Mayr, Michael; Turnwald, Roland; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Lewitzka, Ute; Hartung, Sebastian; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M; Kapusta, Nestor D


    Suicides account for over one million deaths per year worldwide with depression among the most important risk factors. Epidemiological research into the relationship between antidepressant utilization and suicide mortality has shown heterogeneous and contradictory results. Different methodological approaches and limitations could at least partially explain varying results. This is the first study assessing the association of suicide mortality and antidepressant sales across Germany using complex statistical approaches in order to control for possible confounding factors including spatial dependency of data. German suicide counts were analyzed on a district level (n = 402) utilizing ecological Poisson regressions within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Due to significant spatial effects between adjacent districts spatial models were calculated in addition to a baseline non-spatial model. Models were adjusted for several confounders including socioeconomic variables, quality of psychosocial care, and depression prevalence. Separate analyses were performed for Eastern and Western Germany and for different classes of antidepressants (SSRIs and TCAs). Overall antidepressant sales were significantly negatively associated with suicide mortality in the non-spatial baseline model, while after adjusting for spatially structured and unstructured effects the association turned out to be insignificant. In sub-analyses, analogue results were found for SSRIs and TCAs separately. Suicide risk shows a distinct heterogeneous pattern with a pronounced relative risk in Southeast Germany. In conclusion, the results reflect the heterogeneous findings of previous studies on the association between suicide mortality and antidepressant sales and point to the complexity of this hypothesized link. Furthermore, the findings support tailored suicide preventive efforts within high risk areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional differences in prediction models of lung function in Germany

    Schäper Christoph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influencing potential of specific characteristics on lung function in different populations. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether lung function determinants differ between subpopulations within Germany and whether prediction equations developed for one subpopulation are also adequate for another subpopulation. Methods Within three studies (KORA C, SHIP-I, ECRHS-I in different areas of Germany 4059 adults performed lung function tests. The available data consisted of forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate. For each study multivariate regression models were developed to predict lung function and Bland-Altman plots were established to evaluate the agreement between predicted and measured values. Results The final regression equations for FEV1 and FVC showed adjusted r-square values between 0.65 and 0.75, and for PEF they were between 0.46 and 0.61. In all studies gender, age, height and pack-years were significant determinants, each with a similar effect size. Regarding other predictors there were some, although not statistically significant, differences between the studies. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the regression models for each individual study adequately predict medium (i.e. normal but not extremely high or low lung function values in the whole study population. Conclusions Simple models with gender, age and height explain a substantial part of lung function variance whereas further determinants add less than 5% to the total explained r-squared, at least for FEV1 and FVC. Thus, for different adult subpopulations of Germany one simple model for each lung function measures is still sufficient.

  7. Analysis of possible impacts of climate change on the hydrological regimes of different regions in Germany

    H. Bormann


    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of climate change scenarios on the hydrological regimes of five different regions in Germany is investigated. These regions (Northwest Germany, Northeast Germany and East German basins, upper and lower Rhine, pre-Alps differ with respect to present climate and projected climate change. The physically based SVAT-model SIMULAT is applied to theoretical soil columns based on combinations of land use, soil texture and groundwater depth to quantify climate change effects on the hydrological regime. Observed climate, measured at climate stations of the German Weather Service (1991–2007, is used for comparison with climate projections (2071–2100 generated by the regional scale climate model WETTREG.

    While all climate scenarios implicate an increase in precipitation in winter, a decrease in precipitation in summer and an increase in temperature, the simulated impacts on the hydrological regime are regionally different. In the Rhine region and in Northwest Germany, an increase in the annual runoff and groundwater recharge is simulated despite the increase in temperature and potential evapotranspiration. In the Eastern part of Germany and the pre-Alps, annual runoff and groundwater recharge will decrease. Due to dry conditions in summer, the soil moisture deficit will increase (in Northeast Germany and the East German basins in particular or remain constant (Rhine region. In all regions the seasonal variability in runoff and soil moisture status will increase. Despite regional warming actual evapotranspiration will decrease in most regions except in areas with shallow groundwater tables and the lower Rhine. Although the study is limited by the fact that only one climate model was used to drive one hydrologic model, the study shows that the hydrological regime will be affected by climate change. The direction of the expected changes seems to be obvious as well as the necessity of the adaptation of future water

  8. Deformation of Ne isotopes in the island-of-inversion region

    Sumi, Takenori; Tagami, Shingo; Kimura, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R; Yahiro, Masanobu


    The deformation of Ne isotopes in the island-of-inversion region is determined by the double-folding model with the Melbourne $g$-matrix and the density calculated by the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). The double-folding model reproduces, with no adjustable parameter, the measured reaction cross sections for the scattering of $^{28-32}$Ne from $^{12}$C at 240MeV/nucleon. The quadrupole deformation thus determined is around 0.4 in the island-of-inversion region and $^{31}$Ne is a halo nuclei with large deformation. We propose the Woods-Saxon model with a suitably chosen parameterization set and the deformation given by the AMD calculation as a convenient way of simulating the density calculated directly by the AMD. The deformed Woods-Saxon model provides the density with the proper asymptotic form. The pairing effect is investigated, and the importance of the angular momentum projection for obtaining the large deformation in the island-of-inversion region is pointed out.

  9. Regional Poverty and Population Response:A Comparison of Three Regions in the United States and Germany

    Rosemarie Siebert


    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine poverty in three regions in the United States and Germany and discuss its causes and demographic consequences. The three regions are those with the highest rates of poverty in the two countries: the Mississippi Delta and Texas Borderland in the United States and the Northeastern Border Region in Germany. We show that standard models to explain poverty need to be placed in the historical legacies of the three regions in order to understand their current levels of poverty. While our results show many common factors for poverty in the three regions, they also point to important differences. Similarly, we identify differences among the regions in their demographic responses to poverty, in part reflecting their different historical legacies. Thus, one implication of the paper is the importance of place-based poverty-mitigation strategies for successful policy planning.

  10. Income differentials on regional labour markets in Southwest Germany

    Guyot Alice


    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to identify explanatory variables for income disparities between women and men across different regional types. Using data from the BA Employment Panel (BEP descriptive statistics show that the gender pay gap grows wider from core regions to periphery. The main explanatory variables for the income differentials are vocational education in the men's case and size of enterprise in the women's case. Whereas in the case of women the importance of vocational status increases and the importance of size of enterprise decreases from rural areas to urban areas.

  11. Firm size, industry mix and the regional transmission of monetary policy in Germany

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.


    This paper estimates the impact of interest rate shocks on regional output in Germany over the period from 1970 to 2000. We use a vector autoregression (VAR) model to obtain impulse responses, which reveal differences in the output responses to monetary policy shocks across ten German provinces. Nex

  12. Vaccine Preventability of Meningococcal Clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany

    Elias, J.; Schouls, L.M.; van de Pol, I.; Keijzers, W.C.; Martin, D.R.; Glennie, A.; Oster, P.; Frosch, M.; Vogel, U.; van den Ende, A.


    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city

  13. A 911 year chronology from earlywood vessels of European oak in NE-Germany and its use for climate reconstructions

    Heinrich, Ingo; Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Pritzkow, Carola; Giese, Laura; Graaf, Johannes; Lindemann, Josephine; Schirmer, Thomas; Dorado Liñán, Isabel; Wazny, Tomasz; Scharnweber, Tobias; Van der Maaten, Ernst; Helle, Gerd; Blume, Theresa; Pohlmann, Silvio


    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions form a substantial part of the international proxy data base used to examine and model global climate variations of the last Millennium. However, most tree-ring based reconstructions are derived from study sites in the high latitudes or high altitudes paying little attention to the temperate lowlands worldwide. Thus, a large gap in the geographical coverage of climate reconstructions, in particular temperature reconstructions, from temperate low elevation sites in central Europe still exists. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the European oak (Quercus robur) in Northeastern Germany, combining core samples from living trees with archaeological wood. We developed a new wood anatomical chronology focusing on the earlywood vessels of Q. robur for the period 1100 to 2011. As far as we know it is by far the longest chronology based on wood anatomical parameters. First climate growth analyses demonstrated that earlywood vessel parameters, especially average vessel area, contained climate signals which were different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. The strongest correlation was found with winter temperatures. This relationship was then used for a reconstruction for the period 1100 to 2011. By using only raw values, low-frequency signals could be sustained. This new reconstruction was compared with already existing temperature reconstructions and spatial field correlations were calculated. Results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  14. Typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from throat infections in the region of Aachen, Germany.

    Brandt, C M; Spellerberg, B; Honscha, M; Truong, N D; Hoevener, B; Lütticken, R


    Changes in the epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes infections may be associated with the introduction and reappearance of individual serotypes within a population. Typing of 216 consecutive isolates of S. pyogenes from patients with pharyngitis in the region of Aachen, Germany, was performed by sequencing the emm gene, slide-agglutination of the T-antigen and determining the serum opacity reaction (SOR). All 216 isolates were unequivocally emm-typable. emm1 was most common (18.5%), foLlowed by emm12 (15.7%), emm3 (14.4%) and emm28 (13.9%). Only four isolates contained newly validated emm types: emm89 or emm94 were harbored by two isolates each. In one isolate, the sequence type s104 was found. Despite an anticipated selective pressure, the prevalence of emm1 among isolates from throat infections in northwestern Germany remains high, but does not reflect the predominance of emm1 among invasive isolates in Germany.

  15. “Metropolregionen” in Germany: The Enforcement of Global City-Regions

    Eckardt Frank


    Full Text Available Under the conditions of globalisation, economic success has been related in politics and theoretical debate to the strength of regions. The concept of the region has therefore also been strengthened in Germany. Within the architecture of a historically grown political landscape, the implementation of the new forms of so-called metropolitan governance, however, has had limited effects. While the limits of “new regionalism” in Germany – by the federal organisation of political geography – are evident, the very idea of regional governance is also to be challenged. Therefore, the article discusses whether the introduction of “Metropolitan regions” can be regarded in the light of the international research on global city-regions.

  16. Immigration, Regional Conditions, and Crime: Evidence from an Allocation Policy in Germany

    Piopiunik, Mark; Ruhose, Jens


    After the collapse of the Soviet Union, more than 3 million people with German ancestors immigrated to Germany under a special law granting immediate citizenship. Exploiting the exogenous allocation of ethnic German immigrants by German authorities across regions upon arrival, we find that immigration significantly increases crime. The crime impact of immigration depends strongly on local labor market conditions, with strong impacts in regions with high unemployment. Similarly, we find substa...

  17. Who gets dipyrone (metamizole) in Germany? Prescribing by age, sex and region.

    Hoffmann, F; Meinecke, P; Freitag, M H; Glaeske, G; Schulze, J; Schmiemann, G


    Metamizole (dipyrone) is an analgesic that has been the focus of considerable controversy regarding its safety. Because of potentially life-threatening blood disorders such as agranulocytosis, it has been withdrawn in many countries but not in Germany, where prescribing even increased over recent years. We aimed to evaluate prescribing of metamizole in Germany with respect to age, sex and regional variations. Using data of a statutory health insurance, we analysed a cohort of 1·7 million persons who were insured at least 1 day in each quarter of 2009. Outcome of interest was the outpatient prescription prevalence, for example the proportion of persons receiving at least one prescription of metamizole. A total of 6·8% received metamizole with a higher prescribing prevalence in females (7·8% vs. 6·0%). The prevalence increased with age up to 26·7% in persons ≥85 years (men: 21·1%; and women: 30·4%). We found large regional variations with higher prevalences in the northern part of Germany. Most of the prescriptions were issued by general practitioners (78·9%). 58·3% were liquid oral formulations with considerable regional variations ranging between 32·3% in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and 67·3% in North Rhine-Westphalia. Overall, liquid oral forms are much more often prescribed in the western than in the eastern part of Germany. Metamizole - a drug with a relatively narrow indication - is often prescribed in Germany with relevant differences by age, sex and region. Qualitative studies should clarify reasons for this. Further quantitative research should investigate small-area variations, indications and treatment durations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chitinozoan faunas from the Rügen Ordovician (Rügen 5/66 and Binz 1/73 wells), NE Germany.

    Samuelsson, J; Verniers, J; Vecoli, M


    The island of Rügen (NE Germany), situated close to the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), in the southern Baltic Sea is underlain by sedimentary rocks of an Early Palaeozoic age, known only from boreholes. The wells, Rügen 5/66 and Binz 1/73, were investigated for their chitinozoan assemblages to improve the earlier biostratigraphic dating (graptolites and acritarchs) and to facilitate comparisons with other chitinozoan assemblages on both sides of the TESZ. In the lower part of the Rügen 5/66 core (3794.7-3615.8m), Lagenochitina destombesi Elaouad-Debbaj is indicative of an early late Tremadoc age. In the upper part of the same well (3287.3-1709.7m), the observed chitinozoan taxa suggest an age spanning the early Llanvirn to the Caradoc. The entire sampled interval of the Binz 1/73 core (5217.6-5041.8m) is interpreted as belonging to the Siphonochitina formosa Biozone (early-early late Abereiddian, corresponding to the early Llanvirn). The chitinozoan data corroborate the earlier suggested biostratigraphic ages, based on acritarchs and graptolites. The chitinozoans from the Binz 1/73 well point to a high latitude provenance of the investigated host sediments at time of deposition.

  19. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie


    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  20. TEC data ingestion into IRI and NeQuick over the antarctic region

    Nava, Bruno; Pezzopane, Michael; Radicella, Sandro M.; Scotto, Carlo; Pietrella, Marco; Migoya Orue, Yenca; Alazo Cuartas, Katy; Kashcheyev, Anton


    In the present work a comparative analysis to evaluate the IRI and NeQuick 2 models capabilities in reproducing the ionospheric behaviour over the Antarctic Region has been performed. A technique to adapt the two models to GNSS-derived vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) has been therefore implemented to retrieve the 3-D ionosphere electron density at specific locations where ionosonde data were available. In particular, the electron density profiles used in this study have been provided in the framework of the AUSPICIO (AUtomatic Scaling of Polar Ionograms and Cooperative Ionospheric Observations) project applying the Adaptive Ionospheric Profiler (AIP) to ionograms recorded at eight selected mid, high-latitude and polar ionosondes. The relevant GNSS-derived vertical TEC values have been obtained from the Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) produced by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The effectiveness of the IRI and NeQuick 2 in reconstructing the ionosphere electron density at the given locations and epochs has been primarily assessed in terms of statistical comparison between experimental and model-retrieved peak parameters values (foF2 and hmF2). The analysis results indicate that in general the models are equivalent in their ability to reproduce the critical frequency of the F2 layer and they also tend to overestimate the height of the peak electron density, especially during high solar activity periods. Nevertheless this tendency is more noticeable in NeQuick 2 than in IRI. For completeness, the statistics indicating the models bottomside reconstruction capabilities, computed as height integrated electron density profile mismodeling, will also be discussed.

  1. The relative importance of fertilization and soil erosion on C-dynamics in agricultural landscapes of NE Germany

    Pohl, Madlen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Hagemann, Ulrike; Jurisch, Nicole; Remus, Rainer; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen


    The hummocky ground moraine landscape of north-east Germany is characterized by distinct small-scale soil heterogeneity on the one hand, and intensive energy crop cultivation on the other. Both factors are assumed to significantly influence gaseous C exchange, and thus driving the dynamics of soil organic carbon stocks in terrestrial, agricultural ecosystems. However, it is not yet clear to which extent fertilization and soil erosional status influence soil C dynamics and whether one of these factors is more relevant than the other. We present seasonal and dynamic soil C balances of biogas maize for the growing season 2011, recorded at different sites located within the CarboZALF experimental area. The sites differ regarding soils (non-eroded Albic Luvisols (Cutanic), extremely eroded Calcaric Regosol and depositional Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol,) and applied fertilizer (100% mineral N fertilizer, 50% mineral and 50% N organic fertilizer, 100% organic N fertilizer). Fertilization treatments were established on the Albic Luvisol (Cutanic). Net-CO2-exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) were measured every four weeks using a dynamic flow-through non-steady-state closed manual chamber system. Gap filling was performed based on empirical temperature and PAR dependency functions to derive daily NEE values. At the same time, daily above-ground biomass production (NPP) was estimated based on biomass samples and final harvest, using a sigmoidal growth function. In a next step, dynamic soil C balances were generated as the balance of daily NEE and NPP considering the initial C input due to N fertilizers. The resulted seasonal soil C balances varied from strong C losses at the Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol (602 g C m-2) to C gains at the Calcaric Regosol (-132 g C m-2). In general, soils exerted a stronger impact on seasonal and dynamic C balances compared to differences in applied N fertilizer. There are indications that inter-annual variations in climate conditions

  2. Do mining lakes in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Eastern Germany) affect regional precipitation patterns?

    Brück, Yasemine; Pohle, Ina; Keuler, Klaus; Schaller, Eberhard; Hinz, Christoph


    Due to the flooding of former open-pit mines, Europe's largest artificial lake district is created in Eastern Germany. Between 1990 and 2006 more than 80 km² of new lakes have already been formed. These large-scale land cover changes may impact regional meteorological characteristics, therefore it is of interest, whether effects of the mining lakes can already be observed. We especially focus on whether the evaporation from the mining pit lakes leads to a higher precipitation on their lee side. To detect changes in the precipitation patterns, we analysed daily precipitation data (1980-2014) of 25 stations in an area of 10 000 km² widely around the lake district. Under the assumption that the influences of the lakes should be detectable either directly as trends in the observed data or as a deviation from a general measure for precipitation we combined statistical tests and principal component analysis (PCA). We applied pre-whitening Mann-Kendall tests to detect precipitation trends and Mann-Whitney tests to detect differences between split samples (before and after the flooding of most of the lakes). The PCA was applied based on the correlation matrix of daily precipitation at the different stations. As the daily precipitation can sufficiently be explained by the first five principal components, the recombination of these five principal components was used as a general measure of precipitation in the region. By regression trees (random forests) a relationship between the eigenvectors of the first five principal components and physiogeographic characteristics of the stations (e.g. altitude) was shown. Both the observed data and the deviations between the measurements and the recombination of the first five principal components showed divergent trends with high spatial variability and also interannual variability, but a pattern consistent with the lee side of the lake could not be detected. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the emerging lakes had no

  3. [Ne II] Observations of Gas Motions in Compact and Ultracompact H II Regions

    Zhu, Qingfeng; Jaffe, Daniel T; Richter, Matthew J; Greathouse, Thomas K


    We present high spatial and spectral resolution observations of sixteen Galactic compact and ultracompact H II regions in the [Ne II] 12.8 microns fine structure line. The small thermal width of the neon line and the high dynamic range of the maps provide an unprecedented view of the kinematics of compact and ultracompact H II regions. These observations solidify an emerging picture of the structure of ultracompact H II regions suggested in our earlier studies of G29.96-0.02 and Mon R2 IRS1; systematic surface flows, rather than turbulence or bulk expansion, dominate the gas motions in the H II regions. The observations show that almost all of the sources have significant (5-20 km/s) velocity gradients and that most of the sources are limb-brightened. In many cases, the velocity pattern implies tangential flow along a dense shell of ionized gas. None of the observed sources clearly fits into the categories of filled expanding spheres, expanding shells, filled blister flows, or cometary H II regions formed by ...

  4. National-, regional- and urban-scale population deconcentration in West Germany.

    Kontuly, T


    "Internal migration patterns during the second half of the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s are evaluated at a regional scale intermediate to those utilized in previous core-to-periphery and urbanization-to-counterurbanization studies of West Germany. A spatial deconcentration of the West German population is evident in the form of redistribution down the metropolitan size hierarchy....A spatial deconcentration of manufacturing and service employment partially explains the net migration losses experienced by the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhine-Main-Neckar [regions].... This study provides an alternative core-periphery delimitation scheme which can be applied to the metropolitan system in the western part of newly unified Germany." excerpt

  5. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin, Germany

    Pieth, Susanne; Jaumann, R.; Weiland, Marianne; Eichentopf, Karin


    The DLR/NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) was founded in 1985 in cooperation with NASA and is located at the DLR Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof. This library of planetary photographs and maps keeps on file all the image data transmitted by many NASA and ESA space probes and makes them accessible to the public in Europe and mainly in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

  6. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  7. On the Implications of Knowledge Bases for Regional Innovation Policies in Germany

    Hassink Robert


    Full Text Available Regional innovation policies have been criticised for being too standardised, one-size-fits-all and place-neutral in character. Embedded in these debates, this paper has two aims: first, to analyse whether industries with different knowledge bases in regions in Germany have different needs for regional innovation policies, and secondly, to investigate whether knowledge bases can contribute to the fine-tuning of regional innovation policies in particular and to a modern, tailor-made, place-based regional innovation policy in general. It concludes that although needs differ due to differences in knowledge bases, those bases are useful only to a limited extent in fine-tuning regional innovation policies

  8. [Hot spot: epidemiology of measles and rubella in Germany and the WHO European region].

    Matysiak-Klose, D


    The elimination of measles and rubella by 2015 is an important goal set by the World Health Organization European Region (WHO/Europa). Since 1991, the incidence of measles in WHO/Europa declined owing to routine childhood vaccination and supplementary immunization activities in the region. However, in many countries of Western Europe elimination of measles and rubella remains a challenge, and every year there are outbreaks with partly long-lasting transmission chains and dissemination of the virus internationally. In Germany, outbreaks occur because of the high proportion of susceptible individuals in specific population groups. In 2011, over 1,600 cases were reported (19.7 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, data from the Robert Koch Institute) whereas in 2012 only 167 cases were reported to the Robert Koch Institute (2 per 1,000,000 inhabitants). It is unclear whether the declining trend will continue in the following years due to improved vaccination coverage or whether number of cases will rise again because of the accumulation of susceptible groups. In Germany, there are currently no representative, country-wide data on rubella; however, data from the eastern federal states provide important epidemiological insights. Outbreaks are seldom reported, but statutory notification of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome was implemented in March 2013. As a result, it will be possible to better assess the epidemiology of rubella in Germany, although a considerable underreporting of rubella cases is anticipated.

  9. Cu isotope variability in Bavariás largest Cu-Zn deposit in Kupferberg (NE Bavaria, Germany)

    Höhn, Stefan; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Debaille, Vinciane; Debouge, Wendy


    Kupferberg, a small town c. 15 km northeast of Kulmbach, owns its existence to Bavaria's largest Cu-Zn deposit, which was mined intermittently from the 13th to the 19th century. The deposit is located in the Saxothuringian Zone of the Variscan basement in northeastern Bavaria. It is positioned between the allochthonous Münchberg metamorphic complex in the east and a major northwest-southeast tending regional fault zone, the "Franconian Lineament", in the west. The deposit is hosted by an Early Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary succession of the Randschiefer Formation (RF) and consists of a northwest-southeast directed string of several stratiform, sulfide-rich ore lenses. These lenses show a remarkably simple mineralogy dominated by quartz, carbonate, pyrite and chalcopyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite and chlorite. The genesis of the Cu-Zn mineralization has remained speculative. A purely syngenetic model, supported by the generally laminated appearance of the ore, has to be questioned because of the ore lenses occurring in different tectonic units. Urban & Vaché (1972) proposed supergene enrichment between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary as most critical. To test such a supergene versus hypogene Cu-mineralization, we investigated the Cu isotopic composition of primary and secondary Cu phases as well as the trace element distribution in three pyrite generations. The pyrite generation that is coeval with the principal Cu-mineralization in the form of chalcopyrite has Co/Ni ratios (on average 35) typical of hydrothermal, possibly metamorphic, formation. Chalcopyrite, present at highly variable modal proportions, yielded a narrow range in δ65Cu from -0.26 to 0.36 ‰Ḃoth the absolute values and the narrow range are similar to the δ65Cu range known for hydrothermal chalcopyrite in crustal rocks (Markl et al. 2006). Metamorphism has been shown to further restrict the range in δ65Cu (Ikehata et al. 2011) - an effect that might be applicable to Kupferberg. In

  10. NeQuick 2 total electron content predictions for middle latitudes of North American region during a deep solar minimum

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y. O.; Lescano, G. E.; Alazo-Cuartas, K.; Cabrera, M. A.; Radicella, S. M.


    The performance of NeQuick 2 model in computing the vertical total electron content (VTEC) over a wide region placed at middle latitudes of North America during the deep solar minimum that occurred in 2008 has been checked. The long term relationship between EUV irradiance and F10.7 solar flux has changed markedly during the cycle 23/24 minimum with EUV levels decreasing more than expected from F10.7 proxy. A decrease of ionization in the ionosphere could have occurred. Thus, it could be expected that the models overestimate the value of ionospheric parameters for that deep solar minimum. For this study a high density VTEC data grid that covers the Continental United States (CONUS) has been compared with monthly median maps constructed with NeQuick 2. The results show that NeQuick 2 generally gives good predictions for the region which lies between 35°N to 50°N suggesting that nothing exceptional was happening during the 2008 minimum in terms of VTEC NeQuick 2's predictive capabilities. Taking into account that the modeled value is obtained by integration in height of the electron density profile, NeQuick2 would be assuming an inadequate profile for the few highest deviations observed, between 30°N and 35°N. Overall, the model does not give significant overestimation of VTEC as could be expected.

  11. Analysis of Aeromagnetic data of the NE region of the Indian sub-continent.

    Rajaram, M.; S. P, A.


    The NE region of the Indian subcontinent is a very interesting place for geodynamic and tectonic studies due to the collision of the Indian plate with the Himalayas in the North and with Myanmar in the East. Some of these areas are difficult to access due to the high topography and air borne surveys help map the region efficiently. Further, the NE region including areas of Assam and Bangladesh are drained by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers that bring thick sediments with them giving rise to the Bengal Fan that has sediments of up to 20 km in some regions and these mask the underlying crust and pose severe restrictions in constructing the geodynamical history of the region. Geopotential data offer the unique opportunity of addressing some of these issues. We utilize available / published aeromagnetic maps over Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Chachar, parts of North Assam, Brahmaputra valley, Manipur and Nagaland in the North Eastern region of India for understanding the complexities of the tectonics of the Indian sub-continent. All available data are reduced to a common altitude to prepare a composite magnetic anomaly map of the region. We also look at the Grace and Bouguer / isostatic gravity maps of the region; the highest isostatic gravity anomaly of the Indian region lies over Meghalaya with a trough in Sylhet (Bangladesh) to its south. The Eocene hinge zone is a 25-km wide northeast-southwest zone that separates the Precambrian platform in the northwest from the geosynclinal basin to the southeast of Bangladesh. We find that the Hinge Zone in Bangladesh and part of the Dauki fault form a strong divide such that the gravity anomalies and aeromagnetic anomalies show high frequency anomalies to the north of this divide and also most of the magnetic sources as seen from the analytic signal are concentrated to the north and the Euler solutions give shallow solutions to the north and deep solutions to the south of this divide. The tilt derivative of the aeromagnetic data

  12. Regional aquifer geochemistry below the Boom Clay (NE-Belgium): data analysis and modelling

    Vandersteen, Katrijn; Leterme, Bertrand


    For more than 35 years, SCK•CEN has been investigating the possibility of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium, including the study of the regional hydrogeology and geochemistry of the aquifer systems surrounding the Boom Clay. This study presents the analysis and modelling of groundwater geochemistry in the confined aquifers below the Boom Clay in NE-Belgium. This so-called deep aquifer system includes, with increasing depth, parts of the Oligocene Aquifer System, The Bartoon Aquitard System and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian Aquifer System. At the end of the Neogene period, during which several marine transgressions and regressions took place, the sea definitely drew back after having deposited shallow marine and estuarine sands and some clay. The original seawater in the pores of the sediments was in first instance gradually diluted as the aquifer was flushed by recharge (fresh) water. Afterwards, water-rock interactions, including cation exchange, began to play a role in the deep aquifer system. This led to changes in groundwater composition over time. Geochemical data (major ions, stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes, dissolved gases) have been collected at a regional scale from the piezometric network in the deep aquifer system. Several measurement campaigns have been performed between 1980 and 2010. Groundwater is currently mainly of Na-HCO3 to Na-Cl type water, and because of the low groundwater velocity, re-equilibration with the host formations generally occurs. The main geochemical indicators (salinity, stable isotopes) point to a mixture between saline water (to the NW) and fresh recharge water (from SE). SE-NW gradients of ion concentrations are observed and can be explained in agreement with the pattern of natural groundwater flow. Building on the concepts emerging from the geochemical data analysis and recent groundwater modelling, a geochemical model was developed in PhreeqC, using geochemical and

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    A. A. Othman


    Full Text Available During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR, weight of evidence (WOE, logistic regression (LR and probit regression (PR approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI. We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC, and relative landslide density (R index show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.


    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  15. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

    Razum Oliver


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution. Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that

  16. Automatic Extraction and Size Distribution of Landslides in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Arsalan A. Othman


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the localization and size distribution of landslides using automatic remote sensing techniques in (semi- arid, non-vegetated, mountainous environments. The study area is located in the Kurdistan region (NE Iraq, within the Zagros orogenic belt, which is characterized by the High Folded Zone (HFZ, the Imbricated Zone and the Zagros Suture Zone (ZSZ. The available reference inventory includes 3,190 landslides mapped from sixty QuickBird scenes using manual delineation. The landslide types involve rock falls, translational slides and slumps, which occurred in different lithological units. Two hundred and ninety of these landslides lie within the ZSZ, representing a cumulated surface of 32 km2. The HFZ implicates 2,900 landslides with an overall coverage of about 26 km2. We first analyzed cumulative landslide number-size distributions using the inventory map. We then proposed a very simple and robust algorithm for automatic landslide extraction using specific band ratios selected upon the spectral signatures of bare surfaces as well as posteriori slope and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds. The index is based on the contrast between landslides and their background, whereas the landslides have high reflections in the green and red bands. We applied the slope threshold map to remove low slope areas, which have high reflectance in red and green bands. The algorithm was able to detect ~96% of the recent landslides known from the reference inventory on a test site. The cumulative landslide number-size distribution of automatically extracted landslide is very similar to the one based on visual mapping. The automatic extraction is therefore adapted for the quantitative analysis of landslides and thus can contribute to the assessment of hazards in similar regions.

  17. Modelling regional variability of irrigation requirements due to climate change in Northern Germany.

    Riediger, Jan; Breckling, Broder; Svoboda, Nikolai; Schröder, Winfried


    The question whether global climate change invalidates the efficiency of established land use practice cannot be answered without systemic considerations on a region specific basis. In this context plant water availability and irrigation requirements, respectively, were investigated in Northern Germany. The regions under investigation--Diepholz, Uelzen, Fläming and Oder-Spree--represent a climatic gradient with increasing continentality from West to East. Besides regional climatic variation and climate change, soil conditions and crop management differ on the regional scale. In the model regions, temporal seasonal droughts influence crop success already today, but on different levels of intensity depending mainly on climate conditions. By linking soil water holding capacities, crop management data and calculations of evapotranspiration and precipitation from the climate change scenario RCP 8.5 irrigation requirements for maintaining crop productivity were estimated for the years 1991 to 2070. Results suggest that water requirement for crop irrigation is likely to increase with considerable regional variation. For some of the regions, irrigation requirements might increase to such an extent that the established regional agricultural practice might be hard to retain. Where water availability is limited, agricultural practice, like management and cultivated crop spectrum, has to be changed to deal with the new challenges.

  18. Analysis of vulnerability factors that control nitrate occurrence in natural springs (Osona Region, NE Spain).

    Menció, Anna; Boy, Mercè; Mas-Pla, Josep


    Nitrate pollution is one of the main concerns of groundwater management in most of the world's agricultural areas. In the Osona region of NE Spain, high concentrations of nitrates have been reported in wells. This study uses the occurrence of this pollutant in natural springs as an indicator of the sub-surface dynamics of the water cycle and shows how groundwater quality is affected by crop fertilization, as an approach to determine the aquifer vulnerability. Nitrate concentration and other hydrochemical parameters based on a biannual database are reported for approximately 80 springs for the period 2004-2009. The background concentration of nitrate is first determined to distinguish polluted areas from natural nitrate occurrence. A statistical treatment using logistic regression and ANOVA is then performed to identify the significance of the effect of vulnerability factors such as the geological setting of the springs, land use in recharge areas, sampling periods, and chemical parameters like pH and EC, on groundwater nitrate pollution. The results of the analysis identify a threshold value of 7-8 mg NO(3)(-)/L for nitrate pollution in this area. Logistic regression and ANOVA results show that an increase in EC or a decrease in pH values is linked to the possibility of higher nitrate concentrations in springs. These analyses also show that nitrate pollution is more dependent on land use than the geological setting of springs or sampling periods. Indeed, the specific geological and soil features of the uppermost layers in their recharge areas do not contribute to the buffering of nitrate impacts on aquifers as measured in natural springs. Land use, and particularly fertilization practices, are major factors in groundwater vulnerability.

  19. Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from throat infections in the region of Aachen, Germany.

    Brandt, C M; Honscha, M; Truong, N D; Holland, R; Hövener, B; Bryskier, A; Lütticken, R; Reinert, R R


    Macrolide-resistance was assessed in 216 consecutive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from throat infections in the region of Aachen, Germany. Seventeen isolates were resistant to erythromycin: 12 isolates revealed a macrolide (M) phenotype and harbored mefA, and five strains expressed an inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype of which four strains harbored ermA(TR) and one strain contained ermB(AM). Telithromycin (HMR 3647) and quinupristin/dalfopristin remained active particularly against the ermA(TR)-containing S. pyogenes isolates studied. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis identified multiple clones among erythromycin-resistant strains, but did not discriminate beyond the emm-type. mefA was present in three isolates either with emm2, emm12, or emm75, and in nine isolates with emm4. All four strains with ermA(TR) contained emm77, and the single strain with ermB(AM) harbored emm1. Despite the relative low rate of macrolide-resistance, these data suggest that at least three different macrolide-resistance determinants are prevalent in Germany and that mefA has spread rapidly into multiple clones of S. pyogenes.

  20. [Ne II] 12.8 Micron Images of Four Galactic Ultracompact H II Regions Ionized Neon Abundance as a Tracer of the Ionizing Stars

    Takahashi, H; Watarai, H; Matsumoto, T


    We present the results of ground-based imaging spectroscopy of the [Ne II] 12.8 micron line emitted from the ultracompact (UC) H II regions; W51d, G45.12+0.13, G35.20-1.74 and Monoceros R2, with 2arcsec spatial resolution. We found that the overall distribution of the [Ne II] emission is generally in good agreement with the radio (5 or 15 GHz) VLA distribution for each source. The Ne+ abundance ([Ne+/H+]) distributions are also derived from the [Ne II] and the radio maps. As for G45.12+0.13 and W51d, the Ne+ abundance decreases steeply from the outer part of the map toward the radio peak. On the other hand, the Ne+ abundance distributions of G35.20-1.74 and Mon R2 appear rather uniform. These results can be interpreted by the variation of ionizing structures of neon, which is primarily determined by the spectral type of the ionizing stars. We have evaluated the effective temperature of the ionizing star by comparing the Ne+ abundance averaged over the whole observed region with that calculated by H II region ...

  1. Regional distribution of physicians: the role of comprehensive private health insurance in Germany.

    Sundmacher, Leonie; Ozegowski, Susanne


    In recent years, the co-existence in Germany of two parallel comprehensive insurance systems-statutory health insurance (SHI) and private health insurance (PHI)-has been posited as a possible cause of a persistent unequal regional distribution of physicians. The present study investigates the effect of the proportion of privately insured patients on the density of SHI-licensed physicians, while controlling for regional variations in the average income from SHI patients. The proportion of residents in a district with private health insurance is estimated using complete administrative data from the SHI system and the German population census. Missing values are estimated using multiple imputation techniques. All models control for the estimated average income ambulatory physicians generate from treating SHI insured patients and a well-defined set of covariates on the level of districts in Germany in 2010. Our results show that every percentage change in the proportion of residents with private health insurance is associated with increases of 2.1 and 1.3 % in the density of specialists and GPs respectively. Higher SHI income in rural areas does not compensate for this effect. From a financial perspective, it is rational for a physician to locate a new practice in a district with a high proportion of privately insured patients. From the perspective of patients in the SHI system, the incentive effects of PHI presumably contribute to a concentration of health care services in wealthy and urban areas. To date, the needs-based planning mechanism has been unable to address this imbalance.

  2. Incidence and tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of Aachen, Germany.

    Seemayer, C A; Breuer, Elisabeth; Kroll, G; Markus-Sellhaus, S; Reineke, T H; Mittermayer, C


    We present epidemiological data of female breast cancer in the region of Aachen (Germany) including incidence and tumour stages for the period 1996-1997. Furthermore, we compare epidemiological data from Aachen with data from the directly neighbouring Dutch region South-Middle Limburg before and after the introduction of a national mammographic screening programme. The field study of breast cancer was undertaken at the Institute of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Aachen, supported by the Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), using data files from the Cancer Registry Aachen. The patient's consent to collect all data concerning her epidemiological and social situation as well as information on the outcome of disease was obtained in 83.4% of all cases. The remaining 16.6% of the cases without a patient's consent are based on histopathological reports. Only those patients are included who were documented as residing in the region of Aachen at the time of diagnosis. Tumour cases were counted according to International Agency for Research on Cancer rules and tumour stages are classified according to UICC guidelines. Incidence rates are calculated as crude value, adapted to the European and World Standard population (ESR, WSR), and the age specific incidence is presented in 5-year intervals. The cumulative risk is assessed for a certain life span by summarizing the age-specific incidences. The age-standardized breast cancer incidence rate in Aachen was 94 per 100 000 women in 1996 and 90 cases of invasive breast cancer per 100 000 women in 1997 according to the ESR. The cumulative risk of developing breast cancer in the life span ranging from 0 to 74 years is approximately 8%. The stage distribution of breast cancer reveals only 4% favourable carcinomata in situ, but 12% advanced T4 tumours. T1 and T2 tumour stages count for about 40% and T3 tumour stages about 4%. Incidence rates and the tumour stages of breast cancer in the region of

  3. Isoscapes as a tool to capture the complexity of small water bodies interspersed across a moraine landscape managed for agriculture in NE Germany

    Nitzsche, K. N.; Flury, S.; Premke, K.; Gessler, A.; Kayler, Z. E.


    Across the northeastern region of Germany lies a moraine landscape where thousands of small water bodies called 'Sölle' (kettle holes) are found. These kettle holes, which are generally less than 1 ha in size, are interspersed across an agricultural landscape and predicted to undergo severe alterations in hydrology and biogeochemistry as the global climate changes. Within the project LandScales, we investigate specific C dynamics of this unique landscape at three different spatial scales: (i) C degradation at the molecular scale; (ii) lateral C transfer in the kettle hole aquatic-terrestrial transition zone; and (iii) erosion and C/N dynamics at the regional landscape scale. In the first phase of the project (iii), we constructed isotopic maps (Isoscapes; δ13C, δ15N, δ18O) to provide an overview of how these water bodies are spatially represented across the study area as seen through a biogeochemical lens. We expect to capture gradients in precipitation, land management effects (e.g., fertilization), patterns in soil erosion, and plant physiological responses. Ultimately, we will combine these isotope data with high-resolution maps involving geostatistical interpolation and link them to biogeochemical models. We collected plant, top-soil (5-20cm), sediment and water samples from a 33 km2 rectangular area of the catchment, sampling a 250 m raster in the main 2013 growing season. We sampled sediment cores, water, and plants from 50 kettle holes that represent the geomorphological and hydrological variability within the study area. Soil and sediment samples are further analyzed by physically and chemically separating organic matter fractions hypothesized to contain stabilized carbon. From these multiple lines of data, we expect to get a broader landscape view of: kettle holes function as hot spots of nutrient cycling, potential land management effects on biogeochemical processes, and patterns of erosion and carbon storage. Furthermore, the Isoscapes will serve to

  4. Regional and temporal variations in coding of hospital diagnoses referring to upper gastrointestinal and oesophageal bleeding in Germany

    Garbe Edeltraut


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health insurance claims data are increasingly used for health services research in Germany. Hospital diagnoses in these data are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, German modification (ICD-10-GM. Due to the historical division into West and East Germany, different coding practices might persist in both former parts. Additionally, the introduction of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs in Germany in 2003/2004 might have changed the coding. The aim of this study was to investigate regional and temporal variations in coding of hospitalisation diagnoses in Germany. Methods We analysed hospitalisation diagnoses for oesophageal bleeding (OB and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB from the official German Hospital Statistics provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Bleeding diagnoses were classified as "specific" (origin of bleeding provided or "unspecific" (origin of bleeding not provided coding. We studied regional (former East versus West Germany differences in incidence of hospitalisations with specific or unspecific coding for OB and UGIB and temporal variations between 2000 and 2005. For each year, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for former East versus West Germany were estimated with log-linear regression models adjusting for age, gender and population density. Results Significant differences in specific and unspecific coding between East and West Germany and over time were found for both, OB and UGIB hospitalisation diagnoses, respectively. For example in 2002, incidence ratios of hospitalisations for East versus West Germany were 1.24 (95% CI 1.16-1.32 for specific and 0.67 (95% CI 0.60-0.74 for unspecific OB diagnoses and 1.43 (95% CI 1.36-1.51 for specific and 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.87 for unspecific UGIB. Regional differences nearly disappeared and time trends were less marked when using combined specific and unspecific diagnoses of OB or UGIB, respectively. Conclusions During the study

  5. Regional flood impact assessment for Kiel and Eckernförde, Germany

    Shustikova, Iuliia; Viavattene, Christophe; Seiß, Guntram


    It is well-observed that extreme flood events bring considerable destruction to coastal communities. The estimates of damage increases when direct and indirect losses are both considered in the assessment. This study applied the INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model which is designed to estimate and compare not only tangible but also intangible losses such as risk to life, recovery mechanisms and household displacement. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was performed in order to compare hotspots of high flood risk on the regional scale and detect which impact indicators influence results the most. INDRA allowed assessing the following impact indicators: direct damages to buildings and roads, transport disruption, risk to life and financial recovery mechanisms of private households and businesses. The focus was on two hotspots of flood risk, where direct and indirect impacts from 200 years flood were assessed and analyzed in terms of relative importance to the region. The region here was defined as municipalities located on the Baltic Sea coast within the Schleswig-Holstein state, Germany. The hotspots are the towns of Kiel and Eckernförde. They are urban areas with a high concentration of people and assets, which previously experienced extreme flood events. From the performed investigation it was found out that modeled flood differently impacts Kiel and Eckernförde. The results produced by MCA show that the scores of direct and indirect damage are slightly higher in Eckernförde than in Kiel. Transport disruption is a compelling element in the performed regional impact assessment and demonstrated immense weight. Extreme events may pose significant direct and indirect impacts on the coastal roads, obstructing not only the access to important landmarks such as hospitals, train stations, harbors, etc. but also to contiguous municipalities. Yet, the analysis showed that other impact indicators are rather of local importance and would not cause vast damage on a

  6. Insectivorous bats carry host specific astroviruses and coronaviruses across different regions in Germany.

    Fischer, Kerstin; Zeus, Veronika; Kwasnitschka, Linda; Kerth, Gerald; Haase, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne


    Recently several infectious agents with a zoonotic potential have been detected in different bat species. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the transmission dynamics within and between bat species, as well as from bats to other mammals. To better understand these processes, it is important to compare the phylogenetic relationships between different agents to that of their respective hosts. In this study, we analysed more than 950 urine, faeces and oral swab samples collected from 653 bats from mainly four species (Myotis nattereri, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) for the presence of coronavirus, paramyxovirus and astrovirus related nucleic acids located in three different regions of Germany. Using hemi-nested reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification of fragments within the highly conserved regions of the respective RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, we detected astrovirus sequences at an overall detection rate of 25.8% of the analysed animals, with a maximum of 65% in local populations. The detection rates for coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses were distinctly lower, ranging between 1.4% and 3.1%. Interestingly, the sequence similarities in samples collected from the same bat species in different geographical areas were distinctly larger than the sequence similarities between samples from different species sampled at the same location. This indicates that host specificity may be more important than host ecology for the presence of certain viruses in bats.

  7. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Gomis, Damià; Jordá, Gabriel; Marcos, Marta; Martínez-Asensio, Adrián; Llasses, Josep; Sotillo, Marcos G.


    We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves) in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelli...

  8. Individual and Regional Determinants for Physical Therapy Utilization in Germany: Multilevel Analysis of National Survey Data.

    Rommel, Alexander; Kroll, Lars Eric


    Physical therapy is included in many clinical guidelines and is a commonly used health service. However, access to its benefits should not strongly depend on social or demographic factors. The present study used the Andersen model to explain to what extent physical therapy utilization in Germany depends on factors beyond medical need. The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS, 2008-2011; target population, 18-79 years) is part of the German health-monitoring system. Two-stage stratified cluster sampling resulted in a sample of 8152 participants. Data were matched with district-related information on social structures and service supply. Following Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, this study identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors for physical therapy utilization using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Physical therapy was used by 23.4% (95% CI: 22.0-24.8) of the German population within one year, with a higher proportion of females (26.8%; 95% CI: 25.1-28.6) than males (19.9%; 95% CI: 18.1-21.8) and an increase with age. Beyond medical need, physical therapy utilization depended on higher education, migrant background, nonsmoking (predisposing), social support, higher income, private health insurance, and gatekeeping service contact (enabling). Variation among districts partly reflected regional supply. Because the present study was cross-sectional, its findings provide representative information on physical therapy use but do not establish final causal links or identify whether utilization or supply in certain districts or population groups is adequate. Whether certain regions are under- or overserved and whether further regulations are needed is of political interest. Physicians and therapists should develop strategies to improve both adherence of hard-to-reach groups and supply in low-supply regions.

  9. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe


    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  10. Determining the spatial variability of crop yields of two different climatic regions in Southwest Germany

    Eshonkulov, Ravshan; Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo


    Assessing the spatial variability of soil physical properties is crucial for agricultural land management. We determined the spatial variability within two agricultural fields in the regions of Kraichgau and Swabian Jura in Southwest Germany. We determined soil physical properties and recorded the temporal development of soil mineral nitrogen (N) and water content as well as that of plant variables (phenology, biomass, leaf area index (LAI), N content, green vegetation fraction (GVF). The work was conducted during the vegetation periods of 2015 and 2016 in winter wheat, and winter rapeseed in Kraichgau and winter barley and silage maize on Swabian Jura. Measurements were taken in three-weekly intervals. On each field, we identified three plots with reduced plant development using high-resolution (RapidEye) satellite images ("cold spots"). Measurements taken on these cold spots were compared to those from five established (long-term) reference plots representing the average field variability. The software EXPERT-N was used to simulate the soil crop system at both cold spots and reference plots. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the most important parameters for the determination of spatial variability in crop growth dynamics.

  11. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Damià Gomis


    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  12. Biomass, Carbon and Nitrogen Distribution in Living Woody Plant Parts of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Growing on Reclamation Sites in the Mining Region of Lower Lusatia (Northeast Germany

    Ansgar Quinkenstein


    Full Text Available In the lignite mining region of Lower Lusatia (NE-Germany, Robinia pseudoacacia L. is an increasingly popular tree for the biomass production with short rotation coppices (SRCs on reclamation sites. In order to evaluate biomass production, C and N allocation patterns in R. pseudoacacia stands between shoot, stump, coarse, and fine roots samples were collected from seedlings and three adjacent plantations and plants that were one, two and twelve years old. Results indicated that the summarized average dry matter production (DM of the woody plant parts increased with plant age up to 7.45 t DM ha−1 yr−1 with a corresponding shoot increment of up to 4.77 t DM ha−1 yr−1 in the twelve-year-old stands. The shoot to root ratio changed from 0.2 for the one-year-old trees to 2.0 in the twelve-year-old plantation, whereby an average amount of 3.4 t C ha−1 yr−1 and 0.1 t N ha−1 yr−1 was annually bound in the living woody plant parts over the period of twelve years. Summing up, the results suggest a high potential for C and N storage of R. pseudoacacia what is also beneficial for land reclamation due to positive implications on soil humus and general site fertility.

  13. Marine Ingressive Events Recorded in Epicontinental Sequences:Example from the Cretaceous Songliao Basin of NE China in Comparison with the Triassic Central Europe Basin of SW Germany

    WANG Pujun; LIU Wanzhu; YIN Xiuzhen; SCHNEIDER Werner; MATTERN Frank


    Songliao Basin is filled predominantly with continental facies sediments including alluvial fan, fluvial plain, fan delta, lacustrine delta, shore - shallow lacustrine, beach salty flat, semi - deep to deep lacustrine, subaqueous gravity flow,lacustrine swamp and pyroclastic sediments. However, some event units were formed during lake - marine linking periods of the Mid - Cretaceous in the basin, which include black shales with high values for salinity (Sr/Ba) , alkalinity ( Ca + Mg)/(Si + Al) , reducibility (Ni + Zn)/Ga and sulfide sulfur as well as heavy isotopes. The Breitenholz -section to be represented for facies comparison with the Cretaceous evaporitic series in Northeast China is localized in Southwest Germany. Stratigraphically it belongs to the Crabfeld Formation of Keuper of the Germanic Triassic corresponding to Ladinian - Carnian of the international reference scale, and is generally called Lower Gipskeuper. The Germanic Triassic was deposited in the epicontinental (cratonic) central Europe Basin. It covered the area in between Great Britain, North Sea, Poland and Southern Germany. It is composed of cyclic deposits of multicolored mudstones, gypsum/anhydrite, and dolomite beds. The two cases of marine ingression - influenced sequences share some common features.

  14. Vestiges of a continental margin ophiolite type in the Novo Oriente region, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Pitombeira, João Paulo Araújo; Amaral, Wagner da Silva; Uchôa Filho, Evilarde Carvalho; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Parente, Clóvis Vaz; da Costa, Felipe Grandjean; Veríssimo, César Ulisses Vieira


    The Novo Oriente Group is a restricted well-preserved metasedimentary sequence, composed of two tectonic-stratigraphic sequences in the southwestern portion of the Ceará Central Domain, NE Brazil. The Bonsucesso Formation comprises mainly quartzite and metamafic rocks and the Caraúbas Formation is dominantly metapelitic, with chemical sedimentary contribution, metamafic and metaultramafic rocks. New integrated field, geochemical data and Sm-Nd isotopes of the metaultramafic and metamafic rocks of the two formations have been investigated in order to determine their tectonic setting. The metaultramafic rocks are dominantly composed of deformed and undeformed serpentinites, chloritites, actinolitites, talc-chlorite schists, serpentine-talc schists, talc-rich siliceous rocks and subordinated listwänites. Geochemical data indicate that the serpentinites correspond to rocks resulting from the alteration of dunites depleted in HREE, similar to the pattern presented by subduction-zone serpentinites generated from exhumed sub-continental peridotites and hydrated during ocean-continent transition (OCT) rifting. The metamafic rocks, represented by metagabbros, hornblende metagabbros and metabasalts, consist of basic rocks of basaltic and tholeiitic affinity with signatures between E- and N-MORB and variable contamination by crustal components similar to the rocks formed from the interaction between mantle plumes and heavily thinned continental crust. Isotopic analysis indicates crustal assimilation with negative ɛNd and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages. The data suggest that metaultramafic and metamafic rocks correspond, respectively, to continental sub-lithospheric mantle exhumed in an area of ocean-continent transition (OCT), and mafic magmatism associated with the development of a magma-poor passive margin generated by the break-up of the Rodinia Supercontinent, which was later dismembered by the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny collisional phase and preserved as a Continental

  15. Estimation of the regional stock of residential buildings as a basis for a comparative risk assessment in Germany

    L. Kleist


    Full Text Available One important prerequisite for a comparable quantitative risk assessment for different types of hazards (e.g., earthquakes, windstorms and floods is the use of a common database about and financial appraisal of the assets at risk. For damage assessments it is necessary to represent the values at risk on a regional disaggregated scale and to intersect them with hazard scenarios. This paper presents a methodology and results of a financial appraisal of residential buildings for all communities in Germany. The calculated values are defined as replacement values for the reference year 2000. The resulting average replacement costs for residential buildings per inhabitant amount to EUR 46 600, with considerable differences between communities. The inventory can be used for the calculations of direct losses from various natural disasters within the project 'Risk Map Germany''.

  16. Optimisation of biomass productivity of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on marginal lands - a case study in Lower Lusatia, NE Germany

    Seserman, Diana-Maria; Veste, Maik; Freese, Dirk


    The profitability of reclaiming post-mining areas depends on the tree biomass productivity and the restoration of ecosystem functions, such as improving soil and water quality. Agroforestry systems, regarded as combined land-use systems of trees and crops, have the ability to facilitate soil development while reducing wind speed, soil erosion and evaporation. Achieving the maximum biomass productivity of the tree stands depends on the corresponding soil conditions and water availability, but is also influenced by stand structure and the competition between individual trees. For this purpose, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees were planted in a Nelder design in 2010, on a reclaimed post-mining site of the open-cast lignite mining in Welzow Süd (Brandenburg, Germany). Black locust is regarded as a drought-adapted tree species and commonly used for the reclamation of former lignite mining sites in Lower Lusatia, Germany. The Nelder design encompasses angles of arc of equal measure and with the same origin traversed by successive circumferences set at a predefined radial distance. Accordingly, a total of 1071 trees were planted in Welzow Süd at the intersection between 63 spokes and 17 circumferences and at densities ranging from 0.4 to 8.0 m2, with the aim of examining the influence of stand density on the tree growth in a timeframe of six years. In order to evaluate the biomass production of the trees and to determine an optimal planting density on a marginal land, various scenarios were assessed with the help of the Yield-SAFE model, a parameter-sparse process-based agroforestry model. The study revealed the consequences of choosing different tree densities on the tree biomass productivity and water use of trees in relation to the competition for light and water. References Keesman KJ, van der Werf W, van Keulen H, 2007. Production ecology of agroforestry systems: A minimal mechanistic model and analytical derivation of the land equivalent ratio

  17. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik


    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  18. Late Pleistocene cryogenic calcite spherolites from the Malachitdom Cave (NE Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany: Origin, unusual internal structure and stable C-O isotope composition.

    Detlev Konrad Richter


    Full Text Available Cryogenic calcites yielded U-series ages in the range from 15.61±0.20 ka to 14.48±0.12 ka, which is the youngest age obtained so far for this type of cryogenic cave carbonates in Europe. Most of these particles of the Malachitdom Cave (NE Brilon, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia are complex spherolites usually smaller than 1 cm. They show δ13C-values between –1 and –5 ‰ VPDB and δ18O-values ranging from –7 to –16 ‰ VPDB, the δ13C-values increase and the δ18O-values decrease from centre to border. The complex spherolites are interpreted to be formed in slowly freezing pools of residual water on ice, a situation that repeatedly occurred during the change of glacial to interglacial periods in the periglacial areas of Central Europe. After the melting of the cave-ice, the complex spherolites make up one type of cryogenic calcite particles in the arenitic to ruditic sediment.

  19. Contribution of large submarine landslide to tsunami potential in the NE Atlantic region: The Gorringe Bank case study

    Ramalho, Inês; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Miguel; Terrinha, Pedro; Batista, Luis; Roque, Cristina


    ; iv) simulations of tsunami propagation and coastal impact; and v) analysis of the contribution of the submarine landslides to tsunami potential in the NE Atlantic. Results show that, using the VSW model for landslide motion, we obtain a good agreement between the sediment deposits simulated and observed. We also find that the submarine mass-failures can significantly contribute to the tsunami hazard in the NE Atlantic region, in particular when they are combined with an initial earthquake-induced tsunami. This work is supported by the FCT project CONDRIBER, Ref. PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012 and ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013,6,4-3).

  20. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain

    M. Turco


    Full Text Available We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.

  1. Governing the energy challenge : Canada and Germany in a multi-level regional and global context

    Eberlein, B. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Schulich School of Business; Doern, G.B. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Public Policy and Administration; Exeter Univ., (United Kingdom). Dept. of Politics] (eds.)


    This book features essays by leading energy and public policy specialists from Canada and Germany. It originated in the Transatlantic Energy Conference which was hosted by the Canadian Centre for German and European Studies at Toronto's York University in September 2005. The conference was attended by leading energy scholars and experts from Canadian and European universities, research institutes and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this book was to compare the dynamics of multi-level energy regulatory governance in Germany and Canada, notably the energy policy challenges that include energy security, environmental sustainability and a competitive resource economy. Many strategies to produce more efficient and sustainable energy are presented in the book. Part 1 of the book focuses on the energy industry, with particular emphasise on electricity, nuclear energy and natural gas. Part 2 of the book focuses on domestic patterns of multi-level energy governance and regulation in the two countries. As a member of the European Union, Germany is more advanced in dealing with multi-level governmental and sustainability constraints than Canada is as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The book focuses on the influence that the energy sector and multi-level institutional arrangements have on energy governance, with particular attention to the link between environmental study, climate change issues and economic market reforms. The growing differences between NAFTA and European Union member countries were highlighted. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde


    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  3. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob


    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  4. Measurement of the 18Ne(a,p_0)21Na reaction cross section in the burning energy region for X-ray bursts

    Salter, P J C; Davinson, T; Falou, H Al; Chen, A; Davids, B; Fulton, B R; Galinski, N; Howell, D; Lotay, G; Machule, P; Murphy, A StJ; Ruiz, C; Sjue, S; Taggart, M; Walden, P; Woods, P J


    The 18Ne(a,p)21Na reaction provides one of the main HCNO-breakout routes into the rp-process in X-ray bursts. The 18Ne(a,p_0)21Na reaction cross section has been measured for the first time in the Gamow energy region for peak temperatures T=2GK using the time-reversal approach in inverse kinematics. The astrophysical rate for ground-state to ground-state transitions was found to be a factor of 2 lower than Hauser-Feshbach theoretical predictions. Our reduced rate will affect the physical conditions under which breakout from the HCNO cycles occurs via the 18Ne(a,p)21Na reaction.

  5. Regional Geophysical Reconnaissance for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in NE Alberta, Canada

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D.; Bown, T.; Chan, J.; Idowu, S.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; van der Baan, M.; Bauer, K.; Moeck, I.; Pussak, M.; Weides, S.


    As part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), a major initial goal is to undertake a critical study of the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) as a source of thermal energy in northern Alberta. The geology of this area consists to first order as westward thickening wedge of Cretaceous siliclastics overlying Devonian carbonates and evaporites all of which lies upon the metamorphic Canadian Shield craton. Generally, the north eastern of Alberta is characterized by low geothermal gradients (near 20 mK/m) and temperatures; and deep drilling to as much as 4-5 km into the craton will be necessary to obtain requisite conditions (i.e. 80-100 C water at the source). Consequently, at this early stage it is important to search for zones with the greatest potential; and in the context of EGS this can mean finding greater fracture permeability through pre-existing faults and joint systems. State of stress information is also being considered as this will be an important constraint on fluid flow in such fractured systems. Current studies are integrating reprocessed legacy industrial and LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and existing borehole and core data are used to develop regional geophysical and geological models of Northern Alberta. Particular areas will focus on structural and tectonic linkages between the sedimentary basin and the underlying craton that are possibly related to, for example, Devonian reef complexes, extensive karsting, or evaporite collapse.

  6. Environmental contaminants in liver and kidney of free-ranging northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from three regions of Germany.

    Kenntner, N; Krone, O; Altenkamp, R; Tataruch, F


    The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a top predator in the terrestrial food web of large parts of the Holarctic. Due to its sedentary nature and well-investigated feeding ecology, it represents the most suitable bird of prey species in continental Europe for monitoring environmental pollutants. We analyzed the levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and nonessential heavy metals in organ samples of 62 free-ranging northern goshawks found dead or injured in Germany from 1995 to 2001. Our results indicate significant differences in the contaminant burden of northern goshawks between three regions in Germany. Presumably, these differences were caused by different application periods and legislative restrictions before the German reunion, especially for the use of DDT in agriculture and forestry. Extraordinarily high residues of PCBs and DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, were found mainly in livers of northern goshawks inhabiting Berlin. Body condition is highly negatively correlated with the contamination level of the individual, especially for the persistent and lipophilic organochlorines and for mercury. PCB concentrations in hepatic tissue increase rapidly with age, and birds in their first summer had significantly lower levels than birds in their first winter or older. Adult female northern goshawks from Berlin had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of most of the higher-chlorinated PCBs and of cadmium than males from the same region. Cadmium residues were in general higher in renal tissue than in hepatic tissue, and cadmium levels in kidneys increased with age. Lead concentrations indicative of acute lead poisoning were detected in one bird and suggested in two others. All other heavy metal concentrations were low and represent background levels for birds of prey in Germany.

  7. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.


    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  8. Precious metal-bearing epithermal deposits in western Patagonia (NE Lago Fontana region), Argentina

    Lanfranchini, Mabel Elena; Etcheverry, Ricardo Oscar; de Barrio, Raúl Ernesto; Recio Hernández, Clemente


    Precious metal-bearing quartz veins occur at the northeastern sector of the Lago Fontana region in southwestern Argentina, within the context of the Andean continental magmatic arc environment. The deposits and their associated alteration zones are spatially related to a Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism represented by silicic dikes and hypabyssal intrusions, and hosted by a Late Jurassic to Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence. The veins and related veinlets crop out discontinuously, in general terms in a NW-SE belt. The primary vein mineral assemblage is composed mostly of pyrite ± galena ± chalcopyrite > hematite ± arsenopyrite in silica gangue minerals. Chemical analyses of grab samples from selected quartz veins show as much as 5.7 ppm Au and 224 ppm Ag, as well as elevated Pb, Cu, and Zn. Hydrothermal fluids caused an innermost silicification and adularia-sericite alteration assemblage, and an external propylitic halo. Sulfur isotope values measured for sulfides (δSS from -1.90 to +1.56‰), and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes measured on quartz crystals and extracted primary fluid inclusion waters (δOO = -2.85 to +5.40‰; δDO = -106.0 to -103.4‰) indicate that mineralization probably formed from magmatic fluids, which were mixed with meteoric waters. Also, fluid inclusion data from quartz veins point out that these fluids had low salinity (1.7-4.2 wt% NaCl equiv.), and temperatures of homogenization between 180 and 325 °C. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical features for mineralized surface exposures indicate a typical adularia-sericite, low sulfidation epithermal system in the Lago Fontana area that represents a promising target for further exploration programs.

  9. Carbonatites and primary carbonates in the Rio Apa and Amambay regions, NE Paraguay

    Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; De Min, Angelo; Girardi, Vicente A. V.; Gomes, Celso B.


    In the Rio Apa and Amambay regions, north-eastern Paraguay (NPAA), potassic, alkaline-carbonatitic rocks (138-139 Ma) predate the eruption of tholeiitic flood basalts (133 ± 1 Ma). These rocks, mainly outcropping as dykes or ring-like complexes, intrude a Cambro-Ordovician carbonate platform and Precambrian metamorphic rocks along with their Silurian and Permo-Carboniferous sediments. The main rock-types range from basanite to trachyte and trachyphonolite (and intrusive equivalents) to carbonatite, in addition to glimmeritic and pyroxenitic veins. Geological and geophysical evidence indicate that the NPAA magmatism is related to extensional tectonics, like the Early Cretaceous alkaline-carbonatitic complexes from central-eastern Paraguay (127 ± 1 Ma) and the eastern magmatic occurrences of the Paraná Basin. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions (whole rocks and carbonates) vary from values close to the field of continental lithospheric mantle, or that of primary carbonatites, up to values typical of a hydrothermal environment. An isotope exchange model implies that the main isotope variations, ranging from a magmatic (e.g., 1200 °C) to a low temperature (< 400 °C) environment, involved fluids with CO2/H2O ratios between 0.8 and 1.0. In particular, the Osbnd C isotopic variations, in combination with the La vs La/Yb ratios, suggest an increasingly higher level of carbonate in the silicate liquids, with increasing evolution, i.e., basanite → phonotephrite → trachyphonolite-phonolite (trachyte) → carbonatite. Srsbnd Nd isotopes show that the carbonatites are mantle derived without significant crustal contamination and that they can be related to isotopically enriched sources where newly formed veins (enriched component) and peridotite matrix (depleted component) underwent differing isotopic evolution. TDM model ages for NPAA range from 1.2 to 2.3 Ga. Considering that in the whole Paraná Basin isotopically distinct K-alkaline and tholeiitic magmas were

  10. Evaluation of representativeness of near-surface winds in station measurements, global and regional reanalysis for Germany

    Kaspar, Frank; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Heene, Vera; Borsche, Michael; Keller, Jan


    Within the preparation activities for a European COPERNICUS Climate Change Service (C3S) several ongoing research projects analyse the potential of global and regional model-based climate reanalyses for applications. A user survey in the FP7-project CORE-CLIMAX revealed that surface wind (10 m) is among the most frequently used parameters of global reanalysis products. The FP7 project UERRA (Uncertainties in Ensembles of Regional Re-Analysis) has the focus on regional European reanalysis and the associated uncertainties, also from a user perspective. Especially in the field of renewable energy planning and production there is a need for climatological information across all spatial scales, i.e., from climatology at a certain site to the spatial scale of national or continental renewable energy production. Here, we focus on a comparison of wind measurements of the Germany's meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) with global reanalyses of ECWMF and a regional reanalysis for Europe based on DWD's NWP-model COSMO (performed by the Hans-Ertel-Center for Weather Research, University of Bonn). Reanalyses can provide valuable additional information on larger scale variability, e.g. multi-annual variation over Germany. However, changes in the observing system, model errors and biases have to be carefully considered. On the other hand, the ground-based observation networks partly suffer from change of the station distribution, changes in instrumentation, measurements procedures and quality control as well as local changes which might modify their spatial representativeness. All these effects might often been unknown or hard to characterize, although plenty of the meta-data information has been recorded for the German stations. One focus of the presentation will be the added-value of the regional reanalysis.

  11. Remagnetization in the Monterrey Salient (NE Mexico) and regional tecto-magnetic events in the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt

    Nemkin, S. R.; Chavez-Cabello, G.; Fitz-Diaz, E.; van der Pluijm, B.; Van Der Voo, R.


    In the 1980's, carbonate remagnetizations became widely recognized, with many units re-analyzed to examine these later magnetization events. In this study we focus on the Lower Cretaceous La Peña-Cupido formations transition from the Monterrey Salient in Northeast Mexico, at the external most part of the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt in this area. The remagnetization observed is carried by single domain (SD) magnetite, resulting from chemical growth of magnetite in a range of superparamagnetic (SPM) to SD grain sizes. In order to determine the relative remagnetization age, local km-scale folds were sampled for paleomagnetic fold tests. The application resulted in 8 syn-folding (1 a regional test) and 4 pre-folding remagnetizations (1 a regional application). Syn-folding results are found in the N-S to NW-SE trending portion of the Monterrey Salient and pre-folding results in the E-W trending segment of the belt. By combining syn-folding results with Ar/Ar illite ages of folds, a remagnetization age of 51 + 4 Ma is obtained in folded limestone samples. Relatively strong ferrimagnetic signals from sites with syn-folding remagnetizations suggest that more magnetite growth occurred in these folds, as compared to pre-folding sites where paramagnetic and diamagnetic signals are more dominant. Based on the relative timing of remagnetization, deformation progressed from the SW to the NE in northern Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt. Prior results (Nemkin et al., 2015) from the central Sierra Madre Oriental, to the south, showed two remagnetization events; 77 Ma and 44 Ma from W to E. Based on the timing of remagnetization in the new study area, folding and remagnetization in the Monterrey Salient occurred in between these events to the south.


    Olga Vladimirovna Gokova


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the results of three empirical studies conducted in Russia, Germany and France, which reveal value orientations of contemporary young people of these countries, the nature of their social behavior in the demographic context, as well as economic factors influencing it. The objectives of the study are the need to identify and systematize the factors that influence the reproductive behavior of today’s youth from typical regions of these countries, as well as the evaluation of the experience of the organization and implementation of the pro-natalist policy accumulated by these three states. In the process of the questionnaire survey of young people in three countries, we formed an information database for the comparative analysis of young respondents’ views on the issues of identifying their behaviour and value orientations in family life. We also use materials of the state statistics of these countries and the secondary analysis of the materials of sociological studies. On the basis of the conducted research and experience of implementation of pro-natalist policy in Germany and France, we have developed a number of measures of the Russian youth pro-natalist policy. The development of the labor market has a strong influence on the formation of the family value system of today’s youth in Germany, France and Russia. It specifies the need to achieve a balance between creating a family, birth of children and the desire to create oneself as a professional. The possibility of achieving such life harmony must be ensured and supported by government measures in the framework of the effective pro-natalist policy.

  13. Sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios for the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions based on dense seismic arrays

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua; Lai, Guijuan; Cai, Yan


    The sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios of the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions are estimated by the h- κ stacking and CCP image of receiver functions from the data of 1,317 stations. The horizontal resolution of the obtained results is as high as 0.5° × 0.5°, which can be used for further high resolution model construction in the region. The crustal thicknesses from Airy's equilibrium are smaller than our results in the Sichuan Basin, Qilian tectonic belt, northern Alxa block and Qaidam Basin, which is consistent with the high densities in the mantle lithosphere and may indicate that the high-density lithosphere drags crust down overall. High Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones are found in the mid- and lower crust beneath eastern Qilian tectonic belt and the boundary areas of the Ordos block, indicating that partial melting may exist in these regions. Low Poisson's ratios and low-velocity anomalies are observed in the crust in the NE Tibetan Plateau, implying that the mafic lower crust is thinning or missing and that the mid- and lower crust does not exhibit melting or partial melting in the NE Tibetan Plateau, and weak flow layers are not likely to exist in this region.

  14. Ro-vibrational spectrum of H2O-Ne in the ν2 H2O bending region: A combined ab initio and experimental investigation

    Liu, Xunchen; Hou, Dan; Thomas, Javix; Li, Hui; Xu, Yunjie


    High resolution ro-vibrational transitions of the H2O-Ne complex in the ν2 bending region of H2O at 6 μm have been measured using a rapid scan infrared spectrometer based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser and an astigmatic multipass optical cell. To aid the spectral assignment, a four-dimension potential energy surface of H2O-Ne which depends on the intramolecular bending coordinate of the H2O monomer and the three intermolecular vibrational coordinates has been constructed and the rovibrational transitions have been calculated. Three ortho and two para H2O-20Ne bands have been identified from the experimental spectra. Some weaker transitions belonging to H2O-22Ne have also been identified experimentally. Spectroscopic fits have been performed for both the experimental and theoretical transition frequencies using a simple pseudo-diatomic Hamiltonian including both Coriolis coupling and Fermi resonance terms. The experimental and theoretical spectroscopic constants thus obtained have been compared. Further improvements needed in the potential energy surface and the related spectral simulation have been discussed.

  15. Escalation of methamphetamine-related crime and fatalities in the Dresden region, Germany, between 2005 and 2011.

    Pietsch, J; Paulick, T; Schulz, K; Flössel, U; Engel, A; Schmitter, S; Schmidt, U


    Methamphetamine (MA), a central nervous system stimulating recreational drug, is a worldwide problem related to crime as well as forensic and health aspects. The data, exemplarily presented in this study for the Dresden region, Saxony, Germany, demonstrate the escalation of MA-related crime and fatalities between 2005 and 2011. Easy availability and an attractive price of MA in the Czech Republic are responsible for both the increase of the occurrence of MA in relation to the entire drug crime as well as the increase of the occurrence of MA-positive cases of driving under influence (DUI). Higher percentage of very pure MA on the Saxon drug market since 2010 seems to be the reason for the fatalities directly caused by MA in 2010 and 2011.

  16. The 20Ne(d,p)21Ne Transfer Reaction in Relation to the s-Process Abundances

    Nsangu, C. T. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Laird, A. M. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Parikh, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalana, Spain & Inst. d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain; Adsley, P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Birch, M. D. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Chen, A. A, [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Faestermann, T. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany; Fox, S. P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Fulton, B. R. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Hertenberger, R. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany; Irvine, D. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Kay, B. P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Longland, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalana, Barcelona, Spain; Manwell, S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Murphy, A. St. J. [University of Edinburgh, UK; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay & Université Paris Sud 11, Orsay,France; Tomlinson, J. R. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Wirth, H.-F. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany


    A study of the Ne-20(d,p)Ne-21 transfer reaction was performed using the Quadrupole Dipole Dipole Dipole (Q3D) magnetic spectrograph in Garching, Germany. The experiment probed excitation energies in Ne-21 ranging from 6.9 MeV to 8.5 MeV. The aim was to investigate the spectroscopic information of Ne-21 within the Gamow window of core helium burning in massive stars. Further information in this region will help reduce the uncertainties on the extrapolation down to Gamow window cross sections of the O-17(alpha,gamma)Ne-21 reaction. In low metallicity stars, this reaction has a direct impact on s-process abundances by determining the fate of O-16 as either a neutron poison or a neutron absorber. The experiment used a 22-MeV deuteron beam, with intensities varying from 0.5-1 mu A, and an implanted target of Ne-20 of 7 mu g/cm(2) in 40 mu g/cm(2) carbon foils. Sixteen Ne-21 peaks have been identified in the E-x = 6.9-8.5 MeV range, of which only thirteen peaks correspond to known states. Only the previously-known E-x = 7.960 MeV state was observed within the Gamow window.

  17. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe


    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  18. Volcanological, petrographical and geochemical characteristics of Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks around Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey)

    Baser, Rasim; Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge


    This study presents volcanological, petrographical and geochemical data for late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey) in order to investigate their origin and magmatic evolution. Based on the previous ages and recent field studies, the late Cretaceous time in the study area is characterized by two different bimodal volcanic periods. The first bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism is mainly represented by mafic rock series (basaltic-basaltic andesitic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites) in the lower part, and felsic rock series (dacitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and pyrite-bearing tuffs) in the upper part. The second bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism begins with mafic rock suites (basaltic-andesitic lavas and dikes-sills) and grades upward into felsic rock suites (biotite-bearing rhyolitic lavas and hyaloclastites), which are intercalated with hyaloclastites and red pelagic limestones. All volcano-sedimentary units are covered by Late Campanian-Paleocene clayey limestones and biomicrites with lesser calciturbidites. The mafic volcanic series of the study area, which comprise basaltic and andesitic rocks, generally show amygdaloidal and aphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of calcic to sodic plagioclase and augite in a hyalopilitic matrix of plag+cpx+mag. Zircon and magnetite are sometimes observed as accessory minerals, whereas chlorite, epidote and calcite are typical alteration products. On the other hand, the felsic volcanic series consisting of dacitic and rhyolitic rocks mostly display porphyritic and glomeroporphyritic textures with predominant feldspar, quartz and some biotite phenocrysts. The microgranular to felsophyric groundmass is mainly composed of aphanitic plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Accessory minerals such as zircon, apatite and magnetite are common. Typical alteration products are sericite and clay minerals. Late Cretaceous Artvin-Borçka bimodal rock series generally display a

  19. Variable sediment flux in generation of Permian subduction-related mafic intrusions from the Yanbian region, NE China

    Guo, Feng; Li, Hongxia; Fan, Weiming; Li, Jingyan; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Miwei


    This paper presents petrology, mineralogy, zircon U-Pb ages, and whole-rock major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of four Permian (273-253 Ma) subduction-related mafic intrusions (including the Qinggoushan and Qianshan gabbros, and the Wangqing and Shuguang diorites) from the Yanbian region, NE China, with aims to understand the role of subducted sediment flux in generation of arc mafic cumulates. These intrusions have mineral assemblages crystallized in water-saturated parental magmas and show variable degrees of crystal accumulation as observed in mafic cumulates in subduction zones. Mass-balance consideration indicates that their parental magmas were calc-alkaline with arc-type trace element features (enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletions in Nb-Ta). They also have Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, i.e., 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7029-0.7047, εNd(t) = + 0.9 ~ + 6.8, εHf(t) = + 5.6 ~ + 14.6, similar to modern arc basalts. The parental magmas were likely derived from a mantle wedge variably metasomatized by sediment melt and fluid from the subducting paleo-Asian Oceanic slab. Combined trace elemental and isotopic modeling results suggest that the parental magma of Qinggoushan gabbro was formed through 5-20% melting of the mantle wedge with 1% and 1.5% additions of sediment fluid and sediment melt, respectively; 5-10% melting of the mantle wedge through inputs of 1% sediment fluid and 2% sediment melt produced the Qianshan gabbro; 10-20% melting of the mantle wedge with additions of 1% sediment fluid and 3% sediment melt formed the Wangqing diorite; whereas 5-20% melting of the mantle wedge through an input of 1.5% sediment melt produced the Shuguang diorite. The Hf-Nd isotopic array of the Yanbian Permian mafic intrusions reflected the existence of an Indian Ocean-type mantle, which was isotopically distinct from the Pacific-type mantle during early Paleozoic in the Central Asian Orogenic

  20. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes


    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  1. The effect of social networks and norms on the inter-regional migration intentions of knowledge-workers: The case of Saxony, Germany

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruenwald, Luise; Hirte, Georg


    This study investigates the migration intentions of current and future knowledge-workers in Saxony, Germany. A structural equation model (SEM) is applied to analyze the impact of social networks and norms on inter-regional migration, in addition to lifestyle and utilitarian location factors...




    Regional differentials in life expectancy at birth during the 1980s in Belgium, The Netherlands and some parts of the former Federal Republic of Germany are presented and commented upon. Life expectancy at birth during the 1980s was highest in The Netherlands, and lowest in some parts of southern

  3. [A survey through the sponsoring bodies of the handicapped in the Saône-et-Loire region].

    Sanchez, J; Bourderon, P


    How can we identify comprehensively the disabled people in the population? A survey carried out in the French "département" of Saône et Loire addressed the issue by questioning the sponsoring bodies: municipalities, humanitarian associates, institutions caring for the disabled, etc... On the basis of the survey, it was possible to build up a data base from which prospective and/or longitudinal studies could be undertaken.

  4. The Role Of The Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ) On Horizontal Stress (SH) Orientations In Northern Germany And Surrounding Regions

    Connelly, P. T.; Hettel, S.; Fleckenstein, P.

    A major component of the European stress field is the negative isostatic point developed close to the German North Sea coast [1] which separates the Norwegian margin (SH trends EW) from the British Isles and most of W Europe (NWSE trending SH). > 100 new SH orientation data from the preevaporite sequence of the N Germany region support existing data that south of the isostatic point SH exhibits a fanning geometry. Initial 2D elastic finite element (FE) models of N. Germany incorporated all recognized basement faults and used "typical European stress field" (i.e. NWSE SH farfield, SH = 20MPa; Sh = 15MPa) boundary conditions. These models do not reproduce the regional swing in SH orientation observed. Furthermore, no significant improvement in the fit was found for a wide range of boundary conditionsand fault properties (rheological and frictional). Previous workers [2, 3] have used panEuropean models to study central Eu- rope and the Norwegian Margin respectively. Following this reasoning panEuropean FE models extending eastwards from the MidAtlantic ridge to the 35r line of longitude (and southward from the Jan Mayen frac- ture zone to the N margin of Africa were constructed. The models included up to 15 major tectonic terranes within continental Europe the elastic properties of which where varied. It was found that relative elastic properties closely mimicking the local heat flow provided a closest fit to SH orientation data for most of Europe. Relative loads of 25MPa were applied normal to spreading ridge segments and in a NW direction to the African margin. Movement parallel to the JanMayen Fracture Zone was allowed, whilst its onshore continuation, and the E. margin of the model, was limited by "foundation elements". The TESZ was mod- elled in 3 different ways: 1) absent, 2) as a frictional structure and 3) as a locked structure. Omitting the TESZ from the models gave a reasonable fit across most of Europe but located the SH fan too far east, as reported by

  5. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica


    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  6. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.


    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  7. High-resolution mapping of ice-marginal landforms in the Barnim region, northeast Germany

    Hardt, Jacob; Hebenstreit, Robert; Lüthgens, Christopher; Böse, Margot


    Despite more than a 100-year-long research history, timing and position of the last glacial ice margins in the northeast German lowland are still up for debate. The Barnim region, a till plain in the northeast German young morainic landscape, is traversed by the contradictorily discussed Frankfurt ice marginal position. It is located in a key position to reassess the current state of research with help of a geographic information system (GIS) and field methods. A qualitative geomorphological analysis of a high resolution LiDAR digital elevation model (DEM) in the Barnim area uncovers a variety of landforms that were previously not described. The most prominent discovery is a set of about 10 lobe-shaped ridges in the middle Barnim area. Fieldwork and geophysical measurements were carried out to investigate the structure of the ridges. The ridges are 1000-1500 m in length and their widths vary from 10 to 15 km. They are raised some 6-10 m from their surroundings. The Frankfurt ice marginal position can only partially be traced in the DEM. Sedimentological and geophysical investigations indicate that the ridges are composed of glacial till that was deposited on glaciofluvial sediments. Their formation most probably took place during the ice retreat of the Brandenburg phase (W1B) and hence represents the W1F phase in the region.

  8. Long-term observations of CO2 exchange over agricultural crops in two regional climates of Southwest Germany

    Poyda, Arne; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Streck, Thilo


    The impact of agricultural land use on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics has been widely studied in the past few decades, particularly in context of the SOC forcing or mitigation potential of global climate change. Grassland utilization can increase or maintain SOC stocks. Arable cropping tends to decrease SOC stocks, at least for some time after land use change (SMITH, 2008). In the long run, it can be assumed that SOC reaches a steady state where the production of roots and aboveground crop residues and possibly organic fertilization level out soil respiration. To study the effects of crop type, year and regional site conditions on CO2 exchange and C budgets of arable cropping systems in Southwest Germany, eddy covariance measurements were conducted on a total of six sites in the two climatically contrasting regions of Kraichgau and Swabian Alb since 2009. Main crops were winter wheat, silage maize and winter rapeseed but also winter barley, summer barley and spelt were cultivated on the Swabian Alb sites. Cover crops were grown between winter and summer crops on all sites. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data were gap-filled following REICHSTEIN et al. (2005) and partitioned into ecosystem respiration (RECO) and gross primary production (GPP) using seasonally differing temperature response functions of nighttime NEE. Furthermore, different approaches for filling long data gaps of several months in winter were evaluated. Considering C inputs by organic fertilizers and C removals by harvest, C budgets were calculated per site and year. First results indicate that the variability of NEE fluxes between different crops is much higher compared to the variability between different years of a certain crop. However, regional differences in soil and weather conditions significantly influence plant growth dynamics and thus CO2 exchange.

  9. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    C. Chwala


    Full Text Available Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL data are recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. Its performance and limitations are presented, showing that the mean detection error rates of wet and dry periods can be reduced to 10% for all five links. After, the wet/dry classification rain rates are derived from the RSL and compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.81 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.85 for the link-radar comparison.

  10. Precipitation observation using microwave backhaul links in the alpine and pre-alpine region of Southern Germany

    C. Chwala


    Full Text Available Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave links in the alpine region of Southern Germany. Received signal level (RSL data is recorded minutely with small data loggers at the towers and then sent to a database server via GSM. Due to the large RSL fluctuations in periods without rain, the determination of attenuation caused by precipitation is not straightforward. To be able to continuously process the RSL data from July 2010 to October 2010, we introduce a new method to detect wet and dry periods using spectral time series analysis. We show the performance and limitations of the method and analyse the derived rain rates compared to rain gauge and weather radar measurements. The resulting correlations differ for different links and reach values of R2 = 0.80 for the link-gauge comparison and R2 = 0.84 for the link-radar comparison.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)


    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  12. Validation of NeQuick 2 model over the Kenyan region through data ingestion and the model application in ionospheric studies

    Olwendo, O. J.; Cesaroni, C.


    NeQuick 2 is an ionospheric electron density model which provides electron density for a given location. Its output depends on solar activity expressed by 12-month running average sunspot number (R12) or solar radio flux (F10.7). To improve the model capabilities to reproduce electron density, data ingestion techniques have been implemented which replace the standard solar activity indices input with effective parameters that allow adapting a model to a certain data sets. In regions like the Sub-Saharan Africa where few observational data were available until recently, the performance of the ingested model needs some validation. This study investigates the performance of NeQuick 2 in the Kenya region, a low latitude region by assisting the model with total electron content measurement from a single GNSS station. These measurements are used to calculate effective ionization level parameters, which enable the difference between the measured and modeled TEC over the station to be less or equal to 0.5 TECU. The results show that by using computed effective parameters values as inputs in nearby stations, the model performance is greatly improved for both the low and moderate solar activity. This work has also demonstrated the capability of the model to describe spatial distribution of the total electron content in the low- latitude ionosphere.

  13. Extreme warming in the NE Atlantic in the winter period 2002-2012 - an analysis with the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM and the Arctic System Reanalysis.

    Kohnemann, Svenja; Heinemann, Guenther; Gutjahr, Oliver; Bromwich, David H.


    The high-resolution atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM, German Meteorological Service) is used to simulate the 2m-temperature and the boundary layer structures in the Arctic with focus on the NE Atlantic section the winter periods (Nov-Apr) between 2002 and 2015. The CCLM simulations have a horizontal resolution of 15 km for the whole Arctic. The comparable Arctic System Reanalysis data (ASR, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center), which has been optimized for the Arctic, are available for the same time period with a horizontal resolution of 30 km. In addition, climatological data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) stations are used as verification. The comparison between the CCLM simulations and the ASR data shows a high agreement. Also the verification of both data sets with AWS and Era-Interim data shows a very high correlation for the air temperature. Slight differences between CCLM and ASR are recognizable in the extreme values as CCLM has the better ice information assimilated and the higher resolution during simulations. Time series of monthly mean based 2m-temperature indicate an enormous increase for the single months for the NE Atlantic and especially the region around the Siberian Island Novaya Zemlya. For example the CCLM March increase amounts up to 16 °C for the regional maximum for the period 2002-2012. The strong increase is mainly reducible to the decreasing sea ice situation in that region during the same time.

  14. Contributions of Tourism to the Development of Regions in Russia and Germany. Bashkortostan and Saxony

    Hans Wiesmeth


    Full Text Available In the last decades the growth of the tourism industry in Russia has slowed down, and its lack of competitiveness has been the topic of various publications. Similarly, the touristic potential of the Republic of Bashkortostan is not exhausted with tourism still making an unsatisfactory contribution to the GRP of the region. Bashkortostan and Saxony are of the same size — in terms of population. Population density, however, is much higher in Saxony. In addition, differing historic roots affect any efforts to develop the touristic potential of Bashkortostan. It is then the goal of this paper to provide recommendations for sustainable tourism with a long-term perspective by analyzing consequences of these facts on the touristic infrastructure, on competitive forces, on the tasks of a tourism-marketing bureau, among others — always in comparison to the situation in Saxony (the case study method. Thus, this comparative analysis helps to restructure tourism in Bashkortostan in a situation with insufficient reliable touristic data. In the conditions of deceleration of global economic growth, depletion of natural resources, it is highly important to secure proper functioning of economic systems by means of using the available potential possibilities and searching for new reserves of economic growth. Tourism has a huge potential of development and can be an additional source of economic growth in Bashkortostan.

  15. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna


    The EU energy policy aims at creating a single European electricity market through market couplings and grid expansions. To analyse the implications of such power market couplings, we propose a market-based multi-region energy system model. The model simulates a multi-region power market (by...... applying market optimization and network theory), with detailed representation of each region as an energy system (by simulation of both heat and power sectors). We examine the impact of further integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in Germany on the Nordic power market. The results indicate...... that the average electricity price slightly grows in the Nordic power market after Germany's Energy Transition (Energiewende). Hence, the economic surplus of Nordic consumers diminishes while Nordic producers improve their gain under new market conditions. Considering the gird congestion income, the overall system...

  16. The implementation of the new EU water directives on different scales - two examples from the region of Trier (Germany)

    Gellweiler, I.; Meyer, B.


    The EU water directives in Germany are being implemented and are at the moment in the process of being transformed into concrete measures. These measures mainly concern land use management and, if necessary, actions on site. For the implementation of on-site measures as well as for land use management, the field of observation and its scale lead to various challenges. The number of stakeholders and the im-pact of the EU water directives depend on the size of the catchment. The scale of the impact range from single inhabitants to local or federal planning communities and can even impact cultural heritage management. The conflict potential increases as more interests are included in the decision making process, therefore different adaptation strategies are necessary. Issues, especially those involving the divergence between individual and public interests, nature con-servation, flood prevention and economic concerns demand creative solutions. The two examples located in the region of Trier (Germany) show conflicts during the imple-mentation of the EU water directives on different scales. The Mosel, a first order river, passes through three countries on the way to the Rhine. The river gives a natural boundary to the settlement areas and forms the shape of the city of Trier. Regarding the EU Flood Water Di-rective, flood hazard and risk maps should be developed for all catchments. This can lead to conflicts between settlement developments and flood protection, as well as to loss of the eco-nomic value of private estates. A case study in Trier will be presented, where a building site as shown on the land development plan is an area prone to flooding. Up till now this area is still zoned for building and not as a flood area. Accordingly, local and spatial planning need to go hand in hand with water management. The Olewiger Bach is a small creek (3rd order), which is strongly affected by urban rain water discharge. Primarily, the removal of fixed elements within the brook

  17. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    Gamage, S.S.N.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; Kirby, S.H.


    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ???30?? at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  18. Regional deprivation is associated with the distribution of vulnerable asylum seekers: a nationwide small area analysis in Germany.

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Razum, Oliver; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Maier, Werner; Stock, Christian


    Newly arriving asylum seekers in many European Union countries are assigned a place of residence based on administrative quota. This may have important consequences for the exposure to contextual health risks. We assessed the association between regional deprivation and the distribution of asylum seekers in Germany considered as vulnerable (women, children 64 years) because of their increased health needs. Using nationally representative data, we analysed the rates of observed to expected numbers of asylum seekers and vulnerable subgroups in Bayesian spatial models. Regional deprivation was measured by the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. The analyses were performed at the district level (N=402) and adjusted for district population size, effects of federal states as well as spatial effects. Of the 224 993 asylum seekers, 38.7% were women, 13.8% children aged 64 years. The adjusted number of asylum seekers (totals and vulnerable subgroups) was higher in more deprived districts (Q3, Q4 and Q5) relative to districts in the lowest deprivation quintile (Q1). The adjusted rate ratios for districts with highest relative to those with lowest deprivation were 1.26 (1.03-1.53) for women, 1.28 (1.04-1.58) for children aged deprivation compared with districts with lowest deprivation. The disproportionate distribution was highest for older asylum seekers and children deprived places of residence, which may further increase health risks and healthcare needs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Dagmar Haase


    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  20. KM3NeT

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  1. The nuclear regions of NGC 7582 from [NeII] spectroscopy at 12.8 microns - an estimate of the black hole mass

    Wold, M; Käufl, H U; Siebenmorgen, R


    We present a high-resolution (R~16,000) spectrum and a narrow-band image centered on the [NeII]12.8 micron line of the central kpc region of the starburst/Seyfert2 galaxy NGC 7582. The galaxy has a rotating circum-nuclear starburst disk, shown at great detail at a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.4 arcsec. The high spatial resolution allows us to probe the dynamics of the [NeII] gas in the nuclear regions, and to estimate the mass of the central black hole. We construct models of gas disks rotating in the combined gravitational potential from the stellar bulge and a central black hole, and derive a black hole mass of 5.5 x 10^7 solar masses with a 95% confidence interval of [3.6,8.1] x 10^7 solar masses. The black hole mass combined with stellar velocity dispersion measurements from the literature shows that the galaxy is consistent with the local M-sigma relation. This is the first time that a black hole mass in a galaxy except our own Milky Way system has been estimated from gas dynamics in the mid-infra...

  2. Employment Effects of Renewable Energy Expansion on a Regional Level—First Results of a Model-Based Approach for Germany

    Ulrike Lehr


    Full Text Available National studies have shown that both gross and net effects of the expansion of energy from renewable sources on employment are positive for Germany. These modeling approaches also revealed that this holds true for both present and future perspectives under certain assumptions on the development of exports, fossil fuel prices and national politics. Yet how are employment effects distributed within Germany? What components contribute to growth impacts on a regional level? To answer these questions (new methods of regionalization were explored and developed for the example “wind energy onshore” for Germany’s federal states. The main goal was to develop a methodology which is applicable to all renewable energy technologies in future research. For the quantification and projection, it was necessary to distinguish between jobs generated by domestic investments and exports on the one hand, and jobs for operation and maintenance of existing plants on the other hand. Further, direct and indirect employment is analyzed. The results show, that gross employment is particularly high in the northwestern regions of Germany. However, especially the indirect effects are spread out over the whole country. Regions in the south not only profit from the delivery of specific components, but also from other industry and service inputs.

  3. Regional and socio-economic differences in food, nutrient and supplement intake in school-age children in Germany: results from the GINIplus and the LISAplus studies.

    Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Standl, Marie; Buyken, Anette; Rzehak, Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Borte, Michael; Herbarth, Olf; Lehmann, Irina; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim


    To describe regional differences between eastern and western Germany with regard to food, nutrient and supplement intake in 9-12-year-old children, and analyse its association with parental education and equivalent income. Data were obtained from the 10-year follow-up of the two prospective birth cohort studies - GINIplus and LISAplus. Data on food consumption and supplement intake were collected using an FFQ, which had been designed for the specific study population. Information on parental educational level and equivalent income was derived from questionnaires. Logistic regression modelling was used to analyse the effect of parental education, equivalent income and region on food intake, after adjusting for potential confounders. Germany. A total of 3435 children aged 9-12 years. Substantial regional differences in food intake were observed between eastern and western Germany. Intakes of bread, butter, eggs, pasta, vegetables/salad and fruit showed a significant direct relationship with the level of parental education after adjusting for potential confounders, whereas intakes of margarine, meat products, pizza, desserts and soft drinks were inversely associated with parental education. Equivalent income had a weaker influence on the child's food intake. Nutritional education programmes for school-age children should therefore account for regional differences and parental education.

  4. [Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Germany based on health insurance data : Regional differences and first results of the PROCLAIR study].

    Hense, S; Luque Ramos, A; Callhoff, J; Albrecht, K; Zink, A; Hoffmann, F


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease with a prevalence of up to 1 % in the adult population. This study describes the prevalence of RA diagnoses in outpatient health insurance claims data, based on different case definitions and stratified by age, sex and region of residence. Based on data from a nationwide statutory health insurance fund (BARMER GEK) from the year 2013, a cross-sectional study of insurants aged 18 years or older was conducted. The following case definitions were applied: A) a diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (M05) or other rheumatoid arthritis (M06) according to the international classification of diseases 10 German modification (ICD-10-GM) in at least two quarterly periods of the year 2013, B) case definition A plus determination of C‑reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at least once, C) case definition B plus specific drug therapy and D) case definition A plus treatment by a rheumatologist. Raw as well as age and sex-standardized prevalences were calculated and stratified according to the federal state. The study population consisted of 7,155,315 insurants of whom 60.2 % were female. Overall, RA prevalences for the respective case definitions were 1.62 % (A), 1.11 % (B), 0.94 % (C) and 0.64 % (D). When standardized to the German population the prevalences were 1.38 % (A), 0.95 % (B), 0.81 % (C) and 0.55 % (D). The proportion of women was approximately 80 % for all case definitions. Prevalences increased with age, peaking in the age group 70-79 years old and showing the highest values in eastern and the lowest in southern Germany for raw as well as standardized measures. Regional differences in the prevalence of RA diagnoses in health insurance claims data were observed independent of age, sex and case definition. The expected prevalence according to the results of international studies was best achieved when case definitions with CRP or

  5. Weimar Germany

    Reckendrees, Alfred


    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...

  6. Regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Germany: data from the German National Reference Center for the Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (KISS).

    Leistner, R; Schröder, C; Geffers, C; Breier, A-C; Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M


    Surveillance systems for hospital infections are reporting increasing rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. We aimed to perform a national survey on this trend and on the regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in German hospitals. Data from 2007 to 2012 from two components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were used for this analysis. The data derive from intensive care units and surgical departments. Independent factors determining the proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae among nosocomial infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and changes in its regional distribution (broken down into German federal states) were calculated by regression analysis. From 2007 to 2012, the data showed a significantly increasing proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in surgical site infections (from 11.46 to 15.38, 134%, p 0.003), urinary tract infections (9.36 to 16.56, 177%, p infections (11.91 to 14.70, 123%, p nosocomial infections has significantly increased in Germany over the last 6 years. Hospitals in Central Germany and surgical departments in all of Germany are especially affected by this development.

  7. Comparison of Three Modelling Approaches to Simulate Regional Crop Yield: A Case Study of Winter Wheat Yield in Western Germany

    Soltani Largani, Afsaneh; Bakker, M.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Stoorvogel, J.J.


    The need for more comparisons among models is widely recognized. This study aimed to compare three different modelling approaches for their capability to simulate and predict trends and patterns of winter wheat yield in Western Germany. The three modelling approaches included an empirical model, a p

  8. Climate impacts and adaptation in Germany. Phase 1. Regional climate scenarios for Germany. Final report; Klimaauswirkungen und Anpassung in Deutschland. Phase 1. Erstellung regionaler Klimaszenarien fuer Deutschland. Abschlussbericht

    Jacob, Daniela; Goettel, Holger; Kotlarski, Sven; Lorenz, Philip; Sieck, Kevin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany)


    The regional climate scenarios were evaluated using the climate model REMO. The model calculations were actualized and compared with observed data. The validation of the modeling results was performed using data sets concerning the temporal behavior, the precipitation amounts in several altitudes and the analysis of the probability density function of the air temperature. The results of different climate scenarios are discussed for the mean monthly values of precipitation and temperature. The model allows the prediction of the temporal development and number of summer days and extremely hot days. The change of further indices due to the climatic change caused by increasing greenhouse gas emissions is discussed.

  9. Synoptic versus regional causes of icing on wind turbines at an exposed wind farm site in Germany

    Weissinger, Maximilian; Strauss, Lukas; Serafin, Stefano; Dorninger, Manfred; Burchhart, Thomas; Fink, Martin


    Ice accretion on wind turbine blades can lead to significant power production loss or even permanent structural damage on the turbine. With the ongoing construction of wind farms at sites with increased icing potential in cold climates, accurate icing predictions are needed to optimise power plant operation. To this end, the frequency of occurrence and the causes of meteorological icing need to be better understood. The project ICE CONTROL, an Austrian research initiative, aims to improve icing forecasts through measurements, probabilistic forecasting, and verification of icing on wind turbine blades. The project focuses on a wind farm site near Ellern, Germany, located on the Hunsrück, a hilly terrain rising above the surrounding plain by 200-300 metres. Production data from the last three winters show that icing events tend to occur more often at the wind turbines on top of the highest hills. The present study aims to investigate historical cases of wind turbine icing and their meteorological causes at the Ellern wind farm. The data available consists of a three-year period (2013-2016) of operational data from the Ellern wind farm as well as meteorological measurements at nearby stations operated by the German Weather Service (DWD). In addition, radiosondes and weather charts are taken into account. The main objective of this work is, first, to link the local and regional weather conditions to larger-scale weather patterns and prevailing air masses, and second, to determine the types of icing (in-cloud vs. freezing precipation). Results show that in most icing cases the cloud base height was below the hub height while the temperature was just below the freezing point. Precipitation was absent in most cases. This suggests that most of the observed icing events were due to in-cloud icing. Icing conditions occurred often (but not exclusively) under specific synoptic-scale weather conditions, such as north-westerly flow advecting maritime polar air masses to Central

  10. Weimar Germany

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  11. Trends of abiotic damage in forest ecosystems in Germany at regional scale under SRES A1B, B1

    Panferov, O.; Doering, C.; Sogachev, A.; Merklein, J.; Ahrends, B.


    Current climate projections indicate that the ongoing climate change may cause an increase of frequency of weather extremes (Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can result in wide area abiotic and consequent biotic damage events (e.g. drought and following insect attacks) within forest ecosystems. The type and degree of damage depends not only on the strength of a primary driving force itself (e.g. wind speed) but also on complex interactions between combinations of effecting agents with above- and belowground forest structure characteristics. The present study investigates the projected trends of abiotic risks factors and their combinations on coniferous and deciduous forests during the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. The downscaling of ECHAM5-MPIOM by the regional climate model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of 0.2° x 0.2° with daily time-steps is used for the analysis of future climate extremes and their combinations. With these input data the small-scale modeling with coupled process based sub-models (Jansen et al., 2008) was carried out for Solling region, (Central Germany) calculating the water and energy balance of spruce and beech forest ecosystems on cambisols and podzols with BROOK90 (Federer et al. 2003) and wind loading on trees with 3D ABL model SCADIS (Panferov and Sogachev, 2008). The risks of drought or wind damage for a certain forest stand result from combinations of soil water characteristics, static and gust wind loads, which in turn depend on current above- and belowground tree structure and on soil texture. The actual soil water content and forest structure depends on climate-soil-vegetation interactions in previous years. Therefore, differences of microclimatological conditions in the remaining stand after changes in forest structure are taken into account. Model outputs are aggregated to 30-years periods and compared to "present” conditions of 1971-2000. The results demonstrate an increment of abiotic risks

  12. The chemical composition of the Orion star-forming region. III. C, N, Ne, Mg and Fe abundances in B-type stars revisited

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda


    Early B-type stars are invaluable indicators for elemental abundances of their birth environments. In contrast to the surrounding neutral interstellar matter (ISM) and HII regions their chemical composition is unaffected by depletion onto dust grains and by the derivation of different abundances from recombination and collisional lines. In combination with ISM or nebular gas-phase abundances they facilitate the dust-phase composition to be constrained. Precise abundances of C, N, Mg, Ne, Fe in early B-type stars in the Orion star-forming region are determined in order to: a) review previous determinations using a self-consistent quantitative spectral analysis based on modern stellar atmospheres and recently updated model atoms, b) complement results found in Paper I for oxygen and silicon, c) establish an accurate and reliable set of stellar metal abundances to constrain the dust-phase composition of the Orion HII region in Paper II of the series. A detailed, self-consistent spectroscopic study of a sample of...

  13. From cities and towns to urban networks in Germany – intra regional competition versus regional co-operation and inter regional competitiveness

    Bernhard Mueller


    Full Text Available For many decades of the 20th century particular cities and towns were understood as integral parts of national and international urban systems. For many years the theory on central places and hierarchy of central places, first developed by Christaller and amended by Loesch, had a decisive influence on spatial research and regional development policies with guiding principles for urbanisation and the development of settlement patterns. However it is becoming ever more evident, that the planned effects of concepts for harmonising intra- and inter-regional differences were not reached. Moreover, inter-regional competition between neighbouring municipalities, as well as modern life styles and residential choices have caused the emergence of new settlement structures with dispersed spatial patterns and string functional ties. It is also true, that urban networking isn’t an easy task and that it inherently carries numerous obstacles.

  14. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    Mielke, M


    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.




    Full Text Available The 1:10,000 scale mapping of the southern part of the Aggtelek Plateau (Western Carpathians, Silica Nappe, NE Hungary and the study of five sections revealed two Middle Triassic reef bodies. In the late Pelsonian the uniform Steinalm Platform was drowned and dissected due to the Reifling Event. A connection with the open sea was established, indicated by the appearance of gladigondolellid conodonts from the early Illyrian. Basins and highs were formed. In the NW part of the studied area lower - middle? Illyrian basinal carbonates were followed by a platform margin reef (early?-middle Illyrian; reef stage 1 developed on a morphological high. This is the oldest known Triassic platform margin reef within the Alpine-Carpathian region. The reef association is dominated by sphinctozoans and microproblematics. The fossils are characteristic of the Wetterstein-type reef communities.Differently from this in the SE part of the studied region a basin existed from the late Pelsonian until the early Ladinian. During the late Illyrian- early Ladinian, the reef prograded to the SE, and reef stage 2 was established. Meanwhile, on the NW part of the platform a lagoon was formed behind the reef. Based on our palaeontological study the stratigraphic range of Colospongia catenulata, Follicatena cautica, Solenolmia manon manon, Vesicocaulis oenipontanus must be extended down to the middle Illyrian. Synsedimentary tectonics were detected in the 1. Binodosus Subzone, 2. Trinodosus Zone - the most part of the Reitzi Zone, 3. Avisianum Subzone. 

  16. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A


    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  17. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.


    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  18. Deducing the magma chamber processes of middle Eocene volcanics, Sivas and Tokat regions; NE Turkey: Insights from clinopyroxene chemistry

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelevic, Dejan


    Middle Eocene Tokat and Sivas volcanic successions occur within the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Different models are suggested for the development of the middle Eocene volcanism such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc magmatism. In both areas, volcanic units cover all the basement units with a regional disconformity and comprise lavas spanning a compositional range from mainly basalt-basaltic andesite to a lesser amount trachyte. Here, we report mineral chemistry of different basaltic lavas through transect from northern continent (Tokat region, Pontides) to southern continent (Sivas region, Kırşehir block) to deduce the characteristics of the magma chamber processes which are active during the middle Eocene. Basaltic lavas include olivine bearing basalts (Ol-basalt: ± olivine + clinopyroxene + plagioclase); amphibole bearing basaltic andesite (Amp-basaltic andesite: amphibole + clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± biotite) and pyroxene bearing basaltic andesite (Px-basaltic andesite: clinopyroxene + plagioclase). Microlitic, glomeroporphyric and pilotaxitic texture are common. Clinopyroxene phenocrystals (macro ≥ 750 μm and micro ≤300 μm) are common in all three lava series which are investigated by transecting core to rim compositional profiles. They are generally augite and diopside; euhedral to subhedral in shape with oscillatory, normal and reverse zoning patterns. Also, all clinopyroxene phenocrystals are marked by moderately high Mg# (for Ol-basalt: 67-91; avg. 80; Amp-basaltic andesite: 76-83, avg: 80; Px -basaltic andesite 68-95, avg: 81). In Ol-basalt, clinopyroxene phenocrystals show normal zonation (high Mg# cores and low Mg# rims). In Amp-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxenes are generally homogenous in composition with minor variation of Mg# towards the rims. On the contrary, in Px-basaltic andesite, clinopyroxene macro phenocrystals show reverse zonation with the core with low Mg# and the rims with

  19. Effect of oxidation state on Bi mineral speciation in oxidized and reduced granitoids from the Uetsu region, NE Japan

    Izumino, Yuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Nakashima, Kazuo


    The relationship between bismuth (Bi) mineral speciation and redox state in three types of granitoids from the Uetsu region, northeast Japan is investigated. Electron microprobe analysis of Bi minerals, sphalerite, Mg-Fe-bearing carbonate minerals, and muscovite, as well as sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals and microthermometric study of fluid inclusions reveal that Bi mineral speciation varies according to the redox state of the granitoids. For example, native bismuth and bismuthinite are abundant and Bi sulfosalts are rare in the lowest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the reduced Iwafune granite (S-type, ilmenite-series) while Bi sulfosalts (Bi3+) are abundant and trace amounts of native bismuth (Bi0) and bismuthinite are found in the highest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the oxidized Wasada granodiorite (I-type, magnetite-series). Bismuthinite is a major Bi mineral, and native bismuth and Bi sulfosalts occur in only minor amounts in the mineralized zones of the Nishitagawa granodiorite (I-type, ilmenite-series), which has intermediate fS2 and fO2 to that of the Iwafune and Wasada samples. Our study indicates that Bi mineral speciation related to granitic intrusive activity is controlled by the redox state of the magmatism, such that native bismuth is typical of reducing conditions, whereas Bi sulfosalts are typical of oxidizing conditions.

  20. Identification of new NE-trending deep-seated faults and tectonic pattern updating in northern Tunisia (Mogodos-Bizerte region), insights from field and seismic reflection data

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi; Zargouni, Fouad


    The northern Tunisia is occupied by the Tellian domain constituent the eastern end of the Maghrebides, Alpine fold-thrust belt. Study area includes partially the Tellian domain (Mogodos belt) and its foreland (Bizerte region). Most of this region outcrops consist of Numidian thrust sheet flysch attributed to the lower Oligocene-Burdigalian. In the study area, the major fault systems are still subject of discussion. The Numidian nappe structure, the distribution of basalt and Triassic outcrops within and at the front of this Tellian domain deserve more explanation. In this work we intend to update the structural scheme and the tectonic evolution of the northern Tunisia, taking into account salt tectonics and magmatism. The updated tectonic evolution will be integrated in the geodynamic framework of the Central Mediterranean. For this purpose, we have analyzed morphologic, seismic and structural data. The compilation of the results has allowed the identification of new regional NE-trending faults dipping towards the NW: the Bled el Aouana-Bizerte, the Sejnane-Ras Enjla and the Oued el Harka faults. They correspond to the reactivation of deep-seated normal faults splaying on the Triassic evaporites. This fault system constitutes the main component of the northern Tunisia structural scheme and has influenced its tectonic evolution marked by the main following stages. The Tellian thrust-sheets were immobilized at the uppermost Langhian. During the major Tortonian NW-trending compressive phase, these faults were reactivated with reverse kinematics and controlled the distribution of the post-nappes Neogene continental deposits. At the early Pleistocene, a compressive NNW-trending event has reactivated again these faults with sinistral-reverse movements and deformed the post-nappes Neogene series. Late Quaternary to Actual, the tectonic regime continues to be compressive with a NNW-trending maximum horizontal stress.

  1. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas


    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  2. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard


    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  3. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia


    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  4. Integration of spectral, spatial and morphometric data into lithological mapping: A comparison of different Machine Learning Algorithms in the Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Othman, Arsalan A.; Gloaguen, Richard


    Lithological mapping in mountainous regions is often impeded by limited accessibility due to relief. This study aims to evaluate (1) the performance of different supervised classification approaches using remote sensing data and (2) the use of additional information such as geomorphology. We exemplify the methodology in the Bardi-Zard area in NE Iraq, a part of the Zagros Fold - Thrust Belt, known for its chromite deposits. We highlighted the improvement of remote sensing geological classification by integrating geomorphic features and spatial information in the classification scheme. We performed a Maximum Likelihood (ML) classification method besides two Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA): Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) to allow the joint use of geomorphic features, Band Ratio (BR), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), spatial information (spatial coordinates) and multispectral data of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The RF algorithm showed reliable results and discriminated serpentinite, talus and terrace deposits, red argillites with conglomerates and limestone, limy conglomerates and limestone conglomerates, tuffites interbedded with basic lavas, limestone and Metamorphosed limestone and reddish green shales. The best overall accuracy (∼80%) was achieved by Random Forest (RF) algorithms in the majority of the sixteen tested combination datasets.

  5. Sedimentary Facies and Distribution of Reservoir Rocks from the Feixianguan Formation in the Daxian-Xuanhan Region, NE Sichuan


    The Lower Triassic Feixianguan Formation in the Daxian-Xuanhan region, northeastern Sichuan is interpreted to be a carbonate platform intermediate between the West Hubei-East Chongqing marine basin and Guangyuan-Wangcang marine basin. Outcrops, well logs and seismic data have disclosed that three sedimentary facies can be identified for the formation: open platform,platform exposed shoal and restricted platform facies. During the early stage of deposition of the Feixianguan Formation, there existed a sedimentary framework all the same as the Late Permian one:open platform in the west, and platform exposed shoal, restricted platform and open platform eastwards. The gradual increase of the shoal area permitted eastward migration of the shoal facies.During the deposition of the third member of the Feixianguan Formation, the study area was invaded by temporary transgressions. Till the deposition of the fourth member of the formation, the study area was prevailed over the unified restricted platform deposits, as indicated by the sedimentary model for the typical carbonate platform shoal deposits. The reservoir rocks in the Feixianguan Formation consist mostly of solution opening dolostone, and the rock types are assembled by oolitic dolostone, residual oolitic dolostone and sucrosic residual oolitic medium- to coarse-grained dolostone. The deep and shallow dual laterologs show relatively high resistivity, clear amplitude differences and time difference saltation of acoustic waves in some intervals. The seismic responses are indicated by low-frequency and highly variable amplitudes and chaotic reflection configurations. The reservoir rocks are characterized by high porosity-high permeability and medium porosity-medium permeability, showing a marked correlation between porosity and permeability. Solution openings are extremely developed in the reservoir rocks, including cast pores, intergranular solution openings, intercrystal pores, intercrystal solution openings

  6. Nudging Germany

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  7. Leadership within regional climate change adaptation networks: the case of climate adaptation officers in Northern Hesse, Germany

    Stiller, S.J.; Meijerink, S.V.


    In the climate adaptation literature, leadership tends to be an understudied factor, although it may be crucial for regional adaptation governance. This article shows how leadership can be usefully conceptualized and operationalized within regional governance networks dealing with climate adaptation

  8. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Whist, Bendik Solum


    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  9. Accessibility of general practitioners and selected specialist physicians by car and by public transport in a rural region of Germany

    Stentzel, Ulrike; Piegsa, Jens; Fredrich, Daniel; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje


    Background The accessibility of medical care facilities in sparsely populated rural regions is relevant especially for elderly people which often represent a large segment of the population in such regions. Elderly people have higher morbidity risks and a higher demand for medical care. Although travelling with private cars is the dominating traffic mode in rural regions, accessibility by public transport is increasingly important especially because of limited mobility of elderly people. The ...

  10. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Tölle, Merja H; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C


    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes...

  11. Comparison and validation of Logistic Regression and Analytic Hierarchy Process models of landslide susceptibility in monoclinic regions. A case study in Moldavian Plateau, N-E Romania

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai


    The regions with monoclinic geological structure are large portions of earth surface where the repetition of similar landform patterns is very distinguished, the scarps of cuestas being characterized by similar values of morphometrical variables. Landslides are associated with these scarps of cuestas and consequently, a very high value of landslide susceptibility can be reported on its surface. In these regions, landslide susceptibility mapping can be realized for the entire region, or for test areas, with accurate, reliable, and available datasets, concerning multi-temporal inventories and landslide predictors. Because of the similar geomorphologic and landslide distribution we think that if any relevance of using test areas for extrapolating susceptibility models is present, these areas should be targeted first. This study case try to establish the level of usability of landslide predictors influence, obtained for a 90 km2 sample located in the northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (N-E Romania), in other areas of the same physio-geographic region. In a first phase, landslide susceptibility assessment was carried out and validated using logistic regression (LR) approach, using a multiple landslide inventory. This inventory was created using ortorectified aerial images from 1978 and 2005, for each period being considered both old and active landslides. The modeling strategy was based on a distinctly inventory of depletion areas of all landslide, for 1978 phase, and on a number of 30 covariates extracted from topographical and aerial images (both from 1978 and 2005 periods). The geomorphometric variables were computed from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained by interpolation from 1:5000 contour data (2.5 m equidistance), at 10x10 m resolution. Distance from river network, distance from roads and land use were extracted from topographic maps and aerial images. By applying Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) the covariates with significance under 0.001 level

  12. NOx emissions of various sources in Romania and the Rhein-Main region in Germany based on mobile MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2.

    Riffel, Katharina; Sebastian, Donner; Shaiganfar, Reza; Wagner, Thomas; Dörner, Steffen


    The MAX DOAS-Method (Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) is used to analyze different trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, HCHO) at the same time and to determine the trace gas vertical column density (vertically integrated concentration). In summer 2015 we performed car-MAX-DOAS measurements in Romania during the AROMAT2 campaign. We encircled Bucharest at different weather situations and different times of the day. Afterwards the total NOx emissions were derived from the mobile MAX-DOAS observations in combination with wind data. In Germany we performed the same measurement procedure in fall/ winter/ spring 2015 /2016 by encircling the cities Mainz and Frankfurt. For the setting we mounted two MAX-DOAS instruments with different viewing directions (forward and backward) on the roof of a car. One instrument is a commercial mini MAX-DOAS that is built by the German company Hoffmann Messtechnik. The second one was built at the MPI in Mainz. This so-called Tube MAX-DOAS uses an AVANTES spectrometer with better optical characteristics than Hoffmann's mini MAX-DOAS. The advantage of two instruments working at the same time is (besides redundancy) that localized emission plumes can be measured from different directions at different locations. Thus, especially for emission plumes from power plants, tomographic methods can be applied to derive information about the plume altitude. Car-MAX-DOAS observations can cover large areas at a short time with reasonable resolution (depending on the speed of the car and the instruments integration time). Thus these measurements are well suited to validate satellites observations. This work will show the first AROMAT2 results of NOx emissions derived in Romania and in the Rhein-Main region, which is one of the most polluted area in Germany.

  13. Climate change: regional vulnerability of the energy supply in Germany; Klimawandel. Regionale Verwundbarkeit der Energieversorgung in Deutschland

    Goessling-Reisemann, Stefan; Stuehrmann, Soenke; Wachsmuth, Jakob [Bremen Univ. (Germany); Bardt, Hubertus; Biebeler, Hendrik [Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Koeln (Germany); Doerdelmann, Oliver [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasserforschung gGmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Herrmann, Andreas [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)


    In spite of all efforts to protect the climate the German energy sector has to face the need to adapt to the climate change that is already inevitable. The impact of climate protection activities on the energy sector is currently making itself felt in the discussion on the ''energy turnaround'', which is still far from producing a resolution on what adaptations are needed. What consequences follow from the direct effects of climate change on the energy sector, and what adaptive measures are needed? This article presents some initial answers which evolved from the work of seven regional project cooperatives under a promotion campaign directed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the title ''Coping with climate change at a regional level'' (KLIMZUG).

  14. [Regional and individual factors of stress experience in Germany: results of a representative survey with the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ)].

    Kocalevent, R-D; Hinz, A; Brähler, E; Klapp, B F


    The aim of the present study was to define, besides prevalence data, regional and individual factors of stress experience in a representative sample of the German general population. Regional factors were examined separately by federal state and the size of the political location. Individual factors were defined according to the severity of the stress experience as well as on the basis of central social factors such as family state, profession and earnings. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), a validated, self-evaluation process for recording a subjective representation of frequency estimates of stress experiences was used. Data acquisition was carried out by a market research institute in a multi-topic questionnaire (N=2,552). Households were selected by the random route procedure, target persons were also selected at random. The prevalence rate for an elevated stress experience was 14.5%, that for a very high stress experience 3.1% of the sample. People without education exhibited the highest rates of stress experience (36.8%), followed by the unemployed (30.6%). Individual and social factors that favour an increased stress experience are a subjectively poor state of health (OR: 3.42) or belonging to the lower social economic status (OR: 1.30). Furthermore, there are indications of regional factors such as size of the location as well as differences between the individual federal states. An east-west comparion did not show any significant differences with regard to stress experiences. In the light of the illness burden associated with chronic stress situations, preventative measures in cases of unemployment or low level of education should be given priority. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Mapping carbon sequestration in forests at the regional scale - a climate biomonitoring approach by example of Germany

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, PO Box. 1553, Vechta (Germany)


    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognizes carbon (C) fixation in forests as an important contribution for the reduction of atmospheric pollution in terms of greenhouse gases. Spatial differentiation of C sequestration in forests either at the national or at the regional scale is therefore needed for forest planning purposes. Hence, within the framework of the Forest Focus regulation, the aim of this investigation was to statistically analyse factors influencing the C fixation and to use the corresponding associations in terms of a predictive mapping approach at the regional scale by example of the German federal state North Rhine-Westphalia. The results of the methodical scheme outlined in this article should be compared with an already-published approach applied to the same data which were used in the investigation at hand. Site-specific data on C sequestration in humus, forest trees/dead wood and soil from two forest monitoring networks were intersected with available surface information on topography, soil, climate and forestal growing areas and districts. Next, the association between the C sequestration and the influence factors were examined and modelled by linear regression analyses. The resulting regression equations were applied on the surface data to predicatively map the C sequestration for the entire study area. The computations yielded an estimation of 146.7 mio t C sequestered in the forests of North Rhine-Westphalia corresponding to 168.6 t/ha. The calculated values correspond well to according specifications given by the literature. Furthermore, the results are almost identical to those of another pilot study where a different statistical methodology was applied on the same database. Nevertheless, the underlying regression models contribute only a low degree of explanation to the overall variance of the C fixation. This might mainly be due to data quality aspects and missing influence factors in the analyses. In another

  16. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany.

    Wittmaier, M; Langer, S; Sawilla, B


    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Oxygen availability and distance to surface environments determine community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing prokaroytes in two superimposed pristine limestone aquifers in the Hainich region, Germany.

    Opitz, Sebastian; Küsel, Kirsten; Spott, Oliver; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Herrmann, Martina


    We followed the abundance and compared the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in the groundwater of two superimposed pristine limestone aquifers located in the Hainich region (Thuringia, Germany) over 22 months. Groundwater obtained from the upper aquifer (12 m depth) was characterized by low oxygen saturation (0-20%) and low nitrate concentrations (0-20 μM), contrasting with 50-80% oxygen saturation and 40-200 μM nitrate in the lower aquifer (48 m and 88 m depth). Quantitative PCR targeting bacterial and archaeal amoA and 16S rRNA genes suggested a much higher ammonia oxidizer fraction in the lower aquifer (0.4-7.8%) compared with the upper aquifer (0.01-0.29%). In both aquifers, AOB communities were dominated by one phylotype related to Nitrosomonas ureae, while AOA communities were more diverse. Multivariate analysis of amoA DGGE profiles revealed a stronger temporal variation of AOA and AOB community composition in the upper aquifer, pointing to a stronger influence of surface environments. Parallel fluctuations of AOA, AOB, and total microbial abundance suggested that hydrological factors (heavy rain falls, snow melt) rather than specific physicochemical parameters were responsible for the observed community dynamics.

  18. Endogenous Regional Development:Regionen Aktiv in Germany%区域内生式发展:德国区域活力计划

    刘涛; 海宁·邦贝克


    In Europe, the viewpoint of regional endogenous development believes that mobilizing the internal innovation capacity and activating the internal development potential are the basis for sustainable economic and social development of a region. Studies of regional governance suggest, that the establishment of regional social collaboration network can effectively mobilize the enthusiasm of the social members, promote the collaboration of various social fields and improve the efficiency of the social economic activities. In the past 20 years, European countries have started theoretical, political and empirical research of endogenous development in succession. From 2002 to 2007 the implementation of the project“Regionen Aktiv”is an attempt of rural area development strategy and method of the German goverment. This article take“Regionen Aktiv”as an example to introduce the current situation of the regional endogenous development in Germany.%在欧洲,以区域内生式发展为代表的区域发展观点认为,调动一个地区内部的创新能力和激活区域内部发展的潜力,是一个地区经济社会持续发展的基础。对区域管治的研究表明,以共识为基础建立的区域性社会协作网络,能有效调动社会成员的积极性,通过促进各个社会领域的协作性,有效提高社会经济活动的效率。在过去的20多年里,欧洲各国相继展开了内生式发展的理论、政策和实证研究工作。从2002年到2007年间实施的区域活力计划,是德国政府乡村地区发展战略和方法的一次尝试。本文以区域活力计划为例,介绍区域内生式发展在德国的实践情况。

  19. STAMMEX high resolution gridded daily precipitation dataset over Germany: a new potential for regional precipitation climate research

    Zolina, Olga; Simmer, Clemens; Kapala, Alice; Mächel, Hermann; Gulev, Sergey; Groisman, Pavel


    We present new high resolution precipitation daily grids developed at Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn and German Weather Service (DWD) under the STAMMEX project (Spatial and Temporal Scales and Mechanisms of Extreme Precipitation Events over Central Europe). Daily precipitation grids have been developed from the daily-observing precipitation network of DWD, which runs one of the World's densest rain gauge networks comprising more than 7500 stations. Several quality-controlled daily gridded products with homogenized sampling were developed covering the periods 1931-onwards (with 0.5 degree resolution), 1951-onwards (0.25 degree and 0.5 degree), and 1971-2000 (0.1 degree). Different methods were tested to select the best gridding methodology that minimizes errors of integral grid estimates over hilly terrain. Besides daily precipitation values with uncertainty estimates (which include standard estimates of the kriging uncertainty as well as error estimates derived by a bootstrapping algorithm), the STAMMEX data sets include a variety of statistics that characterize temporal and spatial dynamics of the precipitation distribution (quantiles, extremes, wet/dry spells, etc.). Comparisons with existing continental-scale daily precipitation grids (e.g., CRU, ECA E-OBS, GCOS) which include considerably less observations compared to those used in STAMMEX, demonstrate the added value of high-resolution grids for extreme rainfall analyses. These data exhibit spatial variability pattern and trends in precipitation extremes, which are missed or incorrectly reproduced over Central Europe from coarser resolution grids based on sparser networks. The STAMMEX dataset can be used for high-quality climate diagnostics of precipitation variability, as a reference for reanalyses and remotely-sensed precipitation products (including the upcoming Global Precipitation Mission products), and for input into regional climate and operational weather forecast models. We will present

  20. Unusual 5 m E region field-aligned irregularities observed from Northern Germany during the magnetic storm of 17 March 2015

    Chau, Jorge L.; St.-Maurice, Jean-Pierre


    Coherent E region echoes were observed during the 17 March 2015 storm at midlatitudes by multistatic wide field of view radars operating in northern Germany. Two of the stations operated in a monostatic configuration, while one link was set in bistatic mode. Interferometry made it feasible to locate the targets. While the radars were built to measure mesospheric winds from specular meteor echoes, the storm was so intense that it allowed them to observe auroral E region echoes for more than 4 h. All stations detected numerous examples of narrow spectra with slow (≈180 m/s) and fast (up to 1600 m/s) Doppler velocities. The target speeds were much faster than the Doppler velocities for the slow narrow echoes (more than 800 m/s versus 180 m/s) but comparable to the observed Doppler shift for the 1500 m/s narrow fast types. The narrow types came from localized horizontal structures 50 to 80 km wide in range. The fast narrow types came from the upper part of the altitudes associated with Farley-Buneman waves. The slow narrow structures were typically from altitudes lower than 100 km. Unexpectedly, the great majority of the echoes associated with more ordinary ion acoustic turbulence had a positive Doppler shift and came from the east. A companion paper uses these new observations to reevaluate the origin of the narrow echoes and of the asymmetry in the counts. Irrespective of the generation mechanisms, our observations indicate that a combination of unusually large electric field and strong precipitation is needed to produce the unusual echoes.

  1. Multi-Data Approach for remote sensing-based regional crop rotation mapping: A case study for the Rur catchment, Germany

    Waldhoff, Guido; Lussem, Ulrike; Bareth, Georg


    Spatial land use information is one of the key input parameters for regional agro-ecosystem modeling. Furthermore, to assess the crop-specific management in a spatio-temporal context accurately, parcel-related crop rotation information is additionally needed. Such data is scarcely available for a regional scale, so that only modeled crop rotations can be incorporated instead. However, the spectrum of the occurring multiannual land use patterns on arable land remains unknown. Thus, this contribution focuses on the mapping of the actually practiced crop rotations in the Rur catchment, located in the western part of Germany. We addressed this by combining multitemporal multispectral remote sensing data, ancillary information and expert-knowledge on crop phenology in a GIS-based Multi-Data Approach (MDA). At first, a methodology for the enhanced differentiation of the major crop types on an annual basis was developed. Key aspects are (i) the usage of physical block data to separate arable land from other land use types, (ii) the classification of remote sensing scenes of specific time periods, which are most favorable for the differentiation of certain crop types, and (iii) the combination of the multitemporal classification results in a sequential analysis strategy. Annual crop maps of eight consecutive years (2008-2015) were combined to a crop sequence dataset to have a profound data basis for the mapping of crop rotations. In most years, the remote sensing data basis was highly fragmented. Nevertheless, our method enabled satisfying crop mapping results. As an example for the annual crop mapping workflow, the procedure and the result of 2015 are illustrated. For the generation of the crop sequence dataset, the eight annual crop maps were geometrically smoothened and integrated into a single vector data layer. The resulting dataset informs about the occurring crop sequence for individual areas on arable land, so that crop rotation schemes can be derived. The

  2. Identifying and closing gaps in environmental monitoring by means of metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics using the UNESCO biosphere reserve Rhoen (Germany) as an example.

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther


    In Germany, environmental monitoring is intended to provide a holistic view of the environmental condition. To this end the monitoring operated by the federal states must use harmonized, resp., standardized methods. In addition, the monitoring sites should cover the ecoregions without any geographical gaps, the monitoring design should have no gaps in terms of ecologically relevant measurement parameters, and the sample data should be spatially without any gaps. This article outlines the extent to which the Rhoen Biosphere Reserve, occupying a part of the German federal states of Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia, fulfills the listed requirements. The investigation considered collection, data banking and analysis of monitoring data and metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics. Metadata on the monitoring networks were collected by questionnaires and provided a complete inventory and description of the monitoring activities in the reserve and its surroundings. The analysis of these metadata reveals that most of the monitoring methods are harmonized across the boundaries of the three federal states the Rhoen is part of. The monitoring networks that measure precipitation, surface water levels, and groundwater quality are particularly overrepresented in the central ecoregions of the biosphere reserve. Soil monitoring sites are more equally distributed within the ecoregions of the Rhoen. The number of sites for the monitoring of air pollutants is not sufficient to draw spatially valid conclusions. To fill these spatial gaps, additional data on the annual average values of the concentrations of air pollutants from monitoring sites outside of the biosphere reserve had therefore been subject to geostatistical analysis and estimation. This yields valid information on the spatial patterns and temporal trends of air quality. The approach illustrated is applicable to similar cases, as, for example, the harmonization of international monitoring networks.

  3. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne


    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.


    Emine NAS


    Full Text Available Turkish folk culture which incorporates material and spiritual concepts like history, belief, language, philosophy, art which continually has a continually developing dynamic structure. Language which enables social and cultural communication within this structure is a living treasure which feeds on customs and traditions of the people’s lifestyle and reaches to literary relish, thinking and eloquence and which symbolically lives in varieties local handicrafts. When Turkish handicraft history is reviewed, Konya region stands out with its rich accumulation and cultural structure. Knitting and embroidery which can be regarded among Konya folk plastic arts includes a rich vocabulary about the motifs which people coined with regard to three main periods shaping human life; birth, marriage and death. This vocabulary treasure preserving its functions as consolidator of harmony, unity and solidarity in the society is a product of folklore and functions as transmitters of culture which maintain tradition in communication only among women. This study aims to document some of samples in this rich vocabulary which were coined in relation to motifs and thus contribute to database on Turkish cultural history. Türk halk kültürü; tarih, inanç, dil, felsefe, sanat gibi maddimanevi kavramlar bütününü bünyesinde barındıran ve sürekli gelişim gösteren dinamik bir yapıya sahiptir. Bu sistem içinde sosyal ve kültürel iletişimi sağlayan dil; halkın yaşam biçiminde gelenek ve göreneklerden beslenerek, edebî zevk, düşünce ve anlatım gücüne ulaşan varlığı ile yöresel el sanatı çeşitlerinde de sembolik olarak yaşayan bir hazinedir. Türk el sanatları geçmişine bakıldığında Konya yöresi, tarihi birikimi ve kültürel yapısı ile önem taşımaktadır. Konya halk plastik sanatları içinde değerlendirilebilecek; örücülük ve işlemecilik alanlarında; doğum, evlenme ve ölüm gibi insan yaşamını şekillendiren

  5. MiniBooNE

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.


    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  6. Comparison of midlatitude ionospheric F region peak parameters and topside Ne profiles from IRI2012 model prediction with ground-based ionosonde and Alouette II observations

    Gordiyenko, G. I.; Yakovets, A. F.


    difference in the shape of the Alouette-, NeQuick-, IRI02-coorr, and IRI2001-derived Ne profiles, with overestimated Ne values at some altitudes and underestimated Ne values at others. The results obtained in the study showed that the observation-model differences were significant especially for the real observed (not median) data. For practical application, it is clearly important for the IRI2012 model to be adapted to the observed F2-layer peak parameters. However, the model does not offer a simple solution to predict the shape of the vertical electron density profile in the topside ionosphere, because of the problem with the topside shape parameters.

  7. Regional Variability of Lifestyle Factors and Hypertension with Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Population-Based KORA-F4 and SHIP-TREND Studies in Germany.

    Stöckl, Doris; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Krabbe, Christine; Völzke, Henry; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) shows regional differences in Germany. The purpose of the project was to compare the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2D in two regions in Germany, the Northeast and the South, and to evaluate their associations with regional variations in lifestyle factors and hypertension. Data from the KORA-F4 study (South Germany, 2006-2008) and the SHIP-TREND study (Northeast Germany, 2008-2012) were used. Participants aged 35-79 years without T2D with an overnight fasting of more than 8 hours and an oral glucose tolerance test were included: KORA-F4: n = 2,616 and SHIP-TREND: n = 1,968. The prevalence of prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D was especially high in men (about 60%) and women (about 50%) in the Northeast, followed by men (about 50%) and women (about 30%) in the South. Lifestyle factors associated with T2D varied between the regions: more participants in the Northeast were active smokers and the percentages of people with overweight or obesity were greater than in their southern counterparts. However, these differences could not explain the striking disparity in prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. The frequency of hypertension was also distinctly higher in the Northeast than in the South and clearly associated with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Especially in men living in the Northeast, screening individuals with blood pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg might reveal up to 70% of those with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Knowledge about regional variability in T2D and related risk factors is important for the planning of diabetes prevention programs. In our analyses, common lifestyle factors did not nearly explain these variations between the northern SHIP-TREND and the southern KORA-F4 studies. Further examinations of regional socioeconomic, political, environmental and other aspects are needed. Meanwhile, targeted diabetes prevention strategies with a special focus on men living in the northern parts of Germany are reasonable.

  8. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian


    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  9. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.


    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  10. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne


    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  11. The transforming perception of a regional geohazard between coastal defence and mediated discourse on global warming: Storm surges in Hamburg, Germany

    Neverla, I.; Lüthje, C.


    The term regional geohazard is used for a major geophysical risk which can lead to a natural disaster. The effects will be strictly located to a specific region. It is expected but still not proven that global warming will intensify weather extremes and thus the number of regional geohazards will increase. Regional geohazards are not dangerous per se, but from the perspective of human being certain weather and nature extremes are considered dangerous as they impose damage on human beings and their belongings. Therefore the media often call them ‘natural disaster’ and as a matter of fact it seems to be a ‘must’ - according to theory and practice of news selections - that media report on any natural disaster that occur in their region. Moreover, media even report on geohazards in any other region as soon as these events seem to have any general impact. The major geophysical risk along the coast of the North Sea is storm surges. A long list of historical disasters has deeply engraved the ubiquity of this hazard into the collective memory and habitus of the local population. Not only coastal region is concerned by this danger but also the megacity of Hamburg. Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany and the sixth-largest city in the European Union. The Hamburg Metropolitan Region has more than 4.3 million inhabitants. The estuary of the river Elbe extends from Cuxhaven (coast) to Hamburg a distance of about 130 km. Hamburg has often been subject to storm surges with significant damages. But after the storm flood in 1855 for more than 100 years until 1962 no severe storm surge happened. The Big Flood in the night from February 16 to February 17 1962 destroyed the homes of about 60.000 people. The death toll amounted to 315 in the city of Hamburg, where the storm surge had a traumatic impact and was followed by political decisions driven by the believe in technological solutions. After 1962 massive investments into the coastal defence were made and dikes

  12. [Direct medical costs of (severe) obesity: a bottom-up assessment of over- vs. normal-weight adults in the KORA-study region (Augsburg, Germany)].

    von Lengerke, T; Reitmeir, P; John, J


    To estimate and compare direct medical costs of illness of German adults in different BMI-groups and different degrees of obesity. In a sub-sample (n = 947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001, a cross-sectional health survey of the adult population in the Augsburg region (Germany; age: 25-74), visits to physicians, receipt and purchase of drugs, and inpatient days in hospital were assessed over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2)) was assessed anthropometrically. Respondents in normal weight (18.5 or = 35) range were compared in their costs of illness via analyses of covariance and regression analyses based on generalized linear models. Physician visits and inpatient days were evaluated as recommended by the Working Group "Methods in Health Economic Evaluation", and drugs by actual costs. Sex, age, socio-economic status (Helmert-Index), sickness fund (statutory vs. private), and place of residence (Augsburg City vs. District of Augsburg or Aichach-Friedberg) were adjusted for. While respondents with moderate obesity statistically did not differ significantly in their direct medical costs from those in normal weight or pre-obese range (1,080.14 euro vs. 847.60 euro and 830.59 euro; for users of care: 1,215.55 euro vs. 993.18 euro and 1,003.23 euro [all estimates adjusted and per annum]), those with severe obesity had significantly higher costs (2,572.19 euro; for users of care: 2,964.87 euro). Sub-analyses for individual parameters of health care use revealed that this pattern is largely due to inpatient days in hospital and receipt/purchase of drugs only available on prescription. On average, results indicate excess direct medical costs primarily in people with severe, and less with moderate obesity. In particular, they underline the need to distinguish moderate vs. severe obesity (classes 1 vs. 2-3) in health economics and health services research.

  13. Regional air quality in Leipzig, Germany: detailed source apportionment of size-resolved aerosol particles and comparison with the year 2000.

    van Pinxteren, D; Fomba, K W; Spindler, G; Müller, K; Poulain, L; Iinuma, Y; Löschau, G; Hausmann, A; Herrmann, H


    A detailed source apportionment of size-resolved aerosol particles in the area of Leipzig, Germany, was performed. Sampling took place at four sites (traffic, traffic/residential, urban background, regional background) in parallel during summer 2013 and the winters 2013/14/15. Twenty-one samples were taken per season with a 5-stage Berner impactor and analysed for particulate mass, inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon, trace metals, and a wide range of organic species. The compositional data were used to estimate source contributions to particulate matter (PM) in quasi-ultrafine (up to 140 nm), accumulation mode, and coarse size ranges using Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) receptor modelling. Traffic (exhaust and general traffic emissions), coal combustion, biomass combustion, photochemistry, general secondary formation, cooking, fungal spores, urban dust, fresh sea/road salt, and aged sea salt were all found to contribute to different extents to observed PM concentrations. PMF derived estimates agreed reasonably with estimates from established macrotracer approaches. Quasi-ultrafine PM originated mainly from traffic (20-50%) and photochemistry (30-50%) in summer, while it was dominated by solid fuel (mainly biomass) combustion in winter (50-70%). Tentatively identified cooking aerosol contributed up to 36% on average at the residential site. For accumulation mode particles, two secondary sources typically contributed 40-90% to particle mass. In winter, biomass and coal combustion contributions were up to ca. 25% and 45%, respectively. Main sources of coarse particles were diverse and included nearly all PMF-resolved ones depending on season and air mass origin. For PM10, traffic (typically 20-40% at kerbside sites), secondary formation (30-60%), biomass combustion (10-15% in winter), and coal combustion (30-40% in winter with eastern air mass inflow) were the main quantified sources. At the residential site, contributions

  14. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie


    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  15. How chemical pollution becomes a social problem. Risk communication and assessment through regional newspapers during the management of PCB pollutions of the Rhône River (France).

    Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé


    The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptation to the climatic change in Germany. Regional scenarios and national challenges; Anpassung an Klimaaenderungen in Deutschland. Regionale Szenarien und nationale Aufgaben



    The report describes the observed climatic change based on the examples of extreme rainfall and Elbe flood in August 2002, and the extreme heat-wave summer 2003. The expected consequences of the climatic change in Germany require adaptations with respect to flood prevention and control measures, forestry and heat-wave warning systems. The competence center ''climatic change consequences and adaptation'' was established within the Federal Environmental Agency.

  17. Trends and Variability of Storminess in the NE Atlantic-European Region during 1874-2007 and their relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Wang, X. L.; Zwiers, F. W.; Swail, V. R.; Feng, Y.; Wan, H.


    This study builds on the previous studies on storminess conditions in the Northeast Atlantic-European region. The period of surface pressure data analyzed is extended from 1881-1998 to 1874-2007; and the region analyzed is extended south to the Iberian Peninsula. The seasonality and regional differences of storminess conditions in this region are also explored in more detail. The results show that storminess conditions in this region have undergone substantial decadal or longer time scale fluctuations, with considerable seasonal and regional differences. The most notable differences are seen between winter and summer, and between the North Sea area and other parts of the region. In particular, winter storminess shows an unprecedented maximum in the 1990s in the North Sea area and over southern Iberian Peninsula, while it has declined over the Bay of Biscay and northern Iberian Peninsula, and in the northwest part of the region. In summer, storminess appears to have declined in most parts of this region, except southern Iberian Peninsula where summer storminess has increased significantly. In the transition seasons, the storminess trend is characterized by decreases in the south-central part of the region and increases in the extreme north part, with decreases being most significant over the Bay of Biscay and northern Iberian Peninsula in both seasons, while increases in the extreme north part of the region being most significant in spring. In particular, the results also show that in the North Sea area the earliest storminess maximum occurred in summer (around 1880), while the latest storminess maximum occurred in winter (in the early 1990s). Looking at the annual metrics alone (as in previous studies), one would conclude that the latest storminess maximum is at about the same level as the earliest storminess maximum, without realizing that this is comparing the highest winter storminess level with the highest summer storminess level in the period of record

  18. Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses

    Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.


    The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67‧N-11°74‧W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the

  19. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Middle-Late Ordovician Granites and Gabbros in the Erguna Region, NE China:Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of the Erguna Massif

    Shuo Zhao; Wenliang Xu; Wei Wang; Jie Tang; Yihan Zhang


    Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data and whole-rock major and trace element data for the Middle to Late Ordovician gabbros and granites in the Erguna Massif, NE China were presented in this paper. The petrogenesis of these rocks and the Early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the massif were discussed. Zircons from the granites and gabbros are of magmatic origin based on their cathodolumi-nescence (CL) images. The206Pb/238U ages obtained from 20 spots on zircons from the granites range from 446±9 to 464±10 Ma, yielding a weighted mean age of 455±10 Ma; and 16 spots on zircons from the gabbros range from 465±10 to 466±7 Ma, yielding a weighted mean age of 465±2 Ma. Chemically, the Late Ordovician granites in the Erguna Massif are weakly peraluminous and similar to A-type granites. The granites and gabbros are all enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, K), and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti); they all exhibit marked negative Eu anomalies. Their zirconεHf(t) values range mainly from +1.86 to +6.21 (for the granites) and +1.39 to +3.89 (for the gabbros), except for one spot with a value of -0.27 (for a gabbro). TheTDM1 ages for the gabbros andTDM2 ages for the granites vary from 928 to 1 091 Ma and from 1 287 to 1 675 Ma, respectively. It is concluded that the primary magma of the granites could have been derived by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic newly accreted crustal ma-terial, whereas the primary magma of the gabbros originated by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. These Middle-Late Or-dovician granites and gabbros constitute a typical bimodal igneous rock association, implying an exten-sional environment that was probably related to the post-collisional development of the Erguna and Xing’an massifs in the early Early Paleozoic.

  20. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Pott, E


    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  1. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)


    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)


    Tadeu Alencar Arrais


    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta resultados de proyecto de pesquisa en la línea de desarollo regional, con foco en la análisis de los impactos de los Planos Plurianuales en la estructura regional del territorio de Goiás. La análisis fue centrada en los impactos de los dos primeros Planos Plurianuales - Goiás para el siglo 21- PPA 2000/2003 y el Goiás para el siglo 21 - avanzar más - PPA 2004/2007 -en las regiones Norte de Goiás, Nordeste de Goiás y Entorno del Distrito Federal. Los resultados apuntan para la necesidad de maduración de las práticas de gestión, especialmente en relación al grado de participación de los gobiernos municipales, y para la necesidad de inversiones en infraestructura, especialmente estrutuctura urbana básica y estradas, demanda apuntada precisamente por los agentes municipales.

  3. Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany

    Terschüren Claudia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

  4. Development of an internet based geothermal information system for Germany - region Baden-Wuerttemberg; Aufbau eines geothermischen Informationssystems fuer Deutschland - Landesteil Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Jodocy, M.; Stober, I. [Regierungspraesidium Freiburg (RPF), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)


    Renewable energies as a part of the total energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany are to be extended in the next years. In terms of geothermal resources the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) supports the project ''Development of an Internet Based Geothermal System for Germany'' (GeotIS). The total duration of the project is three years. Lead-managed by the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA-Institute) it is realized in a country wide joint venture project with different partners. Initially the geothermal information system will contain data only about hydrogeothermal resources. The object of the project is to improve quality in the planning stage of geothermal plants and to minimize explorations risks. Key parameters are production rate and temperature. The District Authority (Regierungspraesidium) Freiburg has been assigned to attend to the areas of the Upper Rhine Graben and the North Alpine Foreland Basin (Molasse Basin) both situated in Baden-Wuerttemberg. First intermediate results are presented. (orig.)

  5. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Paweł Kowalik


    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  6. Geochemistry and petrology of Late Cretaceous subvolcanic rocks (Macka-Trabzon) in the north of the eastern Black Sea region, NE-Turkey

    Aydin, Faruk


    In this study, geochronological, geochemical and isotopical data for the early Campanian subvolcanic rocks (Macka-Trabzon) in the north of the eastern Blacksea region, northeastern Turkey, have initially been presented with the aim of determining its magma source and geodynamic evolution. The subvolcanic rocks cutting the subduction-related Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimantary rocks in the region are characterized by several sills and dykes with columnar structures and they consist of amphibole-rich quartz-diorite and quartz-tonalite porphyries, with some dioritic mafic microgranular enclaves. The host rocks have a microgranular porphyritic texture, and they contain 15-25% phenocryst of plagioclase and amphibole and have a matrix that is composed primarily of fine-grained quartz, orthoclase, and plagioclase. Accessory apatite, zircon and Fe-Ti oxides are present in all of the rocks. Secondary minerals such as epidote, calcite, sericite and clays are sometimes observed in the matrix or as hydothermal alteration products of some amphibole and plagioclase phenocrysts. When compared to the host rocks, the magmatic enclaves without quartz are fine-grained, and they contain higher ferromagnesian phases and lower feldspar minerals. Ar-Ar geochronology studies on the amphibole separates reveal that the porphyries have a crystallization ages of 81±0.5 Ma. All samples show a high-K calc-alkaline differentiation trend and I-type features with metaluminous character. The rocks and magmatic enclaves are characterized by enrichment of LILE and depletion of HFSE with negative Nb, Ti, Zr and P anomalies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are not fractionated [(La/Yb)N = 9-11] and do not display Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7-0.9). The porphyritic rocks and their enclaves are almost isotopically similar. Sr-Nd isotopic data for all of the samples display initial Sr = 0.7085-0.7087, epsilon Nd (81 Ma) = -6.0 to -6.9, with TDM = 1.38-1.63 Ga. The lead isotopic ratios are (206Pb/204Pb

  7. The Mid-Infrared [SIV]/[NeII] versus [NeIII]/[NeII] Correlation

    Groves, Brent; Brandl, Bernhard


    The mid-infrared ratio [NeIII]15.6mum/[NeII]12.8mum is a strong diagnostic of the ionization state of emission line objects, due to its use of only strong neon emission lines only weakly affected by extinction. However this ratio is not available to ground-based telescopes as only a few spectroscopic windows are available in the MIR. To deal with this problem we aimed to verify if there exists a conversion law between ground-accessible, strong MIR line ratio [SIV]/[NeII] and the diagnostic [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio that can serve as a reference for future ground-based observations. We collated the [SIV]10.5mum, [NeII]12.8mum, [NeIII]15.6\\mum and [SIII]18.7mum emission line fluxes from a wide range of sources in the rich Spitzer and ISO archives, and compared the [NeIII]/[NeII], [SIV]/[SIII], and [SIV]/[NeII] ratios. We find a strong correlation between the [SIV]/[NeII] and [\

  8. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Gong-Ruei Ho


    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30°30° - 40°40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50°50° - 70°70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60°60° - 80°80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  9. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Gong-Ruei Ho


    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  10. Integrated landscape planning and remuneration of agri-environmental services. Results of a case study in the Fuhrberg region of Germany.

    V Haaren, Christina; Bathke, Manfred


    Until now, existing remuneration of environmental services has not sufficiently supported the goals of spending money more effectively on the environment and of motivating farmers. Only a small share of the budgets for agriculture in the EU, as well as in US and other countries, is available for buying environmental goods and services beyond the level of good farming practice (GFP). This combined with the insufficient targeting of compensation payments to areas where special measures are needed leads to an unsatisfactorily low impact of agri-environment measures compared to other driving forces that stimulate the intensification of farming. The goal of this paper is to propose a management concept that enhances the ecological and cost efficiency of agri-environment measures. Components of the concept are a comprehensive environmental information base with prioritised goals and targets (available in Germany from landscape planning) and new remuneration models, which complement conventional compensation payments that are based upon predetermined measures and cost. Comprehensive landscape planning locates and prioritises areas which require environmental action. It contains the information that authorities need to prioritise funding for environmental services and direct measures to sites which need environmental services beyond the level of GFP. Also appropriate remuneration models, which can enhance the cost efficiency of public spending and the motivation of the farmers, can be applied on the base of landscape planning. Testing of the planning methodology and of one of the remuneration models (success-oriented remuneration) in a case study area ("Fuhrberger Feld" north of Hanover, Germany) demonstrated the usability of the concept and led to proposals for future development of the methodology and its application in combination with other approaches.

  11. Drugs in East Germany.

    Dressler, J; Müller, E


    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  12. Depression Disturbs Germany


    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  13. EMI in Germany

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen


    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  14. Germany at CERN


    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  15. Banking service in Germany



    <正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within

  16. Creation of Regional Habitat Cover Maps: Application of the NE Terrestrial Habitat Classification System: Completion of Virginia & Maryland Piedmont and Coastal Plain to be consistent with rest of region

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project completed the comprehensive wildlife habitat map of the eastern region, including all states from Maine to Virginia, west to New York, Pennsylvania and...

  17. Calculating the purchasing power of tourists in a wine region – a case study from Germany / Kaufkraft von Touristen in einer Weinregion – eine Fallstudie aus Deutschland

    Szolnoki Gergely


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this consumer study was firstly to calculate the economic importance, in term of purchasing power, of visitors in the German wine growing region Rheingau, and secondly to examine their demographic and behavioural characteristics, as well as their the motivation using segmentation approach. In the framework of a face-to-face survey, conducted between April and May 2015, a total of 1,555 tourists were interviewed at 18 different locations in the Rheingau. Four wine tourist types were identified by using cluster analysis: 1 Wine and Rheingau lovers, who have a high interest in wine and visit the region several times a year; 2 wine-oriented tourists, who use the culinary offerings of the Rheingau with pleasure but do not come to the region very often; 3 new visitors, who come to the region mainly because of the nature and history; and 4 foreign tourists, who have less knowledge about the Rheingau and buy less wine in the region. With the help of the purchasing power calculation, we can state that approximately 18 % of the total production is purchased directly in the region by tourists.

  18. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff


    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications.

  19. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)


    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  20. Geothermal models on different scales - understanding and geothermal characterization of a fault zone before simulating - a case study from the Munich region (Germany)

    Dussel, Michael; Ortiz, Adrián; Thomas, Rüdiger; Schulz, Rüdiger


    A challenging task for geothermal exploration is the geothermal characterization of fault zones, which seems to play an important role for the exploration of the geothermal Malm Aquifer in the Munich region. The results of an actualized regional thermo-hydraulic model of the Munich region as well as flow-, temperature- and stress analysis for a more detailed local THM-model in the realm of a geothermal power plant are presented. Whereas the main focus of the actualized regional model lies in the forecast of potential temperature or hydraulic pressure interferences of geothermal doublet or triplet systems, the more detailed local model contributes to the understanding of flow, temperature distribution and induced microseismicity, which might occur during production or injection. The flow regime was described with the diagnostic plot derived from the analysis of pump tests. The temperature distribution in a well was modeled (Comsol). Joints and faults in a well were investigated to their reactivation potential in the recent stress field (slip-tendency analysis, GMI-software). Unfortunately only scarce data for geomechanical analysis are registered in the standard exploration scheme for geothermal wells in the Munich region, especially for determining the minimum horizontal stress. It is therefore highly recommended to extend the well measuring and logging program in the future.

  1. Caractérisation de formations Miocène de la région de Taza pour des valorisations et exploitations industrielles Industrial value of the Miocene calcarenites in the region of Taza

    Lahrach A.


    Full Text Available La valorisation de la formation Miocène dans la région de Taza, représentée par les calcarénites, a été menée selon deux axes ; tout d’abord une étude géologique, couplée à des études de terrain nous a permis d’évaluer l’épaisseur de la formation, une carte d’épaisseur a été dressée à cet effet. L’étude géotechnique de ces matériaux révèle que ces calcarénites ont des qualités intéressantes pour des utilisations industrielles. En effet, en se basant sur les différents tests de dureté (Los Angeles et Micro Duval, la résistance à la rupture et la porosité de nos quatre échantillons, une valeur ajoutée industrielle peut leur être attribuée dans beaucoup de domaines, comme: -Graves non traités pour couches de fondations pour les chaussées ou grave bitumeux de fondation; -Ajouts dans les bétons; -Roche marbrière et pierre de façade. En fin, sur la base de ces études géologiques et géotechniques, on peut considérer que les calcarénites de la région de Taza répondent à l’ensemble des critères d’une exploitation industrielle. The valuation of the Miocene formation in the Taza region, represented by calcarenites, was conducted according two axes; first geological survey, coupled with field studies allowed us to evaluate the thickness of the formation, a thickness map was derived from this purpose. The geotechnical study of these materials reveals that these calcarenites have interesting qualities for industrial uses. Indeed, based on the different hardness tests (Los Angeles and Micro Duval, the tensile strength and porosity of our four samples, an industrial added value can be attributed to them in many areas, such as: - Untreated Graves for layers of foundations for pavements or bituminous serious foundation; - Additions in concrete; - Roche marble and stone facade. Finally, on the basis of geological and geotechnical studies, we can consider that the calcarenites of the Taza region meet

  2. Study on the Upgrading and Recognition of Qualifications in the Field of the Restoration and Rehabilitation of the Architectural Heritage. Summary Report. National Reports: Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium Dutch-Speaking Region, France, Italy, United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama. First Edition.

    Paulet, Jean-Louis; And Others

    Five studies assessed the impact on systems and jobs of the recognition of qualifications in the field of the restoration and rehabilitation of the architectural heritage in five countries: Germany, Belgium Dutch-speaking region, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. A striking feature in all five countries was the insignificant share of initial…

  3. GP-support by means of AGnES-practice assistants and the use of telecare devices in a sparsely populated region in Northern Germany – proof of concept

    Scriba Sibylle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many rural regions in Germany, the proportion of the elderly population increases rapidly. Simultaneously, about one-third of the presently active GPs will retire until 2010. Often it is difficult to find successors for vacant GP-practices. These regions require innovative concepts to avoid the imminent shortage in primary health care. The AGnES-concept comprises the delegation of GP-home visits to qualified AGnES-practice assistants (AGnES: GP-supporting, community-based, e-health-assisted, systemic intervention. Main objectives were the assessment of the acceptance of the AGnES-concept by the participating GPs, patients, and AGnES-practice assistants, the kind of delegated tasks, and the feasibility of home telecare in a GP-practice. Methods In this paper, we report first results of the implementation of this concept in regular GP-practices, conducted November 2005 – March 2007 on the Island of Rügen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. This study was meant as a proof of concept. The GP delegated routine home-visits to qualified practice employees (here: registered nurses. Eligible patients were provided with telecare-devices to monitor disease-related physiological values. All delegated tasks, modules conducted and questionnaire responses were documented. The participating patients were asked for their acceptance based on standardized questionnaires. The GPs and AGnES-practice assistants were asked for their judgement about different project components, the quality of health care provision and the competences of the AGnES-practice assistants. Results 550 home visits were conducted. 105 patients, two GPs and three AGnES-practice assistants (all registered nurses participated in the project. 48 patients used telecare-devices to monitor health parameters. 87.4% of the patients accepted AGnES-care as comparable to common GP-care. In the course of the project, the GPs delegated an increasing number of both monitoring

  4. [Regional Dementia Care Networks in Germany--results from the DemNet-D-Study regarding the quality of life of their users].

    Gräske, Johannes; Meyer, Saskia; Schmidt, Annika; Schmidt, Sylvia; Laporte Uribe, Franziska; Thyrian, Jochen René; Schäfer-Walkmann, Susanne; Wolf-Ostermann, Karin


    Regional dementia care networks become more and more important in the care for community-dwelling persons with dementia (PwD). However, the quality of life of PwD, served by dementia care networks, has not been investigated yet. It also remains unclear if there are differences between urban and rural dementia care networks. This study therefore aims at investigating the quality of life of PwD using this care model, also regarding possible regional differences. Within the DemNet-D-Study, PwD and their primary caregivers were interviewed using typical outcome parameters (quality of life: QoL-AD, depression: GDS, challenging behaviour: CMAI, capacities of daily living: IADL, caregiver burden: BIZA-D). In addition to these parameters, regional differences were analysed using multi-level-analysis. In total, 560 PwD (79.7 years; 57.0 % female) and their caregivers participated in the study. Both self- and proxy-rated quality of life is on a moderate level. The analysis shows a sufficient explanation of the quality of life. (self: p<0.001, R2=0.493; proxy: p<0.001, R2=0.406). Higher quality of life was found for PwD living together with their care givers and for those PwD with higher capacities of daily living. Regional (urban vs. rural) differences could not be found. The quality of life of community-dwelling PwD using regional dementia care networks is comparable to those in other studies of outpatient dementia care. Further investigation should be carried out regarding different types of dementia care networks.

  5. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    J. Marganiec


    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  6. Application of trajectory clustering and source attribution methods for investigating regional CO2 and CH4 concentrations at Germany's highest mountain site

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) represent the most important contributors to increased radiative forcing enhancing it together by contemporary 2.65 W/m2 on the global average (IPCC 2013). The unbroken increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) has been unequivocally attributed to human emissions mainly coming from fossil fuel burning and land-use changes, while the oceans and terrestrial ecosystems slightly attenuate this rise with seasonally varying strength. Short-term fluctuations in the GHG concentrations that superimpose the seasonal cycle and the climate change driven trend reflect the presence of regional sources and sinks. A perfect place for investigating the comprehensive influence of these regional emissions is provided by the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (47.42°N, 10.98°E, 2.650m a.s.l.) situated in the eastern Alps at the southern side of Zugspitze mountain. Located just 300m below the highest peak of the German Alps, the exposed site is one of the currently 30 global core sites of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme and thus provides ideal conditions to study source-receptor relationships for greenhouse gases. We propose a stepwise statistical methodology for examining the relationship between synoptic-scale atmospheric transport patterns and climate gas mole fractions to finally receive a characterization of the sampling site with regard to the key processes driving CO2 and CH4 concentration levels. The first step entails a reliable radon-based filtering approach to subdivide the detected air masses according to their regional or 'background' origin. Simultaneously, a large number of ten-day back-trajectories from Schneefernerhaus every two hours over the entire study period 2011 - 2015 is calculated with the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al. 2005) and subjected to cluster analysis. The weather- and emission strength-related (short

  7. Small forest parcels, management diversity and valuable coppice habitats: an 18th century political compromise in the Osnabrück region (NW Germany and its long-lasting legacy

    Mölder A


    Full Text Available This study underlines the often under-estimated importance of forest ownership and land tenure in European forest biodiversity studies which are crucial for the management, structure, and tree species composition of woodland. In particular it is assumed that, in regions with both state-owned forests and smaller private forests, the latter contain more relict habitats shaped by historical woodland management practices. A government decree of 1721, a political compromise, was crucial to the present-day woodland ownership pattern and distribution of woodland habitats in the Osnabrück region (northwest Germany. It resulted in the privatization of woodlands held in common for centuries and created a huge number of small, private forest parcels in the 18th century. These developments are discussed in relation to Europe-wide processes in forest affairs. Mainly due to the low economic importance of these forest parcels, as well as the individualism of the forest owners, coppice structures providing valuable habitats have persisted until today. For instance, over-aged coppice stands provide important habitat conditions for saproxylic species and unique herbaceous layers. These valuable habitats must be protected while creating new coppice stands to eventually take their place in future decades. Management plans for Natura 2000 sites in the Osnabrück region should address this problem while reconciling any conflict of interests between private owners and nature conservation organizations. Researchers are encouraged to give more consideration to the important relationship between current woodland biodiversity and the history of forest ownership patterns.

  8. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.


    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  9. Screening for trisomy 21 with maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-14 weeks: a regional experience from Germany.

    Soergel, P; Pruggmayer, M; Schwerdtfeger, R; Muhlhaus, K; Scharf, A


    To examine the efficacy of first trimester screening for trisomy 21 using a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT), maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in a regional setting [maternity unit of the Women's University Hospital, Hannover Medical School (study center); two regional private centers for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics; laboratory for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics]. Fetal NT, crown-rump length, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Risk calculation was carried out using the FMF computer algorithm. The patients were informed and counseled about possible invasive test options if the risk was 1 in 300 or greater. Fetal outcome was obtained by questionnaires given to the patients or sent to their gynecologists. The detection and false-positive rates for the different screening strategies were calculated. Pregnancy outcome was obtained in 2,497 cases, of which 2,196 cases had completed first trimester screening with NT and maternal serum biochemistry and 301 additional cases had NT measurement only. The median age was 32.5 years. In our population 11 affected fetuses were found. The estimated risk for trisomy 21 was 1 in 300 or greater in 64, 82, 88 and 88% of affected fetuses using maternal age alone, in combination with nuchal translucency, with maternal serum biochemical markers or with both NT and biochemical markers for a false-positive rate of 28.2, 5.1, 15.3 and 4.0%. First trimester screening using maternal age, NT, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A is highly effective for the detection of trisomy 21 and is associated with a sensitivity of about 90% for 5% false-positive patients. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences - a case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany

    Zech, M.; Krause, T.; Meszner, S.; Faust, D.


    With our study (Zech et al., Quaternary International, accepted) we aim at contributing to the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment of the Saxonian loess region by investigating sedimentary n-alkanes as plant leafwax derived biomarkers in two loess-paleosol sequences (LPSs), namely the Gleina and the Rottewitz LPSs. The Weichselian paleosols are characterised by n-alkane concentration maxima when compared to the loess layers. When this coincides with high odd-over-even predominances (OEPs), this points not only to increased n-alkane input and/or production but also to increased n-alkane preservation in the soils, namely in gleysols with water-logged edaphic conditions. By contrast, the buried cambisols reveal low OEPs, indicating accelerated degradation under aerobic edaphic conditions. The n-alkane concentrations in the truncated Eemian Interglacial paleosol are very low. This reflects the removal of the formerly n-alkane-enriched Eemian topsoil, low n-alkane input into the Bt-Sd-horizon (subsoil horizon of the Eemian luvisol) and/or strong soil organic matter mineralization. Four investigated n-alkane ratios show distinct variations during the Weichselian tempting to infer vegetation changes in terms of varying contributions of tree/shrub-derived (dominated by nC27 or nC29) versus grass-derived (dominated by nC31 or nC33) n-alkanes. However, using the OEP as a proxy for degradation and considering that n-alkane ratios are prone to degradation effects, we highlight that the above interpretation is very likely incorrect. Indeed, degradation can be accounted for most variability of the n-alkane ratios. Applying an endmember model based on a modern n-alkane reference dataset allows estimating the contribution of tree/shrub- versus grass-derived n-alkanes semi-quantitatively. These modelling results suggest that both the Gleina and the Rottewitz LPSs were formed under prevailing grassland. Minor contributions of trees/shrubs are only likely for the Gleinaer Soil

  11. Germany at CERN


    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  12. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G


    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany.

  13. Ne-20/Ne-22 in the Martian Atmosphere: New Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Herzog, G. F.; Nagao, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Kusakabe, M.


    Analyses of Ne trapped in "pods" of impact melt in the Elephant Moraine 79001 (EET 79001) Martian meteorite led to suggest (Ne-20/Ne-22) approx.10 in the Martian atmosphere (MA). In contrast, obtained trapped (Ne-20/Ne-22)Tr approx.7 from an impact melt vein in Yamato 793605 (Y-793605) and concluded that the isotopic composition of Martian Ne remained poorly defined. A "pyroxene-rich" separate from Dhofar 378 (Dho 378) analyzed gave a comparatively high trapped Ne concentration and (Ne-20/Ne-22) = 7.3+/-0.2 in agreement with the Y-793605 value. We explore the hypothesis that Martian Ne was trapped in the Dho 378 meteorite in a manner similar to entrapment of terrestrial Ne in tektites strengthening the "Martian atmosphere" interpretation. We also report new data for Northwest Africa 7034 (NWA 7034) that are consistent with the Ne data for Dho 378.

  14. Atmospheric distribution and seasonality of airborne polyfluorinated compounds. Spatial and temporal concentration variations from ship- and land-based measurements in Northern Germany, the Atlantic Ocean, and Polar Regions

    Dreyer, Annekatrin


    In order to assess the distribution of per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) in ambient air on temporal as well as spatial scales, air samples were taken during several sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Permanent air monitoring stations close to Hamburg (Germany) as well as several research vessels operating in the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Baltic Sea were used as sampling platforms. Airborne PFC were sampled using glass fibre filters (particlebound PFC) and a sandwich polyurethane foam and the polymer resin XAD-2 (gaseous PFC). Samples were extracted by acetone: methyl-tert-butyl ether (1:1) or methanol and detected by GC-MS or HPLC-MS/MS. Airborne PFC were detected in all of the collected air samples, even in Antarctica, with southern hemispheric concentrations being lower than those of the northern hemisphere which provides further evidence that this emerging group of contaminants is subject to atmospheric long-range transport from mainly northern hemispheric source regions towards remote areas. While the persistent perfluorinated acids (PFCA, PFSA) were only determined at concentrations below 1 pg m{sup -3} in the particulate phase, their neutral volatile precursors (fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FASA), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido ethanols (FASE)) occurred predominantly in the gas phase at concentrations that were usually two orders of magnitude higher and ranged from 4.5 pg m{sup -3} in the Southern Ocean to 335 pg m{sup -3} in source regions in ship-based samples and from 17 to 972 pg m{sup -3} in land-based samples. Furthermore, PFC in ambient air varied strongly over time as observed during a 14 months lasting sampling campaign close to Hamburg. Emissions from nearby local sources as well as long-range transport of PFC emitted from diffuse sources west and southwest of the sampling sites were considered as explanation for the observed pattern. (orig.)

  15. The NeXT Mission

    Takahashi, T.; Kelley, R; Mitsuda, K.; Kunieda, H.; Petre, R.; White, N; Dotani, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; K. Koyama


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will a...

  16. Photoionization of Ne Atoms and Ne+ Ions Near the K Edge: Precision Spectroscopy and Absolute Cross-sections

    Müller, Alfred; Bernhardt, Dietrich; Borovik, Alexander, Jr.; Buhr, Ticia; Hellhund, Jonas; Holste, Kristof; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Klumpp, Stephan; Martins, Michael; Ricz, Sandor; Seltmann, Jörn; Viefhaus, Jens; Schippers, Stefan


    Single, double, and triple photoionization of Ne+ ions by single photons have been investigated at the synchrotron radiation source PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany. Absolute cross-sections were measured by employing the photon–ion merged-beams technique. Photon energies were between about 840 and 930 eV, covering the range from the lowest-energy resonances associated with the excitation of one single K-shell electron up to double excitations involving one K- and one L-shell electron, well beyond the K-shell ionization threshold. Also, photoionization of neutral Ne was investigated just below the K edge. The chosen photon energy bandwidths were between 32 and 500 meV, facilitating the determination of natural line widths. The uncertainty of the energy scale is estimated to be 0.2 eV. For comparison with existing theoretical calculations, astrophysically relevant photoabsorption cross-sections were inferred by summing the measured partial ionization channels. Discussion of the observed resonances in the different final ionization channels reveals the presence of complex Auger-decay mechanisms. The ejection of three electrons from the lowest K-shell-excited Ne+(1s2{s}22{p}6{}2{{{S}}}1/2) level, for example, requires cooperative interaction of at least four electrons.

  17. Kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser with He-Ne-Ar and Ne-H2 beam plasma

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Koval' , A.V.; Iakovlenko, S.I. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))


    A kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser laser with Ne-He-Ar and Ne-H2 mixtures pumped by an electron beam is developed. Plasma parameters and characteristics of the Ne yellow line emission (585.3 nm) are calculated for both quasi-steady-state and nonsteady-state pumping. Theoretical results agree well with experimental data on lasing for a wide range of durations and densities of the pump current, and mixture pressures and compositions. 13 refs.

  18. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S


    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  19. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P


    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD.

  20. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Dickhuth, H-H


    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  1. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H


    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  2. The NeXT Mission

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  3. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    -scale terrorism, and the new US emphasis on pre-emptive strikes. Based on an analysis of Germany's strategic culture, it portrays Germany as a security actor and indicates the conditions and limits of the new German willingness to participate in international military crisis management that developed over...

  4. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  5. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S


    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  6. Germany: Europe’s China

    Paul Dobrescu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses Germany's ascent not only as Europe's most important economic power, but also as its leader. Figures show that Germany overcame the crisis; in fact the crisis legitimized its development model. Which would be Germany's main strategic choices, confirmed by the historic evolution of the recent years? First, its option for manufacturing, which allowed Germany to turn into Europe's factory. Second, the option for reform. "Agenda 2010", initiated by Gerhard Schroeder in 2003, is a crucial moment in the country's evolution. Special attention is paid to Germany's position on the single currency. Germany's performance is that it managed to turn the euro into a kind of European Dmark. The euro now formally "obeys" German rules, agreed upon from the very beginning, and is mainly coupled to the evolution of German economy. Germany is now sitting its most important exam: the European one. Today, Germany is Europe's most powerful state, but it must become its leader, whose development model would be accepted throughout the continent. Some German economic options are strikingly similar to China's.

  7. Germany at CERN

    C. Laignel / FI-DI


    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  8. Germany AT CERN

    C. Laignel / FI-DI


    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  9. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  10. Germany AT CERN


    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  11. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Thomas Krikser


    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  12. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge


    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  13. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich


    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.



    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...



    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  16. Chaotic He-Ne laser

    Kuusela, Tom A.


    A He-Ne laser is an example of a class A laser, which can be described by a single nonlinear differential equation of the complex electric field. This laser system has only one degree of freedom and is thus inherently stable. A He-Ne laser can be driven to the chaotic condition when a large fraction of the output beam is injected back to the laser. In practice, this can be done simply by adding an external mirror. In this situation, the laser system has infinite degrees of freedom and therefore it can have a chaotic attractor. We show the fundamental laser equations and perform elementary stability analysis. In experiments, the laser intensity variations are measured by a simple photodiode circuit. The laser output intensity time series is studied using nonlinear analysis tools which can be found freely on the internet. The results show that the laser system with feedback has an attractor of a reasonably high dimension and that the maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive, which is clear evidence of chaotic behaviour. The experimental setup and analysis steps are so simple that the studies can even be implemented in the undergraduate physics laboratory.

  17. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Olena L. Hilchenko


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  18. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph


    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  19. The world is becoming smart - what about Germany?; Die Welt wird smart - und Deutschland?

    Edelmann, Helmut [Ernst und Young, Global Power and Utilities Center, Duesseldorf (Germany). Utilities


    In Germany power supply companies have been required to offer smart meters for new buildings since 1 January 2010. Smart grid activities in Germany are organised under the roof of a promotion campaign named ''E-energy - IKT (information and communication) based energy system of the future'' which is dedicated to the motto ''smart grids made in Germany''. But what does this mean in relation to other regions, and where does Germany stand in the development of smart grids compared with other countries?.

  20. Articaïne en neurotoxiciteit

    Hopman, A.J.G.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.; Aps, J.K.M.; De Bruyne, M.; Jacobs, R.; Nienhuijs, M.E.L.; van der Meer, W.J.


    Articaïne wijkt wat samenstelling betreft af van andere amide-anesthetica. Bij articaïne bestaat het lipofiele deel uit een thiofeenring, terwijl dit bij de andere anesthetica een benzeenring is. Gebruik van lokale anesthetica in de tandheelkundige praktijk is bijzonder veilig. Elk lokaal

  1. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie


    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  2. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Hagen, Anja


    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  3. Green energy. Germany 2012

    Petrescu, Relly Victoria; Petrescu, Florian Ion


    around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain.

  4. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.


    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.......Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses...... to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone – East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic...

  5. [How municipalities can plan for later life. Regional challenges of a demography-sensitive social planning for later life as exemplified by the administrative district Vechta (Lower Saxony/Germany)].

    Amrhein, L; Backes, G M


    The demographic ageing of the population confronts towns, municipalities and administrative districts with new sociopolitical challenges. The general view of the demographic and social change requires demography-sensitive social planning that is no longer segregated according to age or life stages. Drawing on the example of a demographic evaluation conducted for the administrative district of Vechta in Lower Saxony, Germany, it will be discussed how a life course-orientated municipal social planning for later life can be developed. Furthermore, which practical research and methodical challenges the gerontological policy development municipalities can expect to be confronted with in the future are discussed.

  6. The contribution of chemical fluxes across the sediment-water interface to carbon cycling in estuarine regions: A case study at the Rhône River mouth (NW Mediterranean)

    Rassmann, Jens; Eitel, Eryn; Bombled, Bruno; Lansard, Bruno; Taillefert, Martial; Rabouille, Christophe


    Despite their small surface compared to the global oceans, continental shelf regions play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Whereas shelf regions are seen as a sink for atmospheric CO2, estuarine regions are seen as a source. These regions are caracterized by the export of allochthonous terrigenous organic matter (OM) and the production of autochthonous marine organic carbon. An important fraction of this OM is mineralized in the sediments close to the river mouth. As a result, high exchange fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), oxygen and nutriments cross the sediment-water interface (SWI) and cause acidification of the bottom waters. Potentially, primary production in the water column is enhanced by these fluxes. Therefore, OM mineralisation in estuarine regions plays a key role in the carbon cycle as a direct producer of DIC and as a potential control factor for primary production. This work aims to quantify chemical fluxes through the SWI at the prodelta of the Rhone River (Mediterranen). In September 2015, a benthic chamber has been deployed at several stations in the prodelta to measure directly (in situ) fluxes of DIC, TA, ammonium and dissolved calcium at the SWI. At the same stations, in situ microprofiles of oxygen and pH have been recorded and sediment cores were taken for pore water extraction and analysis (DIC, TA, NH4+ and Ca2+). The results show a strong decrease of the fluxes in offshore direction indicating a strong variation of respiration rates in this direction. From pore water profiles, diffusive fluxes have been calculated and compared with the fluxes measured by the benthic chamber. This comparison enables us to include pore water profiles from previous investigations to calculate a carbon mass budget of this region.

  7. Multiple Synchronous Outbreaks of Puumala Virus, Germany, 2010

    Ettinger, Jakob; Hofmann, Jorg; Enders, Martin; Tewald, Friedemann; Oehme, Rainer M.; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Schlegel, Mathias; Essbauer, Sandra; Osterberg, Anja; Jacob, Jens; Reil, Daniela; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.


    To investigate 2,017 cases of hantavirus disease in Germany, we compared 38 new patient-derived Puumala virus RNA sequences identified in 2010 with bank vole–derived small segment RNA sequences. The epidemic process was driven by outbreaks of 6 Puumala virus clades comprising strains of human and vole origin. Each clade corresponded to a different outbreak region. PMID:22932394

  8. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike


    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  9. Long-term geochemical and hydraulic measurements in a characteristic confined/unconfined aquifer system of the younger Pleistocene in northeast Germany

    C. Merz


    Full Text Available The paper presents a data base of hydrochemical and hydraulic groundwater measurements of a younger Pleistocene multilayered, unconfined/confined aquifer system in NE Germany. The Institute of Landscape Hydrology of the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF e. V. operates seven groundwater monitoring wells in the Quillow catchment located in the Uckermark region (Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany. From July 2000 to March 2014, water samples were collected periodically on different days of the year and at depths between 3 and 5 m (shallow wells and 20 and 25 m (deeper wells below the surface. The parameters pH value, redox potential, electric conductivity, water temperature, oxygen content, spectral absorption coefficient and concentration of hydrogen carbonate, ammonium, phosphate, chloride, bromite, nitrite, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcite, dissolved organic carbon, iron(II and manganese were determined for each sample (doi:10.4228/ZALF.2000.266. The measurements, taken over a period of 14 years, include a high variation of hydraulic situations represented by a corresponding database of detected groundwater heads. The hydraulic head was measured between 2000 and 2014 (doi:10.4228/ZALF.2000.272.

  10. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    Coniglione R.


    Full Text Available The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  11. Attaining New Heights With Germany


    The launch of inter-governmental consultation ushers in a new era for Sino-German relations During his recent visit to Germany,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao,together with German Chancellor Angela Merkel,inaugurated an inter-governmental cons ultation mechanism to enhance cooperation between the two countries.The two cochaired the first round of consultation in Berlin on June 28.This is a milestone in Sino-German relations since Germany is the first country to establish this kind of mecha-

  12. [Malaria importation into Germany in 1989/90].

    Zastrow, K D; Dieckmann, S; Schöneberg, I


    Malaria was in 1989/90 the most important imported disease in Germany. Most of all cases were imported by German tourists (about 75%). Africa was the most prominently represented geographic region (about 75%). Kenia and Ghana represented there the biggest share. About 33% of all patients had not done a sufficient prophylaxis against malaria. An adequate prophylaxis against malaria taking into consideration the recommendations for medicaments for different geographical areas is imperative before the number of importations of malaria into Germany can be reduced.

  13. News from KM3NeT

    Katz, Ulrich F., E-mail: [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (Germany); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration


    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  14. Clinical course and long-term outcome of hantavirus-associated nephropathia epidemica, Germany.

    Latus, Joerg; Schwab, Matthias; Tacconelli, Evelina; Pieper, Friedrich-Michael; Wegener, Daniel; Dippon, Juergen; Müller, Simon; Zakim, David; Segerer, Stephan; Kitterer, Daniel; Priwitzer, Martin; Mezger, Barbara; Walter-Frank, Birgit; Corea, Angela; Wiedenmann, Albrecht; Brockmann, Stefan; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko


    Human infection with Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Central Europe, causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a disease characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. To determine the clinical phenotype of hantavirus-infected patients and their long-term outcome and humoral immunity to PUUV, we conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 patients in Germany with clinically and serologically confirmed hantavirus-associated NE during 2001-2012. Prominent clinical findings during acute NE were fever and back/limb pain, and 88% of the patients had acute kidney injury. At follow-up (7-35 mo), all patients had detectable hantavirus-specific IgG; 8.5% had persistent IgM; 25% had hematuria; 23% had hypertension (new diagnosis for 67%); and 7% had proteinuria. NE-associated hypertension and proteinuria do not appear to have long-term consequences, but NE-associated hematuria may. All patients in this study had hantavirus-specific IgG up to years after the infection.

  15. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin


    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  16. The changing consumer in Germany

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang


    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...... reunification. Implications for marketing management are drawn by proposing nine bipolar constructs....

  17. Schooling in Germany : Structural Deficiencies

    Kiiver, H.


    The German educational system is battling with a range of challenges exposed by the PISA studies and other publications such as the OECD's "Education at a glance". This dissertation discusses four distinct topics, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Data. In Germany, the socio-economic b

  18. Augen gneisses versus Augen gneisses from the Jaguaribeana Belt, northeastern region from Brazil: stratigraphy, geochemistry and U-Pb ages; Augen gnaisses versus Augen gnaisses da faixa Jaguaribeana, NE do Brasil: estratigrafia, geoquimica e idades U-Pb

    Sa, Jaziel Martins; Silva, Elvis Roberto da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Bertrand, Jean Michel [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France). Lab. de Geodynamique; Leterrier, Jacques [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques


    The Jaguaribeana Belt is located at Borborema Province, Ceara State, Brazil and this study aims to present Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) data and the augen gneisses petrographic and geochemical study of the Jaguaribe Belt, and to realize comparisons between these and the augen gneisses from the Oros Belt. It describes the geological characteristics of this region, the augen gneisses petrography and geochemical data and the U-Pb method results for a discussion about the augen gneisses from the Oros and Jaguaribe Belt 10 refs., 6 figs.

  19. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Ulrich, V


    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  20. Small mammal communities in agricultural landscapes in Germany: review of field data over the last decade

    Von Blanckenhagen, F.; Städtler, T.


    Little is known about general composition of small mammal communities in agricultural land in Germany. Most published data represent only a few months’ data in a specific habitat type focussing on a small region. This presentation will review data from several studies performed in the last decade of almost every year in agricultural land across different regions in Germany. Data on the distribution of small mammal species in landscapes dominated by agricultural land including cropped fields, ...




    Full Text Available Universal jurisdiction was defined as “the assertion of jurisdiction to prescribe in the absence of any other accepted jurisdictional nexus at the time of the relevant conduct.” Professor Randall, in his seminal work on universal jurisdiction, opined that the theory of universality “provides every state with jurisdiction over a limitedcategory of offenses generally recognized as of universal concern, regardless of the situs of the offence and the nationalities of the offender and the offended. ”Universal jurisdiction is considered a tool for promoting greater justice, but the rights of the accused must be protected. One of the most important guarantees is the principle of ne bis in idem, which protected persons against multiple prosecutions for the same crime. The main legal consequence of the application of ne bis in idem in most systems is the prohibition and inadmissibility of subsequent prosecutions on the same facts blocking effect.The national ne bis in idem principle is established asan individual right in international human rights legal instruments, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966, in Article 14(7. At the regional level, Article 8(4 of the American Convention of Human Rights (1969 and Article 4 (I of the Seventh Protocol of the European Convention of Human Rights merit mention. In Europe, the ne bis in idem principle is enshrined in Article 54 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985, which prohibits the initiation of a second trial for the same offence when final judgment has been imposed upon a person by a court of a contracting party.

  2. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Salikov Aleksey


    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  3. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    Katori, Teppei


    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  4. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  5. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Chenot, Jean-François


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  6. Landscape benefits of a forest conversion pro-gramme in North East Germany: results of a choice experiment

    Peter Elsasser


    Full Text Available The article describes the results of a choice experiment aimed at valuing landscape benefits of different kinds of forests in NE Germany by using computer generated images. Preferences for broadleaved/mixed forests over conifers amount to 40-85 euro per year and household, additional visual diversity has a monetary value of about 20 euro/a. This is true for the summer aspect of forests only. The same experiment conducted with winter images reveals no general preference for broadleaves, whereas visual diversity is valued even higher under winter conditions.The results are part of a study which aimed at valuing the impacts of a regional forest conversion programme. Beyond landscape value, the valuation has covered recreational value, the value for climate protection as well as timber production value. The development of landscape values over time can compensate for diminished timber returns until about 2080; afterwards the balance becomes negative. Carbon values are relatively minor in comparison to landscape and timber values.

  7. Landscape benefits of a forest conversion pro-gramme in North East Germany: results of a choice experiment

    Peter Elsasser


    Full Text Available The article describes the results of a choice experiment aimed at valuing landscape benefits of different kinds of forests in NE Germany by using computer generated images. Preferences for broadleaved/mixed forests over conifers amount to 40-85 euro per year and household, additional visual diversity has a monetary value of about 20 euro/a. This is true for the summer aspect of forests only. The same experiment conducted with winter images reveals no general preference for broadleaves, whereas visual diversity is valued even higher under winter conditions.The results are part of a study which aimed at valuing the impacts of a regional forest conversion programme. Beyond landscape value, the valuation has covered recreational value, the value for climate protection as well as timber production value. The development of landscape values over time can compensate for diminished timber returns until about 2080; afterwards the balance becomes negative. Carbon values are relatively minor in comparison to landscape and timber values.

  8. Inelastic processes in Na+-Ne, Na+-Ar, Ne+-Na, and Ar+-Na collisions in the energy range 0.5-14 keV

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.


    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization, and excitation in Na+-Ne and Na+-Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range 0.5 -10 keV using a refined version of a capacitor method and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental setup. Ionization cross sections for Ne+-Na and Ar+-Na collisions are measured at energies of 2 -14 keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na+-Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na+-Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na+-Ne and Ne+-Na collisions in conjunction with the Landau-Zener formula are used to determine the coupling matrix element and transition probability in a region of pseudocrossing of the potential curves.

  9. Humane mlečne banke

    Ćosić, Ana


    Humane mlečne banke zbirajo, nadzorujejo, obdelujejo, shranjujejo in razdeljujejo darovano mleko. Namenjene so nedonošenčkom in bolnim novorojenčkom, katerih matere nimajo mleka. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti osveščenost mater o pomembnosti humanih mlečnih bank. Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo raziskovanja. Ugotovili smo, da so matere osveščene o pomembnosti humanih mlečnih bank in zato tudi posledično čimprejšnja ustanovitev humane mlečne banke v Sloveniji.

  10. The impact of deindustrialization and unemployment on family formation and fertility in East Germany.

    Fleischhacker, J


    With the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, East Germany entered a process of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Since then, the number of marriages and births in former East Germany have declined by 65% and 1.3 million people have migrated west. 0.36 million have migrated from West to East Germany. Indeed, the demographic situation in East Germany has fundamentally changed in many ways since 1989. The author analyzes these changes, noting that trends toward deindustrialization and a high level of unemployment especially among women are now basic features of demography in the East. The dismantling of industrial capacities accompanying the economic transformation process in East Germany was not only the result of differences in productivity between East and West Germany, but also of regional strains upon the environment. The author also points out that the economic policy of the former government of East Germany and the resulting environmental damage to the region have not lead to major changes in birth and mortality rates.

  11. [Living kidney transplantation. A comparison of Scandinavian countries and Germany].

    Lück, R; Schrem, H; Neipp, M; Nashan, B; Klempnauer, J


    The discussion of compensating for shortages of cadaveric donation with increased living donation often reveals differences between the Scandinavian countries and Germany. Possible adoption of Scandinavian structures to improve the rate of living donations in Germany warrants analysis of the actual differences between these two regions. Close examination reveals that significantly higher rates of living donation are achieved only in Sweden and Norway. In Norway, a frequently postulated negative effect on cadaveric donation due to very high rates of living donation could not be confirmed. In contrast to Germany and as a consequence of Norwegian geography, kidney transplantation has been regarded in Norway as the first-line therapy for endstage renal disease for more than 35 years. Living donation has since been actively pursued and is traditionally the transplantation of first choice. In Germany, living donation is still regarded as the second choice after cadaveric donation, due to legal regulations. Significant improvements in living donation frequencies could be achieved there by adopting the active Norwegian approach to living donor identification.

  12. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    Edelmann, E


    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  13. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic.

    Døssing, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen, Tove; Jokat, Wilfried; Thybo, Hans


    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to inner margin episodic uplift, including the formation of coastal mountains. The origin of these events remains enigmatic. We present a seismic reflection study from the Greenland Fracture Zone - East Greenland Ridge (GFZ-EGR) and the NE Greenland shelf. We document a regional intra-Miocene seismic unconformity (IMU), which marks the termination of syn-rift deposition in the deep-sea basins and onset of: (i) thermo-mechanical coupling across the GFZ, (ii) basin compression, and (iii) contourite deposition, north of the EGR. The onset of coupling across the GFZ is constrained by results of 2-D flexural backstripping. We explain the thermo-mechanical coupling and the deposition of contourites by the formation of a continuous plate boundary along the Mohns and Knipovich ridges, leading to an accelerated widening of the Fram Strait. We demonstrate that the IMU event is linked to onset of uplift and massive shelf-progradation on the NE Greenland margin. Given an estimated middle-to-late Miocene (~15-10 Ma) age of the IMU, we speculate that the event is synchronous with uplift of the East and West Greenland margins. The correlation between margin uplift and plate-motion changes further indicates that the uplift was triggered by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics.

  14. Employee share ownership in Germany

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon


    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  15. Perspectives for Germany's Energy Policy

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann


    For various reasons, the policies governing the energy sector have a central role to play in Germany. Thus, for example, competition on the electricity and gas markets will have to be increased considerably in the course of the market's liberalization. At the same time, a secure supply of energy must also be ensured, in other words, the matters of preventing short-term power outages while ensuring the long-term availability of energy resources must be dealt with. Last but not least, the envir...

  16. WAT Office building, Karlsruhe, Germany

    Meyer, H.


    In 1994, the WAT (Wasser-und Abfalltechnik GmbH) office building, with various energy-saving features, was erected in Karlsruhe, Germany. The office building, net area 1,500 m{sup 2}, incorporates: facade-integrated solar air collectors preheating the ventilation air; exhaust air extraction through a solar chimney; heat recovery from ventilation air; concrete floors with integrated air ducts and no suspended ceilings. During the design phase, TRNSYS was used to determine the performance of the building and the solar system. (author)

  17. Implications of Germany's declining defense spending

    Merrath, Jurgen


    With its reunification on 3 October 1990, Germany regained its full sovereignty and stands now in a position of greater global responsibility. Faced with dramatically increased demands on and expectations for Germany's armed forces, it must answer the question of how much it is willing to invest for safety and stability in Europe and for protection of peace in the world. In determining the level of commitment behind Germany's foreign and security policy, defense spending is an important indic...

  18. Venereal Diseases in Germany and Austria,


  19. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of n

  20. Mini Networked Screens (MiNeS)

    Prins, C.A.; Maris, M.; Breen, P.C.; Versteeg, N.; Terwisga, P.F. van; Ort, C.M.; Blok, J.J.


    The forward areas for an LPD in littoral waters can be full of surprises. A novel concept is presented for a networked screen consisting of elements of increasing capability to provide a progressive response to the threat. This MiNeS concept substantially improves the capability of the LPD as an aut

  1. Inelastic processes in Na$^{+}-$Ne, Ar and Ne$^{+},$ Ar$^{+}-$Na collisions in energy range $0.5-14$ keV

    Lomsadze, R A; Kezerashvili, R Ya


    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization and excitation in Na$% ^{+}-$Ne and Na$^{+}-$Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range $% 0.5-10$ keV using a refined version of a capacitor method, and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental set-up. Ionization cross sections for Ne$^{+}-$Na and Ar$^{+}-$Na collisions are measured at the energies of $2-14$ keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na$^{+}$ $-$Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na$^{+}$ $-$Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na$^{+}-$Ne and Ne$^{+}-$Na collisi...

  2. A genitália externa dos machos de sete espécies de Triatoma Laporte, 1832 da região Neártica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Male external genitalia in seven species of Triatoma Laporte, 1832 from neartic region (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Herman Lent


    Full Text Available Sete espécies da região neártica: Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gertaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 e T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 foram analisadas comparativamente, tendo como enfoque as estruturas da genitália do macho: falosoma (Ph, suporte do falosoma (SPh, processo do endosoma (PrEn, vesica (V e aparelho articular (Apb. As estruturas fálicas se mostraram capazes de serem usadas como critério morfológico suplementar aos padrões atualmente usados, em taxonomia. Estas espécies silvestres são encontradas nos Estados Unidos e México, naturalmente infectadas pelo T. cruzi; algumas vivem no perdomicílio e outras eventualmente no domicílio, sem contudo colonizá-lo.Seven species from the neartic region, Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gerstaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 and T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 were comparatively analysed with emphasis on the genital structures of the male bug: the phallosome (Ph, the phallosome struts (SPh, the endosoma process (PrEn, the vesica (V and the articulatory apparatus (Apb. The phallic structures were useful as a supplementary morphological criterion to the present taxonomical standards. These wild species are found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States and Mexico. Some of them live outside human dwellings while other are occasionally domiciliary, although they do not colonize these homes.

  3. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs



    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  4. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  5. Diversity patterns in macrobenthos across a continental slope in the NE Atlantic

    Flach, E.; De Bruin, W.


    Different estimates were used to assess the diversity of the total macrofauna and its major taxonomic groups separately from a broad bathymetric range at a site in the NE Atlantic. In the Goban Spur region, a transect was sampled from the shelf to the abyssal plain over a depth range from similar to

  6. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt


    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  7. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  8. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000


    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  9. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000


    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  10. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne


    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  11. Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment

    Ray, Heather L.; /Los Alamos


    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  12. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    Dinan, Desmond


    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  13. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R;


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  14. CPAFFC Agricultural Delegation Visits Germany and Austria


    <正>At the invitation of the Germany-China Friendship Association-Stuttgart (GCFA-Stuttgart) and the Austrian-Chinese Friendship Association (ACFA),a delegation for studying agriculture composed of members from localities organized and sent by the CPAFFC paid a visit to Germany and Austria from June 11 to 23. The delegation visited farms and

  15. Why Study Germany and Europe Now?

    McKinnon, Mike


    Provides 10 reasons why the study of Germany and the European Community should be taught in U.S. social studies. Argues that the cultural interrelationships between the United States and Germany are historically significant. Contends that the experiences of post-World War II German reconstruction and the reunification after the Cold War can serve…

  16. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

    Bauer, Tobias


    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  17. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Wirth, Harry (comp.)


    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  18. Collision energy dependence of He and Ne capture by C sup + sub 60

    Campbell, E.E.B.; Ehlich, R.; Hielscher, A.; Frazao, J.M.A.; Hertel, I.V. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum (FMF))


    Recently, reports of the formation of endohedral cluster compounds He{alpha}C{sup +}{sub n} and Ne{alpha}C{sup +}{sub n-4} (n even and {<=}60) have been published for high energy collisions between C{sup +}{sub 60} and rare gases. Here we present the collision energy dependence for the formation of He{alpha}C{sup +}{sub 60} and Ne{alpha}C{sup +}{sub 60} in the region of the energetic threshold for the capture process. The threshold for He capture lies at 6{+-}2 eV in the centre of mass reference frame whereas that for Ne lies somewhat higher at 9{+-}1 eV. ({alpha} means endohedral fulleren compounds.) (orig.).

  19. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai


    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  20. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Teoría ecológica y valores en la definición de objetivos de conservación: ejemplos de regiones templadas de Alemania, Estados Unidos de América y Chile

    Kurt Jax


    Full Text Available The definition of conservation goals is a complex task, which involves both ecological sciences and social values. A brief history of conservation strategies in Germany (protection of cultural landscapes, United States (wilderness ideal, and southern Chile (preservation paradigm and the more recent interest in ecotourism illustrates a broad range of conservation goals. To encompass such an array of conservation dimensions and goals, the ecosystem approach adopted by the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity represents a good approach. However, to become effective, this kind of approach requires clarifying and agreeing upon basic concepts, such as ecosystem. To serve that purpose, we present a scheme that considers the selected phenomena, internal relationship, and the component resolution to define an ecosystem. We conclude that: (1 conservation traditions encompass interests in the preservation of both natural and cultural heritages, which also appear as mutually dependent dimensions. Hence, nature and humans are brought together as much in the goals as in the processes of conservation. (2 In the context of current global change, it is impossible to completely "isolate" protected areas from direct or indirect human influences. In addition, the current view of nature points out that biotas and ecosystems will change over time, even in protected areas. Hence, in order to preserve species or habitats it is not enough to isolate protected areas, but it often requires active management and conservation actions. The two former conclusions suggest the need to revise the conservation approach that has been undertaken in the southern region of Chile, because (a local people have been systematically excluded from protected areas, and (b these areas lack personnel and facilities to conduct appropriate conservation and/or management programs. (3 Our analyses of the views of nature and conservation goals in different regions

  1. Ionospheric Correction Based on Ingestion of Global Ionospheric Maps into the NeQuick 2 Model

    Xiao Yu


    Full Text Available The global ionospheric maps (GIMs, generated by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE during a period over 13 years, have been adopted as the primary source of data to provide global ionospheric correction for possible single frequency positioning applications. The investigation aims to assess the performance of new NeQuick model, NeQuick 2, in predicting global total electron content (TEC through ingesting the GIMs data from the previous day(s. The results show good performance of the GIMs-driven-NeQuick model with average 86% of vertical TEC error less than 10 TECU, when the global daily effective ionization indices (Az versus modified dip latitude (MODIP are constructed as a second order polynomial. The performance of GIMs-driven-NeQuick model presents variability with solar activity and behaves better during low solar activity years. The accuracy of TEC prediction can be improved further through performing a four-coefficient function expression of Az versus MODIP. As more measurements from earlier days are involved in the Az optimization procedure, the accuracy may decrease. The results also reveal that more efforts are needed to improve the NeQuick 2 model capabilities to represent the ionosphere in the equatorial and high-latitude regions.

  2. Beyond Standard Model Searches in the MiniBooNE Experiment

    Teppei Katori


    Full Text Available The MiniBooNE experiment has contributed substantially to beyond standard model searches in the neutrino sector. The experiment was originally designed to test the Δm2~1 eV2 region of the sterile neutrino hypothesis by observing νe(ν-e charged current quasielastic signals from a νμ(ν-μ beam. MiniBooNE observed excesses of νe and ν-e candidate events in neutrino and antineutrino mode, respectively. To date, these excesses have not been explained within the neutrino standard model (νSM; the standard model extended for three massive neutrinos. Confirmation is required by future experiments such as MicroBooNE. MiniBooNE also provided an opportunity for precision studies of Lorentz violation. The results set strict limits for the first time on several parameters of the standard-model extension, the generic formalism for considering Lorentz violation. Most recently, an extension to MiniBooNE running, with a beam tuned in beam-dump mode, is being performed to search for dark sector particles. This review describes these studies, demonstrating that short baseline neutrino experiments are rich environments in new physics searches.

  3. He and Ne isotopic ratios along the Terceira Rift: implications for the Azores mantle source

    Madureira, P.; Moreira, M. A.; Nunes, J.; Lourenco, N.; Carvalho, M.; Mata, J.; Pinto de Abreu, M.


    Noble gas data (He and Ne) on olivine phenocrysts obtained from Azores’ lavas sampled along the Terceira Rift will be presented in this work. The Terceira Rift is considered as one of the slowest spreading system in the world (Vogt & Jung, 2004). Lava samples were collected inland at S. Miguel, Terceira, Graciosa, Pico and Faial Islands as well at sea at D. João de Castro Bank and south Hirondelle basin, the latter being sampled by the ROV cruises in 2008 and 2009. Noble gas data were analyzed in the Noblesse mass spectrometer housed at the IPGP. The most primitive He isotopic ratios were obtained from Pico, Terceira and Hirondelle olivines. Most Ne isotopic ratios are similar to the present-day atmosphere, but distinct 20Ne/22Ne ratios were found for the majority of submarine samples and also Pico and Faial Islands, defining mixing lines with the atmospheric end-member with slopes greater than that defined from MORB lavas. The He-Ne systematics shows that most of the new noble gas data fit in a mixing model between a dominant MORB-type mantle source and a relatively primitive mantle source related with the regional Azores component. However, data from the D. João de Castro Bank argue for the presence of a radiogenic He end-member distinct from MORB. References: Vogt, P. & Jung W. (2004). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 218: 77 90.

  4. [Health and justice in Germany].

    Rosenbrock, R


    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  5. Ultrafine particles over Germany – an aerial survey

    Wolfgang Junkermann


    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles in the atmosphere may have important climate and health effects. As they are below visible size and not visible for remote sensing techniques, the majority of observations thus come from ground-based measurements. Some of those observations indicate elevated sources for ultrafine particles. Here we present for the first time airborne measurements of number concentration and size distributions of ultrafine particles along defined flight paths across Germany, allowing to derive background concentrations and to identify major single sources. A significant impact of fossil fuel–related emissions on background and maximum concentrations was found. Maxima reaching up to 90 000 particles cm−3 were encountered in plumes of single large sources extending over more than 200 km. Modelling shows that about 10–40 % of Germany were continuously affected by such plumes. Regional-scale transport and boundary layer dynamics were identified as major factors controlling spatial and temporal patterns of size and number distributions.

  6. Scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions. Workshop and establishment of a common knowledge base for nuclear safety and security. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-technischer Erfahrungsaustausch Deutschlands mit der GUS, den Baltischen und den MOE-Staaten sowie Laendern Zentralasiens und anderer Regionen. Arbeitstreffen und Schaffung gemeinsamer Wissensbasen fuer nukleare Sicherheit und Sicherung. Abschlussbericht

    Dabrowski, Anna


    The report on the workshop concerning scientific-technical exchange of experiences between Germany and the GUS, the Baltic and MOE states, and central Asia and other regions includes the following issues: Results an d success of know-how transfer from West to East, topical issues for mutual exchange of experience, scope of the project, concept of the realization of mutual exchange of experiences. The emphasis of the workshop covered the following issues: emergency preparedness, international requirements concerning nuclear safety and radiation protection, transport of radioactive wastes and communication in nuclear technology.

  7. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte


    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Anatomy of molecular structures in $^{20}$Ne

    Zhou, E F; Li, Z P; Meng, J; Ring, P


    We present a beyond mean-field study of clusters and molecular structures in low-spin states of $^{20}$Ne with a multireference relativistic energy density functional, where the dynamical correlation effects of symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shapes fluctuation are taken into account with projections on parity, particle number and angular momentum in the framework of the generator coordinate method. Both the energy spectrum and the electric multipole transition strengths for low-lying parity-doublet bands are better reproduced after taking into account the dynamical octupole vibration effect. Consistent with the finding in previous antisymmetrized molecular dynamics studies, a rotation-induced dissolution of the $\\alpha+^{16}$O molecular structure in $^{20}$Ne is predicted and this peculiar phenomenon is partially attributed to the special deformation-dependent moment of inertia.

  9. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE

    Lucherini, V.


    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  10. Prezident na bombardirovshtshike - ne sensatsija / Viktor Juzbashev

    Juzbashev, Viktor


    Lääne pressis kommenteeriti Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini sõitu strateegilisel pommilennukil Tu-160 kui Venemaa surveavaldust naaberriikidele, samas viibivad ka teised riigijuhid aeg-ajalt sõjalistel objektidel ja taktikaõppustel. Autor küsib, kuidas Vene ja Hiina sõdurite ühisõppus saab olla tõsine hoiatus USA-le. Raketist X-555

  11. The Finuda Experiment on DAΦNE

    Lucherini, Vincenzo

    FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of Λ-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  12. Status of KM3NeT

    Riccobene G.


    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  13. Prezident na bombardirovshtshike - ne sensatsija / Viktor Juzbashev

    Juzbashev, Viktor


    Lääne pressis kommenteeriti Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini sõitu strateegilisel pommilennukil Tu-160 kui Venemaa surveavaldust naaberriikidele, samas viibivad ka teised riigijuhid aeg-ajalt sõjalistel objektidel ja taktikaõppustel. Autor küsib, kuidas Vene ja Hiina sõdurite ühisõppus saab olla tõsine hoiatus USA-le. Raketist X-555

  14. Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany

    Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Saxenhofer, Moritz; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Binder, Florian; Cuypers, Fabian; Schlegel, Mathias; Röhrs, Susanne; Heckel, Gerald


    Human hantavirus disease cases, caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), are mainly recorded in western and southern areas of Germany. This bank vole reservoir survey confirmed PUUV presence in these regions but its absence in northern and eastern regions. PUUV occurrence is associated with the presence of the Western bank vole phylogroup. PMID:27983499

  15. The impact of climate change on tourism in Germany, the UK and Ireland: a simulation study

    Hamilton, Jacqueline; Tol, Richard


    We downscale the results of a global tourism simulation model at a national resolution to a regional resolution. We use this to investigate the impact of climate change on the regions of Germany, Ireland and the UK. Because of climate change, tourists from all three countries would spend more holi

  16. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  17. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  18. [How do authors of systematic reviews restrict their literature searches when only studies from Germany should be included?

    Pieper, Dawid; Mathes, Tim; Palm, Rebecca; Hoffmann, Falk


    The use of search filters (e. g. for study types) facilitates the process of literature searching. Regional limits might be helpful depending on the research question. Regional search filters are already available for some regions, but not for Germany. Our aim is to give an overview of applied search strategies in systematic reviews (SRs) focusing on Germany. We searched Medline (via Pubmed) applying a focused search strategy to identify SRs focusing on Germany in January 2016. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. The search strategies with a focus on Germany were analyzed in terms of reasonableness and completeness relying on the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) criteria. A narrative evidence synthesis was performed. In total, 36 SRs (13 written in English) were included. 78% were published in 2012 or later. The majority (89%) of SRs utilized at least two different sources for their search with databases and checking references being the most common. 17 SRs did not use any truncations, ten SRs did not restrict their search to Germany, six SRs reported to have searched for German OR Germany. Only ten articles searched for the term Germany (occasionally jointly with the term Deutschland) without any use of an adjective such as German. There is a high interest in regionally focused SRs. The identified search strategies revealed a need for improvement. It would be helpful to develop a regional search filter for Germany that is able to identify studies performed in Germany. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Bie Yanan


    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  20. Germany: Twenty Years After The Union

    Pete Mavrokordatos; Stan Stascinsky; Andrew Michael


    One of the most important events in the world after World War II was the reunification of Germany, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general economic conditions in Germany, before and after the reunification. This paper is divided into four parts. The introductory section provides a summative discussion of the economic conditions in East and West Germany from World War II until the time of reunification. The second section presents an evaluation of...

  1. Norepinephrine inhibits mesenchymal stem cell chemotaxis migration by increasing stromal cell-derived factor-1 secretion by vascular endothelial cells via NE/abrd3/JNK pathway.

    Wu, Baolei; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xi; Mao, Ming; Ye, Chen; Liu, Peng; Yang, Zihui; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin; Zhang, Chenping


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are physiologically maintained in vascular endothelial cell (VEC)-based niches, play a critical role in tissue regeneration. Our previous studies demonstrated that sympathetic denervation could promote MSC mobilization, thereby enhancing bone formation in distraction osteogenesis (DO), a self-tissue engineering for craniofacial and orthopeadic surgeries. However, the mechanisms on how sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) regulates MSC migration are not well understood. Here we showed that deprivation of NE by transection of cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) inhibited stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expression in the perivascular regions in rat mandibular DO. In vitro studies showed that NE treatment markedly upregulated p-JNK and therefore stimulated higher SDF-1 expression in VECs than control groups, and siRNA knockdown of the abrd3 gene abolished the NE-induced p-JNK activation. On the other hand, osteoblasts differentiated from MSCs showed an increase in SDF-1 secretion with lack of NE. Importantly, NE-treated VECs inhibited the MSC chemotaxis migration along the SDF-1 concentration gradient as demonstrated in a novel 3-chamber Transwell assay. Collectively, our study suggested that NE may increase the SDF-1 secretion by VECs via NE/abrd3/JNK pathway, thereby inhibiting the MSC chemotaxis migration from perivascular regions toward bone trabecular frontlines along the SDF-1 concentration gradient in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.


    Kos, Ivan; PRKAČIN, INGRID


    Dijabetička nefropatija vodeći je uzrok završne faze kronične bubrežne bolesti u većini razvijenih zemalja s učestalosti do 50 %. Visoka učestalost dijabetičke nefropatije posljedica je kontinuiranog povećanja prevalencije dijabetesa tipa 2 u općoj populaciji. Neregulirana glikemija, hipertenzija i genetska predispozicija glavni su čimbenici rizika za razvoj dijabetičke nefropatije. Ostali čimbenici su povišeni serumski lipidi, pušenje i povišen unos proteina. Za nastanak dijabetičke nefropat...

  4. A soil-inventory of agricultural used soils of Germany

    Siebner, Clemens; Gensior, Andreas; Evertsbusch, Sven; Freibauer, Annette; Flessa, Heiner


    In the framework of UNFCCC reports for greenhouse gas emissions of land use and land use change also soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes of have to be reported. Since 1990 a forest soil inventory exists for Germany, but similar data are still missing for agricultural land. Up till now, a very rough estimation of the soil organic carbon stocks based on the soil map of Germany at the scale of 1:1,000,000 and estimated soil organic carbon contents and bulk densities have been used for the national inventory reports. Now we are starting an extended agricultural soil inventory for Germany which is explicitly designed to detect soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes. We will use a grid of 8x8 km, like it was used for the forest soil inventory. In order to extrapolate from point data and perform regionalisations, not only soil type, soil parent material and basic climate parameters will be taken into account, but under agricultural land use different agricultural management practices will be considered. Management data, like crop rotation, depth and intensity of soil tillage and application of fertilizers, manure and composts are collected from farmers during the inventory via questionnaires. It was shown that those data are essential to estimate and extrapolate point data to report soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes on regional scale. The concept of this soil carbon inventory will be presented.

  5. Management of plasmapheresis in Germany.

    Müller, N


    In Germany, plasmapheresis is carried out for many years in a "mixed" system by private and non-profit organisation. Most of the institutions and blood transfusion service, active in the field of plasmapheresis are members of the "Association for the Establishment, Co-ordination and Working Methods of the Plasmapheresis Centres". All centres are authorized by governmental bodies for manufacturing of pharmaceutical products with regulatory controls regarding licensing and accreditation of blood collection establishment. All parties concerned agree that self-sufficiency of plasma has to be achieved. For this purpose there is a shortage of about 400,000 1 of plasma. In 1994, about 240,000 1 of plasma were collected by plasmapheresis, 91% for fractionation and 8.7% for direct clinical uses. In addition about 970,000 1 of plasma were derived from whole blood donations. The dualism of non-profit making and commercial organisations should be regarded as a chance for diversification in the collection and processing of plasma. A long term increase in plasmapheresis plasma can be achieved by initiating plasmapheresis programmes and co-operation using the existing infrastructures and supports the aim for self-sufficiency.

  6. Trends and Potential of the Market for Combine Harvesters in Germany

    Clemens Fuchs


    Full Text Available Combine harvesters used today can achieve throughput rates of over 70 tons of grain per hour; however, their technical performance potential is currently not being exhausted by any means. The global market for combine harvesters, its stocks and recent production is described. According to farm size distribution and regional field sizes, Germany was divided into three combine-harvesting regions. The simulation results show that in Germany about 45,000 units of combine harvesters in three performance categories are necessary. However, the calculations also show that future domestic sales of combine harvesters will depend greatly on the service life of the units currently in use.

  7. Germany's Population: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future

    Heilig, G.K.; Büttner, T; W. Lutz


    When the two Germanies were reunited in 1990, 16 million East Germans were added to the West German population, giving it a 20 million person advantage over Italy, France and the United Kingdom. This report traces the history of German population growth from the 1870s through World War II and up to the present. The authors examine the demographic trends of the new Germany and the prospects for future growth. Until 1990, marriage, fertility, and mortality followed different paths in the...

  8. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Germany

    Stephan L. Thomsen; Gernandt, Johannes; Aldashev, Alisher


    Immigrants consist of foreigners and citizens with migration background. We analyze the wage gap between natives and these two groups in Germany. The estimates show a substantial gap for both groups with respect to natives. Discarding immigrants who completed education abroad reduces much of the immigrants' wage gap. This implies educational attainment in Germany is an important component of economic integration and degrees obtained abroad are valued less.

  9. Čelične tunelske oplate

    Andrić, Ante; Tešović, Snježana


    Opisano je postrojenje za betoniranje sekundarne tunelske obloge. Postrojenje ima tri dijela: plašt, transporter s vlastitim pogonom i sustav opskrbe betonom. Uz tehničke karakteristike i funkcije postrojenja opisana je i tehnologija rada te problematika konstruiranja, projektiranja i prenamjene za trotračnu i četverotračnu oplatu. Opisana je i prikazana konstrukcija oplate portala, čelne oplate i tunelske niše te montaža dvotračne oplate po fazama kao i distribucija betona.

  10. DA{phi}NE Upgrade Status

    Alesini, David; Biagini, Maria Enrica; Biscari, Caterina; Boni, Roberto; Boscolo, Manuela; Bossi, Fabio; Buonomo, Bruno; Clozza, Alberto; Delle Monache, Giovanni; Demma, Theo; Di Pasquale, Enrico; Di Pirro, Giampiero; Drago, Alessandro; Gallo, Alessandro; Ghigo, Andrea; Guiducci, Susanna; Ligi, Carlo; Marcellini, Fabio; Mazzitelli, Giovanni; Milardi, Catia [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)


    The DA{phi}NE {phi}-factory at INFN-LNF has been upgraded in the second half of 2007 with the scope of testing a recently proposed scheme of crab waist collisions. New vacuum chambers and permanent quadrupole magnets have been designed, fabricated and installed to realize the new configuration. The ring injection systems have been also modified with the installation of new stripline fast injection kickers. Moreover the old bellows have been substituted by the new ones and all ion clearing electrodes in the electron ring have been removed. In the talk we describe the new layout as well as several experimental results obtained during the new run.

  11. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Nicola Staeck


    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  12. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J


    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions.

  13. The influence of isotope substitution of neon atom on the integral cross sections of rotational excitation in Ne-Na2 collisions

    Zang Hua-Ping; Li Wen-Feng; Linghu Rong-Feng; Cheng Xin-Lu; Yang Xiang-Dong


    This paper applies the multiple ellipsoid model to the 16Ne (20Ne, 28Ne, 34Ne)-Na2 collision systems, and calculates integral cross sections for rotational excitation at the incident energy of 190 meV. It can be seen that the accuracy of the integral cross sections can be improved by increasing the number of equipotential ellipsoid surfaces. Moreover, by analysing the differences of these integral cross sections, it obtains the change rules of the integral cross sections with the increase of rotational angular quantum number J', and with the change of the mass of isotope substitution neon atom. Finally, the contribution of different regions of the potential to inelastic cross sections for 20Ne-Na2 collision system is investigated at relative incident energy of 190 meV.

  14. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    Urata, Y; Sagawa, H


    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus $^{31}$Ne. To this end, we assume that the $^{31}$Ne nucleus takes the $^{30}$Ne + $n$ structure. In order to take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of $^{31}$Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground state properties of $^{31}$Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground state wave function.

  15. El efecto de la difusión del Ne en las propiedades evolutivas y pulsacionales de las enanas blancas

    Camisassa, M. E.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.


    Due the large neutron excess of Ne, this isotope rapidly sediments in the interior of the white dwarfs. This process releases an extra amount of energy, thus delaying the cooling times of the white dwarf. Furthermore, the overabundance of Ne in the inner regions of the star, modifies the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, thus, altering its pulsational properties. In this work, we discuss the impact of Ne sedimentation in white dwarfs derived from solar metallicity progenitors (). We performed evolutionary calculations of white dwarfs of, , and . These models are the result of the full evolutionary calculations of their progenitor stars, starting at the zero age main sequence. Our computations show that Ne sedimentation delays the cooling times of white dwarfs in about 1 Gyr at low luminosities (), affecting the techniques that use white dwarfs to date stellar populations. Neglecting Ne sedimentation when calculating the theoretical white dwarf luminosity function, implies to underestimate the age of the stellar population. Additionally, we studied the consequences of Ne sedimentation on the pulsational properties of ZZ Ceti white dwarfs.

  16. Mesozoic tectonic regimes and regional ore-forming background in NE China: Constraints from spatial and temporal variations of Mesozoic volcanic rock associations%中国东北中生代构造体制与区域成矿背景:来自中生代火山岩组合时空变化的制约

    许文良; 王枫; 裴福萍; 孟恩; 唐杰; 徐美君; 王伟


    空分布特征,可以判定:1)环太平洋构造体系对东亚大陆下的俯冲始于早侏罗世,中生代期间存在早侏罗世、早白垩世晚期和晚白垩世三次俯冲事件,其影响的空间范围主要在松辽盆地及其以东地区,陆缘和古俯冲带是寻找斑岩型矿床的有利场所,而陆内的伸展区域主要与浅成低温热液矿床有关;2)蒙古-鄂霍茨克构造体系经历了中生代早期的俯冲事件和中侏罗世及早白垩世早期两次陆内推覆事件,其影响的空间范围主要在松辽盆地以西地区和华北地块北缘,中生代早期的俯冲事件主要与活动陆缘背景下的斑岩型矿床关系密切,而晚侏罗世和早白垩世两次与加厚陆壳拆沉有关的伸展背景有利于多金属矿床的形成.%This paper summarizes geochronology and association of Mesozoic volcanic rocks and their spatial and temporal variations, with the aim of constraining evolutionary history, and ore-forming background of the circum Pacific and Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic systems in NE China. Zircon U-Pb dating results indicate that Mesozoic volcanisms in NE China can be subdivided into six stages, i. e. , Late Triassic (200 ~ 228Ma) , Early-Middle Jurassic (173 ~ 190Ma) , Middle-Late Jurassic ( 158 ~ 166Ma) , early Early Cretaceous (138 ~ l45Ma) , late Early Cretaceous (106 ~ 133Ma) , and Late Cretaceous (88 ~ 97Ma). Late Triassic volcanic rocks in NE China mainly distribute in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang provinces and the Lesser Xing' an-Zhangguangcai Ranges. The former consists of A-type rhyolite, the latter is composed of bimodal volcanic rocks, implying that they formed under an extensional environment after the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Early-Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks occur in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang provinces, the Lesser Xing'an-Zhangguangcai Ranges, and the Erguna district Those in the eastern Jilin- Heilongjiang provinces and the Erguna district are composed of calc-alkaline volcanic

  17. The geography of stock exchanges in Imperial Germany

    Burhop, Carsten; Lehmann-Hasemeyer, Sibylle H.


    23 Stock Exchanges were in operation in Germany in 1913. We provide new data about the number of listed firms, their market value, and the number of IPOs between 1897 and 1913 for all exchanges. We assess reasons why a firm opts to be listed at a certain exchange. Large firms tend to be listed and tend to go public at the Berlin Stock Exchange, while the regional stock exchanges were important hosts for small and medium-sized firms. Borders and distance affect listing decisions, suggesting th...

  18. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    Jahn, Elke

    and region. But temps already suffer from a marked wage decline before entering the temporary help sector. Nevertheless, temporary agency employment does not leave a long lasting scar. Three quarters after leaving the sector, temps no longer suffer from a wage penalty. A recent change in the law set a high......As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. The paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and varies between occupation...

  19. A mantle plume below the Eifel volcanic fields, Germany

    Ritter, Joachim R. R.; Jordan, Michael; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Achauer, Ulrich


    We present seismic images of the upper mantle below the Quaternary Eifel volcanic fields, Germany, determined by teleseismic travel time tomography. The data were measured at a dedicated network of more than 200 stations. Our results show a columnar low P-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle with a lateral contrast of up to 2%. The 100 km wide structure extends to at least 400 km depth and is equivalent to about 150–200 K excess temperature. This clear evidence for a plume below a region of c...

  20. Electron-impact excitation of Ne4+

    Griffin, D. C.; Badnell, N. R.


    We present the results of extensive close-coupling calculations of electron-impact excitation of the C-like ion, Ne4+. We first compare effective collision strengths determined from a 20-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculation with those obtained from a 20-level intermediate-coupling frame transformation (ICFT) R-matrix calculation. The ICFT method was also employed to perform two much larger calculations; we compare the effective collision strengths determined from these calculations with each other and with those obtained from the 20-level calculations in order to assess the effects of increasing both the size of the configuration-interaction expansion of the target and the size of the close-coupling expansion. Our final calculation, with 130 terms and 261 levels in the configuration-interaction expansion of the target and 66 terms and 138 levels in the close-coupling expansion, provides improved data for excitation between the levels of the 2s22p2, 2s2p3 and 2p4 configurations and the first close-coupling results for excitation to the levels of the 2s22p3ℓ configurations in Ne4+.

  1. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Balaceanu J. C.


    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  2. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Bulletin


    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  3. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Koroljov, Aleksei


    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  4. Prospects for antineutrino running at MiniBooNE

    Wascko, M.O.; /Louisiana State U.


    MiniBooNE began running in antineutrino mode on 19 January, 2006. We describe the sensitivity of MiniBooNE to LSND-like {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations and outline a program of antineutrino cross-section measurements necessary for the next generation of neutrino oscillation experiments. We describe three independent methods of constraining wrong-sign (neutrino) backgrounds in an antineutrino beam, and their application to the MiniBooNE antineutrino analyses.

  5. Occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in northeast Germany.

    Fastner, Jutta; Rücker, Jacqueline; Stüken, Anke; Preussel, Karina; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Chorus, Ingrid; Köhler, Antje; Wiedner, Claudia


    The frequent occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in the (sub)tropics has been largely associated with cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales of tropical origin, in particular Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. C. raciborskii is currently observed to spread northwards into temperate climatic zones. In addition, further cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales typically inhabiting water bodies in temperate regions are being identified as CYN-producers. Therefore, data on the distribution of CYN in temperate regions are necessary for a first assessment of potential risks due to CYN in water used for drinking and recreation. A total of 127 lakes situated in the north-eastern part of Germany were investigated in 2004 for the presence of the toxin CYN and the phytoplankton composition. The toxin could be detected in half of the lakes (n = 63) and in half of 165 samples (n = 88). Concentrations reached up to 73.2 microg CYN/g DW. CYN thus proved more widely distributed than previously demonstrated. The analyses of phytoplankton data suggest Aphanizomenon sp. and Anabaena sp. as important CYN producers in Germany, and confirm recent findings of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as CYN-producing species frequently inhabiting water bodies in temperate climatic regions. The data shown here suggest that CYN may be an important cyanobacterial toxin in German water bodies and that further data are needed to assess this.

  6. Lifetime of 19Ne*(4.03 MeV)

    Kanungo, R; Andreyev, A N; Ball, G C; Chakravarthy, R S; Chicoine, M; Churchman, R; Davids, B; Forster, J S; Gujrathi, S; Hackman, G; Howell, D; Leslie, J R; Morton, A C; Mythili, S; Pearson, C J; Ressler, J J; Ruiz, C; Savajols, H; Schumaker, M A; Tanihata, I; Walden, P L; Yen, S


    The Doppler-shift attenuation method was applied to measure the lifetime of the 4.03 MeV state in 19Ne. Utilizing a 3He-implanted Au foil as a target, the state was populated using the 20Ne(3He,alpha)19Ne reaction in inverse kinematics at a 20Ne beam energy of 34 MeV. De-excitation gamma rays were detected in coincidence with alpha particles. At the 1 sigma level, the lifetime was determined to be 11 +4, -3 fs and at the 95.45% confidence level the lifetime is 11 +8, -7 fs.

  7. Microscopic cluster study of the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne nuclei

    Descouvemont, P


    We investigate the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne neutron-rich nuclei by using the Generator Coordinate Method. The wave functions are defined by a sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n and sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n + n cluster structure, respectively. The binding energies of both systems are studied with different parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and are shown to be similar. Assuming the particle stability of sup 3 sup 2 Ne, the sup 3 sup 1 Ne nucleus is therefore predicted to be stable with respect to neutron decay. Spectroscopic properties (r.m.s. radii and E2 transition probabilities) are presented for both nuclei.

  8. Statistical mechanics study on wetting behaviors of Ne on Mg surface

    Zhou, S.; Zhang, M.


    Wetting behavior of Ne adsorbed on a Mg surface, first investigated by means of a grand canonical Monte Carlo method in a previous publication (M. J. Bojan, G. Stan, S. Curtarolo, W. A. Steele, and M. W. Cole, Phys. Rev. E, 1999, 59, 864), is again studied by means of classical density functional theory. The Ne-Ne interaction is taken to be of the Lennard-Jones form, while the Ne-surface interaction is derived from an electronic density functional theory. The wetting phase diagram is calculated, and the isotherm shapes, energy and structural properties of the adsorbed films are examined. The present calculations indicate that the system exhibits first-order pre-wetting transition at temperatures above a wetting temperature of Tw≈24 K, and below a critical pre-wetting temperature of Tpwc≈25.09 K. The present findings include (i) in the pre-wetting temperature region, the pre-wetting transition is mixed with many layering transitions; after pre-wetting, the film thickness discontinuously increases (due to frequent occurrences of the layering transitions) and eventually diverges as the chemical potential approaches and eventually equals the saturation value. (ii) Occurrence of the layering transition remains above Tpwc, and the increase of the film thickness with the chemical potential is discontinuous. (iii) Below the wetting temperature, the layering transitions frequently occur and tend to gather together more closely as the saturation is approached.

  9. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  10. 试析德国缔约过失责任的确立及对其他国家和地区的影响%Analysis on the Establishment of Culpa in Contrahendo in Germany and the Impact on Other Countries and Regions



    As early as the Roman Law times, Culpa in contrahendo had been recognized. The theory of Culpa in contrahendo was first put forward in Germany and established as the general principles of the German private law, which not only had a huge impact on other civil law countries and regions, but also affected on the Anglo - American law system. Anglo - American Law did not give rise to the general principles of culpa in contrahendo, while it formed principles of the Promissory Estoppel, which based on the case law and played the same role as culpa in contrahendo. Our civil law adopted the theory of Culpa in contrahendo and established the corresponding system.%缔约过失责任早在罗马法时期已有所认识。缔约过失责任理论首先在德国提出,并被德国民法确立为一般性原则。缔约过失责任理论不仅对其他大陆法系国家和地区产生很大影响,而且也影响了英美法系。英美法没有产生缔约过失责任的一般原则,而是形成了源于判例、起着与缔约过失责任制度相同作用的允诺禁反言原则。我国民法采纳了缔约过失责任理论,并确立了缔约过失责任制度。

  11. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    P. Spichtinger


    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  12. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt’s outflow region

    P. Spichtinger


    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24 h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500 m, the one investigated here reached 3 km. The investigated ice-supersaturated region was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  13. Extreme drought events in Germany during the last 60 yrs

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.


    Droughts are among the most costly natural disasters because they heavily impact on the economy of a region as well as on its social and cultural activities. Droughts do not only occur in arid or semiarid regions but also in humid ones. The year 2007, for example, was the sunniest, hottest and driest in Germany in the last two centuries. In this case, it was too dry too early. As a result, the harvest was cut by half leading to enormous losses in the primary sector. Consumer prices of some agricultural products went up 26 percent. The purpose of this study is to identify the major agricultural and hydrological droughts in Germany since 1950 based on their severity, duration and areal extend. To achieve this goal, a 60-yr retrospective hydrological simulation of the land surface water budget over Germany was carried out with the process-based distributed hydrological model mHM. The model was forced with grided daily precipitation and temperature data at 4x4 km, and the model simulations were carried out at same spatial resolutions. Point measurement data from more than 5600 raingauges and about 1120 meteorological stations (DWD) were interpolated with EDK. Land cover change was also considered during this period. Drought indices were derived as monthly quantiles of the simulated fluxes which include root zone soil moisture and total runoff. A Gaussian kernel smoother was used to estimate these quantiles at each grid cell. A spatio-temporal cluster algorithm was used to consolidate all significant drought events. Main statistics such as magnitude, areal extend, duration, and severity were estimated only on those selected clusters. The mHM model was calibrated in major river basins giving Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for daily discharge simulations greater than 0.8 in the evaluation period. Plausibility tests between the simulated mHM soil moisture and land surface temperature from MODIS and regional climate model reanalysis data compared well. Results indicated that

  14. A review of multiple natural hazard risks in Germany

    Kreibich, Heidi; Schröter, Kai; Bubeck, Philip; Parolai, Stefano; Khazai, Bijan; Daniell, James; Kunz, Michael; Mahlke, Holger; Lakes, Tobia


    Germany is experiencing various natural hazards and their impacts are expected to increase due to socio-economic and climatic changes, if an efficient risk management is not able to counteract. The international disaster database EM-DAT lists 79 events, namely earthquakes (3), extreme temperatures (9), floods (18), wet mass movement (1), storms (47) and wildfire (1) between 1950 and 2011; all together causing more than 10.000 fatalities and more than 40 billion US damage in Germany. The event with the highest human loss was the heat wave of 2003 with more than 9.000 fatalities. The event with the highest economic damage was the flood in 2002 causing €11.600 million damage. The aim of this paper is to offer a new perspective on multiple risk assessments in Germany by giving a systematic and comprehensive review on existing hazards and risk management strategies. Such a multiple risk assessment is particularly important because the potential for a natural event to cause a disaster depends on how vulnerable an exposed community is to such hazards. Human actions can reduce the damage to people and property but can at the same time increase the exposure to risks and exacerbate the impacts of hazardous events. To significantly improve risk management, i.e. decrease vulnerability and increase resilience of a region, more effort is needed than the well-established hazard-specific risk assessments. Planners and decision-makers need to be aware of and informed about all pertinent hazards in a region. Thus, to compare different hazards and to evaluate changes in risk, we propose the need of a consistent multi risk assessment.

  15. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A


    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  16. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.


    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  17. Ten years after the unification: East Germany and the relevance of modern theories of trade, location and growth

    Brakman, S.; Schramm, M.; Garretsen, Harry


    In the paper we analyse, ten years after the German unification, the relevance of modern theoretical developments on trade, location and growth for East Germany using sectoral and regional data. Given our discussion of stylized facts about industry growth, economies of scale and differences in labour productivity we test for the existence of localised knowledge spillovers and a spatial wage structure in East Germany. We find that localised knowledge spillovers play a role and that a spatial w...

  18. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Wilhelm, J.G.


    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Climatic change in Germany. Adaptation is necessary. 4. ed.; Deutschland im Klimawandel. Anpassung ist notwendig

    Schuchardt, Bastian; Wittig, Stefan [BioConsult Schuchardt und Scholle, Bremen (Germany); Mahrenholz, Petra; Kartschall, Karin; Maeder, Claudia; Hasse, Clemens; Daschkeit, Achim [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)


    The report discusses the global climatic change and the regional consequences for Germany. The risk analysis covers selected examples concerning health hazards, agriculture, forestry, water management, environmental protection and biodiversity, traffic, tourism, flood control and prevention and settlement development. Possible German adaptation strategies for these selected sections are summarized.

  20. Comparing Episodes of Mathematics Teaching for Higher Achievers in England and Germany

    Kelly, Peter; Kotthoff, Hans-Georg


    To illustrate similarities and differences in lower secondary level mathematics teaching with higher achievers and thereby explore privileging processes, we contrast a teaching episode in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with one in South West England. These have been selected from a larger study as typical within each region for higher achieving…

  1. Detection of two intervening Ne viii absorbers probing warm gas at z ˜ 0.6

    Pachat, Sachin; Narayanan, Anand; Khaire, Vikram; Savage, Blair D.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Wakker, Bart P.


    We report on the detection of two Ne viii absorbers, at z = 0.619 07 and 0.570 52 in the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectrum of background quasars SDSS J080908.13 + 461925.6 and SBS 1122 + 594, respectively. The Ne viii 770 line is at ∼3σ significance. In both instances, the Ne viii is found to be tracing gas with T ≳ 105 K, predominantly collisionally ionized, with moderate densities of n_{H} ≲ 10^{-4} cm-3, sub-solar metallicities and total hydrogen column densities of N(H) ≳ 1019 cm-2. In the z = 0.619 07 absorber, the low, intermediate ions and O vi are consistent with origin in photoionized gas, with the O vi potentially having some contribution from the warm collisional phase traced by Ne viii. The z = 0.570 52 system has H I absorption in at least three kinematically distinct components, with one of them having b({H I}) = 49 {± } 11 km s-1. The intermediate-ionization lines, O vi and Ne viii, are coincident in velocity with this component. Their different line widths suggest warm temperatures of T = (0.5-1.5) × 105 K. Both absorbers are residing in regions where there are several luminous (≳L★) galaxies. The absorber at z = 0.570 52 is within the virial radius of a 2.6L★ galaxy, possibly associated with shock-heated circumgalactic material.

  2. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E


    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Ralf Goebel


    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review



    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  5. Feline cowpoxvirus infections in Germany: clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Appl, Caroline; von Bomhard, Wolf; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Meyer, Hermann; Bettenay, Sonya; Mueller, Ralf


    Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cats with cowpox in Germany from the years 2004 to 2010 are described and discussed. Questionnaires were sent to veterinarians and owners of affected cats identified with the help of a number of pathology laboratories. Of 69 mailed questionnaires, 45 veterinary and 26 owner questionnaires were returned and a total of 46 feline poxcases were evaluated. The cases were distributed all over Germany although there was an accumulation of cases in specific geographic areas. The clinical and epidemiological observations match those of other studies. The majority of cats were outdoor cats, came from a rural environment and developed clinical signs in late summer or autumn. All cats showed skin lesions which were predominantly localized on the anterior part of the body, 61% of the cats showed other clinical signs in addition to the skin lesions. Approximately half of the cats lived in a multi-pet household, but in only one case clinical signs typical for cowpox were observed in another cat of the household. In two cases a cat-to-human transmission was assumed. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of pox virus infections in outdoor cats in areas with previous reports of such infections, 92 apparently unaffected outdoor cats were tested for orthopoxvirus antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Sixteen (17%) of the tested serum samples were seropositive against orthopoxvirus (titre between 1:20 and 1:40).This is a higher serum prevalence than in previously published studies from Germany. A possible explanation is selection of a population of outdoor cats from regions with previous known clinical cases.

  6. Tracing the Spread of Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Germany Based on Bacterial Genome Sequences.

    Matthias Steglich

    Full Text Available We applied whole-genome sequencing to reconstruct the spatial and temporal dynamics underpinning the expansion of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 in Germany. Based on re-sequencing of genomes from 57 clinical C. difficile isolates, which had been collected from hospitalized patients at 36 locations throughout Germany between 1990 and 2012, we demonstrate that C. difficile genomes have accumulated sequence variation sufficiently fast to document the pathogen's spread at a regional scale. We detected both previously described lineages of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. difficile ribotype 027, FQR1 and FQR2. Using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses, we show that fluoroquinolone-resistant C. difficile 027 was imported into Germany at least four times, that it had been widely disseminated across multiple federal states even before the first outbreak was noted in 2007, and that it has continued to spread since.

  7. Spitzer observations of extragalactic H II regions III: NGC 6822 and the hot star, H II region connection

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Kader, Justin; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Weber, Johann A


    Using the short-high module of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have measured the [S IV] 10.51, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71-micron emission lines in 9 H II regions in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These lines arise from the dominant ionization states of the elements neon (Ne$^{++}$, Ne$^+$) and sulphur (S$^{3+}$, S$^{++}$), thereby allowing an analysis of the neon to sulphur abundance ratio as well as the ionic abundance ratios Ne$^+$/Ne$^{++}$ and S$^{3+}$/S$^{++}$. By extending our studies of H II regions in M83 and M33 to the lower metallicity NGC 6822, we increase the reliability of the estimated Ne/S ratio. We find that the Ne/S ratio appears to be fairly universal, with not much variation about the ratio found for NGC 6822: the median (average) Ne/S ratio equals 11.6 (12.2$\\pm$0.8). This value is in contrast to Asplund et al.'s currently best estimated value for the Sun: Ne/S = 6.5. In addition, we continue to test the predicted ionizing spectral e...

  8. An ab Initio Study on Solar Geometry and Potential for N-E India

    Bhattacharjee, S.


    In north-east (N-E) India, there is severe power shortage and associated power quality problems; the quality of grid supply in most of the places is characterized by large voltage and frequency fluctuations, scheduled and unscheduled power cuts and load restrictions. Load shedding due to power shortage and faults in many cities in N-E India is a major problem for which there is no immediate remedy in near future since the gap between power demand and supply is increasing every year. But this region being rich in sun shine, solar energy is available all over the year at free of cost. In order to harness solar energy, it is important to know the amount of solar radiation available at a given location at a given time. Knowledge of solar radiation requires information about many parameters. This paper tries to analyze the solar geometry and potential of the region and presents various parameters for evaluation of solar resource as a promising option for power generation in N-E India.

  9. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    Cortsen, Kenneth


    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  10. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    Cortsen, Kenneth


    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  11. Passive solar systems performance in West Germany

    Habenicht, G.


    This paper discusses the influence of the two main climatic features (solar radiation and temperature) on the performance of passive solar systems in West Germany. Evaluations were made for the four climatic zones - German Lowlands, German Highlands, Alp Foreland, Alps. These zones differ in solar radiation, temperature and diurnal temperature swings. To evaluate different passive solar systems (direct gain, Trombe wall, water wall) a prototypical dwelling was designed which responded to the environmental conditions. The calculations of the ''Solar Savings Fraction'' (SSF) of each systems were made with a program based on the 'LCR-method'. The paper concludes that although the heating requirements decrease with decreasing latitude and altitude, the SSF is nearly the same for all parts of Germany. They are in a range of +- 5%. This is due to the fact that two main climatic features solar radiation and temperature balance each other. In northern Germany the man solar radiation level is low and so is the number of heating degree days. The conditions in southern Germany are reverse.

  12. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Hufeisen, Britta


    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  13. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda


    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  14. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing


    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  15. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    Feder, Toni


    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  16. Differential mortality by lifetime earnings in Germany

    Rembrandt D. Scholz


    Full Text Available e estimate mortality rates by a measure of socio-economic status in a very large sample of male German pensioners aged~65 or older. Our analysis is entirely nonparametric. Furthermore, the data enable us to compare mortality experiences in eastern and western Germany conditional on socio-economic status. As a simple summary measure, we compute period life expectancies at age~65. Our findings show a lower bound of almost 50 percent (six years on the difference in life expectancy between the lowest and the highest socio-economic group considered. Within groups, we find similar values for the former GDR and western Germany. Our analysis contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, we provide the first population-based differential mortality study for Germany. Second, we use a novel measure of lifetime earnings as a proxy for socio-economic status that remains applicable to retired people. Third, the comparison between eastern and western Germany may provide some interesting insights for transformation countries.

  17. Earnings Inequality in Germany and Its Implications



    The current paper discusses the evolution of earnings inequality in Germany with an eye to its potential lessons for China. Inequality is assessed from two different perspectives: the distribution of annual earnings, and the distribution of lifetime earnings. This paper proposes to implement closer monitoring of lifetime earnings and take a proactive stance in the formation of the wage-bargaining regime.

  18. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert


    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  19. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany


    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  20. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Sun Yongjian


    @@ "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  1. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan


    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  2. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov


    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...... of informal carers (relatives), balanced view on assistive technology, destigmatisation and support of autonomy....

  3. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    Schiermeier, Q


    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  4. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo


    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  5. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.


    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  6. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Gruhn, Wilfried


    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are addressed in the…

  7. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Frackmann, Edgar


    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  8. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Hufeisen, Britta


    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  9. Macroeconomic trends and reforms in Germany

    Roberto Sabbatini


    Full Text Available This paper traces the main macroeconomic developments in the German economy from national unification. Its performance is compared with that of the rest of the euro area and its largest economies. The study documents as GermanyÕs modest growth in the later 1990s was due to the restrictive impact on domestic demand coming from the deep restructuring and modernization of the production system, followed by sweeping reforms after the turn of the century. Rapid productivity increases and prolonged wage moderation, especially in industry, fuelled a large and mounting current account surplus in Germany, that compares with the deficits registered in most European countries. The study retraces the recent debate on how to correct those imbalances, recalling the arguments for and against the thesis that the countries with a current payments surplus, above all Germany, must also play an active role in fostering the adjustment of the deficit countries. A possible synthesis is proposed, based on an analysis of the formation of national income and the use of resources according to the national accounts system. The implication is that Germany may contribute to the correction of imbalances within the euro area not so much by altering the wage formation mechanism as by creating incentives for domestic investment, hence fostering employment creation, in the service sectors that are currently lagging behind the extraordinary perfomance of a number of core activities in the industry.

  10. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value


    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing the

  11. Climate suitability for the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in Germany.

    Sassnau, R; Daugschies, A; Lendner, M; Genchi, C


    Recently concerns are increasing that dirofilarial nematodes may spread from endemic areas in southern, eastern and central Europe to countries in northern regions of Europe. The increasing number of autochthonous cases of canine Dirofilaria repens infections in Germany indicates that worms of this genus may invade new areas, and climate change may be a key factor in this scenario. Thus analysis of long term development of regional temperature is a pivotal factor in risk analysis related to transmission of these worms. Such information is important for suggestions of counteracting strategies, such as definition of periods of increased transmission risk and, consequently, time slots most suited for preventative measures. In this study, mean daily temperature data from 34 geographical clustered weather stations representing all parts of Germany were analyzed. It is concluded that the increasing trend for average daily temperatures observed in the period from 1984 to 2013 has led to climatic conditions that allow the completion of dirofilarial life cycles in large parts of Germany between May and October. Autochthonous infection with D. repens is already established in some regions and targeted diagnosis and medical prophylaxis is advisable for dogs assumedly exposed during risk of transmission periods. It appears likely that global warming will support further spread of D. repens. Furthermore for the population of dogs the spread of the more pathogenic species D. immitis in hitherto non-endemic Germany is a potential risk if mean temperatures rise to a level suitable for parasite development in the abundant vector mosquitoes during the warmer seasons.

  12. Conical Emission from Shock Waves in Ne(1-20 AGeV)+U Collisions

    Rau, Philip; Betz, Barbara; Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus; Stöcker, Horst


    The formation and propagation of high-density compression waves, e.g. Mach shock waves, in cold nuclear matter is studied by simulating high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions of Ne with U in the energy range from E_lab = 0.5 AGeV to 20 AGeV. In an ideal hydrodynamic approach, the high-density shock wave created by the small Ne nucleus passing through the heavy U nucleus is followed by a slower and more dilute Mach shock wave which causes conical emission of particles at the Mach cone angle. The conical emission originates from low-density regions with a small flow velocity comparable to the speed of sound. Moreover, it is shown that the angular distributions of emitted baryons clearly distinguish between a hydrodynamic approach and binary cascade processes used in the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model.

  13. The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE CCQE neutrino-nucleus data

    Nieves, J; Vicente-Vacas, M J


    We analyze the MiniBooNE CCQE $d\\sigma/dT_\\mu d\\cos\\theta_\\mu$ data using a theoretical model that has proved to be quite successful in the analysis of nuclear reactions with electron, photon and pion probes. We find that RPA and multinucleon knockout turn out to be essential for the description of the MiniBooNE data. We show these measurements are fully compatible with former determinations of nucleon axial mass $M_A$, in contrast with several previous analyses, which have suggested an anomalously large value. We find, $M_A=1.08 \\pm 0.03$ GeV. We also argue that the procedure, commonly used to reconstruct the neutrino energy for QE events from the muon angle and energy, could be unreliable for a wide region of the phase space, due to the large importance of multinucleon events.

  14. R&D towards the acoustic positioning system of KM3NeT

    Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Camarena, F.; Espinosa, V.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; KM3NeT Consortium


    In this paper we present a possible solution for the acoustic positioning system of KM3NeT, a future very large undersea neutrino telescope. The system consists of an array of budget-priced acoustic transducers that can operate as emitters and receivers in the 20-40 kHz region and withstand the high pressures (up to 500 bar). Versatile associated low-power electronics has been developed, implementing the all-data-to-shore approach. Besides controlling signal transmission and reception, the electronics allows for transducer configuration from shore to benefit from varied on-shore signal processing techniques. We will describe the prototype transceiver and the tests performed to study its specifications, demonstrating that the system fulfils the requirements for the acoustic positioning calibration of KM3NeT.

  15. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich


    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  16. Exploring Neutrino Interactions with MicroBooNE

    Miceli, Tia


    Recently, MiniBooNE observed an electromagnetic excess at low energy. What is the nature of this excess? What about the nature of the low-energy excess at LSND 20 years ago? The MicroBooNE detector will see neutrinos from the same Booster beam at Fermilab as used by MiniBooNE. MicroBooNE's design will enable us to discriminate photons from electrons elucidating the MiniBooNE and LSND low-energy electromagnetic excesses. MicroBooNE is a 170 ton liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) capable of imaging neutrino interactions with the detail of a bubble chamber, but with electronic data acquisition and processing. In addition to shining light on the low-energy excesses and measuring low-energy neutrino cross sections, MicroBooNE is leading the way for a more extensive short-baseline neutrino physics program at Fermilab and it also serves as a R&D project towards a long-baseline multi-kiloton scale LArTPC detector.

  17. Study of the structure of borromean nucleus 17Ne

    LU Fei; HUA Hui; YE Yan-Lin; LI Zhi-Huan; JIANG Dong-Xing; MA Li-Ying; GE Yu-Cheng; ZHENG Tao; SONG Yu-Shou; LI Xiang-Qing; Qureshi Faisal-Jamil


    The 17Ne nucleus is a possible candidate with a two-proton borromean halo structure. Since the theoretical model is difficult to handle the three-body system, it is difficult to determine the two-proton halo structure in 17Ne. In the present research, we try to study the breakup reaction of 17Ne. For the Borromean nuclei, one-proton knockout results in an unstable nucleus which is decaying further by proton emission. This process will result in an angular correlation between the direction of the aligned recoiling unstable nucleus and its decay products. The angular correlations can give us information about the configuration of the valence proton in the 17Ne. Furthermore, theoretical calculations indicate that the momentum distributions of 16F c.m are sensitive to the structure of the halo in 17Ne. Thus the measurement of momentum distributions of 16F c.m may also give us conclusive information on the structure of 17Ne. The present experiment has been done at IMP in Lanzhou using the radioactive beam 17Ne at 30.8 MeV/u on a 43mg/cm2 12C target. The data analysis is under procedure and the primary results are provided.

  18. The impact of climate change on tourism in Germany, the UK and Ireland: a simulation study

    Hamilton, Jacqueline; Tol, Richard


    We downscale the results of a global tourism simulation model at a national resolution to a regional resolution. We use this to investigate the impact of climate change on the regions of Germany, Ireland and the UK. Because of climate change, tourists from all three countries would spend more holidays in the home country. In all three countries, climate change would first reduce the number of international arrivals - as Western European international tourist demand falls - but later increase ...

  19. Deep Learning MicroBooNE

    Genty, Victor; Terao, Kazuhiro; Wonjirad, Taritree


    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) technology provides a high resolution image of ionizing particle trajectories raising a need for new event reconstruction techniques based on pattern recognition. The traditional bottoms-up reconstruction approach to extract physics involves a complex sequence of signal waveform processing, 2D and/or 3D geometrical pattern recognition, calorimetry, and finally particle identification before a neutrino interaction can be identified in an event. We present a top-down reconstruction approach using a machine learning algorithm called Deep Learning which uses convolutional neural networks to find a neutrino interaction in a LAr TPC image. We trained our network on images of simulated single particles and neutrinos overlaid on cosmic-ray background data taken from the MicroBooNE detector. In this talk, we present our result that shows convolutional networks can successfully learn LAr TPC images to perform particle identification, neutrino event selection, and localization of a neutrino interaction vertex in a large LAr TPC image.

  20. Pion inelastic scattering from sup 20 Ne

    Burlein, M. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    Angular distributions for {sup 20}Ne({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime}) were measured on the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Data were taken with both {pi}{sup {plus}} and {pi}{sup {minus}} over an angular range of 12{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=180 MeV and with {pi}{sup +} from 15{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=120 MeV. The data were analyzed using both the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) and the coupled-channels impulse approximation (CCIA) with collective transition densities. In addition, microscopic transition densities were used in the DWIA analysis for states in the lowest rotational bands. The transitions to the 6.73-MeV 0{sup +} and several 1{sup {minus}} states, including the states at 5.79 MeV and 8.71 MeV, were studied using several models for the transition density. Strong evidence for the importance of two-step routes in pion inelastic scattering was seen in several angular distributions, including the 5.79-MeV 1{sup {minus}}, the first three 4{sup +} states, and the 8.78-MeV 6{sup +}. 100 refs., 81 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).


    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...


    Hosta, Anja


    Diplomsko delo obravnava konstruiranje in modeliranje ženske poročne obleke. V ta namen je podan zgodovinski pregled ženskih poročnih oblek in zbrani predlogi za primernost kroja ženskih obleke glede na različne postave teles. Predstavljene so poročne obleke znanih osebnosti skozi obdobja in tekstilni materiali, ki se običajno uporabljajo za izdelavo poročnih oblek. Podano je konstruiranje temeljnega kroja ženske obleke in metode modeliranja oprijetih zgornjih delov ženskih oblek, kar je pred...

  3. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Wamers F.


    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  4. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise


    The cosmogenic radionuclides, in particular 10Be, have found use in modern sediments as a way of determining the erosion rate of river catchments. Cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz is easier and faster to measure than 10Be and has the potential to record erosion rates back 10s million years. However the routine use of cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz sand is hampered by ubiquitous nucleogenic 21Ne. When the eroding lithology can be identified it is possible to measure the nucleogenic in samples that are shielded from cosmic rays and correct for it in exposed bedrock [1]. However, identifying the lithologies that contributes quartz sand in large river catchments, and determining precise nucleogenic contributions is more problematic. The North and South Platte rivers drain early Prototerozoic lithologies of the Laramie and Front Ranges in the high Rockies of Wyoming. They have deposited several km of coarse clastic fluvial deposits on the Great Plains of Nebraska and Colorado up to 200 km from the mountain front. Quartz from shielded samples of granite and gneiss - the dominant quartz-bearing rocks - has high concentrations of nucleogenic 21Ne (60-140 e6 atoms/g). The 21Ne concentration in modern sand from the river (n=10) overlaps that measured in the shielded granite and gneiss. The sand data rarely lie on the air-spallation mixing line in the Ne three isotope plot indicating that it is dominantly derived from the granite and gneiss and has no resolvable cosmogenic 21Ne. Building on previous studies of cosmogenic 21Ne in pebbles [2] we have started a programme of analysis of pebbles derived from the Medicine Bow quartzite that are abundant throughout the Cenozoic alluvial sequence. Nucleogenic 21Ne in shielded quartzite is lower than granites (3-7 e6 atoms/g, n=4) and the data tend to lie on the air-spallation mixing line. All pebbles (n=14) from modern sediments analysed so far contain 2-80 times more excess 21Ne than the highest shielded quartzite suggesting that cosmogenic 21

  5. Orthopedic workforce planning in Germany - an analysis of orthopedic accessibility.

    Bauer, Jan; Müller, Peter; Maier, Werner; Groneberg, David A


    In Germany, orthopedic workforce planning relies on population-to-provider-ratios represented by the 'official degree of care provision'. However, with geographic information systems (GIS), more sophisticated measurements are available. By utilizing GIS-based technologies we analyzed the current state of demand and supply of the orthopedic workforce in Germany (orthopedic accessibility) with the integrated Floating Catchment Area method. The analysis of n = 153,352,220 distances revealed significant geographical variations on national scale: 5,617,595 people (6.9% of total population) lived in an area with significant low orthopedic accessibility (average z-score = -4.0), whereas 31,748,161 people (39.0% of total population) lived in an area with significant high orthopedic accessibility (average z-score = 8.0). Accessibility was positively correlated with the degree of urbanization (r = 0.49; p<0.001) and the official degree of care provision (r = 0.33; p<0.001) and negatively correlated with regional social deprivation (r = -0.47; p<0.001). Despite advantages of simpler measures regarding implementation and acceptance in health policy, more sophisticated measures of accessibility have the potential to reduce costs as well as improve health care. With this study, significant geographical variations were revealed that show the need to reduce oversupply in less deprived urban areas in order to enable adequate care in more deprived rural areas.

  6. Local acceptance of wind energy. A comparison between Germany, Argentina and Spain

    Jimeno, Moira [Freie Univ. Berlin (DE). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (ffu)


    Commercial exploitation of wind parks started in the early 1990s in Germany, and in the mid 1990s in Spain and Argentina. Then, there have been an incremental use of wind turbines in rural areas. Many of them are characterised in economic terms by a diversified economic structure with a marginal significance. In the ''innovative democracy and concrete institutional economy'' approach one of the key problems regarding wind turbines, is the local acceptance. This raises the following questions: how is local acceptance, from the perspective of the innovative democracy, of the wind regions in Germany and Spain and why it was developed in this way. Another central question concerning the local acceptance of wind energy is how wind regions in Argentina (as an example of an emerging country investing in renewable energy) can learn from the European experiences. Based on this, I would like to make a comparative analysis between Germany, Spain and Argentina on the basis of various regions with the corresponding wind parks, within regional differences and similarities are to be worked out. First results tend to demonstrate that wind energy promotion programs will be most successful (in terms of their higher level of social acceptance) in locales that have participatory decision making structures and incorporate wind energy development into broader local or regional development programs. For example in touristic programs. In order to verify this the case study approach is focused on comparing selected regions based on the three countries. (orig.)

  7. Hydrogeophysics and Water Balance of Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico

    Yutsis, V.; de León Gómez, H.; Masuch Oesterreich, D.; Izaguirre, F.


    The geographical location of the State of Nuevo Leon, due to its physiographic features, has temperate and arid climate; undeveloped drainage, low precipitations, and high evapotranspiration rates, as well as rapid demographic growth. The hydrological data of the Pablillo basin, registered in the hydrometric station Cerro Prieto, showed an annual precipitation from 415 up to 1130 mm/a , the mean evaporation of 705 mm/a (up to 2460 mm/a in 1996). The maximum water storage of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is 395 millions m3 which corresponds to a water level of 295 meters. However, this level was reached only three times after the dam's construction. By the end of June 2006 the water level was at 276.2 m which corresponds to a water volume of about 127,806,300 m3 which is less than a third of maximum storage. Analysis of hydrological data showed sufficient misbalance between water recharge (by rain, river flow) and loss due to evaporation, filtration, extraction, discharge, etc. 160 gravity reading points, 400 onshore magnetic field readings as well as about 250 offshore magnetic points were carried out. The standard corrections as instrumental drift, latitude, elevation, IGRF, etc. were applied to obtained data. Data procession includes Fourier transformation, wavelength filters, upward continuation, vertical and horizontal derivates, etc. As a result a 2D geological-geophysical models and 3D maps were elaborated. The general trend of the magnetic field reduced to a pole is NW - SE on which background anomalies of northeast trend are obviously traced. The general trend of the gravity field received as a result of our works is the same. However, local magnetic and residual gravity anomalies have mosaic character and, being morphologically extended in a NE direction, grouped in chains of northwest trend. Potential data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NE direction, perpendicular (NW-SE) to the general deep fault. The

  8. The MiniBooNE detector technical design report

    I. Stancu et al.


    The MiniBooNE experiment [1] is motivated by the LSND observation, [2] which has been interpreted as {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, and by the atmospheric neutrino deficit, [3,4,5] which may be ascribed to {nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations into another type of neutrino. MiniBooNE is a single-detector experiment designed to: obtain {approx} 1000 {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} events if the LSND signal is due to {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, establishing the oscillation signal at the > 5{sigma} level as shown in Fig. 1.1; extend the search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations significantly beyond what has been studied previously if no signal is observed; search for {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance to address the atmospheric neutrino deficit with a signal that is a suppression of the rate of {nu}{sub {mu}}C {yields} {mu}N events from the expected 600,000 per year; measure the oscillation parameters as shown in Fig. 1.2 if oscillations are observed; and test CP conservation in the lepton sector if oscillations are observed by running with separate {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} beams. The detector will consist of a spherical tank 6.1 m (20 feet) in radius, as shown in Fig. 1.3, that stands in a 45-foot diameter cylindrical vault. An inner tank structure at 5.75 m radius will support 1280 8-inch phototubes (10% coverage) pointed inward and optically isolated from the outer region of the tank. The tank will be filled with 807 t of mineral oil, resulting in a 445 t fiducial volume. The outer tank volume will serve as a veto shield for identifying particles both entering and leaving the detector with 240 phototubes mounted on the tank wall. Above the detector tank will be an electronics enclosure that houses the fast electronics and data acquisition system and a utilities enclosure that houses the plumbing, overflow tank, and calibration laser. The detector will be located {approx} 550 m from the Booster neutrino

  9. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz


    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  10. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Michael Dauderstädt


    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  11. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Kera, Ingrit


    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  12. Study of the Structure of Borromean Nucleus 17^Ne

    王恩宏; 华辉; 卢飞; 叶沿林; 李智焕; 江栋兴; 李湘庆; 葛愉成; 郑涛; 宋玉收


    In the present research, we used the 17^Ne beam at 30.8 MeV/u to bombard the 43 mg/cm^2 12^C target and measured the angular correlations between the fragments and emitted proton. In the break-up reaction of 17^Ne, one-proton knockout would result in an unstable nu- cleus 16^F, which would further decay by the proton emission. The measured angular correlation between the 16^F momentum and the relative momentum of its decay products was compared with theoretical calculations and indicated that the valence proton in 17^Ne has the most probability to be situated in the s1/2 orbital with a small admixture of the d5/2 orbital. The present results suggest that 17^Ne has a halo structure.

  13. Reconstructing Michel Electrons in the MicroBooNE Detector

    Caratelli, David


    MicroBooNE is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detector located in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab which began collecting neutrino data in October 2015. MicroBooNE aims to explore the low-energy excess in the νe spectrum reported by MiniBooNE as well as perform ν-Ar cross-section measurements. In this talk, we present the current status of reconstructing Michel electrons from cosmic ray muons in the MicroBooNE detector. These Michel electrons are distributed uniformly inside the detector, and serve as a natural and powerful calibration source to study the detector's response for low energy (10s of MeV) interactions as a function of position. We have developed a reconstruction software tool to successfully identify such Michel electrons which could be of benefit to LArTPC experiments generically.

  14. Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation

    Bolwijn, P.T.


    Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation is considered theoretically, including explicitly the laser oscillator properties. Experiments reported previously by us and other authors are in agreement with our analysis.

  15. [Site 35NE-5 Draft Maps : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2004

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains two maps from site 35NE-5 at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal; Soil Sample 4088A vs. Excavation Boundary and TRER Remediation Boundary, from...

  16. On the New Puzzling Results from MiniBooNE

    Abbas, Syed Afsar


    We look into the recent puzzlng results from MiniBooNE and contrast their results with that from NOMAD. A pictuire which provides consistent decscriptiobn of both is discussed here. This also points to future directions in neutrino studies.

  17. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... rulemaking filed by Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln,...

  18. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... Lincoln Broadcasting, LLC (``LBL''), the licensee of KFXL-TV, channel 51, Lincoln, Nebraska, requesting... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  19. Noćne more Carlosa Fuentesa

    Una Krizmanić Ožegović


    Full Text Available U Iraku se zvao Salim Abdul Husain i radio je za općinu kao čistač, u skupini kojoj je upravitelj dodijelio zadatak čišćenja nakon eksplozija. Umro je 2009. u Nizozemskoj pod drugim imenom: Carlos Fuentes. Salim i njegovi kolege, puni dosade i gnušanja, kao i svakoga drugog jadnog dana, čistili su tržnicu nakon što je eksplodirao tegljač s gorivom, zapalivši piliće, voće, povrće i pokojeg čovjeka. Meli su pažljivo i polako od straha da ne pokupe neki zaostali komad ljudskoga tijela. Uvijek su tražili netaknutu lisnicu ili možda zlatni lanac, prsten ili sat koji je još pokazivao vrijeme. U potrazi za posmrtnim dragocjenostima Salim nije imao sreće kao njegovi kolege. Trebao mu je novac za vizu kako bi otišao u Nizozemsku i pobjegao iz ovog vatrenoga užasa prepunoga smrti. Samo mu se jedanput posrećilo pa je našao prst s dragocjenim srebrnim prstenom, vrlo lijepim. Salim je poklopio prst stopalom, pažljivo se sagnuo i skinuo prsten s gađenjem. Prsten je završio na Salimovoj ruci, zadivljeno je promatrao dragi kamen i na kraju odustao od pomisli da ga proda. Može li se reći da je osjetio duboku duhovnu povezanost s prstenom?

  20. Searches for New Physics at MiniBooNE: Sterile Neutrinos and Mixing Freedom

    Karagiorgi, Georgia S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The MiniBooNE experiment was designed to perform a search for vμ → ve oscillations in a region of Δm2 and sin2 2θ very different from that allowed by standard, three-neutrino oscillations, as determined by solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments. This search was motivated by the LSND experimental observation of an excess of $\\bar{v}$e events in a $\\bar{v}$μ beam which was found compatible with two-neutrino oscillations at Δm2 ~ 1 eV2 and sin2 2{theta} < 1%. If confirmed, such oscillation signature could be attributed to the existence of a light, mostly-sterile neutrino, containing small admixtures of weak neutrino eigenstates. In addition to a search for vμ → ve oscillations, MiniBooNE has also performed a search for vμ → ve oscillations, which provides a test of the LSND two-neutrino oscillation interpretation that is independent of CP or CPT violation assumptions. This dissertation presents the MiniBooNE vμ → ve and vμ → ve analyses and results, with emphasis on the latter. While the neutrino search excludes the two-neutrino oscillation interpretation of LSND at 98% C.L., the antineutrino search shows an excess of events which is in agreement with the two-neutrino vμ → ve oscillation interpretation of LSND, and excludes the no oscillations hypothesis at 96% C.L. Even though the neutrino and antineutrino oscillation results from MiniBooNE disagree under the single sterile neutrino oscillation hypothesis, a simple extension to the model to include additional sterile neutrino states and the possibility of CP violation allows for differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillation signatures. In view of that, the viability of oscillation models with one or two sterile neutrinos is investigated in global fits to MiniBooNE and LSND

  1. The MicroBooNE Technical Design Report

    Fleming, Bonnie [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    MicroBooNE will build, operate, and extract physics from the first large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) that will be exposed to a high intensity neutrino beam. With its unparalleled capabilities in tracking, vertexing, calorimetry, and particle identification, all with full electronic readout, MicroBooNE represents a major advance in detector technology for neutrino physics in the energy regime of most importance for elucidating oscillation phenomena.

  2. Design and construction of the MicroBooNE detector

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; An, R.; Aparicio, A.; Aponte, S.; Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Ayoub, N.; Bagby, L.; Baller, B.; Barger, R.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Biery, K.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bocean, V.; Boehnlein, D.; Bogert, V. D.; Bolton, T.; Bugel, L.; Callahan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Caratelli, D.; Carls, B.; Fernandez, R. Castillo; Cavanna, F.; Chappa, S.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chi, C. -Y.; Chiu, C. S.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Convery, M.; Cornele, J.; Cowan, P.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Crutcher, G.; Darve, C.; Davis, R.; Tutto, M. Del; Devitt, D.; Duffin, S.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Ereditato, A.; Erickson, D.; Sanchez, L. Escudero; Esquivel, J.; Farooq, S.; Farrell, J.; Featherston, D.; Fleming, B. T.; Foreman, W.; Furmanski, A. P.; Genty, V.; Geynisman, M.; Goeldi, D.; Goff, B.; Gollapinni, S.; Graf, N.; Gramellini, E.; Green, J.; Greene, A.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, T.; Grosso, R.; Guenette, R.; Hackenburg, A.; Haenni, R.; Hamilton, P.; Healey, P.; Hen, O.; Henderson, E.; Hewes, J.; Hill, C.; Hill, K.; Himes, L.; Ho, J.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huffman, D.; Ignarra, C. M.; James, C.; James, E.; de Vries, J. Jan; Jaskierny, W.; Jen, C. -M.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Kaleko, D.; Kalousis, L. N.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kellogg, P.; Ketchum, W.; Kilmer, J.; King, B.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Klein, E.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kreslo, I.; Krull, R.; Kubinski, R.; Lange, G.; Lanni, F.; Lathrop, A.; Laube, A.; Lee, W. M.; Li, Y.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lorca, D.; Louis, W. C.; Lukhanin, G.; Luethi, M.; Lundberg, B.; Luo, X.; Mahler, G.; Majoros, I.; Makowiecki, D.; Marchionni, A.; Mariani, C.; Markley, D.; Marshall, J.; Caicedo, D. A. Martinez; McDonald, K. T.; McKee, D.; McLean, A.; Mead, J.; Meddage, V.; Miceli, T.; Mills, G. B.; Miner, W.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C. D.; Moss, Z.; Mousseau, J.; Murrells, R.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Norris, B.; Norton, N.; Nowak, J.; O' Boyle, M.; Olszanowski, T.; Palamara, O.; Paolone, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pate, S. F.; Pavlovic, Z.; Pelkey, R.; Phipps, M.; Pordes, S.; Porzio, D.; Pulliam, G.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J. L.; Radeka, V.; Rafique, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Rechenmacher, R.; Rescia, S.; Rochester, L.; Rohr, C. Rudolf von; Ruga, A.; Russell, B.; Sanders, R.; III, W. R. Sands; Sarychev, M.; Schmitz, D. W.; Schukraft, A.; Scott, R.; Seligman, W.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoun, M.; Sinclair, J.; Sippach, W.; Smidt, T.; Smith, A.; Snider, E. L.; Soderberg, M.; Solano-Gonzalez, M.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Soleti, S. R.; Sondericker, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; John, J. St.; Strauss, T.; Sutton, K.; Szelc, A. M.; Taheri, K.; Tagg, N.; Tatum, K.; Teng, J.; Terao, K.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Tillman, J.; Toups, M.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tufanli, S.; Usher, T.; Utes, M.; de Water, R. G. Van; Vendetta, C.; Vergani, S.; Voirin, E.; Voirin, J.; Viren, B.; Watkins, P.; Weber, M.; Wester, T.; Weston, J.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Wolbers, S.; Wongjirad, T.; Woodruff, K.; Wu, K. C.; Yang, T.; Yu, B.; Zeller, G. P.; Zennamo, J.; Zhang, C.; Zuckerbrot, M.


    This paper describes the design and construction of the MicroBooNE liquid argon time projection chamber and associated systems. MicroBooNE is the first phase of the Short Baseline Neutrino program, located at Fermilab, and will utilize the capabilities of liquid argon detectors to examine a rich assortment of physics topics. In this document details of design specifications, assembly procedures, and acceptance tests are reported.

  3. Excited states of Ne isoelectronic ions: SAC-CI study

    Das, A.K.; Ehara, M.; Nakatsuji, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Excited states of the s, p, and d symmetries up to principal quantum number n = 4 are studied for the first eight members of Ne isoelectronic sequence (Ne to Cl{sup 7+}) by the SAC-CI (symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration-interaction) method. The valence STO basis sets of Clementi et al. and the optimized excited STO are used by the STO-6G expansion method. The calculated transition energies agree well with the experimental values wherever available. (orig.)

  4. NE ·TIGER 2013 Haute Couture Fashion Show


    NE.TIGER opened China International Fashion Week in style. A host of celebrities and prominent figures from the fashion industry followed NE.TIGER's roar, and gathered in Beijing Hotel's famous Banquet Hall to see China's premier luxury brand opening the China Fashion Week for the 12th time in a row. The theme of the new 2013 Spring-Summer collection is HUA SONG,

  5. European Regional Modernism

    Vincent Brian Canizaro


    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  6. Boom in Germany; Boom in Deutschland

    Janzing, Bernward


    In the year 2012, the expansion of the wind energy in Germany has newly gained a rise: 1,008 wind power plants with a total performance of 2,439 megawatt. The average performance of new wind turbines increases further. The average rotor diameter amounts 88.5 metres, while the average hub height amounts 109.8 metres. Above all, the southern Federal States of the Federal Republic of Germany jeopardise on large hub heights: With a hub height of 133.9 metres, Bavaria is in the vanguard of all Federal States followed by Baden-Wuerttemberg with a hub height of 129.9 metres. The wind power plants in Schleswig-Holstein have the lowest average hub height of 81.7 metres. Meanwhile, the repowering occurs in Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen because there are the oldest wind power plants.

  7. Prevention among immigrants: the example of Germany

    Spallek Jacob


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large and increasing part of the European population has a history of migration. Germany, for example, is home to about 15 million people with migrant background, which amounts to 19% of its population. Migrants may have differences in their lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared to the autochthonous populations. Discussion As for example studies on children's participation in routine prevention activities have shown, these differences can have a relevant impact on the access of migrants to the health care system and are likely to lower their participation in prevention programs compared to the autochthonous population. To increase the uptake of prevention programs, barriers to access must be identified and approaches to reduce them must be developed. Summary Taking the example of Germany, a need exists for prevention programs that include (migrant sensitive and specifically address (migrant specific migrants. These should be of sufficient scale, evidence-based, sustainable and evaluated at regular intervals.

  8. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Glebe, G


    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  9. Convection Destroys the Core/Mantle Structure in Hybrid C/O/Ne White Dwarfs

    Brooks, Jared; Bildsten, Lars; Quataert, Eliot; Paxton, Bill


    A hybrid C/O/Ne white dwarf (WD) -- an unburned C/O core surrounded by an O/Ne/Na mantle -- can be formed if the carbon flame is quenched in a super-AGB (SAGB) star or white dwarf merger remnant. We show that this segregated hybrid structure becomes unstable to rapid mixing within 2,000 years of the onset of WD cooling. Carbon burning includes a weak reaction that removes electrons, resulting in a lower electron-to-baryon ratio ($Y_{\\rm e}$) in the regions processed by carbon burning compared to the unburned C/O core, making the O/Ne mantle denser than the C/O core as the WD cools. This is unstable to efficient mixing. We use the results of $\\texttt{MESA}$ models with different size C/O cores to quantify the rate at which the cores mix with the mantle as they cool. In all cases, we find that the WDs undergo significant core/mantle mixing on timescales shorter than the time available to grow the WD to the Chandrasekhar mass ($M_{\\rm Ch}$) by accretion. As a result, hybrid WDs that reach $M_{\\rm Ch}$ due to lat...

  10. The [Ne III] Jet of DG Tau and its Ionization Scenarios

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Herczeg, Gregory J; Walter, Frederick M


    Forbidden neon emission from jets of low-mass young stars can be used to probe the underlying high-energy processes in these systems. We analyze spectra of the jet of DG Tau obtained with the Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrograph in 2010. [Ne III] $\\lambda$3869 is clearly detected in the innermost 3" microjet and the outer knot located at $\\sim$6".5. The velocity structure of the inner microjet can be decomposed into the low-velocity component (LVC) at $\\sim -70$ km/s and the high-velocity component (HVC) at $\\sim -180$ km/s. Based on the observed [Ne III] flux and its spatial extent, we suggest the origins of the [Ne III] emission regions and their relation with known X-ray sources along the jet. The flares from the hard X-ray source close to the star may be the main ionization source of the innermost microjet. The fainter soft X-ray source at 0".2 from the star may provide sufficient heating to help to sustain the ionization fraction against the recombination in the flow. The outer knot may be reioniz...

  11. 15O+α resonant elastic scattering to study cluster states in19Ne

    Torresi, D.; Wheldon, C.; Kokalova, Tz; Bailey, S.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Cavallaro, M.; Cherubini, S.; Di Pietro, A.; Fernandez Garcia, J. P.; Fisichella, M.; Glodariu, T. R.; Grebosz, J.; La Cognata, M.; La Commara, M.; Lattuada, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mengoni, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Pizzone, G.; Signorini, C.; Stefanini, C.; Stroe, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Strano, E.; Zadro, M.


    Clustering phenomena are well known in nuclear physics for stable nuclei, both α-conjugate (N=Z, A=2N), like8Be,16O,20Ne, and non-α-conjugate, like6Li and7Li. In general, it is expected that light exotic nuclei may also exhibit cluster behavior. Moving out of the valley of stability configurations can be found where at least one of the clusters is unbound or weakly bound, thus not satisfying the strong internal correlation requirement of classical clusters. This is so-called exotic clustering. The study of such systems presents many difficulties, due, mainly, to the low intensities typical of radioactive ion beams. Therefore, few significant experimental studies have been performed so far. In this work we searched for α-cluster states in19Ne above its α-decay threshold measuring, for the first time, the15O(4He,4He) elastic scattering excitation function. Moreover, this study classified low-energy states in Ne in the astrophysically important region in this HCNO-break-out nucleus.

  12. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    Köhler, Theresa


    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  13. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Jarosław Poteraj


    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  14. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    Köhler, Theresa


    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  15. Turkish Slang and Rap in Germany

    GENÇ, Safiye


    The main concern of this study is to analyze the emergence of Turkish Slang amongst the young turkish immigrants and its importance. Rap music is where Turkish Slang is mostly used. Since the midst of the 80s, Rap Music has become a medium of expression for the young immigrants who live in Germany. The correlation between Turkish Slang and Rap Music will be discussed in that sense.Keywords: Turkish slang, Turkish migrants, Hip hop – culture, Rap music, Migrant workers

  16. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany


    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio- Economic Panel (GSOEP).To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  17. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz


    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  18. Micro modeling of retirement : decisions in Germany

    Börsch-Supan, Axel; Kohnz, Simone; Schnabel, Reinhold


    Early retirement in Germany is very costly and amplifies the burden which the German public pension system has to carry due to population aging. This paper shows that the German pension system provides strong incentives to retire early. The paper provides relatively robust econometric evidence for the strength of incentive effects on old age labor supply, using several specifications of incentive variables. The econometric estimates are used to simulate the individual responses to policy chan...

  19. Germany Enjoys Splendid Trade Partnership with China

    Sun; Yongjian


      "China and Germany are longterm trade partners, The volume of our bilateral trade has reached more than $54 Million in 2004, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder have agreed to double our bilateral trade volume by the year 2010." Dr. Volker Stanzel,German Ambassador gave an active appraise on the bilateral trade relations when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  20. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric


    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10-6 to 76.5×10-6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of the

  1. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. Using administrative data, the paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large...... change in the law set a high incentive for temporary help agencies to pay their workers according to a sectoral collective agreement. Surprisingly, the unionization of the sector could not bring the widening wage gap to a halt....... and varies between occupation and region. But temps already suffer from a marked wage decline before entering the temporary help sector. Nevertheless, temporary agency employment does not leave a long lasting scar. Two years after leaving the sector, temps no longer suffer from a wage penalty. A recent...

  2. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.


    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  3. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Friedemann, Miriam


    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  4. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Thorsten Agemar


    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  5. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Jochem Reichert


    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  6. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Marion Dathe


    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  7. Predicted sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA detector to a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos

    Coniglione R.


    Full Text Available The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a research infrastructure hosting a network of underwater neutrino detectors in the Mediterranean Sea. Two instruments based on the same technology are being built: KM3NeT/ORCA to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations and KM3NeT/ARCA to detect high-energy cosmic neutrinos both in diffuse and point source mode. The excellent angular resolution of the ARCA detector, with an instrumented volume of about one Gton, will allow for an unprecedented exploration of the neutrino sky searching for neutrinos coming from defined sources of sky regions, like the Galactic Plane and the Fermi Bubbles. It will also look for diffuse high energy neutrino fluxes following the indication provided by the IceCube signal. This contribution will report on the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ARCA telescope with particular attention to the region of the Galactic Plane. Comparisons with theoretical expectations are also discussed.

  8. The [Ne III] Jet of DG Tau and its Ionization Scenarios

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Shang, Hsien; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Walter, Frederick M.


    Forbidden neon emission from jets of low-mass young stars can be used to probe the underlying high-energy processes in these systems. We analyze spectra of the jet of DG Tau obtained with the Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrograph in 2010. [Ne iii] λ 3869 is clearly detected in the innermost 3″ microjet and the outer knot located at ˜ 6\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5. The velocity structure of the inner microjet can be decomposed into the low-velocity component at ˜ -70 km s-1 and the high-velocity component (HVC) at ˜ -180 km s-1. Based on the observed [Ne iii] flux and its spatial extent, we suggest the origins of the [Ne iii] emission regions and their relation with known X-ray sources along the jet. The flares from the hard X-ray source close to the star may be the main ionization source of the innermost microjet. The fainter soft X-ray source at 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 2 from the star may provide sufficient heating to help to sustain the ionization fraction against recombination in the flow. The outer knot may be reionized by shocks faster than 100 km s-1 such that [Ne iii] emission reappears and the soft X-ray emission at 5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5 is produced. Velocity decomposition of the archival Hubble Space Telescope spectra obtained in 1999 shows that the HVC had been faster, with a velocity centroid of ˜ -260 km s-1. Such a decrease in velocity may potentially be explained by the expansion of the stellar magnetosphere, changing the truncation radius and thus the launching speed of the jet. The energy released by magnetic reconnections during relaxation of the transition can heat the gas up to several tens of megakelvin and provide the explanation for on-source keV X-ray flares that ionize the neon microjet.

  9. Research of the DC discharge of He-Ne gas mixture in hollow core fiber

    Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian


    Since the first waveguide 0.633 μm He-Ne laser from a 20 cm length of 430 μm glass capillary was reported in 1971, no smaller waveguide gas laser has ever been constructed. Recently as the development of low loss hollow core PBG fiber, it is possible to constract a He-Ne lasers based on hollow-core PBG fibers. For the small diameter of the air hole, it is necessary to do some research to obtain glow discharge in hollow core fibers. In this paper, the experimental research of DC discharge in 200 μm bore diameter hollow core fibers was reported. Stable glow discharge was obained at varioue He-Ne mixtures from 4 Torr to 18 Torr. In order to obtain the plasma parameter of the discharge, the trace gasses of N2 and H2 were added to the He-Ne mixtures, the optical emission spectroscopy of the discharge was recorded by a PI 2750 spectroscopy with a CCD camera. The gas temperature (Tg) could be obtained by matching the simulated rovibronic band of the N2 emission with the observed spectrum in the ultraviolet region. The spectral method was also used to obtained the electron density, which is based on the analysis of the wavelength profile of the 486.13 nm Hβ line, and the electron temperature was obtain by Boltzmann plot methods. Experimental results show that it is very difficult to achieve DC discharge in bore diameter less than 50 μm, and a RF discharge method was proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61078033).

  10. MRI of the prostate in Germany. Online survey among radiologists

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Reiser, M. [Univ. Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lewerich, B. [Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft, Geschaeftsstelle, Berlin (Germany); Mueller-Lisse, U.L. [Interdisziplinaeres Onkologisches Zentrum Muenchen (IOZ) (Germany). Dept. of Urology; Scherr, M.K. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik, Dept. of Radiology, Murnau (Germany)


    To assess structural, technical, and communicative aspects of dedicated MR examinations of the prostate (MRP) offered by radiologists in Germany. We conducted an eight-item online survey among members of the German Radiology Society (DRG). Radiological institutions were asked about their structure, i. e., either hospital department (HD) or private practice (PP), number of board-certified radiologists, postal regions, number of MRPs in 2011, MR technology and MR sequences applied, ways to communicate results, and feedback from referring physicians on results of subsequent tests and procedures. Submissions were cleared of redundancies and anonymized. Differences in the number of positive replies to each item were statistically significant at p < 0.05 for two-tailed testing in 2 x 2 tables. The survey represented board-certified radiologists in 128 institutions (63 HDs and 65 PPs) in 67/95 German postal regions (71 %). Almost two-thirds of institutions performed 11 to 50 MRPs in 2011, more often at 1.5 T (116/128, 91 %) than at 3.0 T (36/128, 28 %), and most frequently with surface coils (1.5 T, 88/116, 76 %; 3.0 T, 34/36, 94 %; chi-square, 1.9736, 0.1 < p < 0.25). About two-thirds of 1.5 T users and 90 % of 3.0 T users applied at least one functional MR modality (diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, or MR spectroscopy) for MRP. Reports including graphic representations of the prostate were applied by 21/128 institutions (16 %). Clinical feedback after MRP to radiologists other than upon their own request was infrequent (HDs, 32 - 45 %, PPs, 18 - 32 %). MRP was a widely available, small-volume examination among radiologists in Germany in 2011. The technology mainstay was a 1.5 T surface coil examination including at least one functional MR modality. Dedicated reporting and feedback mechanisms for quality control were underdeveloped.

  11. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner


    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  12. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN

    Samsonyan, A. L.


    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  13. Energy R and D in Germany

    Runci, PJ


    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  14. The restructuring of Germany`s hard coal industry - political and corporate challenges

    Jakob, K.F. [RAG Group (Germany)


    With the termination of the so-called `Century Contract` in 1995, the steam coal market in German is liberalised with competition from imported coal being the driving force. German coal is still subsidised, according to the Artikelgesetz. The deregulation of the electricity market may lead to a more fierce competition in fuels for power generation. A recent survey by the Progress Research Institute showed however that the total use of coal in Germany will remain fairly constant until 2020. The article discusses the strategy adopted particularly by the RAG group which holds 80% of all German hard coal mining activities, to increase market attractivity of German coal now and in the future. There is a move afoot to integrate RAG with Saarbergwerke, Germany`s second largest hard coal producer. RAG already has developed many non-mining divisions - energy (STEAG), Chemicals (Ruetgers), trade and services (Ruhrkohle Handel) environment, and real estate and mining technology (DBT). 6 figs.

  15. Molecular confirmation of the occurrence in Germany of Anopheles daciae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Kronefeld Mandy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles daciae, a newly described member of the Maculipennis group, was recently reported from western, southern and eastern Europe. Before its recognition, it had commonly been listed under the name of An. messeae, due to its extreme morphological and genetic similarities. As the sibling species of the Maculipennis group are known to differ in their vector competences for malaria parasites and other pathogens, the occurrence of An. daciae in a given region might have an impact on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito collections from different localities in Germany were therefore screened for An. daciae. Methods Adult and immature Maculipennis group mosquitoes were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 at 23 different sites in eight federal states of Germany. A standard PCR assay was used to differentiate the previously known sibling species while the ITS2 rDNA of specimens preliminarily identified as An. messeae/daciae was sequenced and analysed for species-specific nucleotide differences. Results Four hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles specimens were successively identified to Maculipennis group level by morphology and to species level by DNA-based methods. Four species of the Maculipennis group were registered: An. messeae (n = 384, An. maculipennis (n = 82, An. daciae (n = 10 and An. atroparvus (n = 1. Anopheles daciae occurred at four sites in three federal states of Germany, three of the sites being located in north-eastern Germany (federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony while one collection site was situated in the northern Upper Rhine Valley in the federal state of Hesse, south-western Germany. Conclusions The detection of An. daciae represents the first recognition of this species in Germany where it was found to occur in sympatry with An. messeae and An. maculipennis. As the collection sites were in both north-eastern and south-western parts of Germany, the species is

  16. The use of IMRT in Germany

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Ambulanzzentrum des UKE GmbH, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Bereich Strahlentherapie, Hamburg (Germany)


    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [German] Intensitaetsmodulierte Bestrahlungstechniken (IMRT) werden oft eingesetzt. Es gibt jedoch keine Daten ueber deren Haeufigkeit in Abhaengigkeit von den Tumorentitaeten und welche Geraete fuer die Qualitaetssicherung (QA) zum Einsatz kommen. Der Arbeitskreis IMRT (AK IMRT) der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) hat von April bis Oktober 2014 eine Online-Umfrage zu diesem Themenbereich

  17. Cross-sectional environmental study comparing two highly polluted areas in Germany (Bitterfeld and Hettstedt) with a control region; Umweltmedizinische Untersuchungen im Raum Bitterfeld, im Raum Hettstedt und einem Vergleichsgebiet 1992-2000. Bd. 1: Textband. Bd. 2: Publikationen. Bd. 3: Untersuchungsdokumente und Frageboegen. Abschlussbericht

    Heinrich, J.; Frye, C.; Hoelscher, B.; Meyer, I.; Pitz, M.; Cyrys, J.; Schneller, H.; Wjst, M.; Wichmann, H.E.


    The aim of the environmental epidemiologic study was to determine possible negative effects on the health of children in the very polluted areas of Bitterfeld and Hettstedt in comparison to the less polluted areas of Anhalt-Zerbst (Eastern Germany). The time changes of the health parameters were recorded along with the running redevelopments during the time period of 6 years. The study design consisted of three repeated regional cross sectional studies in 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all, there was information of 7.611 questionnaires to be analysed (participation rate: 89%, 75% and 75%). Children living in the most polluted area of Hettstedt had a noticeable higher risk for non allergic respiratory diseases and symptoms compared to children living in the control area of Anhalt-Zerbst. During the time of the examinations in 1992 till 1999 a clear statistically significant decrease in the prevalences of these restrictions of health could be shown. Children without indoor pollutants in their homes profited most by the improvement of ambient air quality. The better lung function (FVC, FEV{sub 1}) between 1992 and 1999 underlines the improvement of the respiratory health. Children living in both polluted ares have allergies more often (physician's diagnosis, symptoms, allergy specific antibodies). The incidence of asthma, the bronchial hyperreactivity and atopic exzema increased, the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization did not increase. The body burden with lead and cadmium was higher in children living in polluted areas, but it decreased during the period of observation. In 1997, however, the lead concentration in blood increased a little, parallel to the higher lead concentration in settled dust in Hettstedt at that time. (orig.) [German] Ziel der umweltepidemiologischen Studie war es, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeitraechtigungen von Kindern in den Belastungsgebieten Bitterfeld und Hettstedt i. Vgl. zu dem wenig belasteten Gebiet Anhalt

  18. Shape evolution of Ne isotopes and Ne hypernuclei: The interplay of pairing and tensor interactions

    Li A.


    Full Text Available We study tensor and pairing effects on the quadruple deformation of neon isotopes based on a deformed Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model with BCS approximation for the pairing channel. We extend the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock formalism for the description of hypernuclei adopting the recently-proposed ESC08b hyperon-nucleon interaction. It is found that the interplay of pairing and tensor interactions is crucial to derive the deformations in several neon isotopes. Especially, the shapes of 26,30Ne are studied in details in comparisons with experimentally observed shapes. Furthermore the deformations of the hypernuclei are compared with the corresponding neon isotopic cores in the presence of tensor force. We find the same shapes with somewhat smaller deformations for single Λ-hypernuclei compared with their core deformations.


    S. M. Yun


    Full Text Available Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The article reveals specific interests and country priorities of the leading European states in Central Asia and the differences in the general approach to the region and in the actual policies including the amounts of resources spent. The author argues that Germany occupies the most solid place in Central Asia due to a set of political, economic, military and humanitarian interests, though in general the regional policies of Germany, Great Britain and France lack any particular interests and standpoints, that could hinder the formation of the joint EU policy in the region.

  20. Spitzer Observations of M83 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    Rubin, R H; Colgan, S W J; Dufour, R J; Ray, K L; Erickson, E F; Haas, M R; Pauldrach, A W A; Citron, R I; Rubin, Robert H.; Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W.J.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Ray, Katherine L.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W.A.; Citron, Robert I.


    We have undertaken a program to observe emission lines of SIV 10.5, NeII 12.8, NeIII 15.6, & SIII 18.7 um in a number of extragalactic HII regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report our results for the nearly face-on spiral galaxy M83. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph in the short wavelength, high dispersion configuration. The above set of 4 lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne and S for HII regions, Ne/S ~ (Ne+ + Ne++)/(S++ + S3+). Our findings of ratios that exceed the benchmark Orion value are more likely due to other effects than a true gradient in Ne/S. Both Ne and S are primary elements produced in alpha- chain...

  1. La consommation de propylène en Europe occidentale Propylene Consumption in Western Europe

    Barraqué M.


    Full Text Available Les besoins de l'Europe occidentale en propylène utilisé en pétrochimie sont actuellement de 7,4. 10 puissance 6 t/an. Au cours des prochaines années, le taux de progression moyen de la consommation devrait être de l'ordre de 1,8%/an; ainsi en 1995, la pétrochimie européenne utiliserait environ 8,7. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène. L'essentiel de la progression de cette consommation sera dû au fort accroissement de la production de polypropylène et à un degré moindre de l'oxyde de propylène, de l'isopropanol et de l'éthyl-2 hexanol. Par contre les débouchés représentés par l'acrylonitrile et le cumène resteront pratiquement stables. La consommation de propylène dans les productions de butanols devrait diminuer. La part des besoins en propylène satisfaite par les vapocraqueurs européens qui est en 1986 de 82 %, devrait être inférieure à 75 % en 1995. Il sera de plus en plus nécessaire de se tourner vers d'autres sources d'approvisionnement. En 1986 les raffineries européennes ont produit 1,05. 10 puissance 6 t de propylène utilisé en pétrochimie et les importations ont atteint 0,3. 10 puissance 6 t. En 1995 la différence entre la consommation et la production des vapocraqueurs pourrait dépasser 2,0. 10 puissance 6 t. Il semble peu probable que les unités de craquage catalytique puissent combler le déficit sauf si les rendements en propylène augmentent très notablement. On peut s'attendre à la construction de splitters propylène/propane et à une augmentation des importations. D'autre part, en raison de la tension qui risque d'apparaître sur les prix du propylène, l'intérêt de certaines voies de synthèse actuellement considérées comme non rentables pourrait augmenter; ces nouvelles voies sont : - la déshydrogénation du propane déjà considérée dans d'autres régions (Mexique, Indonésie, Malaisie; - la métathèse entre l'éthylène et les butènes-2, pouvant eux-mêmes être produits à partir d'éthylène

  2. 小蓬NeMT2基因的克隆及其植物表达载体的构建%Cloning and construction of plant expression vector of NeMT2 gene in Nanophyton erinaceum

    葛风伟; 曾卫军; 李艳红; 赵惠新


    Nanophyton erinaceum has a long living history at Aletai Copper Mine in Xinjiang. In order to analyze the re-lation between metallothionein gene and heavy metal response stress, a new heavy metal-responsive gene cDNA sequence was successfully cloned by RACE ( Rapid amplification of cDNA ends) from N. erinaceum. The gene was named as NeMT2, and its accession number in GenBank was KT835290. The metallothionein gene NeMT2 was 590 bp in full length, and it had 237 bp ORF ( open reading frame) which encoded 78 amino acid residues. There were 14 Cys resi-dues, arranged in the form of C-C, C-X-C and C-X-X-C, in the 78 amino acid residues, and these Cys residues distrib-uted in N terminal and C terminal of peptides. The protein encoding by gene NeMT2 molecular weight was 7.603 6 kD and its isoelectric point was 4.71. Phylogenetic analysis results demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequence of gene NeMT2 was the highest homology as the Salicornia brachiata ( AEF01492 ) and the Halostachys caspica ( AHI62953) , secondly the Beta vulgaris ( XP 010667708. 1 ) , but the lowest similarity with the Nelumbo nucifera ( XP 010253171) . Bioinformation analysis showed that metallothionein NeMT2 had no signal peptide and belonged to the hydrophilic non-transmembrane protein. Hydrophobicity analysis was carried out and the results showed that there was a strong hydrophobicity region between 35 to 45 amino acids, and the 41 Asp had the strongest hydrophobic property (1.444). Predication of structure indicated that random coil was the major components of its secondary structure. Expres-sion analysis of NeMT2 gene was carried out by RT-PCR. The results showed that expression of NeMT2 gene was detected both in Copper Mine and nor Copper Mine in Nanophyton erinaceum leaves, but the former was more stronger than the latter, which indicated that NeMT2 gene was responsive to the heavy metal stress. Then NeMT2 gene in Nanophyton eri-naceum was cloned into 35S promoter downstream of plant

  3. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)


    The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge

  4. The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany: Local reproduction and overwintering.

    Walther, D; Scheuch, D E; Kampen, H


    Within the framework of a German mosquito monitoring programme, the 'Mueckenatlas' (mosquito atlas) has been established as an instrument of citizen participation in mosquito mapping. In 2015, a strikingly large number of Aedes albopictus, which had not been considered established in Germany, was submitted. Three of six collection sites showed local reproduction, with demonstration of developmental stages over three months at two sites. The third populated site was checked only once in October. Developmental stages of Ae. albopictus were found again at these three sites in spring 2016, including one site in southeastern Germany where reproduction had already been documented in 2014. Although population genetic analyses performed on specimens collected at the latter locality in 2014 and 2015 did not provide proof for hibernation, the finding of developmental stages at this and two other very same sites as in the year before and at very early times in the season strongly suggest accomplished overwintering of Ae. albopictus in Germany. Obviously, the second extremely mild winter in Germany in a row and ongoing adaptation of Ae. albopictus to the temperate European climate allow the species to push northwards from endemic regions in the south. Due to the vector competence of Ae. albopictus for numerous pathogens, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, action should be taken immediately after the detection of local reproduction to eliminate the populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Status of the KM3NeT project

    Margiotta, A


    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily....

  6. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives; Klimawandel in Deutschland. Entwicklung, Folgen, Risiken und Perspektiven

    Brasseur, Guy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne (eds.) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Hamburg (Germany). Climate Service Center Germany


    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  7. Mining-Induced Seismicity in the Saarland, Germany

    Fritschen, Ralf


    Coal mining in the Saar mine, Germany, is accompanied by mining-induced seismic events. Strong events occur only in certain areas of the mine, other areas exhibit almost no seismicity. Shear events occur simultaneously to non-shear events. The shear events occur in different depths but their epicenters do concentrate in bands. The strike of the bands coincides with the strike of larger regional faults in the area. The seismic events of the Saar mine show some characteristics which distinguish them from seismic events observed in other German coalfields. The Gutenberg-Richter relation, for example, does not hold for these events. Furthermore, radiated seismic energy and extracted coal volume are not correlated. In the Primsmulde field a strong seismic event was observed even before mining in that region started. The event was triggered just by driving roadways into the field. The shear events cannot be explained by the mining process alone. They are presumably induced in certain regions (bands) under tectonic load by an interaction of mining-induced and tectonic stresses. In February 2008, extraction in the Primsmulde field induced a seismic event of magnitude 4, which led to surface vibrations reaching 93 mm/s. After this event, the Primsmulde field had to be abandoned. Future extraction of the Saar mine will be restricted to some small areas not intersected by the event bands found in the Dilsburg Ost and Primsmulde fields. The Saar mine will close in 2011.

  8. Water supply patterns over Germany under climate change conditions

    M. H. Tölle


    Full Text Available A large ensemble of 24 bias-corrected and uncorrected regional climate model (RCM simulations is used to investigate climate change impacts on water supply patterns over Germany using the seasonal winter and summer Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI based on 6-month precipitation sums. The climate change signal is studied comparing SPI characteristics for the reference period 1971–2000 with those of the "near" (2036–2065 and the "far" (2071–2100 future. The spread of the climate change signal within the simulation ensemble of bias-corrected versus non-corrected data is discussed. Ensemble scenarios are evaluated against available observation-based data over the reference period 1971–2000. After correcting the model biases, the model ensemble underestimates the variability of the precipitation climatology in the reference period, but replicates the mean characteristics. Projections of water supply patterns based on the SPI for the time periods 2036–2065 and 2071–2100 show wetter winter months during both future time periods. As a result soil drying may be delayed to late spring extending into the summer period, which could have an important effect on sensible heat fluxes. While projections indicate wetting in summer during 2036–2065, drier summers are estimated towards the south-west of Germany for the end of the 21st century. The use of the bias correction intensifies the signal to wetter conditions for both seasons and time periods. The spread in the projection of future water supply patterns between the ensemble members is explored, resulting in high spatial differences that suggest a higher uncertainty of the climate change signal in the southern part of Germany. It is shown that the spread of the climate change signals between SPIs based on single ensemble members is twice as large as the difference between the mean climate change signal of SPIs based on bias-corrected and uncorrected precipitation. This implies that the

  9. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.


    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  10. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain


    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  11. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Alison M. Lewis


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  12. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Alison M. Lewis


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  13. Business Aviation in Germany: An empirical and model-based analysis


    The primary role of international airports is to serve the general public with scheduled and charter services, typically provided by airlines. Of secondary importance is their task to provide direct air transport access to the regional industry and to firms who operate their own fleets. In Düsseldorf (DUS), a major international airport in Germany with about 230 Thousand air transport movements (ATMs) in 2007, about 15 Thousand ATMs belonged to business aviation segment. Due to the complexity...


    S. M. Yun


    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  15. Food-related life style in Germany

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren


    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...... aspects of food, with the possible exception of price and the social aspect. Their food-related lifestyle is characterized by the fact that they hardly food to achieve basic values at all. Whatever it is these consumers want to achieve in their lives, they achieve it through other channels than food. 4...

  16. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.


    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of digested sludge, because many polar compounds do not sorb to sludge and lipophilic compounds are not mobile in the soil-aquifer. Most of the selected PPCPs were never detected in any of the lysimeter or groundwater samples, although they were present in the treated wastewater irrigated onto the fields...

  17. [Foreign labor in a reunited Germany].

    Blaschke, J


    The author discusses migration into Germany, primarily since World War II, with a focus on the impact on the German labor market. The radical changes that came about in the late 1980s as a result of granting political asylum to third-world refugees and of the readmittance of persons of German descent who wanted to repatriate are then assessed. Following reunification, the author foresees new trends in migration into the country and predicts some of their effects. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)

  18. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  19. Food-related life style in Germany

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren


    life values. We call them the uninvolved, the careless, the conservative, the rational and the adventurous food consumers. The segments have only little relation to demographic variables. 3. The uninvolved food consumers stand for 21% of the population. These consumers are quite uninterested in most......Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central...

  20. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias


    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  1. Economic Factors of Development of Tourism in Germany

    Nina K. Zhigalina


    Full Text Available Germany has a negative balance for tourism. The article deals with attempts for creating the Germany’s positive image for tourists. Germans themselves travel a lot domestically, and for the first time since 2011 Germany has enjoyed a positive balance in tourism industry – tourists spent 20,4 bl. Euros inside against 15,5 bl. Euros spent outside of the country. According to YUNVTO Germany entered the list of top 10 tourist destinations.

  2. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense


    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  3. Are there changes in Germany regarding the start of the pollen season, the season length and the pollen concentration of the most important allergenic pollens?

    Kaminski, Uwe [Centre for Human Biometeorological Research, Freiburg (Germany). German Meteorological Service; Glod, Tom [Univ. of Trier (Germany). FB Physical Geography


    For the regions Northwest, Northeast and Southern Germany we examined the main allergic pollen (Hazel, Alder, Birch, grasses and Mugwort) for trends on the basis of the pollen counts of the Pollen Information Service (PID) reference-stations. From these stations information about changes on the start of the pollen season, the season length and the total amount as well as the peak-concentration of pollen during the last years (1988-2009 for Northwest and Southern Germany and 1994-2009 for Northeast Germany) are examined. Possible trends are analysed by means of the Mann-Kendall test for their significance. The results demonstrate that the changes, regarding the start of the pollen season and the total pollen amount, are strongest in Southern and Northeast Germany. Data show for all regions that tree pollen becomes the significant allergen. (orig.)

  4. Ages of the Xinghuadukou Group in the Erguna Block, NE China

    Liu, X.; Hou, W.


    The Xinghuadukou group is outcropped in the Erguna block (EB) of NE China, which is an important component of the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This group was previously classified as Paleoproterozoic in age. However, recent studies reported Paleozoic ages from the meta-volcanic rocks, Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircon ages from the meta-sedimentary rocks and Neoproterozoic ages from the granitoids. The tectonic affinity of the EB is still debated. In order to clarify the aforementioned issues, 19 samples were collected from the Xinghuadukou group from the Mohe region in NE China. All samples underwent gneiss facies metamorphism, including two-mica granitic gneiss and quartz biotite gneiss. Based on the protolith discrimination diagram of Si—(al+fm)-(c+alk) system, 7 samples originated from sedimentary rocks and the other 12 of igneous origin. The orthogneiss samples were plotted as diorite, granodiorite and granite respectively in TAS, showing felsic character (SiO2 57% - 74%). One orthogneiss and one paragneiss samples were chosen to conduct the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age analysis. Apart from one zircon with the age of 742 Ma shows evident metamorphic rim, all zircons from the orthogneiss show euhedral to subhedral prismatic shape and typical concentric or oscillatory structure indicating the igneous origin. The concordant age of 2478±26 Ma was generated, indicating the existence of the near Archean basement of the EB. The detrital zircons from the paragneiss produced age populations cluster at 0.6, 0.8, 1.9, 2.6 and 2.7 Ga, lacking of the Grenville event age. The youngest zircon age is 395 Ma, taken as the maximum depositional age of the sedimentary protolith. According to the new data obtained, it is suggested that the Xinghuadukou group comprises the early Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss, which proves the granitic basement of the Erguna block. The sedimentary rocks formed overlying the basement during the early

  5. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.


    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  6. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.


    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  7. A possible proton pygmy resonance in 17Ne


    The low-lying electric dipole strengths in proton-rich nuclei 17F and 17Ne, which can be produced at HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, are investigated. In the framework of the covariant density functional theory the self-consistent relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov model and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with the NL3 parameter set and Gogny pairing interaction are adopted in the calculations. A pronounced dipole peak appears below 10 MeV in17Ne, but does not occur in 17F. The prop erties of this low-lying E1 excitation in 17Ne are studied, which may correspond to a proton pygmy resonance with different characteristics from those of giant dipole resonance.

  8. Strangeness in nuclear matter at DA{Phi}NE

    Gianotti, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)


    The low energy kaons from the {phi} meson produced at DA{Phi}NE offer a unique opportunity to study strangeness in nuclear matter. The interaction of kaons with hadronic matter can be investigated at DA{Phi}NE using three main approaches: study of hypernuclei production and decay, kaons scattering on nucleons, kaonic atoms formation. These studies explore kaon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon forces at very low energy, the nuclear shell model in presence of strangeness quantum number and eventual quarks deconfinement phenomena. The experiments devoted to study this physical program at DA{Phi}NE are FINUDA and DEAR. The physics topics of both experiments are illustrated together with a detailed descriptions of the two detectors.


    Planinc, Tanja


    POVZETEK Svetovno gospodarstvo trenutno trpi zaradi svetovne gospodarske in finančne krize. Slednja ima svoj izvor na najrazvitejšem finančnem trgu na svetu. V drugi polovici leta 2008 je povzročila pravo eksplozijo globalnih finančnih trgov. Po celem svetu so borzni indeksi beležili precejšnja znižanja, velike finančne institucije so propadle, kreditna aktivnost se je drastično zmanjšala. Do finančne in gospodarske krize je prišlo zaradi poka nepremičninskega mehurčka v ZDA, ker pa s...

  10. Gamow shell model description of proton scattering on $^{18}$Ne

    Jaganathen, Y; Płoszajczak, M


    We formulate the GSM in coupled-channel (GSM-CC) representation to describe low-energy elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on $^{18}$Ne. The GSM-CC formalism is applied to a translationally-invariant Hamiltonian with an effective finite-range two-body interaction. We discuss in details the GSM-CC formalism in coordinate space and give the description of the novel equivalent potential method for solving the GSM-CC system of integro-differential equations. We present the first application of the GSM-CC formalism for the calculation of excited states of $^{18}$Ne and $^{19}$Na, excitation function and the elastic/inelastic differential cross-sections in the $^{18}$Ne$(p,p')$ reaction at different energies.

  11. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.


    Evgeny Tsaplin; Yulia Pozdeeva


    ...: the USA, Germany, and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies...

  13. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland



    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  14. Level-resolved R-matrix calculations for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+

    Ludlow, J. A.; Lee, T. G.; Ballance, C. P.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.


    Large-scale R-matrix calculations are carried out for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+. For Ne3+, a 581-LSJ-level R-matrix intermediate coupling frame transformation calculation is made for excitations up to the n=4 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 23-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 22-LSJ-level R-matrix jj omega (JAJOM) calculations. For Ne6+, a 171-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculation is made for excitations up to the n=5 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 46-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 46-LSJ-level R-matrix JAJOM calculations. Together with existing R-matrix calculations for other ion stages, high-quality excitation data are now available for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling along the entire Ne isonuclear sequence.

  15. Low Mass WIMP Searches with a Neutrino Experiment: A Proposal for Further MiniBooNE Running

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Cooper, R; deNiverville, P; Dharmapalan, R; Djurcic, Z; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Grange, J; Habib, S; Huelsnitz, W; Jiang, C; Johnson, R A; Ketchum, W; Kobilarcik, T; Louis, W C; Marsh, W; McKeen, D; Mills, G B; Mirabal, J; Moore, C D; Nienaber, P; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Pospelov, M; Ray, H; Ritz, A; Roe, B P; Stancu, I; Van de Water, R Tayloe R; Wickremasinghe, D A


    A proposal submitted to the FNAL PAC is described to search for light sub-GeV WIMP dark matter at MiniBooNE. The possibility to steer the beam past the target and into an absorber leads to a significant reduction in neutrino background, allowing for a sensitive search for elastic scattering of WIMPs off nucleons or electrons in the detector. Dark matter models involving a vector mediator can be probed in a parameter region consistent with the required thermal relic density, and which overlaps the region in which these models can resolve the muon g-2 discrepancy. Estimates of signal significance are presented for various operational modes and parameter points. The experimental approach outlined for applying MiniBooNE to a light WIMP search may also be applicable to other neutrino facilities.

  16. Phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon export during peak flow periods in three small homogenous catchments in eastern Germany

    Benning, R.; Schwärzel, K.; Feger, K. H.


    Regional climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict both an overall increase in temperature and alterations in annual precipitation regimes. For large parts of Central Europe, climate change is expected to result in an increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer precipitation. In addition, an increase in extreme conditions, such as heat waves, prolonged drought periods, and heavy rainfall events are predicted. This research examines the potential impacts of increased heavy rainfall events on matter export from small catchment areas, and how different vegetation cover and land management options effects these exports. In order to evaluate the export of matter from different land-use types in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, NE Germany, 50° 48'18.06" North, 13° 36'24.54" East), study sites were established in three small catchments with homogeneous land-use. These study areas are each sub-catchments of the Ammelsdorf catchment, which provides inflow to the Lehnmühle reservoir (a major water supply for the city of Dresden). Each sub catchment represents one of the three main land-use types in the catchment area of the reservoir: crops (winter oilseed rape, winter wheat), grasslands, and forests (primarily spruce). Since November 2009 the discharge from these sub catchments has been continuously measured and water quality was analyzed on a weekly basis. During peak flow events, discharge was collected using automatic water samplers, which allowed for high temporal resolution analysis of matter export during these periods to be made. During the 2010 and 2011 hydrological years, several heavy rainfall events occurred which have been evaluated. During a 110-hour long precipitation event (P = 170 mm) between 37 and 81 water samples per sub catchment were collected and analyzed. The resulting export of dissolved phosphorus (ortho-PO4-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the sub catchments during this event is provided in the results. In

  17. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    Avila M. L.


    Full Text Available A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n20Ne, 23Ne(α, p26Mg and 23Ne(α, n26Al reactions will be discussed.

  18. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.


    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  19. Transfer ionization in isocharge sequence ion and Ne collisions

    CAIXiao-hong; YUDe-yang; LURong-chun; CAOZhu-rong; YANGWei; SHAOCao-jie


    The dependence of the ratio RI for transfer ionization to single capture for Cq+ , Nq+ , Oq+ , Neq+ ions on Ne target upon the electronic structure of the projectile is studied. For Aq+ -Ne collisions the ratio R1 decreases as the atomic number Z of the projectile increases for q= 4,5,6,7 sequences which provides strong evidence for the increase of the binding energy of the target valence electron after single electron capture. The in crease inbinding energy depends both upon the atomic number of the projectile and the target atom.

  20. Transfer ionization in isocharge sequence ion and Ne collisions

    CAI Xiao-hong; YU De-yang; LU Rong-chun; CAO Zhu-rong; YANG Wei; SHAO Cao-jie


    The dependence of the ratio R1 for transfer ionization to single capture for Cq+, Nq+, Oq+, Neq+ ions on Ne target upon the electronic structure of the projectile is studied. For Aq+-Ne collisions the ratio R1 decreases as the atomic number Z of the projectile increases for q=4,5,6,7 sequences which provides strong evidence for the increase of the binding energy of the target valence electron after single electron capture. The increase in binding energy depends both upon the atomic number of the projectile and the target atom.