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Sample records for region jeddah kingdom

  1. Dominant Environmental Kids Diseases In Western Region, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakia, A M Ahmed; Jawaher, Ben Dehaish

    2008-01-01

    The current study was conducted to figure out the relationship between the social structure and the most predominant environmental kids diseases (1-12 years old) in the community of Jihad city through year 1423.A.H. The results revealed that the dominant husband and wives age-groups were 30-40 Y, couples had Bachelor education level and governmental employees. Residences were distributed between down town and its periphery toward north , apart of red sea coast. They had 2-4 child/family of equal gender ratio. Most of couples were non relative. Wives education level was positively correlated with kids skin, respiratory and ocular diseases but negatively correlated with presence of servant and her health certificate. Private hospitals and health care centers were permanently accessed and located far of industrial collections. Majority of teachers and students were Saudis. Schools subjected their students for regular vaccination programs offered by Health Ministry. School services and facilities (regular vaccination, healthy foods and water) significantly affected incidence and kinds of kids diseases. Mixing nationalities may represent risk health for coming exotic infection unless restricted hygienic measures offered by Health Ministry. Husband job was negatively correlated with respiratory diseases. Husband job sector and their work places indoor air quality, their smoking behavior may affect directly or indirectly child diseases. The kids medicinal diseases were within husband age group 20-30 Y. Dominant kids diseases were within age-group 2-4 years mainly respiratory (dyspnea were highest respiratory affection within 1-12 Y children), skin and ocular affections. The dominance of respiratory diseases within infants in winter and the skin diseases in summer Most of kids diseases (skin, respiratory, ocular, medicinal, psychic and non recognized diseases agents were significantly correlated with their homes address. Conclusively, Jeddah community was characterized by

  2. Analysis on causes of flash flood in Jeddah city (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of 2009 and 2011 using multi-sensor remote sensing data and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Youssef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Jeddah city is located in a coastal plain area, in the middle of the western side of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, bounded by the Red Sea to the west and mountains to the east. Jeddah city receives rainfall runoff from the foothills through different drainage pathways (wadis. During intense rainfall events, runoff flows westward from the hills and mountains towards the Red Sea, causing flash floods in the urban areas along the pathways of these wadis. Two major flash flood events occurred in Jeddah city during 20 November 2009 - January 2011. These events were characterized by rainfall precipitation values of 70 and 111 mm, respectively. Each flash flood event has duration of three hours. The impact of these two flood events have been disastrous causing extensive flooding that killed 113 people in 2009 and damaged infrastructure and property (more than 10,000 homes and 17,000 vehicles. This study deals with the analysis of the different factors that caused these flash flood events. The results indicate that the causes of these floods are related to a number of factors which play as a major contribution to the worsening of the flood disaster. These factors were classified into the following: geomorphological features, anthropogenic activities (urban changes, network and catchment factors, and rainfall and climatic changes factors. The climatic changes have a major impact on the rainfall intensity and will appear more in the future. Other factors related to the wadis tributaries are narrow passes, and high slope of the wadi has additional impacts in the flash floods in the area. The anthropogenic activities include the proliferation of slums and construction in the valleys coupled with the lack of suitable water streams to accommodate the amount of water flowing and the presence of dirt led to the direction of flow.

  3. Environmental radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohery, M.; Baz, Shadiah; Kelany, Adel M.; Abdallah, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region as well as the activity in the population of its surrounding environments were studied. In the regions surrounding Jeddah, the movements of floating water may increase the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soil due to heavy rains. In addition, the technological development of industry, agriculture and other sources around the Jeddah region has increased environmental pollution, resulting in noticeable concentrations of radioactivity. The measured activity concentrations of 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the studied area suggest that they are within the world average for soils and sediments, except those for water sample no. 4; the concentration in this sample was five times higher than the world average concentration (this water is not consumable). Herein, the radioactivity concentrations that were obtained from the analysis of soil and sediment samples that were collected from the investigated area are discussed. Additionally, the absorbed dose rate (D), radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were evaluated. For the soil and sediment samples, the average radioactivity concentrations were determined for each site and are expressed in Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of dry weight, while for the measurement of both the 226 Ra and 228 Ra isotopes in the water samples, the activity concentration is expressed in picoCuries per liter (pCi/l). The obtained results were compared with other measurements from different countries. The movement of floating water around the Jeddah region increases the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soils with heavy rains. - Highlights: • The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples from floating

  4. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...

  5. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...

  6. Diversity of dengue virus-3 genotype III in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Anwar M; Sohrab, Sayed S; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; El-Ela, Saeid Abo; Abujamel, Turki S; Hassan, Ahmed M; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Noura A; Charrel, Remi N; Azhar, Esam I

    2018-07-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia. It has been suggested that pilgrims could play a significant and unique role in DENV-1 and DENV-2 introduction into Saudi Arabia, especially in the cities of Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah during Hajj and Umrah seasons. However, only limited data on DENV-3 in Saudi Arabia are available. All available DENV-3 sequences published and unpublished from Saudi Arabia and other countries were retrieved from Genbank and gene sequence repository and phylogenetically analyzed to examine the diversity of DENV-3 into the city of Jeddah. Based on the analysis of the envelope gene and non-structural 1 (E/NS1) junction sequences, we show that there were at least four independent introductions of DENV-3, all from genotype III into Jeddah. The first introduction was most probably before 1997 as Saudi virus isolates from 1997 formed a cluster without any close relationship to other globally circulating isolates, suggesting their local circulation from previous introduction events. Two introductions were most probably in 2004 with isolates closely-related to isolates from Africa and India (Asia), in addition to another introduction in 2014 with isolates clustering with those from Singapore (Asia). Our data shows that only genotype III isolates of DENV-3 are circulating in Jeddah and highlights the potential role of pilgrims in DENV-3 importation into western Saudi Arabia and subsequent exportation to their home countries during Hajj

  7. Exploring Fog Water Harvesting Potential and Quality in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhidasan, P.; Abualhamayel, H. I.

    2012-05-01

    During the last decade, the exploitation of the existing water resources in the Asir region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has considerably increased due to both the decrease in annual precipitation and the added population pressures from the growing tourist industry. To face the conventional water shortage, attention has been mainly focused on desalination of water. To save the region from severe water shortage, additional new water sources that are low-cost and renewable must be identified. There exists an alternative source of water such as fog water harvesting. Fog forms in the Asir Region more frequently between December and February compared to the other months of the year. This paper presents the study of the climatic conditions in the Asir region of the Kingdom to identify the most suitable location for fog water collection as well as design and testing of two large fog collectors (LFCs) of size 40 m2 along with standard fog collectors (SFCs) of 1 m2 in that region. During the period from 27 December 2009 to 9 March 2010, a total of 3,128.4 and 2,562.4 L of fog water were collected by the LFC at two sites in the Al-Sooda area of the Asir region, near Abha. Experimental results indicate that fog water collection can be combined with rain water harvesting systems to increase water yield during the rainy season. The quality of the collected fog water was analyzed and compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards and found to be potable. An economic analysis was carried out for the proposed method of obtaining fresh water from the fog. The study suggests a clear tendency that in terms of both quality and magnitude of yield, fog is a viable source of water and can be successfully used to supplement water supplies in the Asir region of the Kingdom.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Ghazi A. Jamjoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. Methods Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. Results The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939 and 37% (68/184 in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1% reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others

  9. Strategic and Operational Plan Implementation of Seaports (Utilization Jeddah Port

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    Akram Elentably

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Port of Jeddah (Port released the initial version of this Strategic Plan in 2006. It was developed by Port staff, along with input, as a five-year rolling plan designed to guide the Port’s future development while keeping in mind the needs of our tenants, local community members and stakeholders, and the nation. This is the second update to the Strategic Plan since its initial release. While the Port’s overarching principles – commitment to environmental stewardship, addressing tenant needs, goods movement, economic development, and security – have remained largely unchanged, it is important for us to adapt our strategies to meet the challenges of an ever changing local and global environment. The Port is among the world’s premier ports and is a critical hub for global trade. This prominence brings with it responsibilities and expectations for the highest possible standards for efficiency, safety and security, and environmental leadership. The Port is the nation’s busiest container port and part of the world’s busiest port complex, handling 3.7 million twenty-foot equivalent units in 2013. Global trade and goods movement is Western kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s strongest industries in terms of jobs and economic activity. The Port of Jeddah powers these industries, handling almost more than a quarter of the cargo that enters the kingdom of Saudi Arabia annually. Through the Port’s activities, a lot of jobs are created in western kingdom of Saudi Arabia and over five hundred thousand nationwide. In order to maintain our position among the world’ the kingdom of Saudi Arabia premier ports, the Port is continually addressing the demands for providing modern and efficient cargo handling terminals as well as transportation and infrastructure projects. Protecting one of the nation’s most vital economic hubs is also an ongoing challenge. Finally, promoting a sustainable “grow green” philosophy and ensuring that we are the leader

  10. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

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    James A Fraser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

  11. High-resolution simulation and forecasting of Jeddah floods using WRF version 3.5

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping

    2013-12-01

    Modeling flash flood events in arid environments is a difficult but important task that has impacts on both water resource related issues and also emergency management and response. The challenge is often related to adequately describing the precursor intense rainfall events that cause these flood responses, as they are generally poorly simulated and forecast. Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has suffered from a number of flash floods over the last decade, following short-intense rainfall events. The research presented here focuses on examining four historic Jeddah flash floods (Nov. 25-26 2009, Dec. 29-30 2010, Jan. 14-15 2011 and Jan. 25-26 2011) and investigates the feasibility of using numerical weather prediction models to achieve a more realistic simulation of these flood-producing rainfall events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.5) is used to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions via a high-resolution inner domain (1-km) around Jeddah. A range of different convective closure and microphysics parameterization, together with high-resolution (4-km) sea surface temperature data are employed. Through examining comparisons between the WRF model output and in-situ, radar and satellite data, the characteristics and mechanism producing the extreme rainfall events are discussed and the capacity of the WRF model to accurately forecast these rainstorms is evaluated.

  12. High-resolution simulation and forecasting of Jeddah floods using WRF version 3.5

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Evans, Jason; Kucera, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Modeling flash flood events in arid environments is a difficult but important task that has impacts on both water resource related issues and also emergency management and response. The challenge is often related to adequately describing the precursor intense rainfall events that cause these flood responses, as they are generally poorly simulated and forecast. Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has suffered from a number of flash floods over the last decade, following short-intense rainfall events. The research presented here focuses on examining four historic Jeddah flash floods (Nov. 25-26 2009, Dec. 29-30 2010, Jan. 14-15 2011 and Jan. 25-26 2011) and investigates the feasibility of using numerical weather prediction models to achieve a more realistic simulation of these flood-producing rainfall events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.5) is used to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions via a high-resolution inner domain (1-km) around Jeddah. A range of different convective closure and microphysics parameterization, together with high-resolution (4-km) sea surface temperature data are employed. Through examining comparisons between the WRF model output and in-situ, radar and satellite data, the characteristics and mechanism producing the extreme rainfall events are discussed and the capacity of the WRF model to accurately forecast these rainstorms is evaluated.

  13. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of dengue type 1 virus isolated from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Esam I; Hashem, Anwar M; El-Kafrawy, Sherif A; Abol-Ela, Said; Abd-Alla, Adly M M; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Farraj, Suha A; Othman, Norah A; Ben-Helaby, Huda G; Ashshi, Ahmed; Madani, Tariq A; Jamjoom, Ghazi

    2015-01-16

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne viruses which can cause disease ranging from mild fever to severe dengue infection. These viruses are endemic in several tropical and subtropical regions. Multiple outbreaks of DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 (DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3) have been reported from the western region in Saudi Arabia since 1994. Strains from at least two genotypes of DENV-1 (Asia and America/Africa genotypes) have been circulating in western Saudi Arabia until 2006. However, all previous studies reported from Saudi Arabia were based on partial sequencing data of the envelope (E) gene without any reports of full genome sequences for any DENV serotypes circulating in Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the isolation and the first complete genome sequence of a DENV-1 strain (DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011) isolated from a patient from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2011. Whole genome sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and D1/H/IMTSSA/98/606 isolate (Asian genotype) reported from Djibouti in 1998. Further analysis of the full envelope gene revealed a close relationship between DENV-1-Jeddah-1-2011 strain and isolates reported between 2004-2006 from Jeddah as well as recent isolates from Somalia, suggesting the widespread of the Asian genotype in this region. These data suggest that strains belonging to the Asian genotype might have been introduced into Saudi Arabia long before 2004 most probably by African pilgrims and continued to circulate in western Saudi Arabia at least until 2011. Most importantly, these results indicate that pilgrims from dengue endemic regions can play an important role in the spread of new DENVs in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Therefore, availability of complete genome sequences would serve as a reference for future epidemiological studies of DENV-1 viruses.

  14. Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.

  15. JEDDAH HISTORICAL BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING "JHBIM" OLD JEDDAH – SAUDI ARABIA

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    A. Baik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The historic city of Jeddah faces serious issues in the conservation, documentation and recording of its valuable building stock. Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Architectural Photogrammetry have already been used in many Heritage sites in the world. The integration of heritage recording and Building Information Modelling (BIM has been introduced as HBIM and is now a method to document and manage these buildings. In the last decade many traditional surveying methods were used to record the buildings in Old Jeddah. However, these methods take a long time, can sometimes provide unreliable information and often lack completeness. This paper will look at another approach for heritage recording by using the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling (JHBIM.

  16. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region

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    Mohammed K. Al-Sadoon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  17. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  18. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamjoom, Hana M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  19. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Bedah AM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly

  20. Strategic Location and Territorial Integrity: The Role of Subsidiary Sites in the Classic Maya Kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta Region

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    Armando Anaya Hernández

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Usumacinta region was the scene of an intense interaction between the different kingdoms of the Classic Maya Period. This interaction took the form of political and marriage alliances as well as warfare and is well attested in the inscribed monuments of the region, especially towards the Late Classic Period (c. AD 600-900. Through this interaction the Maya rulers would not only assert their claim to power but also ensure the boundaries of their kingdoms, with an eye to accruing a vaster domain. The definition of the political organisation and territorial extent of the Maya Lowland kingdoms is an issue that has attracted the attention of various scholars (Adams 1981; Adams and Jones 1981; Ball and Taschek 1991; Flannery 1972; Freidel 1981; Hammond 1974; 1981; Inomata and Aoyama 1996; Mathews 1988; 1991; Sanders 1981. Like these scholars, I have presented a model aimed at estimating the territorial extent of the kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta region, taking into account the physical characteristics of the terrain (Anaya Hernández 2001. In this article I approach this issue again, focusing this time on the importance that the subsidiary centres located at strategic locations across the landscape had for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the kingdoms of Pomoná and Piedras Negras. The political importance of these sites is reflected in the efforts that the kings of these polities went through to warrant the loyalty of the rulers of these secondary centres, as can be attested by the presence of a sculptured stela at the site of Panhalé, in the vicinity of Pomoná, and an inscribed wooden box found within the Redención del Campesino Valley that makes reference to a Piedras Negras ruler. To address this issue I took advantage of the capabilities that GIS offers to model movement across the physical setting in order to define the potential boundaries between the aforementioned kingdoms in the light of the available

  1. Simulation of extreme rainfall event of November 2009 over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: the explicit role of topography and surface heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Raju, P. V. S.; Yusef, A.; Hussein, M. A. A.; Omar, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used to simulate the extreme precipitation event of 25 November 2009, over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The model is integrated in three nested (27, 9, and 3 km) domains with the initial and boundary forcing derived from the NCEP reanalysis datasets. As a control experiment, the model integrated for 48 h initiated at 0000 UTC on 24 November 2009. The simulated rainfall in the control experiment depicts in well agreement with Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission rainfall estimates in terms of intensity as well as spatio-temporal distribution. Results indicate that a strong low-level (850 hPa) wind over Jeddah and surrounding regions enhanced the moisture and temperature gradient and created a conditionally unstable atmosphere that favored the development of the mesoscale system. The influences of topography and heat exchange process in the atmosphere were investigated on the development of extreme precipitation event; two sensitivity experiments are carried out: one without topography and another without exchange of surface heating to the atmosphere. The results depict that both surface heating and topography played crucial role in determining the spatial distribution and intensity of the extreme rainfall over Jeddah. The topography favored enhanced uplift motion that further strengthened the low-level jet and hence the rainfall over Jeddah and adjacent areas. On the other hand, the absence of surface heating considerably reduced the simulated rainfall by 30% as compared to the observations.

  2. Pattern of erectile dysfunction in Jeddah city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Helali, N S; Abolfotouh, M A; Ghanem, H M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the demographic features of erectile dysfunction patients attending different specialized clinics in Jeddah city, and to identify possible risk factors associated with erectile dysfunction problem. All newly erectile dysfunction patients (n=388) who attended 6 andrology and urology clinics within a period of 3 months were subjected to a modified structural interview questionnaire to collect demographic data and risk factors for erectile dysfunction. The study revealed the following results among erectile dysfunction patients; Saudi patients constituted (81%). The age ranged from 20-86 years with mean age of 43.23+12.56 years, 73% were married with one wife, 23.5% married with two wives, and 8% were single. About one-half (43%) were less than secondary education level. Retired patients constituted (13%) of all patients. Lack of exercise was the most frequent risk factor among 82% of patients, followed by smoking (56%), use of regular medication (44%), diabetes (30%), hypertension (15%), history of pelvic surgery (14%) alcoholism (13%), and drug addict (8%). Erectile dysfunction is a problem of not only old age but also of middle and young age. This might be attributed to the high frequency of some risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug addiction. This finding may reflect the necessity for construction of prevention strategies.

  3. Seismicity of the Tihamat-Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghelani, Habib M.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the seismicity of the west coast of Saudi Arabia is vitally important to the Kingdom. The eastern margin of the Red Sea, which includes all of the west coast of Saudi Arabia, is possibly cut by transform faults that may be capable of producing earthquakes large enough to cause damage in the heavily populated areas or in the industrial complexes under construction. Prior to this study, there were no seismic stations in Saudi Arabia and no studies of microearthquake activity. It was generally assumed that there were no active faults along the west coast. During the period 20 January to 22 February, 1978, five portable seismic stations were deployed in the Tihamat Asir in the southwest part of the country. A significant level of microearthquake activity was detected at a location that approximately coincides with the landward extension of the proposed transform fault. The recording of these earthquakes demonstrates that there are active faults at this location, probably associated with the currently active Red Sea tectonic system. The practical significance of these earthquakes cannot be evaluated from the few data available, and further studies should be undertaken to determine if there are significant seismic hazards along the west coast of Saudi Arabia. 

  4. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  5. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Alam, Mohammed S.; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M.; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources

  6. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  7. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  8. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  9. British discretion in Dutch planning: establishing a comparative perspective for regional planning and local development in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, L.B.; Woltjer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Regional planning and development is continuing to take an important role in planning agendas throughout Europe. In the United Kingdom (UK), the planning system has been reformed during the last decades, marking a noticeable shift from a development-led towards a more plan-led system. In the

  10. Utility of Ambulance Data for Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance: A Pilot in the West Midlands Region, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todkill, Dan; Loveridge, Paul; Elliot, Alex J; Morbey, Roger A; Edeghere, Obaghe; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Rayment-Bishop, Chris; Thornes, John E; Smith, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    Introduction The Public Health England (PHE; United Kingdom) Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance Team (ReSST) currently operates four national syndromic surveillance systems, including an emergency department system. A system based on ambulance data might provide an additional measure of the "severe" end of the clinical disease spectrum. This report describes the findings and lessons learned from the development and preliminary assessment of a pilot syndromic surveillance system using ambulance data from the West Midlands (WM) region in England. Hypothesis/Problem Is an Ambulance Data Syndromic Surveillance System (ADSSS) feasible and of utility in enhancing the existing suite of PHE syndromic surveillance systems? An ADSSS was designed, implemented, and a pilot conducted from September 1, 2015 through March 1, 2016. Surveillance cases were defined as calls to the West Midlands Ambulance Service (WMAS) regarding patients who were assigned any of 11 specified chief presenting complaints (CPCs) during the pilot period. The WMAS collected anonymized data on cases and transferred the dataset daily to ReSST, which contained anonymized information on patients' demographics, partial postcode of patients' location, and CPC. The 11 CPCs covered a broad range of syndromes. The dataset was analyzed descriptively each week to determine trends and key epidemiological characteristics of patients, and an automated statistical algorithm was employed daily to detect higher than expected number of calls. A preliminary assessment was undertaken to assess the feasibility, utility (including quality of key indicators), and timeliness of the system for syndromic surveillance purposes. Lessons learned and challenges were identified and recorded during the design and implementation of the system. The pilot ADSSS collected 207,331 records of individual ambulance calls (daily mean=1,133; range=923-1,350). The ADSSS was found to be timely in detecting seasonal changes in patterns of respiratory

  11. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  12. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, W. K.; Ramsay, C. R.; Hedge, C. E.

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al 2O 3, Na 2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U sbnd Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ± 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region.

  13. TRABASA – TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE RECORDED BY MEANS OF BUILDING ARCHAEOLOGY IN SAUDI ARABIA: WORKSHOP IN JEDDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Herbig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA. In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

  14. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Setouhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS. The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2% of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers.

  16. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Local and Regional Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Lupascu, A.; Cremonese, L.; Butler, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous countries in Europe that possess domestic shale gas reserves are considering exploiting this unconventional gas resource as part of their energy transition agenda. While natural gas generates less CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, making it attractive as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables, production of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and air pollutants such as NOx, VOCs and PM. These gases in turn influence the climate as well as air quality. In this study, we investigate the impact of a potential shale gas development in Germany and the United Kingdom on local and regional air quality. This work builds on our previous study in which we constructed emissions scenarios based on shale gas utilization in these counties. In order to explore the influence of shale gas production on air quality, we investigate emissions predicted from our shale gas scenarios with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. In order to do this, we first design a model set-up over Europe and evaluate its performance for the meteorological and chemical parameters. Subsequently we add shale gas emissions fluxes based on the scenarios over the area of the grid in which the shale gas activities are predicted to occur. Finally, we model these emissions and analyze the impact on air quality on both a local and regional scale. The aims of this work are to predict the range of adverse effects on air quality, highlight the importance of emissions control strategies in reducing air pollution, to promote further discussion, and to provide policy makers with information for decision making on a potential shale gas development in the two study countries.

  17. Design and testing of large fog collectors for water harvesting in Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualhamayel, H. I.; Gandhidasan, P.

    2010-07-01

    The region of Asir is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between longitudes 41 - 45 E and latitudes 17 - 21 N. Known for its natural beauty and cool climate delight the visitors and the region has become a destination for tourists. One of the main problems in the Asir region is the high demand for water during tourism seasons especially in view of the rapidly growing tourism sector. Flourishing tourism in the region is challenged by the scarcity of water resources and there is urgent need to identify alternative sources of potable water. It is found that fog water collection is a viable resource and Asir region is the most suitable location for fog water harvesting. An operational fog water collection project was initiated in 2007 to provide fresh water supply. Al-Sooda, situated at an altitude of about 3,000 m, was identified as the most suitable experimental site and two large fog collectors measuring 20 m by 2 m each were erected in 2009. The distance between the two sites is about 2 km. This paper gives the methods used to select the experimental site and the design of the large fog collection system. The fog collectors are flat rectangular nets supported by a post at both ends and arranged perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing wind. The collection surface, comprising two layers of black polypropylene mesh net, is fastened laterally to the posts with a set of fastening bars. The aluminum trough located below the mesh net catches the water that runs down the net and carries it to a pipe connected to the storage tank. Because the fog collectors are long and require space for guy wires for the posts, the basic site consideration is that at least 25 m of horizontal land available for the erection. Meteorological instruments and the portable weather station are used to measure the climatic data which are recorded three times a day, namely at 7:00, 14:00 and 19:00 h. On average, yields of about 5 to 6 L/m2 per day are collected

  18. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    OpenAIRE

    Kadi, Mohammad W.

    2014-01-01

    Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high lev...

  19. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in illegal residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.

  20. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Karl Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.

  1. Impact of mobile teams on tuberculosis treatment outcomes, Riyadh Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Alqahtani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the tuberculosis (TB mobile teams on treatment outcomes in Riyadh Region by comparing patients who received treatment under mobile teams and those who did not, from 2013 to 2015. This was a retrospective descriptive study using National TB Control and Prevention Program data from 2013 to 2015 from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize characteristics of TB case-patients served by mobile teams and those who were not served. The χ2 test measured the significant differences between mobile-served and non-mobile-served case-patients. Exposure was whether or not the TB case-patient was under the care of the mobile team; the outcome of interest was whether or not treatment was successful, defined as treatment completed and cured. We found that the ratio of treatment success among mobile team case-patients was 1.28 greater than among those not served by mobile teams. The χ2 test showed a statistically significant finding (probability ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.35, p < 0.01. Mobile teams increased the treatment success rate to 92%, compared to 71.77% among those not served by mobile teams. This study shows that community mobilization of mobile teams is an effective strategy to enhance TB treatment, reduced mortality and loss to follow-up and improve TB treatment outcomes. Keywords: Directly observed therapy, Mobile teams, Saudi Arabia, Tuberculosis

  2. Pathok Negoro mosque as the form of territorial defense region of Mataram Kingdom of Islam Java in Jogjakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, E.; Hardiman, G.; Murtini, T. W.

    2018-01-01

    Territory is the space boundary of ownership. Defense concepts of an area also include territory. The defense concept of a territory of power or ownership is usually in the form of fortress, ditch, river, road, alley or gate. Many of these are seen in the forms of old city of Dutch’s inheritances. Javanese Islamic Kingdom in Yogyakarta has territory in the form of mosque. The mosque is called the Pathok Negoro as consists of 4 mosques. This territorial not same with another Islamic kingdoms. The research problem is why mosque used as a form of defense? What is the uniqueness?The purpose of the research is to reveal the form of territory of Javanese Islamic Kingdom. The benefit of this research is to get the characteristic form of territory of Javanese Islamic Kingdom in Yogyakarta. Their located in Ploso Kuning, Mlangi, babadan, Dongkelan, and Wonokromo. The research method that was used was qualitative method with grounded research, by using history and map search.In the analysis was carried out identification and comparison between mosques.The results show that there are characteristics on the location, the building orientation, the landscape, the area pattern and the shape of the building.

  3. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  4. Solar energy characteristics and some photovoltaic testing results in Jeddah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M A

    1986-01-01

    The data for global radiation were analysed to investigate the correlation with climatological factors. Solar cell module testing under Jeddah climatic conditions was initiated in 1984-1985. The goal of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a commercially-available module in outdoor conditions in order to obtain information on solar cell system design, and to observe the influence of our specific climate conditions on module energy output. The use of results obtained for precise system sizing is discussed.

  5. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  6. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Jumat, Muhammad; Wang, Tiannyu; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Aljassim, Nada I.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  7. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A

    2003-07-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m{sup 2}. As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  8. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m 2 . As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  9. Mathematics Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Middle School in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    ALZHRANI, KHALED MOHMMAD A.

    2017-01-01

    This research examines Mathematics teachers’ job satisfaction levels in the four dimensions of job satisfaction (administrative support, workplace atmosphere, teaching efficacy and students’ behavior) and its relation to students’ achievements in Middle schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

  10. Composition And Characteristic Of The Surficial Sediments In The Southern Corniche Of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha A Al-Dubai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the composition and characteristic of the surficial sediments in the southern corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Red Sea coast, in an attempt to infer the surficial distribution pattern of minerals and provenance of sediments. Twenty-six superficial sediments samples were collected from backreef and forereef areas and were analyzed for grain size, CaCO3 content, and mineralogy. The textural of grain size range from gravel to mud fraction. The mud-dominated substrates (<63 µm occur generally in the back-reef area near the shoreline (sheltered area and in the lagoon. Gravel rich-sediments are mostly found in forereef regions. The highest content of aragonite and Mg-calcite occur in the forereef area, probably because to suitability the forereef region for chemical and biochemical precipitation of these minerals. High Mg-calcite and Dolomite are low in both the regions. The pyrite occurs in lagoon; this indicates the reductive conditions in this part. However, on the contrary the percentage of carbonate minerals were low in the backreef-flat area, which could be attributed to the supply of non-carbonate terrigenous materials. The terrigenous material contains quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and amphibole minerals and are dominant in backreef-flat area with averages of 12.7%, 7.13%, 2.93% and 0.65%, respectively. Their abundance could be attributed to the supply of terrigenous materials by Aeolian deposits and intermittent Wadis.

  11. Competition between television companies for advertising revenue in the United Kingdom: the Independent Television regions prior to deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    D B Clarke; M G Bradford

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a contribution to the geographies of advertising and the media. The authors examine the ways in wbich commercial television companies try to attract advertising to their regions; advertising being their main source of revenue. Competition based on the cost of advertising in particular regions is effectively restricted. This market failure results in regionally uneven allocations of advertising money, and hence an uneven regional pattern of TV company revenues. Other forms ...

  12. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  13. Development of a coastal information system for the management of Jeddah coastal waters in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerle, R.; Al-Subhi, A.; Fernández Jaramillo, J.; Salama, A.; Bruss, G.; Zubier, K.; Runte, K.; Turki, A.; Hesse, K.; Jastania, H.; Ladwig, N.; Mudarris, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a web-based information system, Jeddah CIS, for assisting decision makers in the management of Jeddah coastal waters, in Saudi Arabia. The system will support coastal planning, management of navigation and tackle pollution due to accidents. The system was developed primarily to nowcast in quasi-real time and to deliver short-term forecasts of water levels, current velocities and waves with high spatial and temporal resolution for the area near Jeddah. Therefor it will hasten response when adverse weather conditions prevail. The Jeddah-CIS integrates sensors transmitting in real time, meteorological, oceanographic and water quality parameters and operational models for flow and waves. It also provides interactive tools using advanced visualization techniques to facilitate dissemination of information. The system relies on open source software and has been designed to facilitate the integration of additional components for enhanced information processing, data evaluation and generation of higher water level, current velocity and wave for the general public. Jeddah-CIS has been operational since 2013. Extensions of the system to speed operations and improving the accuracy of the predictions to the public are currently underway.

  14. Programme for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Jeddah II Conference, 12-18 January 1976. Provisional Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This publication presents the report of Jeddah II Conference of the Program for Environmental Studies, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA) hosted by King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah in January 1976. The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) initiated the conference to study the issues of scientific research on,…

  15. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir

    2014-07-25

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated water with about 13% of the global desalination capacity. Most of these desalination plants use the open-ocean intakes to deliver raw seawater to the desalination facility. Recently, some of the private desalination plants have shifted to subsurface intake systems, either wells or galleries, in order to obtain better water quality with a minimal environmental impact (e.g. minimal entrainment and impingement). The use of these intake types has improved the raw seawater quality extracted from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, providing better protection for the membrane component by eliminating/reducing algae, bacteria and organic matter concentrations from the seawater source. One of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract enough water to produce 10,000 m3/d of product water via the reverse osmosis process. Studies show that quality of seawater significantly improved after shifting to the well system. The use of a larger capacity well system or a seabed gallery intake was investigated at this site for a proposed additional 20,000 m3/d future expansion of the facility. More than 60 sediment samples were collected from the seabed along five different transects in an area of 25,000 m2, starting from shoreline and moving seaward. Grain size analyses, hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage were analyzed in order to determine the characteristic of marine sediments at the studied site. The marine bottom at the selected site contains carbonate sediments which have a high potential of reducing the natural organic matter concentration in the raw seawater. In this study, the laboratory measurements showed that this site has low mud content and moderately high hydraulic conductivity, which

  16. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, Syed M.; Fatima, K.; Al-Frayh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia in Water Samples from Jeddah and Makkah Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham Ahmed Zakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrhoea throughout the world.  A total of 161 and 84 samples were collected from Jeddah and Makkah cities, respectively.  Each sample was concentrated by double centrifugation and the sediment was examined as a wet smear and after staining with Trichrome and Kinyoun stains.  The results showed that 56 (35% and 1 (0.62 % samples of Jeddah were positive for the oocyst of Cryptosporidium and cyst of Giardia, whereas only 21 (25% and 2 (2.4 % samples of Makkah showed positivity for oocysts and cyst of these parasites. Overall Cryptosporidium contamination in bottled water and water from filling stations was 6.8% and 17.4%, respectively. Maximum contamination for Cryptosporidium was recorded in tap water which was 51% and 25% in Jeddah and Makkah, respectively.

  18. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  19. AoA Region: Red Sea And Gulf of Aden

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    . The Secretariat for PERSGA was formally established in Jeddah following the Cairo Declaration of September 1995. PERSGA’s mandate is to perform functions necessary for the management of the Jeddah Convention and its Action Plan. As a result, PERSGA, in close... collaboration with relevant regional and international organizations, began implementing activities and programmes to deal with the various threats facing the coastal and marine environments in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden region. The Strategic Action...

  20. Vitamin D status and serum level of some elements in children with sickle cell disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of Vitamin D deficiency and some minerals metabolism in the children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the city of Jeddah, western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 51 children with sickle cell disease (both gender) included 28 males (54.9%) and 23 females (45.1%) aged between newborn and 12 years old and 70 healthy matching controls were admitted or visited sickle cell section in the Maternity and Children Hospital in the city of Jeddah. Fasting blood samples were collected and the serum was separated and stored at -30 deg. C until the time of analysis. Serum 25 (OH) Vitamin D was determined using a commercially available kit (VDBP, Gc globulin), calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured using a clinical autoanalyser. Results: The patients were divided into two groups according to the ages, Group-A included 21 patients (both gender) aged between newborn and 6 years, group-B included 30 patients (both gender) aged between 7-12 years. The results obtained showed that the serum concentrations of 25(OH) Vitamin D in both patients groups were significantly lower than the healthy matching controls (P 0.05) and significantly higher in the serum magnesium of group-B (P<0.05). Conclusion: A significant relation between Vitamin D deficiency and children with sickle cell disease which is normal due to confined patients indoor. The serum calcium concentration had no affect in the early stage of ages but a significant lower appeared with increasing of ages. The serum magnesium concentration was higher in group-B which can be explained to the important role of Mg/sup -2/ in the nature of erythrocyte membrane in sickle cell patients. (author)

  1. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir; Dehwah, Abdullah; Bin Bandar, Khaled; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract

  2. Temporal variations of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chris C; Thurston, George D; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Khoder, Mamdouh; Mohorjy, Abdullah M; Alkhalaf, Abdulrahman K; Brocato, Jason; Chen, Lung Chi; Costa, Max

    2018-02-01

    This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (aerodynamic diameter Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over 1 yr, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM 2.5 (21.9 μg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (107.8 μg/m 3 ) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM 2.5 (10 μg/m 3 ) and PM 10 (20 μg/m 3 ), respectively. Similar to other Middle Eastern locales, PM 2.5-10 is the prevailing mass component of atmospheric particulate matter at Jeddah, accounting for approximately 80% of the PM 10 mass. Considerations of enrichment factors, absolute principal component analysis (APCA), concentration roses, and backward trajectories identified the following source categories for both PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 : (1) soil/road dust, (2) incineration, and (3) traffic; and for PM 2.5 only, (4) residual oil burning. Soil/road dust accounted for a major portion of both the PM 2.5 (27%) and PM 2.5-10 (77%) mass, and the largest source contributor for PM 2.5 was from residual oil burning (63%). Temporal variations of PM 2.5-10 and PM 2.5 were observed, with the elevated concentration levels observed for mass during the spring (due to increased dust storm frequency) and on weekdays (due to increased traffic). The predominant role of windblown soil and road dust in both the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 masses in this city may have implications regarding the toxicity of these particles versus those in the Western world where most PM health assessments have been made in the past. These results support the need for region-specific epidemiological investigations to be conducted and considered in future PM standard setting. Temporal variations of fine and coarse PM mass, elemental constituents, and sources were examined in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the first time. The main source

  3. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Srinivas, C.V.; Langodan, Sabique; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011

  4. Blood-feeding patterns of native mosquitoes and insights into their potential role as pathogen vectors in the Thames estuary region of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; England, M E; Medlock, J M; Mertens, P P C; Logan, J G; Wilson, A J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Carpenter, S

    2017-03-27

    The range of vertebrate hosts on which species of mosquito blood-feed is an important parameter for identifying potential vectors and in assessing the risk of incursion and establishment of vector-borne pathogens. In the United Kingdom, studies of mosquito host range have collected relatively few specimens and used techniques that could only broadly identify host species. This study conducted intensive collection and analysis of mosquitoes from a grazing marsh environment in southeast England. This site provides extensive wetland habitat for resident and migratory birds and has abundant human nuisance biting mosquitoes. The aim was to identify the blood-feeding patterns of mosquito species present at the site which could contribute to the transmission of pathogens. Twice-weekly collections of mosquitoes were made from Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and October 2014. Mosquitoes were collected using resting boxes, by aspiration from man-made structures and using a Mosquito Magnet Pro baited with 1-octen-3-ol. Blood-fed specimens were classified according to the degree of blood meal digestion using the Sella scale and vertebrate origin determined using sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes that were morphologically cryptic were identified to species level using multiplex PCR and sequencing methods. A total of 20,666 mosquitoes of 11 species were collected, and 2,159 (10.4%) were blood-fed (Sella scale II-VI); of these 1,341 blood-fed specimens were selected for blood meal analysis. Vertebrate origin was successfully identified in 964 specimens (72%). Collections of blood-fed individuals were dominated by Anopheles maculipennis complex (73.5%), Culiseta annulata (21.2%) and Culex pipiens form pipiens (10.4%). Nineteen vertebrate hosts comprising five mammals and 14 birds were identified as hosts for mosquitoes, including two migratory bird species. Feeding on birds by Culex modestus and Anopheles

  5. Develop Training Standards for Undergraduate Students with Major Public Administration at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sehiemy, Zainab Abdul-Rahman; Gheith, Nervana Abdul-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Recently, public administration graduates are exposed to new set of challenges because of globalization, virtual world and using modern technology as a base of all today's dealings. It imposes PAD at faculty of economic and administration faculty to prepare its students to confront these changes in organizations in the community. Therefore, the…

  6. Evaluation of Head and Neck Cancer Awareness and Screening Status in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazzazi, Turki Y

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Early detection is a key determinant of HNC prognosis. Hence, raising awareness of this disease may improve survival rates. The present study evaluated the level of awareness and screening status for HNC in the general population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. An e-questionnaire was distributed during our HNC awareness campaign at the Red Sea Mall in Jeddah. The questions assessed HNC knowledge and screening status among participants. Of the 112 respondents, 68% indicated that they had no knowledge of HNC. Social media was the major source of information (39%) for respondents. The majority (40%) believed that it was the joint responsibility of dentists, dental hygienists, and general physicians to screen for HNC; 82% had never been screened. Knowledge and awareness of HNC must be increased in the general population and among dental health professionals.

  7. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM. This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL that supports higher level of details (LoD while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we’ll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  8. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  9. Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah Government Hospitals: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Salih Suliman Al-Qudah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospital care broadly covers and encompasses complete range of personal health service like promotion of health service, prevention of disease, early detection of disease, diagnosis and treatment, rehabilitation of the patient. This study will try to identify the" Effective and Efficient Training Programs in Jeddah government hospitals: Case Study of Saudi Arabia”. The study will examine the demographic aspects of employees (Gender and experience and the value of what can deferent training programmes can have deep impact on their performance. The total study sample was 291 of identify employees, but 275 were suitable for statistical analysis, descriptive and analytical approach was also used to achieve the study objectives. The study major finding that there was a medium degree of effective and efficient training programs held’s in Jeddah public hospitals, also the study found that there are no statistically significant differences at  α ≤ 0.05 related to training of human resources. The study has recommended the need to improve employee’s skills in Jeddah government hospitals through actual employees participation at any training courses on a regular basis, also there is a need for continue training program for employee’s to qualify them at any future development in the deferent department of  the  hospital.

  10. Estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surfaces in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Al-Hazmi, F.S.; Faidah, Adel S.

    2009-01-01

    The measured data of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface, as well as the number of sunshine hours, mean daily ambient temperature, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures, relative humidity and amount of cloud cover, for Jeddah (latitude 21 deg. 42'37''N, longitude 39 deg. 11'12''E), Saudi Arabia for the period 1996-2006 are analyzed. The data are divided into two sets. The sub-data set 1 (1996-2004) are employed to develop empirical correlations between the monthly average of daily global solar radiation fraction (H/H 0 ) and various meteorological parameters. The nonlinear Angstroem type model developed by Sen and the trigonometric function model proposed by Bulut and Bueyuekalaca are also evaluated. New empirical constants for these two models have been obtained for Jeddah. The sub-data set 2 (2005, 2006) are then used to evaluate the derived correlations. Comparisons between measured and calculated values of H have been performed. It is indicated that, the Sen and Bulut and Bueyuekalaca models satisfactorily describe the horizontal global solar radiation for Jeddah. All the proposed correlations are found to be able to predict the annual average of daily global solar radiation with excellent accuracy. Therefore, the long term performance of solar energy devices can be estimated.

  11. Global, direct and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Hazmi, F.S.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Yaghmour, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    The measured data of global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface, the number of bright sunshine hours, mean daily ambient temperature, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures, relative humidity and amount of cloud cover for Jeddah (lat. 21 o 42'37''N, long. 39 o 11'12''E), Saudi Arabia, during the period (1996-2007) are analyzed. The monthly averages of daily values for these meteorological variables have been calculated. The data are then divided into two sets. The sub-data set I (1996-2004) are employed to develop empirical correlations between the monthly average of daily global solar radiation fraction (H/H 0 ) and the various weather parameters. The sub-data set II (2005-2007) are then used to evaluate the derived correlations. Furthermore, the total solar radiation on horizontal surfaces is separated into the beam and diffuses components. Empirical correlations for estimating the diffuse solar radiation incident on horizontal surfaces have been proposed. The total solar radiation incident on a tilted surface facing south H t with different tilt angles is then calculated using both Liu and Jordan isotropic model and Klucher's anisotropic model. It is inferred that the isotropic model is able to estimate H t more accurate than the anisotropic one. At the optimum tilt angle, the maximum value of H t is obtained as ∼36 (MJ/m 2 day) during January. Comparisons with 22 years average data of NASA SSE Model showed that the proposed correlations are able to predict the total annual energy on horizontal and tilted surfaces in Jeddah with a reasonable accuracy. It is also found that at Jeddah, the solar energy devices have to be tilted to face south with a tilt angle equals the latitude of the place in order to achieve the best performance all year round.

  12. Factors Associated with Consuming Junk Food among Saudi Adults in Jeddah City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandoura, Najlaa; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Abdulrashid, Ola; Shah, Hassan Bin Usman; Kassar, Sulaiman M; Adel Hawari, Abdul Rehman; Jahhaf, Jana M

    2017-12-31

    Introduction Junk food (JF) consumption trend is increasing in all parts of the world. The transition in lifestyle and dietary habits is leading to many non-communicable diseases. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) To examine the prevalence of junk food consumption and factors associated with consuming junk food among Saudi adults in Jeddah; and (2) to compare the trends of junk food consumption among males and females in Jeddah. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted in five different Primary Health Care centers (PHCCs) of Jeddah working under Ministry of Health. The subjects were men (n = 146) and women (n = 254) aged 18-67 years visiting these centers. Structured validated close ended questionnaire was filled by all the participants. Data analysis was done using SPSS. Chi-square was applied to analyze the difference between male and female JF consumption and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the risk factors. Results Overall the JF consumption in subjects with mean age 33.69 ± 12.29 years was highly prevalent in both genders (86.5%); (men = 85.6% and women = 87.4%). Controlling for some demographic and socioeconomic variables, increased junk food consumption was independently associated with education (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.088-5.605, p = 0.031), individuals who had limited time (OR = 3.82, 95% CI: 1.690-8.642, p junk food consumption among Saudi adults. Junk food has influence in the dietary patterns of Saudi adults and this trend is likely to rise. This growing widespread use of junk food is of concern which may cause obesity-related non-communicable diseases.

  13. Sequence analysis of sub-genotype D hepatitis B surface antigens isolated from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar EL Hadad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of HBV genotypes/sub-genotypes in Jeddah province, although the hepatitis B virus (HBV was identified as the most predominant type of hepatitis in Saudi Arabia. To characterize HBV genotypes/sub-genotypes, serum samples from 15 patients with chronic HBV were collected and subjected to HBsAg gene amplification and sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the HBsAg gene sequences revealed that 11 (48% isolates belonged to HBV/D while 4 (18% were associated with HBV/C. Notably, a HBV/D sub-genotype phylogenetic tree identified that eight current isolates (72% belonged to HBV/D1, whereas three isolates (28% appeared to be more closely related to HBV/D5, although they formed a novel cluster supported by a branch with 99% bootstrap value. Isolates belonging to D1 were grouped in one branch and seemed to be more closely related to various strains isolated from different countries. For further determination of whether the three current isolates belonged to HBV/D5 or represented a novel sub-genotype, HBV/DA, whole HBV genome sequences would be required. In the present study, we verified that HBV/D1 is the most prevalent HBV sub-genotype in Jeddah, and identified novel variant mutations suggesting that an additional sub-genotype designated HBV/DA should be proposed. Overall, the results of the present HBsAg sequence analyses provide us with insights regarding the nucleotide differences between the present HBsAg/D isolates identified in the populace of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and those previously isolated worldwide. Additional studies with large numbers of subjects in other areas might lead to the discovery of the specific HBV strain genotypes or even additional new sub-genotypes that are circulating in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, HBV sub-genotypes, HBV/D, HBsAg, Viral isolates, Population studies

  14. Hydrographic parameters and distribution of dissolved Cu, Ni, Zn and nutrients near Jeddah desalination plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallatah Mohammad M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of safe desalination plants with low environmental impact is as important an issue as the supply of drinking water. The desalination plant in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia, Red Sea coast produces freshwater from seawater by multi-stage flash distillation (MSFD and reverse osmosis (RO. The process produces brine as by-product, which is dumped into the sea. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Jeddah desalination plant on the coastal water in the nearby of the plant. Total concentrations of dissolved Cu, Ni, Zn and nutrients in several locations around the plant were analyzed by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The average levels of dissolved Cu, Ni, and Zn on surface in the sampling locations were 15.02, 11.02, and 68.03 nM respectively, whereas the levels at the seafloor near the discharging point were much higher. Distribution of temperature, salinity, nutrients and dissolved oxygen were quite normal both on surface and in depth.

  15. United Kingdom's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation

  16. Feminist Perceptions and the Challenges for Women's Education in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazeer, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion about women's education. Conflicting discourses, regarding the positions of women as student learners, create an educational challenge that faces the GCC countries in the 21st century. This study explores the prevalent feminist positions in Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and presents the findings…

  17. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  18. Major limitations to achieving "4 per 1000" increases in soil organic carbon stock in temperate regions: Evidence from long-term experiments at Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Paul; Johnston, Johnny; Macdonald, Andy; White, Rodger; Powlson, David

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the "4 per 1000" initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in southeast United Kingdom. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on three soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland. In 65% of cases, SOC increases occurred at >7‰ per year in the 0-23 cm depth, approximately equivalent to 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm depth. In the two longest running experiments (>150 years), annual farmyard manure (FYM) applications at 35 t fresh material per hectare (equivalent to approx. 3.2 t organic C/ha/year) gave SOC increases of 18‰ and 43‰ per year in the 23 cm depth during the first 20 years. Increases exceeding 7‰ per year continued for 40-60 years. In other experiments, with FYM applied at lower rates or not every year, there were increases of 3‰-8‰ per year over several decades. Other treatments gave increases between zero and 19‰ per year over various periods. We conclude that there are severe limitations to achieving the "4 per 1000" goal in practical agriculture over large areas. The reasons include (1) farmers not having the necessary resources (e.g. insufficient manure); (2) some, though not all, practices favouring SOC already widely adopted; (3) practices uneconomic for farmers-potentially overcome by changes in regulations or subsidies; (4) practices undesirable for global food security. We suggest it is more realistic to promote practices for increasing SOC based on improving soil quality and functioning as small increases can have disproportionately large beneficial impacts, though not necessarily translating into increased crop yield

  19. Let your kingdom come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Schulze

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction to the general theme “The kingdom of God”, this article presents an overview of the second petition of the Lord’s Prayer. This is done under the following headings: the setting, the aspects, and the guidelines of the petition. The setting shows the very close relation among the first three petitions as pertaining to God’s cause, and the priority which his kingship should have in our prayers. In turning to God in our prayers, we turn away from ourselves. Thus prayer is part of our sanctification. The aspects treated in this article are, firstly, that the second petition is a prayer, implying our helplessness and destitution; secondly, that it concerns God’s kingdom, not ours, thereby undercutting every form of modernism, Social Gospel, political theology, and progressive ethical ‘goodness’ of man; thirdly, it is a petition that the kingdom may come, which happens mysteriously, in God’s time, in our history, and according to Scriptures. In the guidelines it is argued that, in order to live responsibly as Christians, we must know our time, ourselves, and the immutable nature of prophecy.

  20. Prevalence and attitude of university students towards mobile phone use while driving in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil; Atta, Hazem; Alyaseen, Mujtaba Ahmed; Albagshe, Ammar Jameel; Alattallah, Haidar Ghalib

    2018-02-08

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and attitude of university students towards mobile phone use while driving. The present study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and ninety-three participants were recruited for this study. Attitude, consequences and their involvement in various reckless behaviours pertaining to the use of mobile phone while driving were checked by a questionnaire. Overall, the majority of the respondents (90%) use a mobile phone while driving. About half of the participants had experienced consequences regarding texting while driving and had engaged in reckless behaviour. The majority of the students of Faculty of Medicine, Engineering Sciences, Earth Sciences, Administration and Economics and Orientation Classes were more frequently texting while driving (p mobile phone while driving.

  1. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Speciation and Mobility of Some Heavy Metals in the Coastal Sediments of Jeddah, Eastern Red Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, Mohamed A.; Basaham, Ali S.

    2004-01-01

    Total and potentially mobile fractions of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed in 28 sediment samples collected from the coastal area of Jeddah. Sampling sites were selected from the coastal area of Jeddah. Sampling sites were selected to represent heavily sewage polluted areas and areas far from the effect of direct sewage dumping. Total concentrations reflected the degree of contamination and were particularly high in the confined environments. Concentrations in the mud fraction (<63um) were 3 to 6 times higher than that in the sand fraction. The repartition of elements between the exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fraction either as a constituent of the detrital material and/or trapped in the form of insoluble sulphides. Dominance of the exchangeable fraction characterized the speciation of Mn. Mobilization of Mn under reducing conditions and its readsorption on the particle surface is a probable explanation. Cu and Zn appear to have comparable distribution between the different fractions, however, Cu seems preferntially associated with the oxidizable fractions while reducing Zn was slightly more important than the other forms. Pb was particularly distributed between the oxidizable and the exchangeable fraction. Residual Pb participation was very low and sometimes totally absent. The interest behind the use of speciation schemes is that it permits the distinction between the fraction of the element that could be released into the water when the physico-chemical conditions are modified and the part that is permanently or quasi permanently fixed in the sediments. Most of the Fe was found held in the residual unavailable form while most of Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb were distributed between the environmentally unstable, exchangeable, oxidizable and reducible fractions. Therefore, these elements are supposed to have greater mobility and may, under particular conditions, greatly influence the environmental characteristics. (author)

  3. Risk Assessment and Implication of Human Exposure to Road Dust Heavy Metals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbaj, Ibrahim I; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Hassan, Salwa K; Alsharif, Musaab M; Khoder, Mamdouh I

    2017-12-26

    Data dealing with the assessment of heavy metal pollution in road dusts in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and its implication to human health risk of human exposure to heavy metals, are scarce. Road dusts were collected from five different functional areas (traffic areas (TA), parking areas (PA), residential areas (RA), mixed residential commercial areas (MCRA) and suburban areas (SA)) in Jeddah and one in a rural area (RUA) in Hada Al Sham. We aimed to measure the pollution levels of heavy metals and estimate their health risk of human exposure applying risk assessment models described by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Using geo-accumulation index (I geo ), the pollution level of heavy metals in urban road dusts was in the following order Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > V > Mn > Co > Fe. Urban road dust was found to be moderately to heavily contaminated with As, Pb and Zn, and heavily to extremely contaminated with Cd. Calculation of enrichment factor (EF) revealed that heavy metals in TA had the highest values compared to that of the other functional areas. Cd, As, Pb, Zn and Cu were severely enriched, while Mn, V, Co, Ni and Cr were moderately enriched. Fe was considered as a natural element and consequently excluded. The concentrations of heavy metals in road dusts of functional areas were in the following order: TA > PA > MCRA > SA > RA > RUA. The study revealed that both children and adults in all studied areas having health quotient (HQ) exposure route was ingestion. The cancer risk for children and adults from exposure to Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, and Cr was found to be negligible (≤1 × 10 -6 ).

  4. Patients’ satisfaction regarding family physician's consultation in primary healthcare centers of Ministry of Health, Jeddah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawakid, Khalid; Rashid, Ola Abdul; Mandoura, Najlaa; Usman Shah, Hassan Bin; Ahmed, Waqar Asrar; Ibrahim, Adel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aims to assess the level of patients’ satisfaction and the factors contributing to patients’ satisfaction toward family physicians (FPs) consultation, visiting primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) working under Ministry of Health, Jeddah. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Jeddah from November 1, 2016 to March 1, 2017, we used consultation satisfaction questionnaire and its four subscales with standard cutoffs. These subscales include general satisfaction, professional care, depth of relationship, and length of consultation. Mean scores along with standard deviation of these subscales were measured. Independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and multivariate regression analysis were performed to test the association between satisfaction level and predictors. Results: Overall, patients’ satisfaction was 60%. Around 74% of patients were satisfied with the professional care and 58% with the depth of the relationship. Around 60% of patients need more consultation time with the physicians. Knowledge about the presence of FP in the nearest PHCCs was around 70%. Multivariate regression analysis for the overall high satisfaction showed that the most important predictors of this high satisfaction level are regular visits to a particular FP (P < 0.001), distance from the PHCC (P = 0.044) and gender of the patient (P = 0.027). Conclusion: This study concluded that satisfaction with the FP's consultation is acceptable but needs improvement. Lower satisfaction was reported among males, patients living at a distance from PHCC and who had less knowledge about the presence of FP in their nearest PHCC. Such study data are vital for any corrective measures to boost satisfaction in patients attending PHCCs. PMID:29564270

  5. Patients' satisfaction regarding family physician's consultation in primary healthcare centers of Ministry of Health, Jeddah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Bawakid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study aims to assess the level of patients' satisfaction and the factors contributing to patients' satisfaction toward family physicians (FPs consultation, visiting primary healthcare centers (PHCCs working under Ministry of Health, Jeddah. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Jeddah from November 1, 2016 to March 1, 2017, we used consultation satisfaction questionnaire and its four subscales with standard cutoffs. These subscales include general satisfaction, professional care, depth of relationship, and length of consultation. Mean scores along with standard deviation of these subscales were measured. Independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and multivariate regression analysis were performed to test the association between satisfaction level and predictors. Results: Overall, patients' satisfaction was 60%. Around 74% of patients were satisfied with the professional care and 58% with the depth of the relationship. Around 60% of patients need more consultation time with the physicians. Knowledge about the presence of FP in the nearest PHCCs was around 70%. Multivariate regression analysis for the overall high satisfaction showed that the most important predictors of this high satisfaction level are regular visits to a particular FP (P < 0.001, distance from the PHCC (P = 0.044 and gender of the patient (P = 0.027. Conclusion: This study concluded that satisfaction with the FP's consultation is acceptable but needs improvement. Lower satisfaction was reported among males, patients living at a distance from PHCC and who had less knowledge about the presence of FP in their nearest PHCC. Such study data are vital for any corrective measures to boost satisfaction in patients attending PHCCs.

  6. Factors associated with domestic violence: a cross-sectional survey among women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-02-14

    This study aims to identify the factors associated with domestic violence (DV) among women in Jeddah. Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Jeddah. Convenience sample of women, aged 15-70 years, at the outpatient and inpatient clinics. Between 15 December 2011 and 30 May 2012, a psychologist and a professional health assistant explained the purpose of the research to participants, who were then asked to fill a 50-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was created based on questions from three questionnaires: the NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the association between DV and family status, male partner attitudes, age, educational attainment, employment, financial and socioeconomic status. A total of 2301 women participated in the survey (81% response rate). The mean±SD age of the participants was 34.4±10.9 years. The lifetime prevalence of DV was 34%. Abused women had more children than non-abused women (p=0.001), and their spouses were significantly older than those of non-abused women (p<0.0001). Financially dependent women and those with a high educational status were significantly more likely to report abuse (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Abused women were also likely to report that their spouse was a smoker (p<0.0001) and had completed at least primary or secondary education (p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of abused women reported that their male partners were alcohol users (p=0.001). The results of logistic regression showed that women who were financially dependent had about 1.5-fold odds of being physically abused by a spouse. Many factors are associated with DV against women, thereby highlighting the need to design effective DV prevention programmes.

  7. Halotolerant streptomycetes isolated from soil at Taif region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on isolation and purification of some halotolerant streptomycetes from soil and sea water of western region, KSA as a source of salt tolerance gene(s). A few numbers (32) of streptomycetes-like colonies (SLC) were isolated and purified from two regions. From Jeddah, a number of 22 out of the 32 SLC ...

  8. Kingdom of Heaven and its ideological message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiou Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a Crusades epic, the film Kingdom of Heaven revives the 12th century history in the critical city of Jerusalem. The story surrounds a French blacksmith Balian who defends Jerusalem and contends with the Islamic leader Saladin who attempts to seize back the holy city from the Christians. Through the special themes in region, religion and war, Kingdom of Heaven seems to indicate the conflicts between the East and the West. Furthermore, the outbreaks of 9/11 and the Iraq War definitely make this film’s release more controversial. Kingdom of Heaven, being a film, an essential medium of mass communication, the style in which it expresses its story and ideology is worth considering in depth. By exploring this Hollywood film which lacks of the typical Hollywood style, this paper discusses the significance in making Kingdom of Heaven in the wake of 9/11 and how the critical debate surrounding the film is a reflection of contemporary ideologies.

  9. Pardos Militias in the Region of New Galicia (Kingdom of New Spain. An Analysis of Social and Political Practices during the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rojas Galván

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is analyzed the sociopolitical aspects that promoted the prominence of the “pardos” from New Galicia into the colonial structure.  The research takes to theoretical reference the perspectives from regional History and social History because looking for prove the territory transformation respect to several conditions of the society. The documental resources come from the Spanish and Mexican History Archives. The results of this research show the reasons by what cause the Spanish Crown gave to militia “Pardos” certain benefits like militia status in regional codes of law, use weapon, free taxes and other privileges. Moreover is demonstrate what these practice were not enough to reach at the power group in the New Spain. In spite of the pardos achieved relational with other groups in low castas in New Galicia and attenuate the negative effects suffer in the groups originating from Africa.

  10. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: A socioecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Potter, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the topic entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. r...

  11. The impact of media and advertising of food on the eating behaviour of adolescent girls in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaaly, Elham

    2016-12-12

    This study aims to detect differences in eating behaviours demonstrated by adolescent girls in Jeddah Saudi Arabia, according to the influence of the media through TV advertisements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1519 girls from 20 schools in Jeddah. Survey questions included information regarding media advertising and its effect on eating behaviour. Bivariate analyses were performed to define differences in eating behaviour according to media influence and Chi-square analyses to detect significant relationships. The results indicated a significant correlation between dessert consumption and advertising exposure (P = 0.035). Adolescent girls exposed to such advertising were more likely to consume dessert [n=299 (48.5%)], to shop for food [n=316 (50.7%)], and had attempted to lose weight [n=373 (59.5%)]. The results emphasize the role and obligation of decision-makers to protect young consumers through increased legislation and control of media content (particularly food advertisements) targeting young people.

  12. Pardos Militias in the Region of New Galicia (Kingdom of New Spain). An Analysis of Social and Political Practices during the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    José Rojas Galván

    2016-01-01

    El artículo analiza los factores sociopolíticos que propiciaron que los milicianos pardos de Nueva Galicia fueran protagonistas dentro de la estructura colonial. La investigación toma como referentes teóricos las perspectivas de la historia regional y la historia social en tanto que buscan hacer evidentes las transformaciones de un territorio con respecto a las condiciones de la sociedad. Las fuentes documentales utilizadas provienen de archivos de España y México. Los resultados de la invest...

  13. Utilisation of a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for equestrian accidents in a regional major trauma network in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nick; Cormack, Stef; George, Arun; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-05-01

    The utilisation of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) in response to equestrian accidents has been an integral part of operations for many years throughout the UK. The recent establishment of major trauma networks in the UK has placed great emphasis on the appropriate tasking of HEMS units to cases where added benefit can be provided and the incidence of time critical injury in cases of equestrian accidents has been shown to be low. This study assesses the impact made on the utilisation of the different HEMS resources for cases of equestrian accidents within the West Midlands following the launch of the regional trauma network. We present a retrospective analysis of all equestrian accidents attended by Midlands Air Ambulance (MAA) between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. Data were abstracted from the MAA operational database relating to mission activations/scene attendances; team configuration (physician led and Critical Care Paramedic (CCP) led); on-scene interventions; mission timings and patient conveyance by helicopter. A total of 114 activations involved equestrian accidents (6% of overall workload). The contribution of equestrian accidents to overall workload was similar for physician led and CCP-led (69/1069) platforms (5% vs. 6%, p=0.50). Only three patients (3%) required pre-hospital RSI during the period analysed and there were no recorded cases of ketamine administration for analgesia/conscious sedation. In approximately half of all scene attendances patients did not require any medication to be administered by the HEMS team. The vast majority of incidents occurred in rural locations with over 80% of patients conveyed to hospital by helicopter. The average mission time for scene attendances resulting in conveyance by helicopter was in excess of 90 min on both types of platform. There is a clear requirement for the design and implementation of informed and intelligent tasking models to respond to the need for assistance in equestrian accidents

  14. UNITED KINGDOM: under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    While attempting bravely to sustain the legacy left by J.J. Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, Cockcroft, Blackett, Dirac and others earlier this century, the United Kingdom, one of the major contributors to CERN, has suffered in recent years from an erosion of the international purchasing power of the pound sterling. At the same time, the national scientific community has squabbled over the apportionment of the research cake. In recent years, the CERN budget has remained constant in real terms, but the pound has drifted steadily down. In 1984 one pound bought 3.15 Swiss francs, now it gets just over 2. The hypersensitivity which left calculations at the mercy of exchange rate hiccups was cushioned in 1988 by a new method of calculating national CERN contributions, introduced by Chris Llewellyn Smith, now the Laboratory's Director General, using less sensitive input data

  15. United Kingdom national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    Report of the United Kingdom deals with life extension granted to Calder Hall and Chapelcross reactors for further 10 years operation. The two well recognised life-limiting features of Magnox type reactors are graphite core ageing and materials properties of the reactor pressure circuit components. These features have been scrutinised particularly closely and the conclusion has been reached that there are no safety factors which will necessarily limit the plant life to less than 50 years. Two other life-limiting factors are hear exchanger tubes and the heat exchanger tube failures internal to boiler shells and the integrity of the main engineering structures of the plant. It was concluded that appropriate routine ageing monitoring programs are in place in respect to these features to support continuing operation beyond 40 years

  16. An Assessment of Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Air Pollution in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, S. R.; Khwaja, H. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Zeb, J.; Hussain, M. M.; Khatib, F.; Blake, D. R.; Carpenter, D. O.

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the levels, chemical composition and delineated the sources of PM2.5 in Jeddah, to estimate the anthropogenic influence. Sampling was done from April 8th 2013 to February 18th, 2014 in four cycles. PM2.5 samples were analyzed for black carbon (BC), trace elements (TEs) and water-soluble ionic species (IS). Delineation of sources was by mass reconstruction, enrichment factor (EF), and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The 24-h PM2.5 levels showed seasonal variabilities with mean PM2.5 per cycle (cycle 1: 58.8±25.0, cycle 2: 36.2±12.3, cycle 3: 33.9±9.1, and cycle 4: 38.0±17.7µg/m3) exceeding the WHO guideline (25.0 µg/m3). Overall, BC explained 3.61%, 5.92%, 7.15% and 6.51% of PM2.5 during cycles 1-4, respectively but with delta-C levels below zero. This excluded bio-mass burning as a PM2.5 source. IS were mostly SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+ and K+, characteristic of industrial and vehicular emissions. From mass reconstruction, BC, TEs and IS collectively explained 73.6 - 89.5% of PM2.5. EF analysis defined two broad categories of TEs as; anthropogenic (Ni, V, Cu, Zn, Cl, Pb, S, Lu and Br), and earth-crust derived (Al, Si, Ti, Mg, K, Fe, Sr, Mn, Ca, Na and Cr) TEs. These anthropogenic TEs are mostly of industrial and vehicular origins. PMF broadly defined 4 major sources of PM2.5; fossil fuels combustion (36.0%), soil (34.1%), sea-spray (15.4%) and vehicular emissions (14.5%). Results show a major anthropogenic influence related to vehicular and industrial emissions, and further stress the need for more research to fully delineate PM2.5 sources in Jeddah.

  17. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2014-07-18

    The intake system can play a significant role in improving the feed water quality and ultimately influence the performance of downstream components of the seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes. In most cases, open-ocean intakes produce poor feed water quality in terms of the abundance of naturally occurring organic matter, which increases the risk of membrane fouling. An alternative intake is the subsurface system, which is based on the riverbank filtration concept that provides natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Therefore, the risk of biofouling caused by these substances can be reduced by implementing the appropriate type of intake system. The use of well intake systems was investigated along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia in the Jeddah region. Data were collected from a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant with a capacity of 10,000 m3/d. The well system produces feed water from an artificial-fill peninsula that was constructed atop of the seabed. Ten wells have been constructed on the peninsula for extracting raw seawater. Water samples were collected from nearby surface seawater as a reference and from selected individual wells. The percentage of algae and bacterial removal by induced filtration process was evaluated by comparison of the seawater concentrations with the well discharges. Transparent exopolymer particles and organic carbon fractions reduction was also measured. The quality of raw water extracted from the well systems was highly improved compared with the raw seawater source. It was observed that algae were virtually 100% removed and the bacterial concentration was significantly removed by the aquifer matrix. The detailed analysis of organic carbon fraction using liquid

  18. Analysis of the Constituent Materials of Historical Building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Fahed; El-Turke, Adel; Scott, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric pollution is observed to accentuate and accelerate the degradation of historical sites. This paper investigates the chemical and mineralogical characteristic of the building materials used to construct the declared UNESCO world heritage site located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia., and provide an initial assessment of the primary mechanisms for their environmental degradation. Stone and plaster samples were collected from six historic houses as well as the quarry from which the stone was originally produced. The main objective of this work was to identify the composition and alteration of the stone, plaster and quarry materials and to provide information about the decay mechanisms, thereby better enabling conservators to identify the correct methods and materials for onwards conservation and restoration works. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with energy-dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (FEGSEM-EDS) were utilized as analytical techniques to conjointly to determine the chemical composition of the corresponding materials. The results revealed that the stone used throughout the historic buildings comprises a mixture of calcareous limestone and corallite stones. The associated binding plaster is lime based, made with non-hydraulic lime and local sand, whilst the decorative plaster is made of gypsum (CaSO4). On degraded surfaces it was possible to detect the deposition of sea salt, sulphur and phosphorus as the main atmospheric pollutants and significant contributors to the observed environmental degradation.

  19. Water column conditions in a coastal lagoon near Jeddah, Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. A. Albarakati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water column conditions in a lagoon near Jeddah are investigated on the basisof changes in potential energy. Three major factors including balance ofsurface heat at the air-sea interface, wind and tidal mixing are considered.A negative potential energy change dv/dt will developstratification, whereas positive dv/dt will tend to mix the watercolumn. The tidal effect is greater in summer with wind mixing showing nogreat variations. The buoyancy effect of the heat balance at the surface isnegative from April to October. This negative buoyancy effect will tend to developstratification but the positive contributions of wind and tide counteract this andthe water column remains mixed except in September and October, when a weakstratification may develop. Generally, the water column remains practically mixedthroughout the year. The change in heat content of the water column from mid-Aprilto mid-September is about 3.3 × 108 J. During this period the netheat input at the air interface is about 2.0 × 108 J, which isabout 40% less than the heat content of the water column, showing that the heat is advected towards the central area from the shallower periphery of the lagoon.

  20. Difficulties faced by family physicians in primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumenah, Sahar H; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the difficulties faced by family physicians, and compare how satisfied those working with the Ministry of Health (MOH) are with their counterparts who work at some selected non-MOH hospitals. An analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC), and 40 MOH primary health care centers across Jeddah. A structured multi-item questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and information on the difficulties family physicians face. The physicians' level of satisfaction and how it was affected by the difficulties was assessed. Women constituted 71.9% of the sample. Problems with transportation formed one of the main difficulties encountered by physicians. Compared to non-MOH physician, a significantly higher proportion of MOH physicians reported unavailability of radiology technicians (P = 0.011) and radiologists (P building maintenance (P < 0.001). Family physicians with the MOH were less satisfied with their jobs compared with non-MOH physicians (P = 0.032). MOH family physicians encountered difficulties relating to staff, services, and infrastructure, which consequently affected their level of satisfaction.

  1. Awareness and attitudes towards organ donation among medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedalamin, Zaid; Imran, Muhammad; Almutairi, Osama; Lamfon, Mohammed; Alnawwar, Majd; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2017-04-01

    To assess awareness and attitude of medical students about organ donation. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised medical students. The participants were asked about their religious and other beliefs towards organ donation, their reasons for not donating organs, and their personal opinions about organ donation through a questionnaire. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 481 participants, 250(52%) were females, and 231(48%) were males. The overall mean age was 21.36±1.63 years. Besides, 437(90.9%) students knew what organ donation means, 433(90%) supported organ donation, and 90(18.7%) knew someone who had donated an organ. Moreover, 245(50.9%) participants were willing to donate their organ to their family alone, 198(41.2%) were willing to donate to any deserving patient while 439(91.3%) rejected that religion precluded organ donation, and 354(73.6%) did not know about the grafting of organs from a man to a woman and vice versa. Awareness and attitude towards organ donation were not up to the mark among the participants.

  2. United Kingdom position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In any system employing liquid sodium as a coolant, large heat transfer coefficients exist between the metal structure containing the coolant, and the coolant itself. Any rapidly varying temperatures, either space wise or time wise, in the sodium are readily transmitted to the surrounding metal structure, resulting in the generation of appreciable thermal stresses within these structures. In particular, the phenomenon of thermal stratification in the sodium coolant has the potential to induce unacceptable thermal stresses throughout the system. With respect to the present U.K. fast reactor design, a large programme of work in connection with the thermal hydraulic aspects of the plant is in hand. This programme is being undertaken as a joint effort by the National Nuclear Corporation, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Central Electricity Generating Board. Work is in progress both to identify the areas of the system that will be susceptible to, and to ensure that the design is capable of successfully withstanding any thermal stratification effects. The production of stratification phenomena depends both upon the design and the operation of the reactor system. These are briefly described below. Areas where thermal stratification effects exist are then identified and the programme of work associated with each area is outlined

  3. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The history of nuclear development in the United Kingdom is traced, together with the factors (eg electricity demand, fossil fuel prices, political policy) that have influenced policy choices. Many of the research establishments and the fissile material production plants were established in the late 1940s. In these early years the civil and military development programmes were not separate. The initial growth period was in the 1950s when the plan was to build twelve reactors in three groups of four over ten years. The first were to be Magnox type reactors. This was trebled in 1957 and the advanced gas cooled reactor was developed. The Windscale fire in 1957 affected confidence in the nuclear programme. However, five AGR twin-reactor stations were ordered in 1964. These ran into construction problems and delay and it was not until 1980 that more new units were contemplated. The plan then was to build a pressurized water reactor at Sizewell-B. A delay to allow for the public inquiry put back the start of this until 1987 with commissioning planned for 1994. A list of the UK nuclear power stations is given and their operating performance discussed. The present situation and future prospects for nuclear power are reviewed. (U.K.)

  4. Biobank Report: United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Bell, Jessica; Briceno, Linda; Mitchell, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The United Kingdom is a leader in genomics research, and the presence of numerous types of biobanks and the linking of health data and research within the UK evidences the importance of biobank-based research in the UK. There is no biobank-specific law in the UK and research on biobank materials is governed by a confusing set of statutory law, common law, regulations, and guidance documents. Several layers of applicable law, from European to local, further complicate an understanding of privacy protections. Finally, biobanks frequently contain data in addition to the samples; the legal framework in the UK generally differentiates between data and samples and the form of the data affects the applicability of legal provisions. Biobanks must be licensed by the Human Tissue Authority; certain projects must be reviewed by Research Ethics Committees, and all projects are encouraged to be reviewed by them. Data Access Committees in biobanks are also common in the UK. While this confusing array of legal provisions leaves privacy protections in biobanking somewhat unclear, changes at the EU level may contribute to harmonization of approaches to privacy. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  5. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, S.; Williams, P.

    1991-01-01

    The possession of nuclear weapons by the United Kingdom has long been a controversial issue in British politics, and among historians and strategists. Part of the controversy has revolved around questions of motivation. Why did the British Government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee develop nuclear weapons? Why have successive British governments maintained and, in fact, modernized the national nuclear force? This paper reports that a frequent response to these questions is to place the issue of the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the UK into a post-colonial context. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Britain was a great power with global assets and commitments. After the Empire was reduced in size and importance, however, and eventually swept away, Britain could not longer claim to be a superpower in any modern sense. Nevertheless, it is suggested, British policy makers had developed a foreign policy based upon certain assumptions about Britain's position and power and they were reluctant to relinquish these assumptions. Furthermore, it is contended, the decision to develop nuclear weapons was taken to reinforce what were the pretensions of a medium power, and the continued obsession of successive British governments with nuclear weapons provides evidence that Britain has still not come to terms with its reduced role and limited influence. In short, the British infatuation with nuclear weapons over the past 40 years is best explained in terms of concerns about status

  6. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been ... reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  7. Renewable energies in United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baize, T.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of research and development policy in United Kingdom on renewable energy sources is presented with economical studies (short or long term profitability), engaged programs and electric production. (A.B.). refs. tabs

  8. Comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for Ar-Riyadh region in the KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.

    2009-04-01

    The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Ar-Riyadh region, Central KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 3,000 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 10,000 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (480 sheets) for 10,000 km2, with aerial photography lasting from July 2007 thru August 2007.

  9. Comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for Najran region in the KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.

    2009-04-01

    The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Najran region, South KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 917 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 14,304 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (298 sheets) for 14,304 km2, with aerial photography lasting from May 2006 until July 2006.

  10. Comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for Asir region in the KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.

    2009-04-01

    The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Asir region, South West KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 2,188 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 32,640 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (680 sheets) for 32,640 km2, with aerial photography lasting from July 2007 thru October 2007.

  11. Oral and Dental Health Status among Adolescents with Limited Access to Dental Care Services in Jeddah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahannan, Salma A; Eltelety, Somaya M; Hassan, Mona H; Ibrahim, Suzan S; Amer, Hala A; El Meligy, Omar A; Al-Johani, Khalid A; Kayal, Rayyan A; Mokeem, Abeer A; Qutob, Akram F; Mira, Abdulghani I

    2018-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries and periodontal diseases among 14⁻19-year-old schoolchildren with limited access to dental care services. A cross sectional study design was conducted during field visits to seven governmental schools in Al-Khomrah district, South Jeddah, over the period from September 2015 to May 2016. Clinical examinations and administered questionnaires were carried out in mobile dental clinics. The dentists carried out oral examinations using the dental caries index (DMFT), the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), and the community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20. A total of 734 schoolchildren were examined. The prevalence of decayed teeth was 79.7% and was significantly higher among boys (88.9%) than girls (69.0%). About 11% of students had missing teeth, with a significantly higher figure among females than males (15.9% versus 7.3%); 19.8% of students had filled teeth. Moreover, a DMFT of seven or more was significantly more prevalent among males (43.3%) than females (26.8%), while the percentage of females with sound teeth was significantly higher than for males (20.4% and 9.6% respectively). The CPITN revealed 0, 1 and 2 scores among 14.6%, 78.2%, and 41.6% respectively. Males had a significantly higher percentage of healthy periodontal condition (23.8%) than females (3.8%). Dental caries prevalence was moderate to high, calculus and gingival bleeding were widespread among schoolchildren, and were more prevalent among students with low socioeconomic status.

  12. Risk factors of coronary heart disease among medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Mahnashi, Morooj; Al-Dhaheri, Amal; Al-Zahrani, Borooj; Al-Wadie, Ebtihal; Aljabri, Mydaa; Al-Shanketi, Rajaa; Al-Shehri, Rawiah; Al-Sayes, Fatin M; Bashawri, Jamil

    2014-04-28

    Nowadays, Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) represents an escalating worldwide public health problem. Providing consistent data on the magnitude and risk factors of CVDs among young population will help in controlling the risks and avoiding their consequences. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of risk factors of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) among medical students during their clinical clerkship (4th - 6th years). A cross-sectional study was done during the educational year 2012-2013 at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah. Ethical standards were followed and a multistage stratified random sample method was used for selection of 214 medical students. Data was collected through an interviewing questionnaire, measurements and laboratory investigations. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were done by SPSS version 21. CHD risk percent in thirty years was calculated using Framingham algorithm for each student, then the risk among all students was determined. The commonest risk factors of CHDs were daily intake of high fat diet (73.4%), physical inactivity (57.9%), overweight/or obesity (31.2%) and daily consumption of fast food (13.1%). Hyper-cholesterolemia (17.2%) and hypertension (9.3%) were also prevalent risk factors. Smoking prevalence was low (2.8%). Males had significantly higher mean scores for most of CHD risk factors compared to females (p Students't test = 4.74, p students was 10.7%, 2.3% and 0.5% for mild, moderate and severe risk, respectively. An alarmingly high prevalence of CHD risk factors was prevailed among medical students, especially among males. However, a low prevalence of smoking may indicate the success of "Smoke-free Campus" program. Screening risk factors of CHD among medical students and implementation of intervention programs are recommended. Programs to raise awareness about CHD risk factors, encourage young adult students to adopt a healthy dietary behavior and promote physical exercise should be initiated.

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome among nurses working in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Khamis Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that can cause disability and economic burden. Nurses are a vital part of the medical team and their well-being is an important issue. Yet, few studies have been done concerning IBS among nurses. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, severity, and predictors of IBS among nurses working at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 229 nurses who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. They were selected by stratified random sampling during 2014–2015. A validated, confidential, self-administered data collection sheet was used for collection of personal and sociodemographic data. Rome III Criteria, IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were done. A multiple logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictors of IBS. Results: The prevalence of IBS among nurses was 14.4%, and IBS-Mixed type was the commonest variety (54.5%. Positive family history of IBS, working in outpatient clinics, having day shift, poor sleep quality, and high anxiety and depression scale scores were significantly associated with IBS. After controlling for confounding factors in regression analysis, the predictors of IBS were food hypersensitivity (aOR=4.52; 95% CI: 1.80−11.33, morbid anxiety (aOR=4.34; 95% CI: 1.49–12.67, and positive family history of IBS (aOR=3.38; 95% CI: 1.12–13.23. Conclusion: The prevalence of IBS was 14.4%. Food hypersensitivity, morbid anxiety, and family history were the predictors of IBS. Screening and management of IBS, food hypersensitivity, and psychological problems among nurses are recommended.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Burnout of Physicians Working in Primary Health Care Centers under Ministry of Health Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawakid, Khalid; Abdulrashid, Ola; Mandoura, Najlaa; Shah, Hassan Bin Usman; Ibrahim, Adel; Akkad, Noura Mohammad; Mufti, Fauad

    2017-11-25

    Introduction The levels of physicians' job satisfaction and burnout directly affect their professionalism, punctuality, absenteeism, and ultimately, patients' care. Despite its crucial importance, little is known about professional burnout of the physicians in Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this research are two-fold: (1) To assess the prevalence of burnout in physicians working in primary health care centers under Ministry of Health; and (2) to find the modifiable factors which can decrease the burnout ratio. Methodology Through a cross-sectional study design, a representative sample of the physicians working in primary health care centers (PHCCs) Jeddah (n=246) was randomly selected. The overall burnout level was assessed using the validated abbreviated Maslach burnout inventory (aMBI) questionnaire. It measures the overall burnout prevalence based on three main domains i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Independent sample T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate regression analysis were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22, IBM, Armonk, NY). Results Overall, moderate to high burnout was prevalent in 25.2% of the physicians. Emotional exhaustion was noted in 69.5%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patient pressure/violence (p burnout. The patient's pressure/violence was the only significant independent predictor of overall burnout. Conclusion Emotional exhaustion is the most prominent feature of overall burnout in the physicians of primary health care centers. The main reasons include patient's pressure/violence, unorganized patient flow, less cooperative colleague doctors, fewer support services at the PHCCs, more paperwork, and less cooperative colleagues. Addressing these issues could lead to a decrease in physician's burnout.

  16. Postoperative complications of pediatric dental general anesthesia procedure provided in Jeddah hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almushayt Abdullah

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Review of post-operative morbidity reports for pediatric dental care under general anesthesia (GA show great variations. Until now, no morbidity data has been available to estimate the safety of pediatric patients under GA for dental rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study were to (1 investigate post-operative complications associated with dental care under GA and (2 correlate morbidity reports with patient's characteristics, dental procedures, and hospital protocol. Methods Study sample included 90 children attending GA for dental treatment at major governmental hospitals in Jeddah. Data were collected from every patient on three occasions, intra-operatively at the operating room, and post-operatively via phone calls in the first and third days after operation. Results Results showed that 99% of the children had one or more complaints in the first day in contrast to only 33% in the third day. Inability to eat (86%, sleepiness (71%, and pain (48% were the most common complaints in the first day, followed by bleeding (40%, drowsiness (39%, sore throat (34%, vomiting (26%, psychological changes (24%, fever (21%, cough (12%, and nausea (8%. A great significant complaints reduction was reported by the third post-operative day. Age, gender, admission type of the patients and GA duration were the factors that showed a significant relationship with post-operative complaints. Conclusion Post-operative morbidity was common, but mostly of mild severity and limited to the first day. Hospital staff efforts should be directed to control commonly reported postoperative complaints.

  17. Difficulties faced by family physicians in primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar H Mumenah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the difficulties faced by family physicians, and compare how satisfied those working with the Ministry of Health (MOH are with their counterparts who work at some selected non-MOH hospitals. Methods: An analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC, and 40 MOH primary health care centers across Jeddah. A structured multi-item questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and information on the difficulties family physicians face. The physicians′ level of satisfaction and how it was affected by the difficulties was assessed. Results: Women constituted 71.9% of the sample. Problems with transportation formed one of the main difficulties encountered by physicians. Compared to non-MOH physician, a significantly higher proportion of MOH physicians reported unavailability of radiology technicians (P = 0.011 and radiologists (P < 0.001, absence of the internet and computer access (P < 0.001, unavailability of laboratory services (P = 0.004, reagents (P = 0.001, X-ray equipment (P = 0.027, ultrasound equipment (P < 0.001, an electronic medical records system (P < 0.001, insufficient laboratory tests (P = 0.0001, and poor building maintenance (P < 0.001. Family physicians with the MOH were less satisfied with their jobs compared with non-MOH physicians (P = 0.032. Conclusion: MOH family physicians encountered difficulties relating to staff, services, and infrastructure, which consequently affected their level of satisfaction.

  18. The Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2-Zeolite Composite for Degradation of Dye Using Synthetic UV and Jeddah Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila M. Al-Harbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research different composites of impregnated TiO2 with LTA or FAU zeolites were used as different weight% ratio for photodegradation of organic dye. Normal laboratory UV-lamps were used as a source of UV irradiation. In addition a setup of system of mirrors was used to collect real Jeddah sunlight. A comparison of UV and real sunlight photodegradation activity showed that the real sunlight enhances new centers of active sites exhibiting higher catalytic activity than that of UV irradiated samples.

  19. A study on the radon concentrations in water in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and the associated health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, Z.A.; Kinsara, A.R.; Farid, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have shown that water-borne 222 Rn contributes to indoor air concentrations. A passive radon measurement method was employed to determine radon activity concentrations in the water of Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia). Tap water, flushing water and drinking water, including natural mineral water, artificial mineral water and distilled water, have been investigated for their radon concentrations. It is observed that the radon concentration in natural mineral water samples is the highest and that in flush water, it is the lowest. From these measurements, the corresponding annual effective dose for the stomach and the lung are determined. It is found that the annual effective dose resulting from direct consumption of water is far greater than that due to inhalation of radon emanated from tap water and flushing water. Moreover, it is also seen that the annual effective dose resulting from inhalation of radon emanated from tap water and flushing water is negligible compared to the total annual effective dose for indoor radon in Jeddah. (author)

  20. Dietary exposure to acrylamide from cafeteria foods in Jeddah schools and associated risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tawila, Mahmoud M; Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Alrasheedi, Amani A; Neamatallah, Abdulateef A

    2017-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic food contaminant produced at high temperatures in foods that are rich in carbohydrates. Foods sold in schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are among such carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high cooking temperatures. It is crucial to determine the importance of AA exposure with respect to cafeteria foods and assess the associated risks. The highest mean AA level was measured in chocolate pies (439 µg kg -1 ), followed by custard pies (435 µg kg -1 ) and cheese pies (432 µg kg -1 ). The average and 95th percentile values of AA exposure were 0.51 and 1.17 [µg kg -1 body weight (BW) school day -1 ]. The average exposure significantly decreased with an increase in age, from 0.65 (µg kg -1 BW school day -1 ) in primary school students to 0.37 in secondary school students. Cheese and chocolate pies are the main contributors in AA intake. The contributions of cheese and chocolate pies to the average exposure among primary, middle and secondary school students were 23.1%, 24.7% and 29.4% and 16.9%, 12.1% and 11.9%, respectively. Other products with significant contributions included cheese sandwiches (10.8%, 8.9% and 12.7%), plain cookies (7.7%, 5.6% and 6.7%) and custard pies (7.7%, 4.8% and 8.9%). Other cafeteria products contributed to AA exposure at much lower percentages. The calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the average [356 and 614 for both benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ] and 95th percentile AA exposure values (154 and 265 for both BMDL 0.18 and 0.31 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ) suggest that there is a health concern with respect to school-aged students. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Burnout of Physicians Working in Primary Health Care Centers under Ministry of Health Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawakid, Khalid; Mandoura, Najlaa; Shah, Hassan Bin Usman; Ibrahim, Adel; Akkad, Noura Mohammad; Mufti, Fauad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The levels of physicians' job satisfaction and burnout directly affect their professionalism, punctuality, absenteeism, and ultimately, patients' care. Despite its crucial importance, little is known about professional burnout of the physicians in Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this research are two-fold: (1) To assess the prevalence of burnout in physicians working in primary health care centers under Ministry of Health; and (2) to find the modifiable factors which can decrease the burnout ratio. Methodology Through a cross-sectional study design, a representative sample of the physicians working in primary health care centers (PHCCs) Jeddah (n=246) was randomly selected. The overall burnout level was assessed using the validated abbreviated Maslach burnout inventory (aMBI) questionnaire. It measures the overall burnout prevalence based on three main domains i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Independent sample T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate regression analysis were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22, IBM, Armonk, NY). Results Overall, moderate to high burnout was prevalent in 25.2% of the physicians. Emotional exhaustion was noted in 69.5%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patient pressure/violence (p <0.001), unorganized patients flow to clinics (p=0.021), more paperwork (p<0.001), and less co-operative colleague doctors (p=0.045) were the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion. A positive correlation was noted between the number of patients per day and burnout. The patient’s pressure/violence was the only significant independent predictor of overall burnout. Conclusion Emotional exhaustion is the most prominent feature of overall burnout in the physicians of primary health care centers. The main reasons include patient’s pressure/violence, unorganized patient flow, less cooperative colleague doctors, fewer

  2. The Impact of Educational Games-Based iPad Applications on the Development of Social Studies Achievement and Learning Retention among Sixth Grade Students in Jeddah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmuldeen, Hanan A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the impact of educational games-based iPad applications on the development of social studies achievement and learning retention. Sample consisted of (48) sixth grade primary students in Jeddah. The author adopted Quasi-experimental design of the experimental and control groups. She also provided the teacher a…

  3. The Protozoa, A Kingdom By Default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the concepts of kingdoms of organisms are substantial and Protozoa is loosely characterized. Presents a case explaining how Protozoa interface with other kingdoms of organisms now recognized. (Contains 55 references.) (ASK)

  4. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  5. Utilization of smart phones related medical applications among medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alshuaibi, Abdulaziz; Almutairi, Osama; Baghaffar, Mariam; Jameel, Tahir; Baig, Mukhtiar

    The present study explored the utility, attitude, and trends regarding Smartphone related Medical Applications (Apps) among medical students of King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (SA) and their perceptions of the impact of Medical Apps in their training activities. This survey was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, and Rabigh campuses, KAU, Jeddah, SA. All participants were medical students of 2nd to 6th year. The data was collected by using an anonymous questionnaire regarding the perception of medical students about Medical Apps on the smart devices and the purpose of installation of the Apps. Additionally examined was the use of different Medical Apps by the students to investigate the impact of Medical Apps on the clinical training/practice. Data was analyzed on SPSS 21. The opinion of 330/460 medical students from all academic years was included in the study with a response rate of 72%. There were 170 (51.5%) males and 160 (48.5%) females with a mean age of 21.26±1.86 years. Almost all participating students 320 (97%) were well aware of Medical Apps for smart devices and 89.1% had installed different applications on their smart devices. The main usage was for either revision of courses (62.4%) or for looking up of medical information (67.3%), followed by preparing for a presentation (34.5%) and getting the medical news (32.1%). Regarding the impact of Medical Apps, most of the students considered these helpful in clinical decision-making, assisting in differential diagnosis, allowing faster access to Evidence-Based Medical practice, saving time and others. The practical use of these Apps was found to be minimal in medical students. Around 73% were occasional users of Medical Apps, and only 27% were using Medical Apps at least once a day. The regular use of Medical Apps on mobile devices is not common among medical students of KAU. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  6. Quality of life, job satisfaction and their related factors among nurses working in king Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Alzahrani, Nujood Abdulwahed; Batwie, Afnan Ateeg; Abushal, Razan Abdulaziz; Almogati, Ghazwa Ghazzay; Sattam, Munirah Abdulrahman; Hussin, Bodour Khalid

    2016-08-01

    To assess Quality of Life, job satisfaction and their related factors among nurses working in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 268 nurses, 2014/2015. A validated, confidential data collection sheet was utilized. It contained the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and Job Descriptive Index/Job in General (JDI/JIG) scales. The majority of nurses (83.5%) perceived their general QOL as very good and good. Age, marital status, having children, nationality, income, education, residence, working experience, department and shift time were associated with QOL domains (p income, shifts, working in inpatient and surgical departments were associated with job satisfaction. Positive correlations were found between job satisfaction and different QOL domains, and between different JDI/JIG subscales together. Improvement of the modifiable factors as nurses' income and shift time is needed for better QOL and job satisfaction.

  7. Vitamin D Intake among Premenopausal Women Living in Jeddah: Food Sources and Relationship to Demographic Factors and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani A. Zareef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saudi women depend on food sources to maintain their serum 25(OH D concentrations because covering by traditional clothing and time spent indoors limit their sun exposure. Little is known about vitamin D intake and its main food sources in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the association between vitamin D and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in young women is not well researched. Objectives. To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake among Saudi women as compared to the estimated average requirements (EARs, to identify dietary vitamin D sources, to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake, and to assess bone health and the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with BMD. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 257 premenopausal women aged 20–50 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Dietary vitamin D and calcium were assessed by the Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a subset of women n=102 at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Results. Sixty-five percent of women were below the EAR for vitamin D, and 61% fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products, supplements, and fish contributed most to vitamin D intake. Increased age was an independent determinant of sufficient vitamin D intake p<0.001. The prevalence of osteopenia was 33% in the lumbar spine and 30% in the femur neck. There was a significant positive association between calcium intake and BMD at the lumbar spine p=0.043 after controlling for body mass index and energy intake. Vitamin D intake was not significantly different between women with low and normal bone mass. Conclusion. Premenopausal women in Jeddah have insufficient vitamin D and calcium intakes. Public health strategies to improve nutrition in young women are needed, and expanding fortification programs to include all dairy products would be useful.

  8. Obstacles of Academic Productivity of Faculty Members in the Education College at Jeddah University as Perceived by them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Abdulrahamn Almalki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the obstacles of academic productivity of faculty members in the education college at Jeddah University as perceived by them. The study adopted the descriptive analytical approach by using a questionnaire to collect data. The researcher developed the questionnaire which consisted of (46 items and were distributed over four themes. The questionnaire was checked for its validity and reliability. Then, it was administrated to a sample of (80 faculty members in the education faculty at Jeddah University. The findings of the study were as follows: The effect of university and society obstacles on academic productivity was given a high rate. On the other hand, the effect of personal obstacles and academic publication received an average rate. The society obstacles were ranked first, while academic publication obstacles were in the last rank. There were statistically significant differences which were attributed to the differences in academic rank in the obstacles related to university, society and personal and academic publication in favor of the assistant professor rank. There were also statistically significant differences that were attributed to years of experience in university obstacles in favor of (1-5 years experience and (more than 10 years experience. On the other hand, there were no differences in university, society and personal obstacles. There were no statistically significant differences attributed to the variable of the university from which the faculty members got their PhD degree. In addition, there were statistically significant differences attributed to nationality in university, personal and society obstacles while there were no differences in the variable of academic publication. The study recommended the need to increase funds to be allocated for academic productivity. Keywords: Academic productivity, Faculty members, Obstacles, Universities.

  9. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu

    2015-08-20

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011, the city was deluged with more than double the annual rainfall amount caused by convective storms. We used a high resolution, two-way nested domain WRF model to simulate the two rainfall episodes. Simulations include control runs initialized with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) data and 3-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation experiments conducted by assimilating NCEP prepbufr and radiance observations. Observations from Automated Weather Stations (AWS), synoptic charts, radar reflectivity and satellite pictures from the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia are used to assess the forecasting results. To evaluate the impact of the different assimilated observational datasets on the simulation of the major flooding event of 2009, we conducted 3DVAR experiments assimilating individual sources and a combination of all data sets. Results suggest that while the control run had a tendency to predict the storm earlier than observed, the assimilation of profile observations greatly improved the model\\'s thermodynamic structure and lead to better representation of simulated rainfall both in timing and amount. The experiment with assimilation of all available observations compared best with observed rainfall in terms of timing of the storm and rainfall distribution, demonstrating the importance of assimilating different types of observations. Retrospective experiments with and without data assimilation, for three different model lead times (48, 72 and 96-h), were performed to examine the skill of WRF model to predict the heavy rainfall events. Quantitative rainfall analysis of these simulations suggests that 48-h lead time runs with

  10. Kingdom, covenant, and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Vorster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research revisits the idea of a Christian perspective on human rights. Departing from a hermeneutics of trust, this article considers the concept of human rights from the perspective of revelation history. Revelation history departs from the consent of the parts of Scripture, irrespective of differences in dating, original languages, canonical differentiation, cultural, social and historical contexts. Scripture offers a theological unity consisting of various topics which are developed continuing and purposeful throughout the biblical revelation. Two of the major topics in Scripture as they are revealed by a revelation historical survey are the concepts kingdom of God and the covenant of God with God’s people. In this article these two concepts will be used as a foundation for a Christian theory of human rights both as legal human rights and moral human rights. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that both the concepts kingdom and covenant are essentially about justice and relationships – the justice of the kingdom and the relation between God and humankind, the relation between people and the relation between humans and creation. These relations are the essence of the rights people have, vis-à-vis the authority of the day and other people. These rights, which deal with the orderly maintenance of relationships, can be formalised in legal human rights and should be nurtured and protected by the civil authorities. Christians and churches as moral agents in society have the calling to promote the idea of human rights in constitutional democracies.

  11. The lands west of the lakes; A history of the Ajattappareng kingdoms of South Sulawesi 1200 to 1600 CE

    OpenAIRE

    Druce, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The period 1200-1600 CE saw a radical transformation from simple chiefdoms to kingdoms (in archaeological terminology, complex chiefdoms) across lowland South Sulawesi, a region that lay outside the ‘classical’ Indicized parts of Southeast Asia. The rise of these kingdoms was stimulated and economically supported by trade in prestige goods with other parts of island Southeast Asia, yet the development of these kingdoms was determined by indigenous, rather than imported, political and cultural...

  12. Energy from the wind. [For United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, P J

    1977-01-01

    An assessment is made of the amount of power/energy in the wind with emphasis on calculations for the United Kingdom. Windmills must be deployed over a given area in a pattern that takes account of the distribution of directions from which the wind can be expected. In the U.K., one such array can be provided in the Western Isles. The author recommends deploying such an array in the shallow waters of the southern North Sea. He concludes that deploying such an array in the shallow offshore region would have the potential for providing a very significant part of the total electricity requirements. He also concludes that such a wind-power system appears competitive with nuclear power systems. 8 references. (MCW)

  13. Spinal Motocross Injuries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Bhalla, Amit; Ockendon, Matthew; Hay, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Motocross is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits and has been a recreational and competitive sport across the world for >100 years. In the United Kingdom alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country, permitting >900 events annually. To assess the current trend of spine-related motocross injuries over the past 5 years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were prospectively collected over 5 years (August 2010-August 2015) at our regional trauma and spine unit, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. During the study period, spine-related injuries were identified for 174 patients (age range, 6-75 years) who were directly referred to our department following recreational or competitive motocross, with most injuries being sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season. A significant number of injuries were in males (n = 203, 94%), with the majority of injuries occurring within the 21- to 30-year-old age group. A total of 116 (54%) injuries required operative treatment. The most common spinal injury was thoracolumbar burst fracture (n = 95), followed by chance fractures (n = 26). This data series emphasizes the prevalence and devastation of motocross-related spinal injuries in the United Kingdom and may serve in administering sanctions and guidelines to governing bodies of motocross. The spinal injuries that occur during motocross have significant capital connotations for regional spinal centers. The recent surge in motocross popularity is correlated with the number of injuries, which have increased over the past 5 years by almost 500%.

  14. Spinal Motocross Injuries in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Bhalla, Amit; Ockendon, Matthew; Hay, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Motocross is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits and has been a recreational and competitive sport across the world for >100 years. In the United Kingdom alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country, permitting >900 events annually. Purpose: To assess the current trend of spine-related motocross injuries over the past 5 years. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data were prospectively collected over 5 years (August 2010–August 2015) at our regional trauma and spine unit, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. Results: During the study period, spine-related injuries were identified for 174 patients (age range, 6-75 years) who were directly referred to our department following recreational or competitive motocross, with most injuries being sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season. A significant number of injuries were in males (n = 203, 94%), with the majority of injuries occurring within the 21- to 30-year-old age group. A total of 116 (54%) injuries required operative treatment. The most common spinal injury was thoracolumbar burst fracture (n = 95), followed by chance fractures (n = 26). Conclusion: This data series emphasizes the prevalence and devastation of motocross-related spinal injuries in the United Kingdom and may serve in administering sanctions and guidelines to governing bodies of motocross. The spinal injuries that occur during motocross have significant capital connotations for regional spinal centers. The recent surge in motocross popularity is correlated with the number of injuries, which have increased over the past 5 years by almost 500%. PMID:29349095

  15. [Primary care in the United Kingdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-03-01

    The inadequate planning of health professionals in Spain has boosted the way out of doctors overseas. The United Kingdom is one of the countries chosen by Spanish doctors to develop their job. The National Health Service is a health system similar to the Spanish one. Health care services are financing mainly through taxes. The right to health care is linked to the citizen condition. The provision of health care is a mix-up of public and private enterprises. Primary Care is much closed to Spanish Primary Care. Doctors are "self-employed like" professionals. They can set their surgeries in a free area previously designed by the government. They have the right to make their own team and to manage their own budget. Medical salary is linked to professional capability and curriculum vitae. The main role of a General Practitioner is the prevention. Team work and coordination within primary and specialised care is more developed than in Spain. The access to diagnostic tests and to the specialist is controlled through waiting lists. General Practitioners work as gate-keepers. Patients may choose freely their doctor and consultations and hospital care are free at the point of use. Within the United Kingdom there are also health regions with problems due to inequalities to access and to treatment. There is a training path and the access to it is by Curricula. The number of training jobs is regulated by the local needs. Continuing education is compulsory and strictly regulated local and nationally. The National Health Service was the example for the Spanish health reform in 1986. While Spanish Primary health care is of quality, the efficiency of the health system would improve if staff in Primary Care settings were managed in a similar way to the British's. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Is It Kingdom or Domains? Confusion & Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Will H.

    2004-01-01

    A confusion regarding the number of kingdoms that should be recognized and the inclusion of domains in the traditional kingdom-based classification found in the higher levels of classification of organisms is presented. Hence, it is important to keep in mind future modifications that may occur in the classification systems and to recognize…

  17. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m 3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively.

  18. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among hospitalized elderly patients in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Sami H; Alamri, Sultan H

    2017-07-03

    Malnutrition is a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the body from a functional or clinical perspective. It is very often observed in the elderly population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly patients and its associated factors and outcomes in terms of length of stay and mortality in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly patients using the most recent version of the short form of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). A total of 248 hospitalized patients were included (70.0 ± 7.7 years; 60% female). According to the MNA-SF, a total of 76.6% patients were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Malnourished patients had significantly lower levels of serum albumin (28.2 ± 7.7), hemoglobin (10.5 ± 1.8), and lymphocyte (1.7 ± 0.91). They had increased tendency to stay in the hospital for longer durations (IQR, 5-11 days; median = 7 days) and had a mortality rate of 6.9%. Malnutrition was highly prevalent among hospitalized elderly and was associated with increased length of stay and mortality.

  19. Medical students preference of problem-based learning or traditional lectures in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Banjar, Shorooq; Al-Ghamdi, Amal; Al-Darmasi, Moroj; Khoja, Abeer; Turkistani, Jamela; Arif, Rwan; Al-Sebyani, Awatif; Musawa, Al-Anoud; Basfar, Wijdan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is the most important educational innovations in the past 4 decades. The objective of the study was to compare between the preference of medical students for PBL and the preference for traditional lectures regarding learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge, attitude, and skills) gained from both methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students who studied the hybrid curriculum (PBL and traditional lectures) in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in 2011. Data was collected through a pre-constructed, validated, confidentially anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. Students' perceptions toward PBL and traditional lectures were assessed through their response to 20 statements inquired about both methods of learning using a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed using SPSS, version 21 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill., USA). Learners preferred PBL more to traditional lectures for better linking the knowledge of basic and clinical sciences (t test=10.15, P .05) was observed regarding the amount of basic knowledge recalled from both methods. Students preferred PBL more to lectures for better learning attitudes, skills, future outcomes, and learning satisfaction (P learn better than lecturing (P traditional lectures for improving most of learning outcome domains, especially, learning attitudes and skills. Introducing hybrid-PBL curriculum in all Saudi universities is highly recommended.

  20. Comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for Qassim region in the KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.

    2009-04-01

    The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Qassim region, North KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of 1,505 km2 at 1:5,500 scale, 4,081 km2 at scale 22,500 and 22,224 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (463 sheets) for 22,224 km2, and production of GIS-oriented highly-detailed digital line maps in various formats at scales of 1:1,000 (1,534 sheets) and 1:2,500 (383 sheets) for 1,150 km2, 1:10,000 (161 sheets) for 7,700 km2, and 1:20,000 (130 sheets) for 22,000 km2. While aerial photography lasted from Feb 2003 thru May 2003, the line mapping continued May 2005 until December 2008.

  1. Questioning the Location of the Old Kingdom Capital of Memphis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Love

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The capital city of Memphis was ancient Egypt’s oldest and largest city. However, the city’s origin is shrouded in myth. This study challenges five different references to Memphis, from both classical and historical accounts and concludes that Memphis’ boundary should be redefined. These accounts are reviewed to illustrate the confusion amongst early historians and travellers as to the precise location of Memphis and to highlight the association between the capital and the pyramids of the Giza Plateau. For the Old Kingdom, the urban limits of Memphis should not be restricted to the modern mound of Mit Rahina, but rather the boundaries should be expanded to parallel the Old Kingdom pyramids. Recent archaeological investigations, employing sub-surface sampling techniques, have revealed contemporary Old Kingdom occupational debris scattered throughout the entire Memphite region. The inclusion of archaeological material, in combination with the historical records, will create a different interpretation for Egypt’s Old Kingdom capital city.

  2. The United Kingdom's radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.; Powley, S.K.; Nisbet, A.

    2003-01-01

    The first comprehensive national dosimetry intercomparison in the United Kingdom involving all UK radiotherapy centres was carried out in the late 1980s. Out of this a regular radiotherapy dosimetry audit network evolved in the early 1990s. The network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and comprises eight co-operative regional groups. Audits are based on site visits using ionization chambers and epoxy resin water substitute phantoms. The basic audit methodology and phantom design follows that of the original national intercomparison exercise. However, most of the groups have evolved more complex methods, to extend the audit scope to include other parameters, other parts of the radiotherapy process and other treatment modalities. A number of the groups have developed phantoms to simulate various clinical treatment situations, enabling the sharing of phantoms and expertise between groups, but retaining a common base. Besides megavoltage external beam photon dosimetry, a number of the groups have also included the audit of kilovoltage X ray beams, electron beams and brachytherapy dosimetry. The National Physical Laboratory is involved in the network and carries out basic beam calibration audits to link the groups. The network is described and the methods and results are illustrated using the Scottish+ group as an example. (author)

  3. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Lien; Michiels, Chris W

    2010-03-01

    Lysozymes (EC 3.2.1.17) are hydrolytic enzymes, characterized by their ability to cleave the beta-(1,4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been identified--the c-type (chicken or conventional type), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type) lysozyme. Examination of the phylogenetic distribution of these lysozymes reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. Moreover, g-type lysozymes (or at least their corresponding genes) are found in members of the Chordata, as well as in some bivalve mollusks belonging to the invertebrates. In general, the latter animals are known to produce i-type lysozymes. Although the homology in primary structure for representatives of these three lysozyme types is limited, their three-dimensional structures show striking similarities. Nevertheless, some variation exists in their catalytic mechanisms and the genomic organization of their genes. Regarding their biological role, the widely recognized function of lysozymes is their contribution to antibacterial defence but, additionally, some lysozymes (belonging to different types) are known to function as digestive enzymes.

  4. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate's policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author)

  5. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  6. Management information systems. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.; Spence, A.C.

    1985-02-01

    The successful application in the United Kingdom of the real time monitoring and control systems (MINOS) for underground mining operations, particularly in coal transport and the development of coalface monitoring (FIDO) in 1980 led naturally to the design of an operational data base for management. A User Group of experienced colliery managers produced a Management Information System (MIS) requirements specification and began the evolution of the systems of today. Twenty-four mines operate MIS in different ways from total dependency to a means of checking their manual reporting system. MIS collects useful data from all the major MINOS applications and provides a means of manually inputting other, relevant information. A wide variety of displays and reports are available to management, adjusted to meet individual requirements. The benefits from the use of MIS are difficult to quantify, since they become part of the management process. Further developments are taking place based on operational experience and requirements and taking advantage of the recent advances in computer technology. MIS is the modern management tool in British coal mining, collecting, storing, analysing and presenting accurate information upon which management decision making is based.

  7. Devolution in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ratko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Devolution is a transfer of the legislative powers of the Westminster Parliament to the parliaments of the historical provinces once united with England into the United Kingdom, which are directly elected by the provincial population. That delegation is asymmetrical and revocable, but it does not affect the basic norms of the British unwritten constitution on parliamentary supremacy. Over the devolution the provinces do not acquire the primary competence, but the one that is given to them by the transfer of the legislative powers of the Westminster Parliament. A special law retaining the Westminster Parliament's primary competence and sovereignty grants this competence. Regarding the scope of the devolved powers of the provinces and the organizational mechanism for their execution, there is a significant asymmetry. In all the provinces, there is a unique junction between devolved powers and their holders. Before the referendum on the independence in Scotland in September 2014, the increase of devolved powers was promised not only for all the historical provinces (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, but for England as well, which represents a step towards the federalization of the UK. Devolution and several other institutions of the British constitution also, have a stamp 'Made in Britain' which does not allow easy imitation and transfer to another countries and their constitutions.

  8. Acid leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: kinetic and thermodynamics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorouq I. Alghanmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban soils polluted with heavy metals are of increasing concern because it is greatly affecting human health and the ecological systems. Hence, it is mandatory to understand the reasons behind this pollution and remediate the contaminated solid. The removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil samples collected from the vicinity of the sewage lake in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was explored. The leaching process was studied kinetically and thermodynamically for better understanding of the remediation process. The results showed that the soil samples were slightly basic in nature, and tend to be more neutral away from the main contaminated sewage lake area. The total metal content in the soil samples was measured using the aqua regia extractions by ICP-OES and the results showed that many of the heavy metals present have significant concentrations above the tolerable limits. In general, the metal concentrations at different sites indicated that the heavy metal pollution is mainly due to the sewage discharge to the lake. The results showed excellent correlation between the concentrations of Co, As, and Hg with the distance from the main contaminated area. The leaching of Co, As, and Hg using 1.0 M hydrochloric acid from the soil was studied kinetically at different temperatures and the experimental results were fitted using different kinetics models. The experimental data were best described with two-constant rate and Elovich equation kinetic models. Also, the thermodynamic study showed that the leaching process was spontaneous, endothermic and accompanied with increase in the entropy. In general, the polluted soil could be remediated successfully from the heavy metals using the acid leaching procedure in a short period of time.

  9. An educational program about premarital screening for unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Khamis Ragab Ibrahim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of unmarried female students in King Abdul-Aziz University (KAU towards premarital screening (PMS program, to determine predictors of high students’ knowledge scores and to improve their knowledge about PMS through conduction of an educational campaign. Multi-stage stratified random sample method was used with recruitment of 1563 students from all faculties of KAU, during the educational year 2008–2009. The Pre-test included 30 knowledge items and 14 attitude statements with student's response through a 5-point Likert scale. Health education was conducted using audiovisual aids through pre-designed educational materials. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Results: Students’ knowledge about the program was generally low before the educational campaign. The predictors of high knowledge scores were being a health science student (aOR = 4.15; 95% CI: 2.97–5.81, age ≥20 years (aOR = 2.78; 95% CI: 2.01–3.85, family history of hereditary diseases and income ≥10,000 SR/month. Regarding attitude, almost all students (99.0% agreed on the importance of PMS. After the educational program, students’ knowledge about PMS was markedly improved. The mean students’ knowledge score was 9.85 ± 5.36 in Pre-test and improved to 18.45 ± 4.96 in Post-test, with a highly statistical significant difference (paired t = 25.40, p < 0.000. Conclusion and recommendations: The educational program was successful in improving students’ knowledge about the PMS. Conduction of similar educational programs and adding PMS in the curriculum of secondary and university education are recommended. Keywords: Premarital, Screening, University students, Educational program, Jeddah, KSA

  10. The kingdom of God: Utopian or existential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Malan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The kingdom of God was a central theme in Jesus’ vision. Was it meant to be understood as utopian as Mary Ann Beavis views it, or existential? In 1st century CE Palestine, kingdom of God was a political term meaning theocracy suggesting God’s patronage. Jesus used the term metaphorically to construct a new symbolic universe to legitimate a radical new way of living with God in opposition to the temple ideology of exclusivist covenantal nomism. The analogies of father and king served as the root metaphors for this symbolic universe. They are existential root metaphors underpinning the contextual symbolic universe of God’s patronage in reaction to the collapse of the patronage system which left peasants destitute. Jesus’ paradoxical use of the metaphor kingdom of God had a therapeutic value and gave the concept new meaning. The initial motivation for proclaiming God’s patronage originated in Jesus’ primary identity formation by Mary as single parent and was reinforced in his secondary identity formation by John the Baptist. From these results can be concluded that kingdom of God was not meant to be understood as utopian, but existential. In order to clarify the meaning of kingdom of God and God’s patronage for the 21st century, emythologisation and deconstruction can be helpful especially by highlighting the existential meaning of the kingdom of God.

  11. The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Afify, Ahmed R.; Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

  12. The Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Adult Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahijri, Suhad M.; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Ferns, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. Materials and Methods A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes employing American Diabetes Association criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with T2DM. Results Age and sex standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 9.0% (95% CI 7.5–10.5); 9.4% (7.1–11.8) in men and 8.6% (6.6–10.6) in women. For DM it was 12.1% (10.7–13.5); 12.9% (10.7–13.5) in men and 11.4% (9.5–13.3) in women. The prevalence based on World Population as standard was 18.3% for DM and 11.9% for prediabetes. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes increased with age. Of people aged ≥50 years 46% of men and 44% of women had DM. Prediabetes and DM were associated with various measures of adiposity. DM was also associated with and family history of dyslipidemia in women, cardiovascular disease in men, and with hypertension, dyslipidemia and family history of diabetes in both sexes. Discussion Age was the strongest predictor of DM and prediabetes followed by obesity. Of people aged 50 years or over almost half had DM and another 10–15% had prediabetes leaving only a small proportion of people in this age group with normoglycemia. Since we did not use an oral glucose tolerance test the true prevalence of DM and prediabetes is thus likely to be even higher than reported here. These results demonstrate the urgent need to develop primary prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27035920

  13. Reasons and Motivations for Cigarette Smoking and Barriers against Quitting Among a Sample of Young People in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Bakarman, Marwan A; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Khabaz, Mohamad N; Ahmed, Tahir J; Qureshi, Imtiaz A; Hussain, Muhammad B; Alzahrani, Ali H; AlShehri, Ali A; Basendwah, Mohammad A; Altherwi, Fahd B; AlShehri, Fahd M

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Tobacco consumption has grave negative consequences for health so that it is important to understand the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking among the young generation for developing effective policies to control this widespread problem. This crosssectional survey was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 438 young smokers participated from the University and the general population. Data were collected through anonymous, selfadministered questionnaires in the Arabic language that contained questions about the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking. The questionnaire also contained several questions regarding knowledge and attitude of the participants towards cigarette smoking. The data was analyzed on SPSS16. The mean age of the respondents was 22.9±3.48, out of 438 subjects 87 (19.9%) were married, and 351 (80.1%) were unmarried, and 331 (75.6%) belonged to urban areas while 107 (24.5%) were from the rural areas. Responding to a question about a number of cigarettes smoked per day, 31% answered 1120, 29% answered 2130, and 25% answered 110. Questioned about smokers in the family, 34.5% responded more than one, with 19% for brother and 13% for father. About the reasons for not quitting smoking, 26% described lack of willpower, 25% had no reason, 22% said that people around me smoke, and 15.3% responded stress at home/work. The major motivation for smokers was smoker friends (42%), for 33.8% others, for 12% father/brother and 7.8% media. There are several avoidable and preventable reasons and barriers against quitting smoking. However, knowledge and attitude about smoking were good, and the majority of the smokers were well aware of the associated hazards. Therefore, there is a need to search out ways and means to help them to

  14. The Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Adult Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia--A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad M Bahijri

    Full Text Available Type 2 (T2DM is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes.A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420. Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes employing American Diabetes Association criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with T2DM.Age and sex standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 9.0% (95% CI 7.5-10.5; 9.4% (7.1-11.8 in men and 8.6% (6.6-10.6 in women. For DM it was 12.1% (10.7-13.5; 12.9% (10.7-13.5 in men and 11.4% (9.5-13.3 in women. The prevalence based on World Population as standard was 18.3% for DM and 11.9% for prediabetes. The prevalence of DM and prediabetes increased with age. Of people aged ≥50 years 46% of men and 44% of women had DM. Prediabetes and DM were associated with various measures of adiposity. DM was also associated with and family history of dyslipidemia in women, cardiovascular disease in men, and with hypertension, dyslipidemia and family history of diabetes in both sexes.Age was the strongest predictor of DM and prediabetes followed by obesity. Of people aged 50 years or over almost half had DM and another 10-15% had prediabetes leaving only a small proportion of people in this age group with normoglycemia. Since we did not use an oral glucose tolerance test the true prevalence of DM and prediabetes is thus likely to be even higher than reported here. These results demonstrate the urgent need to develop primary prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Energy options in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S C [ed.

    1975-01-01

    The United Kingdom faces two issues: how can it survive the present massive increases in oil prices and the probability of even more expensive supplies in the future or how can it adjust to the eventual exhaustion of both fossil and nuclear fuels. The theme of the symposium concerned a search for a practical alternative source of energy to fossil and nuclear fuels and which ones would work in the United Kingdom. Papers were presented entitled: Geothermal Energy; Solar Energy in Britain; and Wind and Water Sources of Energy in the United Kingdom. A final paper, High- and Low-Growth Scenarios, examined these two types for the future. Many questions, answeres and comments about energy sources are contained in a final presentation. (MCW)

  16. Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, R H; Margulis, L

    1978-04-01

    Traditional classification imposed a division into plant-like and animal-like forms on the unicellular eukaryotes, or protists; in a current view the protists are a diverse assemblage of plant-, animal- and fungus-like groups. Classification of these into phyla is difficult because of their relatively simple structure and limited geological record, but study of ultrastructure and other characteristics is providing new insight on protist classification. Possible classifications are discussed, and a summary classification of the living world into kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae) and phyla is suggested. This classification also suggests groupings of phyla into superphyla and form-superphyla, and a broadened kingdom Protista (including green algae, oomycotes and slime molds but excluding red and brown algae). The classification thus seeks to offer a compromise between the protist and protoctist kingdoms of Whittaker and Margulis and to combine a full listing of phyla with grouping of these for synoptic treatment.

  17. Reform of the United Kingdom judicial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia MAICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The separation of powers in a state is an essential characteristic of every democratic country, a principle present in many constitutions, most notably that of the United States. The concept is imperfectly fulfilled in the United Kingdom, given that the executive (Ministers form part of the legislature and that part of the judiciary (Law Lords sit in the legislature. As a result, it was necessary to remove the constitutional anomaly that the highest court of appeal in the United Kingdom was situated within one of the chambers of Parliament.

  18. Xeroderma pigmentosum in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    The seminal discovery by James Cleaver of defective DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) opened up an ever-expanding field of DNA repair-related disorders. In addition, it put XP on the map and has led to improved diagnosis, care and management of affected patients. In the United Kingdom, we recently established a multidisciplinary specialist clinic for XP patients. All XP patients in the United Kingdom are able to visit the clinic where they are examined and advised by a team of specialists with detailed knowledge of the different aspects of XP. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Evaluation of meat, fruit and vegetables from retail stores in five United Kingdom regions as sources of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L P; Lodge, M P; Elviss, N C; Lemma, F L; Hopkins, K L; Teale, C J; Woodford, N

    2017-01-16

    We determined the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in raw retail beef, chicken, pork, fruit and vegetables in five UK regions in 2013-14. Raw meat (n=397), and fruit and vegetable samples (n=400) were purchased from retail stores in London, East Anglia, North West England, Scotland and Wales. Samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli by plating enriched samples on CHROMagar CTX and CHROMagar ESBL, for AmpC-type E. coli by plating on "CHROMagar FOX" (CHROMagar ECC+16mg/L cefoxitin), and for carbapenem-resistant E. coli by plating on CHROMagar KPC. Additionally, pre-enrichment counts were performed on the above agars, and on CHROMagar ECC. Isolates of interest were characterised by MALDI-ToF to confirm identification, by PCR for bla CIT, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla SHV and bla TEM genes; ESBL or bla CIT genes were sequenced. Only 1.9% and 2.5% of beef and pork samples, respectively were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli after enrichment compared with 65.4% of chicken samples. 85.6% positive samples from chicken meat carried bla CTX-M-1 ; bla CTX-M-15 was not detected. None of the fruits or vegetables yielded ESBL-producing E. coli and none of the meat, fruit or vegetable samples yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Retail chicken was more frequently a source of ESBL-producing E. coli than were beef, pork, fruit or vegetables. None of the foodstuffs yielded E. coli with CTX-M-15 ESBL, which dominates in human clinical isolates in the UK, and none yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1976-01-01

    The principles to be followed in the processing and disposal of radioactive wastes are summarized and the procedures practiced in the United Kingdom for different types of wastes are reviewed to illustrate how these principles are being observed. The objectives for the future in modification of current practices are discussed

  1. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds

  2. Trans-kingdom cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Marijn; Constantin, Maria-Ermioni; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the mobility of small RNA (sRNA) molecules from the perspective of trans-kingdom gene silencing. Mobility of sRNA molecules within organisms is a well-known phenomenon, facilitating gene silencing between cells and tissues. sRNA signals are also transmitted between organism...

  3. NURSING FOR THE KINGDOM OF GOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerd, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nursing as Christ would is vital for Christian nurses. At one Christian school of nursing, students are taught the concept of Kingdom Nursing: focused, dynamic, patient-centered care, inspired by the qualities of Christ and influenced by the presence of the Holy Spirit in the life of the nurse.

  4. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty, Cliodna A.M.; Boyle, Paul; Nichols, Tom; Clappison, Douglas P.; Davey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A total of 6% of 6,983 households in the United Kingdom had leftover antimicrobial drugs, and 4% had standby antimicrobial drugs. Respondents with leftover drugs were more educated, more knowledgeable about antimicrobial drugs, younger, and female. Of respondents with leftover drugs, 44% kept them in case of future need, and 18% had taken these drugs without medical advice.

  5. Ladakh, kingdom of sustainable development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Goeury

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With some 15,000 km² of protected areas, Ladakh has become synonymous with biodiversity protection in India. Specific regulations have been drawn up for the region to ensure preservation of the natural environment. Local officials who contested the principles of India’s hard law have benefited from the initiatives of numerous NGOs and have developed an alternative model for protecting the environment. Certain large emblematic mammals like the snow leopard have enabled the legitimisation of a policy that is based on the participation of local inhabitants rather than on their eviction to areas outside the sanctuaries. The protected areas have thus become an element of a Ladakhi identity project that distinguishes the region with respect to Kashmiri regional power.Avec 15 000 km² d’aires protégées, le Ladakh est devenu un haut lieu de la protection de la biodiversité en Inde. Localement ont été élaborées des procédures spécifiques de préservation. Les élites locales qui contestaient les principes de la hard law indienne ont bénéficié des initiatives de nombreuses ONG et proposent désormais un modèle de protection alternatif. Certains grands mammifères emblématiques comme le léopard des neiges ont permis de légitimer cette politique qui s’appuie sur la participation des populations locales et non sur leur éviction à la périphérie d’espaces sanctuaires. Les aires protégées intègrent alors un projet identitaire ladakhi de distinction vis-à-vis du pouvoir régional cachemiri.

  6. Sarah's birth. How the medicalisation of childbirth may be shaped in different settings: Vignette from a study of routine intervention in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamell, Mandie; Altaweli, Roa; McCourt, Christine

    2017-02-01

    The expansion of the medicalisation of childbirth has been described in the literature as being a global phenomenon. The vignette described in this paper, selected from an ethnographic study of routine intervention in Saudi Arabian hospitals illustrates how the worldwide spread of the bio-medical model does not take place within a cultural vacuum. To illuminate the ways in which the medicalisation of birth may be understood and practised in different cultural settings, through a vignette of a specific birth, drawn as a typical case from an ethnographic study that investigated clinical decision-making in the second stage of labour in Saudi Arabia. Ethnographic data collection methods, including participant observation and interviews. The data presented in this paper are drawn from ethnographic field notes collected during field work in Saudi Arabia, and informed by analysis of a wider set of field notes and interviews with professionals working in this context. While the medicalisation of care is a universal phenomenon, the ways in which the care of women is managed using routine medical intervention are framed by the local cultural context in which these practices take place. The ethnographic data presented in this paper shows the medicalisation of birth thesis to be incomplete. The evidence presented in this paper illustrates how local belief systems are not so much subsumed by the expansion of the bio-medical model of childbirth, rather they may actively facilitate a process of localised reinterpretation of such universalised and standardised practices. In this case, aspects of the social and cultural context of Jeddah operates to intensify the biomedical model at the expense of respectful maternity care. In this article, field note data on the birth of one Saudi Arabian woman is used as an illustration of how the medicalisation of childbirth has been appropriated and reinterpreted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives

  7. The nuclear energy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  8. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  9. Regionalism, Devolution and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    1977-01-01

    Described are effects of political decentralization in the United Kingdom on political and social institutions, particularly education. The author concludes that regionalism could yield advantages of power decentralization, diversity of decision making, and educational systems which are more closely connected to regional and local traditions.…

  10. The kingdom of heaven and Matthew 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Scholtz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the mission discourse in Matthew 10 is a single mission assignment that covers two distinct time periods when the gospel of the kingdom is preached. This assignment commenced during Christ’s first advent when the 12 apostles preached the gospel of the kingdom only in Israel. However, as a result of ‘this generation’ committing the unpardonable sin, this assignment became postponed until it will be resumed in the Tribulation when the coming King will authorise Jewish messengers to preach the gospel of the kingdom again – this time as a witness to all the nations. Based on this view of the mission discourse in Matthew 10, this article proposes a chiastic structure for Matthew 9:36−11:1a. Each section of this text will then be briefly discussed. Although the Church can make applications from this discourse, it is argued that Matthew 10:5b−42 does not refer to the Church age.

  11. United Kingdom (England): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Seán

    2011-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Various indicators show that the health of the population has improved over the last few decades. However, inequalities in health across socioeconomic groups have been increasing since the 1970s. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, cancer, diseases of the respiratory system and diseases of the digestive system. Risk factors such as the steadily rising levels of alcohol consumption, the sharp increases in adult and child obesity and prevailing smoking levels are among the most pressing public health concerns, particularly as they reflect the growing health inequalities among different socioeconomic groups. Health services in England are largely free at the point of use. The NHS provides preventive medicine, primary care and hospital services to all those ordinarily resident. Over 12% of the population is covered by voluntary health insurance schemes, known in the United Kingdom as private medical insurance (PMI), which mainly provides access to acute elective care in the private sector. Responsibility for publicly funded health care rests with the Secretary of State for Health, supported by the Department of Health. The Department operates at a regional level through 10 strategic health authorities (SHAs), which are responsible for ensuring the quality and performance of local health services within their geographic area. Responsibility for commissioning health services at the local level lies with 151 primary care

  12. Long-chain aliphatic wax esters isolated from the sponge Chalinula saudensis (Demospongia along the Jeddah coast of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Chalinula saudensis, which occurs along the Jeddah coast, has only recently been isolated and identified. In this study, the total crude organic matter of the sponge was extracted by solvents. The total crude extract was further separated by partitioning it with hexane and water, then with water and chloroform, and finally with water and t-butanol. The chloroform layer was subjected to separation by preparative layer chromatography on silica. One fraction contained four long-chain fatty acid esters, C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 and C36H70 O2. The second ester, C30H60O2, has been identified in the fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla. The others have not previously been reported from marine organisms; however similar long-chain esters with different long aliphatic chains and with different molecular weights have been identified from other marine organisms. These compounds are normally waxy and their presence in Chalinula saudensis plays a vital role in the biosynthetic pathways. They also act as insulators against seasonal variations.A esponja Chalinula saudensis ocorre ao longo da costa de Jeddah, Arabia Saudita, mas apenas recentemente foi isolada e identificada. No presente estudo a matéria orgânica total da esponja foi extraída por solventes e o extrato foi separado por partição sucessiva através do emprego de hexano e água, clorofórmio e água e finalmente t-butanol e água. A camada contendo clorofórmio foi então separada por cromatografia em sílica. Os resultados mostraram a presença de ésteres de quatro ácidos graxos de cadeira longa (C28H56O2, C30H60O2, C32H62O2 e C36H70O2, sendo que o segundo deles foi também identificado nos corais Millepora dichotoma e Millepora platyphylla. Não se tem evidência da presença dos demais compostos em outros organismos marinhos, embora haja relatos para ésteres semelhantes de cadeia longa, mas contendo diferentes cadeias alifáticas e diferentes pesos

  13. Nuclear safety philosophy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Development of the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear safety philosophy is described in the context of the UK nuclear power program since 1959 and of its legislative framework. Basic to the philosophy is that the licensee is wholly responsible for nuclear safety. The licensing process and safety assessment principles used by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate are discussed, and examples from the assessment of the proposed UK pressurized-water reactor are used to illustrate how the approach works in practice. The UK siting policy and regulatory developments since 1979 are also discussed. Recent, current, and future issues of interest to the regulatory authority are described against the development nuclear scene in the UK

  14. A survey to assess knowledge, practice, and attitude of dentists in the Western region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa O. Al-Sebaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess knowledge regarding the management of odontogenic infections by dentists in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 150 practitioners responded to a 26-item paper-based questionnaire between August and December 2014. The questionnaire evaluated knowledge and current clinical practices in managing odontogenic infections, as well as the attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance in the community. Basic medical knowledge (BMK and critical knowledge (CK scores were calculated from the dentists’ response to these questions and were compared according to educational level (bachelor and postgraduate degree holders. Results: The mean BMK score was 1.98 ± 0.4 and CK score was 1.89 ± 0.3. Dentists with bachelor’s degrees had higher BMK scores than those with a postgraduate degree (p=0.005, but CK was not significantly different (p=0.400. Most dentists (77% would prescribe antibiotics after a routine dental extraction, and would undertake definitive surgical treatment (49.2% only after a localized space infection developed. Although 82.2% agreed that routine prescription of antibiotics increases bacterial resistance in the community, 71% believe that prescribing an antibiotic after routine oral surgical procedures prevents odontogenic infections. Conclusion: Dentists in Jeddah require further education through lectures and workshops to stay up to date on current concepts in odontogenic infection management.

  15. A survey to assess knowledge, practice, and attitude of dentists in the Western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Jan, Ahmed M

    2016-04-01

    To assess knowledge regarding the management of odontogenic infections by dentists in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 150 practitioners responded to a 26-item paper-based questionnaire between August and December 2014. The questionnaire evaluated knowledge and current clinical practices in managing odontogenic infections, as well as the attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance in the community. Basic medical knowledge (BMK) and critical knowledge (CK) scores were calculated from the dentists' response to these questions and were compared according to educational level (bachelor and postgraduate degree holders). The mean BMK score was 1.98 ± 0.4 and CK score was 1.89 ± 0.3. Dentists with bachelor's degrees had higher BMK scores than those with a postgraduate degree (p=0.005), but CK was not significantly different (p=0.400). Most dentists (77%) would prescribe antibiotics after a routine dental extraction, and would undertake definitive surgical treatment (49.2%) only after a localized space infection developed. Although 82.2% agreed that routine prescription of antibiotics increases bacterial resistance in the community, 71% believe that prescribing an antibiotic after routine oral surgical procedures prevents odontogenic infections. Dentists in Jeddah require further education through lectures and workshops to stay up to date on current concepts in odontogenic infection management.

  16. Competent authority approval of package designs in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    Type B packages and all packages containing fissile material, as well as special form radioactive materials, special arrangements and certain shipments, are required to be approved by the competent authority. In the United Kingdom competent authority approval is carried out on behalf of the Secretary of State by the Radioactive Materials Transport Division (RMTD) of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). Competent authority approval of a package design is given only after a detailed assessment of the design by the specialist staff of RMTD. There are three facets to the assessment procedure, namely engineering, criticality and radiation protection, and quality assurance. The engineering assessor ensures that the designer has demonstrated the integrity of the containment and shielding systems under the regulatory conditions. The criticality assessor examines criticality safety and radiation protection measures, and together with the engineering assessor, decides whether this is maintained under regulatory conditions. The quality assurance assessor verifies that the applicant has established the necessary controls to ensure that the design requirements are met. The applicant is responsible for making the case for approval, but the assessment is facilitated if the competent authority is involved with the designer at an early stage in development and during the construction of any test prototype. When a regulatory test programme is required, it is designed and carried out by the applicant, but agreed and witnessed by representatives of RMTD. Following the test programme, the applicant submits a formal application, supported by a design safety report (DSR). The DSR provides a full analysis of the design and the test results, including the behaviour of the package under normal and accident conditions of transport, the manufacturing and maintenance procedures, quality assurance and the emergency provisions for the operation of the package

  17. PENGUASAAN KERAJAAN TARUMANEGARA TERHADAP KAWASAN HULU CI SADANE THE CONTROL OF TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM TO THE CI SADANE UPSTREAM AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Widyastuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As we know that the oldest kingdom in West Java is the Kingdom Tarumanegara. Authentic evidence of the existence of such is the kingdom of seven inscriptions, of which five were found in the upstream region is now administratively Cisadane including Bogor regency. Three of the five inscriptions indicate the possession of territory by Tarumanegara kingdom. This indicates that the upstream region Cisadane is an area that is quite important and has the potential to be controlled by Tarumanegara.   Key words:upstream of Ci Sadane, Tarumanegara kingdom, control area   ABSTRAK Sebagaimana diketahui bahwa kerajaan tertua di Jawa Barat adalah Kerajaan Tarumanegara. Bukti otentik mengenai keberadaan kerajaan tersebut adalah adanya tujuh prasasti, yang lima diantaranya ditemukan di kawasan Hulu Cisadane yang sekarang secara administratif termasuk wilayah Kabupaten Bogor. Tiga diantara kelima prasasti tersebut menunjukkan penguasaan wilayah tersebut oleh Kerajaan Tarumanegara. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa kawasan hulu cisadane merupakan kawasan yang cukup penting dan mempunyai potensi yang harus dikuasai oleh Tarumanegara.   Kata Kunci:hulu Ci Sadane, Kerajaan Tarumanegara, penguasaan wilayah.

  18. The 1986 United Kingdom radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.; Harrison, J.; McNicholas, P.

    1987-11-01

    This report gives information on the radioactive wastes which arise in the United Kingdom, updated to 1 January 1986. It has been compiled from information provided by the principal producers of the wastes, Amersham International plc, British Nuclear Fuels plc, the Central Electricity Generating Board, the South of Scotland Electricity Board, and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. The report lists the waste types, or streams, which these organisations produce, or will produce, as part of their normal operations or from decommissioning of their plant. For each stream is given the volume (or in a few cases mass) of existing stocks, estimated arisings to the year 2030 (2080 in the case of some decommissioning wastes), specific activity, and conditioning factor (volume change from ''raw'' waste volume to volume conditioned for disposal). Details of the radionuclide compositions of individual waste streams are separately listed. Waste streams are allocated to one of the three categories High, Intermediate or Low-Level, although this does not necessarily imply any commitment to a particular disposal route. The report includes tables summarising the data, arranged in a hierarchical manner to enable totals to be readily extracted as required. Summary tables of both ''raw'' and ''conditioned'' waste volumes are given. Also included are a commentary on the data and important changes from the 1985 inventory, and information on scenarios on which estimates of future arisings are based. (author)

  19. Paper recycling and social policy. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R K; Grace, R

    1976-12-01

    The most promising new source of paper for recycling is the household and small commercial business, whose waste papers can be processed if the paper and board industry is willing to invest capital to develop the facilities and the technology needed to upgrade indigenous fibers. Cost-benefit analyses in the United Kingdom indicate that support of this type of paper recycling has more merit than a buffer stock scheme. Efforts to conserve virgin materials by increasing the use of secondary materials could be further strengthened by taxes on the disposal of virgin materials. Paper recycling policies should include a range of sources, from discarded post-consumer waste paper and boxes to the release and use of energy by incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. Waste availability is influenced by product durability, replacement by other products (such as plastic wrap for paper), industry maturity, and social attitudes. Public acceptance of lower-quality paper products and improved technology to remove ink and color should combine to make recycling more feasible. Efforts to develop the household and commercial sector will result in lower import requirements for wood pulp and an improved balance of payments for the United Kingdom. Recycled fibers require less water and energy to process, but the process wastes introduce environmental pollutants. Short- and long-term forecasts show a growth rate trend that varies with paper grade and corresponds with general economic growth. (35 references) (DCK)

  20. Energy options for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.C.

    1979-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to put together a picture of the energy policy options of the United Kingdom, drawn mainly from official documents but supplemented by comments and conclusions from the author. For some people the current energy debate is simplified down to nuclear power for and against. Much of this thinking seems to arise from misunderstanding, and the more the technical and social facts behind policy can be sorted out by discussions, the more sensible eventual policy will be. One extreme view, for instance, is that opinion is divided between those who are 'pro-industry, pro-production, and pro-nuclear' and those who are 'interested in ecology and therefore anti-nuclear.' Associations like those are high on the list of myths that need to be dispelled. It is therefore a further purpose of this paper to contribute to the general background of facts for those who are interested in this country's energy policies and who may not have time or the opportunity to work through original sources. Although the theme throughout is energy in the United Kingdom, it will be realised that extension to the world scale simply enhances shortages and problems. The paper is in sections, entitled: overall UK energy consumption; coal; oil; gas; the energy gap; alternative energy sources; the balance of primary resource need; electricity; the nuclear power programme; timing of power plant orders; conclusions. (U.K.)

  1. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the population of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulaziz B M; Tonkal, Abulkader M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Al-Braiken, Faten A

    2007-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.

  2. First Report of Tumor-Like Anomalies on the Copepods and their Seasonality from the Obhur Creek, Jeddah Coast, Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Mantha, Gopikrishna

    2018-06-01

    Monthly abundance of the subclass Copepoda was analyzed from the zooplankton samples collected at Obhur Creek, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during December-2011 till December-2012. Zooplankton samples were collected through surface horizontal tows by a modified WP2 net ( via. mouth diameter 50 cm, length 180 cm, 150 μm mesh size). Order Calanoida dominated the abundance with mean annual average of 75.29%. We observed abnormal protuberances on copepods, known as tumour-like anomalies (TLAs). Calanoida showed more frequent and prominent TLAs on its dorsal surface with highest mean percentage occurring during Jun. 2012 (1.64%). The percentage prevalence of TLAs on the Copepoda was highest during Jun. 2012 (1.36%) and least during Nov. 2012 (0.03%). It is suggested that these TLAs might be caused due to the presence of potentially high levels of toxic substances, which weakens the exoskeleton and thereby making them more susceptible to infections or due to wounds from parasites or might be related to the occurrence of symbiotic tantulocarids or might be due to the radiation stress as a control measure. Whatever the reason, these TLAs have become a serious emerging threat to the aquatic food web. Our investigation is the first of its kind in the coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea, which needs further investigations in order to elucidate the possible reasons for these abnormalities.

  3. Effectiveness of Gambusia holbrooki fish in domestic water containers and controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in southwest Saudi Arabia (Jeddah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Zakia A

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Gambusia holbrooki (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) fishin domestic containers in Jeddah, as well as its effectiveness in the control of immature A.aegypti. The use of G. holbrooki compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.)was donein domestic containers. In a first home visit, G. holbrooki or B.t.i were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 & 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. G. holbrooki fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. The infestation rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the B.t.i group (IR ratio=21.60, 95% CI: 6.46-72.28). In deposits where the fish remained, efficacy was 85% better than B.t.i. The permanence of fish was higher in concrete tanks (48.5%) located outside the house (47.5%) and at ground level (53.3%).

  4. Physiological and Histological Alterations in Rats Liver Induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, an Insecticide Used in Dengue Fever Vector Control in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlJahdali, Mohammed O.; Bisher, Ameen S. Bin; Zeid, Isam M. Abu

    2009-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC, a new formulated organophosphorous insecticide used in dengue fever vector (Aedes aegypti) control in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), was studied in albino rats. Both levels of GPT, GOT and ALP, and the combined histological alterations were assessed after treatment. Rats were daily injected intraperitoneally for two and four weeks with 80 and 200 mg/kg of body weight (1/10 and 1/4 of the LD50, respectively). Significant increase in GPT, GOT and ALP levels relative to the increase of treatment dose and duration time was observed. The time factor effect was remarkably noticed in ALP level fluctuation. These results indicate a remarkable defect in the liver functions induced by Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC. Also, histological alterations in the treated animal's liver were observed including: blood congestion, fatty degeneration, hepatocytes swelling and necrosis. The liver syndrome's intensity correlated with the increase in dose and duration time. The present results could prove the hepatotoxicity of Sumithion NP 25/2.5 EC and its ability to cause severe physiological and histopathological defects in the liver. Therefore, the chemical control of Aedes aegypti must be reduced and other recommended control strategies should be promoted. (author)

  5. IIKmTA: Inter and Intra Kingdom miRNA-Target Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Chittabrata; Aftabuddin, Md; Kundu, Sudip

    2018-03-16

    Growing evidences suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) can efficiently regulate gene expression at intracellular and extracellular levels. It has been previously reported that plant/food-derived miRNAs are highly enriched in human serum or serum from phytophagous animals, and they are responsible for regulating mammalian gene expression. Thus, miRNAs could function as active signaling molecules, which carry information across distinct species or even kingdoms. However, the mode of miRNA shuttling among various organisms is still a mystery to unravel. The intra and inter kingdom miRNA transfer has boosted up the hypothesis about the potential impact of plant or animal miRNAs on each other. To our knowledge, the software for analyzing cross-kingdom miRNA-targets is lacking. We have developed a web-tool "IIKmTA: Inter and Intra Kingdom miRNA-Target Analyzer" utilizing a database; the data of which have been collected from another web server. Here, user can analyze the targeting potential of (i) plant miRNAs on animal UTRs (Untranslated regions), and vice versa (i.e., inter kingdom), (ii) plant miRNAs on plant UTRs and animal miRNAs on animal UTRs (i.e., intra kingdom). Further, user can analyze (i) miRNAs to targets, (ii) targets to miRNAs, and (iii) miRNA sets targeting sets of targets. For a wide variety of animal and plant species, IIKmTA can identify the miRNA binding sites in the probable target UTRs. Moreover, GC% and AU% of miRNAs will be calculated. All the results can be saved as .csv file. Recent researches identified miRNAs in plants and human secretions and their role in regulating the human genes. Such findings indicate the therapeutic role of secretory miRNAs of such plants which exhibits medicinal value and in near future many diseases may be treated by consumption of these plant miRNAs through food. Using our newly developed database and analyzing tool, one can easily determine the different relationships between miRNAs and their targets across kingdoms

  6. How Many Kingdoms? Current Views of Biological Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Lynn

    1981-01-01

    Argues for the acceptance and use of a five-kingdom classification system for biology comprised of monera, protoctista, fungi, animals, and plants. Justifies the new system based upon the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Outlines each kingdom and describes its members. (DC)

  7. The kingdom of heaven and Matthew 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Scholtz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the mission discourse in Matthew 10 is a single mission assignment that covers two distinct time periods when the gospel of the kingdom is preached. This assignment commenced during Christ’s first advent when the 12 apostles preached the gospel of the kingdom only in Israel. However, as a result of ‘this generation’ committing the unpardonable sin, this assignment became postponed until it will be resumed in the Tribulation when the coming King will authorise Jewish messengers to preach the gospel of the kingdom again – this time as a witness to all the nations. Based on this view of the mission discourse in Matthew 10, this article proposes a chiastic structure for Matthew 9:36−11:1a. Each section of this text will then be briefly discussed. Although the Church can make applications from this discourse, it is argued that Matthew 10:5b−42 does not refer to the Church age. Die koninkryk van die hemele en Matteus 10. Hierdie artikel bespreek die sendingdiskoers in Matteus 10 en beweer dat dit ’n enkele sendingopdrag is wat twee diskrete tydperiodes dek wanneer die evangelie van die koninkryk verkondig is. Hierdie sendingopdrag is tydens Christus se eerste koms aan die 12 apostels gegee om die evangelie van die koninkryk net in Israel te verkondig. Omdat ‘hierdie geslag’ die onvergeeflike sonde gedoen het, is hierdie sendingopdrag uitgestel en sal hervat word tydens die Verdrukking wanneer die komende Koning Joodse boodskappers sal magtig om weer die evangelie van die koninkryk te verkondig – hierdie keer tot getuienis vir al die nasies. Hierdie artikel stel ’n chiastiese struktuur vir Matteus 9:36−11:1a voor wat gebaseer is op hierdie siening van die sendingdiskoers in Matteus 10. Daarna word elke afdeling van die teks kortliks bespreek. Alhoewel die Kerk toepassings uit hierdie diskoers kan maak, word geargumenteer dat Matteus 10:5b−42 nie na die Kerk-era verwys nie.

  8. Corollary discharge across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapse, Trinity B; Sommer, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Our movements can hinder our ability to sense the world. Movements can induce sensory input (for example, when you hit something) that is indistinguishable from the input that is caused by external agents (for example, when something hits you). It is critical for nervous systems to be able to differentiate between these two scenarios. A ubiquitous strategy is to route copies of movement commands to sensory structures. These signals, which are referred to as corollary discharge (CD), influence sensory processing in myriad ways. Here we review the CD circuits that have been uncovered by neurophysiological studies and suggest a functional taxonomic classification of CD across the animal kingdom. This broad understanding of CD circuits lays the groundwork for more challenging studies that combine neurophysiology and psychophysics to probe the role of CD in perception.

  9. Some thoughts from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority has three research centres and many industrial enterprises. However, there is a general decline/stagnation of activities with only one research reactor for civilian use and no growth in the nuclear power sector. The United Kingdom may soon face the shortage of personnel in the essential field like health physics, radiation protection and safety management. Also there is a concern about anti-nuclear culture which is growing roots. British Nuclear Fuels Limited is trying to address some of these problems by opening a visitor centre in Sellafield and a centre of excellence in radiochemistry in one of the universities. International collaboration among nuclear research centres would be very valuable for optimizing the use of research reactors, training of nuclear engineers, decommissioning and handling other related issues. (author)

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In the United Kingdom RES-E are supported through a feed-in tariff, Contracts for Difference scheme, a quota system and tax regulation mechanism. For RES-H and C a subsidy and price-based mechanisms are available for supporting RES-H installations. Furthermore, a quota system for biofuels and a grant scheme for transport is in place. A training programme for RES-E plant installers is in place, as well as a certification programme for RES-E installations. An overarching Renewable Energy Roadmap relating to RES-E has been laid down and implemented

  11. Is the Kingdom of Bicycles Rising Again?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Christensen, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on new types of cycling in postsocialist China, especially mountain and sports biking, and on the particular entanglements of gender and class brought with them. The shift in mobility and biking from the Mao era to the postsocialist China is analyzed in the contexts of cultural......-analytical notions of global assemblages and gendered interpellations. Based on Chinese newspaper materials and fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, the article examines the social and gendered implications of the new biking cultures. These new biking practices mainly interpellate new middle-class men...... and masculinities as part of an exclusive leisure culture. If the “Kingdom of the Bicycles” is going to rise again, there is a need for a broader scope that addresses access for all, including women and families, as smart bikers, as well as biking as a daily mode of transportation....

  12. Digital Dissertations in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Matheson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom a user wishing to consult a UK thesis has traditionally had the following choices: the thesis may be consulted in the Library of the Higher Education Institution (HEI to which it was submitted; the thesis may be borrowed from the library of the HEI; a copy of the thesis may be purchased form the library of the HEI; the thesis may be borrowed through inter-library loan; or the thesis may be made available through the British Library’s British Thesis Service, which was set up in 1971. This Service currently holds more than 150,000 UK theses, which are added to at a rate of around 7,000 a year, with the participation of about a hundred Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. With the development of new technology, however, an interest developed in examining the feasibility of making theses available online to users. In the United Kingdom, the University Theses Online Group (UTOG was established as a consequence of a proposal to the Follett Implementation Group on Information Technology in 1994. The University Theses Online Group (UTOG is a working group of UK university librarians: the Group’s aims are to investigate the technical, cultural and administrative issues associated with the storage and delivery of theses in online form. The Group is made up of representatives of the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC, British Thesis Service, and the university libraries of Cranfield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, Plymouth, Robert Gordon, University College London, Kent, University of London and Warwick.

  13. Prevalence of asthma-triggering drug use in adults and its impact on asthma control: A cross-sectional study – Saudi (Jeddah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufag Mohammed Saeed Tayeb

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The use of asthma-triggering drugs (ATDs is a major factor in poor asthma control (PAC, which can be either uncontrolled or partially controlled. ATDs include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, β-blockers, aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Aims To measure the prevalence of ATD use in adult asthmatics and their control levels. Methods This is a one-year cross-sectional study (starting March 2016. A sample of 173 adult asthmatics (mean age: 44±16 years was enrolled from five primary care centres in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia. Asthmatics were clinically diagnosed according to the British Thoracic Society’s asthma guidelines. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was excluded by reversibility (i.e., symptom improvement after using asthma drugs. The four questions about asthma control from the Global Initiative for Asthma’s 2016 guidelines were translated to Arabic, photos and names of ATDs available in local pharmacies were collected, and a questionnaire was drafted. The questionnaire was presented to adult asthmatics by medical students during a personal interview. Data were statistically analysed using SPSS. Results Fifty percent of the adult asthmatics who used ATDs had badly controlled asthma: 31 per cent uncontrolled and 19 per cent partially controlled. Of the patients who took ATDs, 97 per cent had used several ATDs for extended periods of time without any warnings from health professionals. In order of prevalence, aspirin, ACE inhibitors, other NSAIDs, and β-blockers were the most common ATDs used. Conclusion ATDs are a major cause of PAC. ATD use is extensive and often goes unnoticed. The present findings highlight the low awareness of health professionals about the undesirable effects of ATDs on asthma control. This problem needs to be resolved by regular and continuous asthma health educational courses. During clinic visits, health professionals should inquire about ATD use

  14. Cross-infection and infection control in dentistry: Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients attended dental clinics in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla K. Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of patients attended dental clinics at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH regarding cross infections and infection control in dentistry. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 225 patients who attended the dental clinics of KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2014. A standardized, confidential, anonymous, interviewing questionnaire was used. Knowledge about dental infections was assessed by 12 MCQs. The attitudes were assessed through answering seven statements on a three- point Likert scale. Patients’ self reported practices were also evaluated. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done.Results of the study revealed that 39.5%, 38.7% and 21.8% of the participants obtained poor, fair and satisfactory level of knowledge about infections and infection control in dentistry, respectively. Social media was the commonest source of information about dental infection. Participant's educational level was significantly associated with the level of knowledge about dental infection. Patients had positive attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. Regarding self-reported practice, only few participants would ask dentists about sterilization of dental instruments (9.3%, wearing face mask (13.3% and gloves (16.4% if they don’t do so. In conclusion, our participants had good attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. However, their knowledge and practice need improvements. Conduction of educational programs is needed through social media, mass media, schools and public places. These programs involve both patients and providers. Keywords: Patient safety, Cross infection, Dental infection, Infection control, Emerging diseases, KAP

  15. Trammel net size-selectivity for Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål, 1775) and Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775) in coral reef fisheries of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hosny Gabr; Ahmad Osman Mal

    2016-01-01

    The present study estimated the size-selectivity of Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus harak caught in monofilament trammel nets of 50, 56, and 62 mm inner-panel mesh sizes. Fishing was carried out in the coral reef fisheries of Jeddah during the period from June 2013 to March 2014. The selectivity parameters were calculated using the SELECT method implemented in Pasgear 2 software. The normal location, normal scale, log-normal, gamma and bi-modal selectivity models were fitted to the data to es...

  16. Paleomagnetic investigations at Mahd adh Dhahab, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of 25 oriented bedrock specimens from Jabal Mahd adh Dhahab, located 160 km southeast of Al Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, have yielded important structural information relating to the geologic history of this base and precious metal deposit. Samples were collected along one traverse away from the mineralized zones, across the northeast-plunging antiform that constitutes the dominant regional structure of the area, and along another traverse down the axis of the mineralized zones. Lithologies range from andesite flows through andesitic to rhyodacitic tuffs, lapilli tuffs, and volcaniclastic sediments. Measurements of remanent magnetization direction and intensity before and after stepwise alternating-field demagnetization ranging from 25 Oersted (Oe) to 1000 Oe were carried out on all samples. Three classes of demagnetization behavior were observed: A very stable class with little change in direction and intensity of magnetization; a class in which rapid changes were observed at first but which then settled on a high coercivity stable component of magnetization; and a class in which the magnetization was composed of a spectrum of low coervicity components, and continuous variation of direction and intensity of magnetization occurred.

  17. International Education in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Hyams-Ssekasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last 40 years, the number of international students aspiring to obtain a qualification in U.K. universities has been exponentially growing. However, such growth has been contested. What seemed to be a “golden” opportunity for Black-African students to pursue their education in the United Kingdom is met with challenges that impact the whole process of adjustment. This article examines these challenges using a qualitative empirical study of Black-African postgraduate students, carried out in three U.K. universities. The methods utilized were observations, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, and a case study to help identify and analyze the issues. The participants reported significant financial pressures and difficulties in understanding and integrating into the culture of U.K. universities. In some cases, these challenges left the students feeling disillusioned and cynical about the value of an international education. Universities must endeavor to tailor their recruitment, orientation, and support programs to the needs of Black-African international students or face damaging their reputations as world-class education providers.

  18. The 1987 United Kingdom radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report describes the stocks of radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom, together with projections of future arisings. Operational and decommissioning wastes are considered for both committed and prospective plant. Arisings are from power reactors, commercial reprocessing, fuel manufacture, medical and industrial sources and research and development. Data are presented for the wastes in their raw form and as conditioned for disposal. The data which refer to the situation on 1.1.87 are shown by producer and globally, in summary tables. The information presented for each producer includes a description of the activities that generate the wastes and a discussion of how stocks and arisings may have changed from earlier predictions. This is supplemented by a stream by stream tabulation showing the waste type, volume, density, conditioning factor and gross alpha and beta activity. The global projections are presented in tabular and graphical manner, and the changes from earlier projections are discussed. The scenarios which underly the projections are also presented. (author)

  19. A national range inventory for the Kingdom of Lesotho. | Martin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A national range inventory for the Kingdom of Lesotho. ... the up-to-date techniques of satellite remote sensing and the interpretation of new colour aerial photography. Data were collected to provided a basic understanding of plant community ...

  20. Predicted shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom: A matter for debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2016-10-01

    Vascular surgery became a new independent surgical specialty in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2013. In this matter for debate we discuss the question, is there a "shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom?" We used data derived from the "Vascular Surgery United Kingdom Workforce Survey 2014", NHS Employers Electronic Staff Records (ESR), and the National Vascular Registry (NVR) surgeon-level public report to estimate current and predict future workforce requirements. We estimate there are approximately 458 Consultant Vascular Surgeons for the current UK population of 63 million, or 1 per 137,000 population. In several UK Regions there are a large number of relatively small teams (3 or less) of vascular surgeons working in separate NHS Trusts in close geographical proximity. In developed countries, both the number and complexity of vascular surgery procedures (open and endovascular) per capita population is increasing, and concerns have been raised that demand cannot be met without a significant expansion in numbers of vascular surgeons. Additional workforce demand arises from the impact of population growth and changes in surgical work-patterns with respect to gender, working-life-balance and 7-day services. We predict a future shortage of Consultant Vascular Surgeons in the UK and recommend an increase in training numbers and an expansion in the UK Consultant Vascular Surgeon workforce to accommodate population growth, facilitate changes in work-patterns and to create safe sustainable services. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The United Kingdom's First Woman Law Professor: An Archerian Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cownie, FC

    2015-01-01

    In 1970, at Queen's University Belfast, Claire Palley became the first woman to hold a Chair in Law at a United Kingdom university. However, little is known about the circumstances surrounding this event, or Claire Palley herself. This article (part of an extended project exploring her life history) seeks to address the question ‘Was there something about Claire Palley herself that made it more likely she would become the United Kingdom's first female law professor?’ Initially focusing on met...

  2. The Kingdom of God within us, according to Meister Eckhart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bara Bancel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine what the German works of Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1328 say about heaven, the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven. We explain how he understands the presence of the Kingdom of God in us. In a style that is fresh and original, Eckhart says that the Kingdom of Heaven is now already within us. It is in the deepest part of us, in the ground of the soul, but man does not discover it immediately. In the first place, he has to prepare himself and to be receptive to the Kingdom of God, to God within himself. He has to make himself «heavenly», through humility, detachment, equanimity and so on. Furthermore, God «flows» inside this person and He pronounce His Word in him. That is how the human being becomes the son of God, how he receives a «kiss» from God, and how the Kingdom of God breaks through in the ground of the soul. And that finally means participating now in the joy and the blessedness of heaven.

  3. Country policy profile - United Kingdom. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    United Kingdom is legally committed to meeting 15% of the UK's energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. The country considers renewables will also have a crucial role to play in the UK energy mix in the decades beyond, making the most of the UK's abundant natural resources. To increase and accelerate the use of renewable energy, the UK has introduced a number of legislative tools. A Renewables Obligation (RO) who provides incentives for large-scale renewable electricity generation by making UK suppliers source a proportion of their electricity from eligible renewable sources A Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme -who pays energy users who invest in small-scale, low-carbon electricity generation systems for the electricity they generate and use, and for unused electricity they export back to the grid A Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) who pays commercial, industrial, public, not-for-profit and community generators of renewable heat for a 20-year period A Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) who gives one-off payments to householders, communities and social housing landlords to help them buy renewable heating technologies like solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers A Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation who makes companies that supply more than 450,000 litres of fuel per year source a percentage from renewable sources. Besides its instruments, the British government is working to the implementation of the Electricity Market Reform (EMR) will also provide support for the production of renewable electricity from 2014 onwards. EMR introduces two key mechanisms to provide incentives for the investment required in our energy infrastructure. The Contracts for Difference (CFD) who provides long-term price stabilisation to low carbon plant, allowing investment to come forward at a lower cost of capital and therefore at a lower cost to consumers and the Capacity Market who provides a regular retainer payment to reliable forms of capacity (both demand and supply

  4. Country policy profile - United Kingdom. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    United Kingdom is legally committed to meeting 15% of the UK's energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. The country considers renewables will also have a crucial role to play in the UK energy mix in the decades beyond, making the most of the UK's abundant natural resources. To increase and accelerate the use of renewable energy, the UK has introduced a number of legislative tools. A Renewables Obligation (RO) who provides incentives for large-scale renewable electricity generation by making UK suppliers source a proportion of their electricity from eligible renewable sources A Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme -who pays energy users who invest in small-scale, low-carbon electricity generation systems for the electricity they generate and use, and for unused electricity they export back to the grid A Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) who pays commercial, industrial, public, not-for-profit and community generators of renewable heat for a 20-year period A Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) who gives one-off payments to householders, communities and social housing landlords to help them buy renewable heating technologies like solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers A Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation who makes companies that supply more than 450,000 litres of fuel per year source a percentage from renewable sources. Besides its instruments, the British government is working to the implementation of the Electricity Market Reform (EMR) will also provide support for the production of renewable electricity from 2014 onwards. EMR introduces two key mechanisms to provide incentives for the investment required in our energy infrastructure. The Contracts for Difference (CFD) who provides long-term price stabilisation to low carbon plant, allowing investment to come forward at a lower cost of capital and therefore at a lower cost to consumers and the Capacity Market who provides a regular retainer payment to reliable forms of capacity (both demand and supply

  5. Country policy profile - United Kingdom. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    United Kingdom is legally committed to meeting 15% of the UK's energy demand from renewable sources by 2020. The country considers renewables will also have a crucial role to play in the UK energy mix in the decades beyond, making the most of the UK's abundant natural resources. To increase and accelerate the use of renewable energy, the UK has introduced a number of legislative tools. A Renewables Obligation (RO) which provides incentives for large-scale renewable electricity generation by making UK suppliers source a proportion of their electricity from eligible renewable sources. A Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) scheme -which pays energy users who invest in small-scale, low-carbon electricity generation systems for the electricity they generate and use, and for unused electricity they export back to the grid. A Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) which pays commercial, industrial, public, not-for-profit and community generators of renewable heat for a 20-year period. A Renewable Heat Premium Payment (RHPP) which gives one-off payments to householders, communities and social housing landlords to help them buy renewable heating technologies like solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers. A Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation which makes companies that supply more than 450,000 litres of fuel per year source a percentage from renewable sources. Besides its instruments, the British government is working to the implementation of the Electricity Market Reform (EMR), which will also provide support for the production of renewable electricity from 2014 onwards. EMR introduces two key mechanisms to provide incentives for the investment required in our energy infrastructure. The Contracts for Difference (CFD), which provide long-term price stabilisation to low carbon plants, allowing investment to come forward at a lower cost of capital and therefore at a lower cost to consumers and the Capacity Market, which provides a regular retainer payment to reliable forms of capacity

  6. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy Metal Accumulation is Associated with Molecular and Pathological Perturbations in Liver of Variola louti from the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste water are discharged daily from the Jeddah Metropolitan Area into the Red Sea. Sewage draining into the Red Sea causes widespread chemical pollution that is toxic to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of pollution and assess the presence of heavy metals in fish tissue and study their association with biological and biochemical alterations. The average concentrations of heavy metals found in hepatic tissues of Variola louti fish from the polluted area, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn, were 1.74, 9.69, 47.48, 4020.01 and 229.47 µg/g liver, respectively, that were significantly higher than that of samples taken from reference area (0.24, 1.98, 20.12, 721.93, 129.21 µg/g liver, respectively. The fold change of heavy metals in fish from the polluted area with respect of that of the reference area followed the order Cd > Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn. Analysis of nuclear DNA revealed that hepatic tissues of fish samples from the polluted area showed a significant increase in apoptotic cells as detected by flow cytometry and formation DNA-ladder. In addition, hepatic sections from polluted area fishes showed more fibrotic changes and collagen deposition by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining, respectively, compared to samples taken from the reference area. Moreover, the electrophoretic patterns of proteins of liver of fishes caught at the polluted area showed different patterns of proteins from that of the reference with bands at 42, 130 and 140 kDa, which is in a good agreement with the molecular weight of collagen type III. In conclusion, there were significant changes in the tissues of fishes in the polluted area at the cellular and the molecular levels that may be associated with an accumulation of heavy metals. Assessment of fishes as a sensitive biomonitor for the pollution of surface waters that may affect general health of human and wild life is conceivable.

  8. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-05-24

    To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P sexual behaviors

  9. Heavy Metal Accumulation is Associated with Molecular and Pathological Perturbations in Liver of Variola louti from the Jeddah Coast of Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Elshal, Mohamed F; Kumosani, Taha A; Mal, Ahmad O; Ahmed, Youssri M; Almulaiky, Yaaser Q; Asseri, Amer H; Zamzami, Mazin A

    2016-03-21

    Large amounts of waste water are discharged daily from the Jeddah Metropolitan Area into the Red Sea. Sewage draining into the Red Sea causes widespread chemical pollution that is toxic to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of pollution and assess the presence of heavy metals in fish tissue and study their association with biological and biochemical alterations. The average concentrations of heavy metals found in hepatic tissues of Variola louti fish from the polluted area, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn, were 1.74, 9.69, 47.48, 4020.01 and 229.47 µg/g liver, respectively, that were significantly higher than that of samples taken from reference area (0.24, 1.98, 20.12, 721.93, 129.21 µg/g liver, respectively). The fold change of heavy metals in fish from the polluted area with respect of that of the reference area followed the order Cd > Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn. Analysis of nuclear DNA revealed that hepatic tissues of fish samples from the polluted area showed a significant increase in apoptotic cells as detected by flow cytometry and formation DNA-ladder. In addition, hepatic sections from polluted area fishes showed more fibrotic changes and collagen deposition by hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively, compared to samples taken from the reference area. Moreover, the electrophoretic patterns of proteins of liver of fishes caught at the polluted area showed different patterns of proteins from that of the reference with bands at 42, 130 and 140 kDa, which is in a good agreement with the molecular weight of collagen type III. In conclusion, there were significant changes in the tissues of fishes in the polluted area at the cellular and the molecular levels that may be associated with an accumulation of heavy metals. Assessment of fishes as a sensitive biomonitor for the pollution of surface waters that may affect general health of human and wild life is conceivable.

  10. Knowledge and Awareness of Colorectal Cancer among Undergraduate Students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alsulami, Salhah S; Atta, Magdi; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge and awareness about colorectal cancer (CRC) among undergraduate students of one of the leading universities in Saudi Arabia, along with the mode of information access. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, among students of different faculties. The study questionnaire, containing 28 items, was adapted from surveys identified in the relevant literature. The CRC awareness questionnaire consisted of an awareness section (early CRC signs and symptoms, and risk factors) and a knowledge section. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0. A total of 525 undergraduate students participated in the study. The majority were females (63.0%) and approximately half (56.8%) were medical students. The majority of the students (82.3%) were aware of CRC, and 68% thought that CRC is a preventable disease. Regarding colorectal cancer screening tests, only one-third of students (33%) had actual knowledge, while the majority of the students (77.0%) thought that there are tests which help in early detection. Only 4% of the participants had a family history of CRC. The majority of the participants (84%) thought that CRC is a disease that can be cured. Almost 50-60% participants had good awareness level regarding risk factors, and signs and symptoms. Regarding knowledge, participant responses varied for family history (52%), age (59%), chronic infection of the colon (72%), obesity and lack of exercise (66%). More than one-third of the students had received information material regarding CRC from their curriculum followed by social media (20.4%), and nearly 40% from other sources such as TV, hospital and mass media. Female participants had significantly better awareness in a few questions regarding CRC awareness as compared to their male counterparts. There was a significant difference observed between medical and non-medical students (knowledge about CRC while no significant

  11. Characterising Record Flooding in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A.; Bates, P. D.; Smith, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Though the most notable floods in history have been carefully explained, there remains a lack of literature that explores the nature of record floods as a whole in the United Kingdom. We characterise the seasonality, statistical and spatial distribution, and meteorological causes of peak river flows for 521 gauging stations spread across the British Isles. We use annual maximum data from the National River Flow Archive, catchment descriptors from the Flood Estimation Handbook, and historical records of large floods. What we aim to find is in what ways, if any, the record flood for a station is different from more 'typical' floods. For each station, we calculate two indices: the seasonal anomaly and the flood index. Broadly, the seasonal anomaly is the degree to which a station's record flood happens at a different time of year compared to typical floods at that site, whilst the flood index is a station's record flood discharge divided by the discharge of the 1-in-10-year return period event. We find that while annual maximum peaks are dominated by winter frontal rainfall, record floods are disproportionately caused by summer convective rainfall. This analysis also shows that the larger the seasonal anomaly, the higher the flood index. Additionally, stations across the country have record floods that occur in the summer with no notable spatial pattern, yet the most seasonally anomalous record events are concentrated around the south and west of the British Isles. Catchment descriptors tell us little about the flood index at a particular station, but generally areas with lower mean annual precipitation have a higher flood index. The inclusion of case studies from recent and historical examples of notable floods across the UK supplements our analysis and gives insight into how typical these events are, both statistically and meteorologically. Ultimately, record floods in general happen at relatively unexpected times and with unpredictable magnitudes, which is a

  12. First record of the myrmicine ant genus Meranoplus Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Arabian Peninsula with description of a new species and notes on the zoogeography of southwestern Kingdom of [corrected] Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R Sharaf

    Full Text Available The ant genus Meranoplus is reported for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by the new species M. pulcher sp. n., based on the worker caste. Specimens were collected from Al Sarawat and Asir Mountains of southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using pitfall traps. Meranoplus pulcher sp. n. is included in the Afrotropical M. magretii-group, with greatest similarity to M. magrettii André from Sudan. A key to the Afrotropical species of the M. magretii-group is presented. A brief review of the ant taxa with Afrotropical affinities in southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is given.

  13. Cosmetic surgery growth and correlations with financial indices: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and United States from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Harris, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been significant fluctuation in the yearly growth rates for cosmetic surgery procedures in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The authors compare cosmetic surgical procedure rates in the United Kingdom and United States with the macroeconomic climate of each region to determine whether there is a direct relationship between cosmetic surgery rates and economic health. The authors analyzed annual cosmetic surgery statistics from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery for 2002-2011 against economic indices from both regions, including the gross domestic product (GDP), consumer prices indices (CPI), and stock market reports. There was a 285.9% increase in the United Kingdom and a 1.1% increase in the United States in the number of procedures performed between 2002 and 2011. There were significant positive correlations between the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United Kingdom and both the GDP (r = 0.986, P failed to show a significant relationship with any indices. UK interest rates showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.668, P indices are accurate indicators of numbers of procedures being performed in the United Kingdom, whereas rates in the United States seem independent of those factors.

  14. The future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments that have been put forward in the United Kingdom to justify the contention by its opponents that nuclear power should not be seen as a safe, economic, strategically desirable and environmentally attractive energy source are examined. Counter arguments are presented to support the belief that these are wholly wrong. In the short to medium term, however, economic and political considerations suggest that the prospects for nuclear power in the United Kingdom are not optimistic. The long term evolution of nuclear power is uncertain but it is possible that the security of energy supply, comparative economics and environmental attractions associated with nuclear power will become more apparent and work in its favour eventually. The conviction is expressed that, by the middle of the next century, the United Kingdom will be reaping the benefits of the fast reactor on a significant scale. (UK)

  15. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, L.F.; Ebrahim, S.A.; Al-Thukair, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

  16. The Development of the System of Mining Education in the «Kingdom of Poland» in the XIX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton B. Mokeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of mining and technical education in the «Kingdom of Poland» in the XIX century. These western lands became part of the Russia by the decision of the Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815, which summarized the European wars of the allies against Napoleon. The Government embarked on the systematic development of the industry of the «Kingdom of Poland». The mining industry in this region was developed very well, but lacked local specialized educational institutions for the training of relevant personnel. On the basis of archival materials the author shows the process of organizing educational institutions that train personnel for the booming mining industry of this region. The first educational centers begin to appear immediately after joining Russia, however, difficult political events that began in the region from the 20s of XIX century interrupted the process of formation and development of mountain education in the «Kingdom of Poland» for several years. But in the second half of the XIX century it would again become a topical issue for the region. Particular attention is paid to the history of Dombrowa Mining School, which was established in 1889. The main purpose of this school was to prepare the mine managers and factory preachers to the needs of the mining industry in this region of the «Kingdom of Poland». Mining School in Dombrowa existed until the beginning of the First World War.

  17. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  18. Protective mechanical ventilation in United Kingdom critical care units: A multicentre audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher P; Martin, Matthew J; Richardson, Neil; Bourdeaux, Christopher P

    2017-05-01

    Lung protective ventilation is becoming increasingly used for all critically ill patients being mechanically ventilated on a mandatory ventilator mode. Compliance with the universal application of this ventilation strategy in intensive care units in the United Kingdom is unknown. This 24-h audit of ventilation practice took place in 16 intensive care units in two regions of the United Kingdom. The mean tidal volume for all patients being ventilated on a mandatory ventilator mode was 7.2(±1.4) ml kg -1 predicted body weight and overall compliance with low tidal volume ventilation (≤6.5 ml kg -1 predicted body weight) was 34%. The mean tidal volume for patients ventilated with volume-controlled ventilation was 7.0(±1.2) ml kg -1 predicted body weight and 7.9(±1.8) ml kg -1 predicted body weight for pressure-controlled ventilation ( P  < 0.0001). Overall compliance with recommended levels of positive end-expiratory pressure was 72%. Significant variation in practice existed both at a regional and individual unit level.

  19. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. the metanoetic presence of the kingdom of god in a fluid new world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the emphasis on order, predictability and open dialogue in religious circles, as ... augmented by a metanoetic understanding of the kingdom of God. ..... in infinite quantities. Just as he .... Leaders on the open seas of the kingdom are ...

  1. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  2. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-23

    Apr 23, 2015 ... smart phone or mobile ... political discourse and application of new policies did not lead to the delivery of the initial promise of a .... Moltmann (1965:22) did not use this terminology, but .... The relation of kingdom and church is essential to an ..... application of this hypothesis is problematic because modern.

  3. Institutional Churn: Institutional Change in United Kingdom Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article considers how higher education institutions change over time, using the United Kingdom system as an exemplar, and focusing on the 15-year period between 1994/95 and 2009/10. While there are many aspects of institutional change worthy of study, the focus here is on how institutions appear to others. Thus, the article examines the…

  4. Assets, Aliens or Asylum Seekers? Immigration and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2006-01-01

    British attitudes toward immigrants are complex. The United Kingdom has received regular waves of immigrants, both political and economic asylum seekers and, especially in recent decades, recruited labor from the former nations of the British Empire. Throughout its history, ambivalence among the Britons is seen due to these developments. In this…

  5. The kingdom of God: Utopian or existential? | Malan | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Was it meant to be understood as utopian as Mary Ann Beavis views it, or existential? In 1st century CE Palestine, kingdom of God was a political term meaning theocracy suggesting God's patronage. Jesus used the term metaphorically to construct a new symbolic universe to legitimate a radical new way of living with God ...

  6. Summary report on the 1985 United Kingdom radioactive waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, A.M.; Wear, F.J.; Haselden, H.; Shepherd, J.; Tymons, B.J.

    1986-04-01

    Stocks of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom which have arisen, or are projected to arise, from commercial nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities, research, medical and industrial uses of radioactive nuclides are given in the form of summary tables. Projected future arisings from operation and decommissioning of facilities and notional nuclear power generation programmes to 2030 are also given. (author)

  7. THE MESSIANIC KINGDOM THEOLOGY IN LUKE-ACTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Paul W. Walaskay argues that Luke espouses a ―majestic .... thrust concerned with Jesus' messianic kingdom as the Gospel of Luke. Also, in the Gospel, ..... Thompson S.J. Ed. (David E. Aune. ... 72), Editor: John J. Collins, Leiden: Brill,. 2011 ...

  8. Kingdom of Bhutan VIP visit at CERN / CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Yeshey Zimba Member of Parliament and His Excellency Daw Penjo Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan visiting at CERN the LHC tunnel and the CMS experiment. Further guests were : Mrs Daw Zam, Mrs Thuji Zangmo, Mr. Rinchen Dorji, Mrs Dechen Wangmo, Ms Choni Ome Guided by R. Voss, Michael Hoch, Tiziano Camporesi

  9. An Update on Asset Management Plans in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mukund

    1999-01-01

    Describes a current project in the United Kingdom designed to improve school buildings. The use of Asset Management Plans (AMPs) in providing the means through which likely future needs are assessed, criteria for prioritization are set, and informed decisions on local spending are made are examined. (GR)

  10. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this ...

  11. Nuclear information and education experience in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation discusses the importance of public information and education in the field of energy and particularly in the field of nuclear energy development. The attempt is made to explain some issues connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Appendix contains comments on the United Kingdom educational materials in this area

  12. Innovative United Kingdom Approaches To Measuring Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkworth, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Reports on approaches to measuring the service quality of academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Discusses the role of government and the national background of quality measurement; measurement frameworks; better use of statistics; benchmarking; measuring user satisfaction; and possible future development. (Author/LRW)

  13. Phylogenetic and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Thermostable Alpha Amylases of kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huma, Tayyaba; Maryam, Arooma; Rehman, Shahid Ur; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Alpha amylase family is generally defined as a group of enzymes that can hydrolyse and transglycosylase α-(1, 4) or α-(1, 6) glycosidic bonds along with the preservation of anomeric configuration. For the comparative analysis of alpha amylase family, nucleotide sequences of seven thermo stable organisms of Kingdom Archea i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Kingdom Prokaryotes i.e. Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C), Bacillus subtilis (70°C) and Bacillus KSM K38 (55°C) and Eukaryotes i.e. Aspergillus oryzae (60°C) were selected from NCBI. Primary structure composition analysis and Conserved sequence analysis were conducted through Bio Edit tools. Results from BioEdit shown only three conserved regions of base pairs and least similarity in MSA of the above mentioned alpha amylases. In Mega 5.1 Phylogeny of thermo stable alpha amylases of Kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryote was handled by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm. Mega 5.1 phylogenetic results suggested that alpha amylases of thermo stable organisms i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C) are more distantly related as compared to less thermo stable organisms. By keeping in mind the characteristics of most thermo stable alpha amylases novel and improved features can be introduced in less thermo stable alpha amylases so that they become more thermo tolerant and productive for industry.

  14. Spatial imbalances in the United Kingdom after the Millennium: a focus on the cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Zsibók

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the recovery after the economic crisis, much academic and policy attention was diverted to the role of cities as growth hubs all over Europe and the world. Significant economic disparities are a longstanding problem for the United Kingdom as a whole, which have been growing for decades and are remarkably high among the most developed OECD and EU countries. To investigate recent spatial processes, the methodology of our research relies on comparative spatial data analysis and literature review. Our analyses will cover the issue of a spatially more balanced development based on the “northern powerhouse” initiative which builds upon the collective strength of the cities in the North. Addressing the ‘national’ problem of regional inequalities, spatial rebalancing is assumed to be inevitable, especially in the light of the new economic and regional challenges posed by the Brexit decision.

  15. 77 FR 12241 - Smart Grid Trade Mission to the United Kingdom; London, United Kingdom, October 15-17, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... from the World Bank, the United Kingdom is the best place to do business in the EU and G8 countries... smart grid. Consequently, over $300 billion of investment is needed over the next ten years to replace... distributing ever increasing amounts of electricity from intermittent and geographically spread renewable...

  16. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  17. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, H.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  18. Ferritin gene organization: differences between plants and animals suggest possible kingdom-specific selective constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, D; Wei, J; Briat, J; Theil, E C

    1996-03-01

    Ferritin, a protein widespread in nature, concentrates iron approximately 10(11)-10(12)-fold above the solubility within a spherical shell of 24 subunits; it derives in plants and animals from a common ancestor (based on sequence) but displays a cytoplasmic location in animals compared to the plastid in contemporary plants. Ferritin gene regulation in plants and animals is altered by development, hormones, and excess iron; iron signals target DNA in plants but mRNA in animals. Evolution has thus conserved the two end points of ferritin gene expression, the physiological signals and the protein structure, while allowing some divergence of the genetic mechanisms. Comparison of ferritin gene organization in plants and animals, made possible by the cloning of a dicot (soybean) ferritin gene presented here and the recent cloning of two monocot (maize) ferritin genes, shows evolutionary divergence in ferritin gene organization between plants and animals but conservation among plants or among animals; divergence in the genetic mechanism for iron regulation is reflected by the absence in all three plant genes of the IRE, a highly conserved, noncoding sequence in vertebrate animal ferritin mRNA. In plant ferritin genes, the number of introns (n = 7) is higher than in animals (n = 3). Second, no intron positions are conserved when ferritin genes of plants and animals are compared, although all ferritin gene introns are in the coding region; within kingdoms, the intron positions in ferritin genes are conserved. Finally, secondary protein structure has no apparent relationship to intron/exon boundaries in plant ferritin genes, whereas in animal ferritin genes the correspondence is high. The structural differences in introns/exons among phylogenetically related ferritin coding sequences and the high conservation of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms suggest that kingdom-specific functional constraints may

  19. Echinococcus equinus and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from the United Kingdom: genetic diversity and haplotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Report on NPPCI topics in the United Kingdom - March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the activities on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control topics in the United Kingdom. Since the last meeting of the Working Group in May 1984, the activities of the nuclear power industry in the United Kingdom has been dominated, firstly, by the Public Inquiry into the proposal to site a PWR at Sizewell in Suffolk - the public part of the Inquiry finished about a year ago having lasted eighteen months but the report is not now expected for some months. Secondly, all of the first generation of Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors have run up to power. Thirdly, the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay is now reliably producing its design output of 250 MW(e) following major modifications to its steam generators. The new developments of the NPP simulators, computer control and instrumentation systems as well as reactor protection systems are briefly discussed

  1. Religious Activities and their Tourism Potential in Sukur Kingdom, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Okonkwo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship, vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious travel for the primary purpose of sharing faith and fellowship together as they explore the various religious sites within Sukur and Adamawa State at large. Others still seek inspiration and desire to witness significant religious events while assisting others with humanitarian and spiritual needs. This paper examines the tourism potentials of religion/religious sites and belief systems in Sukur Kingdom with a view to harnessing them for sustainable tourism development. The study uses ethnographic methods to elicit information and analyze the data collected from respondents.

  2. Fauna of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicida) in Asir Provence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ashry, Hamdy A; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    An entomological survey was undertaken for one year to update the mosquito fauna of Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 31 species of 8 genera were reported of which genus Culex (55%) was the most common. Most of collected larvae (59%) belonged to genus Culex (+ Lutzia) followed by Culiseta (26%), Anopheles (13%) and Aedine spp. (2%). Cx. pipiens (39%) and Cs. longiareolata (26.%) were generally the most abundant of all collected larvae. Of the Anopheles spp., An. dthali was common (40%), of Culex spp., Cx. pipiens was predominating (66%) and of Aedine spp., St. aegypti was predominating (71%). Four species: An. fluviatilis, Cx. mattinglyi, Cx. arbieeni and Cx. mimeticus were new reports in Asir Region and Cx. wigglesworthi recorded for the first time from the kingdom. Larvae were more common in low- and highlands than in the moderately altitude areas. In general all species prefer stagnant water but with the exception of Aedine larvae (altogether), the other species prefer presence of algae, vegetation and shade and absence of turbidity (except Culex spp.). A total of 98 different forms of association were reported of which 9 forms were common. All genera breed year round with peaks of abundance during spring for Anopheles spp. and Culex spp. and during winter for Aedine spp. and Cs. longiareolata. A complete list of mosquito fauna of Asir Region comprising 45 spp. was presented based on the present and previous surveys. The study concluded that the occurrence and prevalence of mosquito species mainly the disease vectors in Asir carry the thread of maintaining and transmission of several mosquito-borne diseases.

  3. "Does a Compensation Culture Exist in the United Kingdom?"

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation investigates the issue of compensation culture and the evidence for it in the United Kingdom. Insight into the relationship between Tort Law and Insurance finds that the role of insurance is largely misinterpreted in the field. Insurance companies have many mechanisms to control behaviour, ensure personal responsibility is upheld, reduce moral hazard and promote risk management. This paper proposes that claims increases might be more evident in areas of compensa...

  4. Exploring support for shale gas extraction in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson-Hudson, Jessica; Knight, Wil; Humphrey, Mathew; O'Hara, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The development of shale gas in the United Kingdom (UK) using hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as ‘fracking’, remains in its infancy. Yet understanding public attitudes for this fledgling industry is important for future policy considerations, decision-making and for industry stakeholders. This study uses data collected from the University of Nottingham UK nationwide online survey (n=3,823) conducted in September 2014, to consider ten hypothesises about the UK public’s attitudes towa...

  5. Religious Activities and their Tourism Potential in Sukur Kingdom, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emeka Okonkwo

    2015-01-01

    Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship), vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious trav...

  6. The status of podiatry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, Phil

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews the sources of professional status and analyses these in relation to the podiatry profession in the United Kingdom. It is argued that the nature and act of professional practice and the patient/professional relationship are of particular importance in defining the status of the profession. These effects are discussed in relation to podiatry and compared to a high status professional group, that of dentistry. Finally the effects of attempting to change professional status are discussed.

  7. CULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF CHEESE TYPE FOR KINGDOM PERNAMBUCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Kazue Sakugawa Shinohara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is one of the great achievements in the preservation of milk, using simple techniques and preserving important protein source in different food crops. Originally from the Netherlands, Edam cheese was introduced in Brazil in 1880 by the Portuguese colonizers, hence the name "kingdom." Currently, in the industrial production, the legislation determines that it is classified as "kingdom type ". Due to the high lipid and sodium content, this product that is most suitable in the composition of sandwiches, in sauces added to pasta and composition along with the desserts, these associations are part of the tradition, flavors and knowledge of Pernambuco’s cooking. A ball of Kingdom cheese is something that you have to give to families, especially in Christmas time and St. John, because it symbolizes the wish for happiness and prosperity in the northeastern important religious festivals calendar, where relatives and friends gather to celebrate the dates in question, putting on their tables this precious culinary heritage of Pernambuco.

  8. The United Kingdom Hydrogen Association Forms with International Collaboration in Mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen Hall; John Carolin; Ian Williamson

    2006-01-01

    In April 2006, the United Kingdom Hydrogen Association was launched. This paper will describe the context under which the need was established, and address the challenges and opportunities faced in creating the association. A UK Hydrogen Association can encourage information sharing among regional hydrogen efforts, and provide a mechanism for a larger, single voice on the national level. In addition, a UK Hydrogen Association can serve as a focal point for UK participation in EU activities such as the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP), and other international activities such as IPHE and IEA. The results of the stake holder briefing and progress of a UK Hydrogen Association will be presented, with a focus on international collaboration. (authors)

  9. The United Kingdom Hydrogen Association Forms with International Collaboration in Mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen Hall; John Carolin; Ian Williamson

    2006-01-01

    In April 2006, the United Kingdom Hydrogen Association was launched. This paper will describe the context under which the need was established, and address the challenges and opportunities faced in creating the association. A UK Hydrogen Association can encourage information sharing among regional hydrogen efforts, and provide a mechanism for a larger, single voice on the national level. In addition, a UK Hydrogen Association can serve as a focal point for UK participation in EU activities such as the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP), and other international activities such as IPHE and IEA. The results of the stakeholder briefing and progress of a UK Hydrogen Association will be presented, with a focus on international collaboration. (authors)

  10. Health and the 2008 economic recession: evidence from the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Astell-Burt

    Full Text Available The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased concurrent to the rise in unemployment during the economic recession, and whether the impact on health varied by geographical and socioeconomic circumstances.Health, demographic and socioeconomic measures on 1.36 million survey responses aged 16-64 were extracted from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey of the United Kingdom, collected every three months, from January 2006 to December 2010. The likelihood of self-reporting poor health status and specific types of health problems (depression, mental illness, cardiovascular and respiratory across time were estimated separately using logistic regression. Explanatory variables included economic status (International Labour Organization definition, occupational class, age, gender, country of birth, ethnicity, educational qualifications, couple status, household tenure, number of dependents, and geographical region.Unemployment (age-gender adjusted rose from 4.5% in January 2008 to 7.1% by September 2009. The reporting of poor health status increased from 25.7% in July 2009 to 29.5% by December 2010. Similar increases were found for cardiovascular and respiratory health problems; not depression or mental illness. The prevalence of poor health status among the unemployed decreased from 28.8% in July 2008, to 24.9% by March 2009; but this was followed by an increase in poor health experienced across all regions and by all socioeconomic groups, including those who remained employed, regardless of their occupational class.Although our study found no exacerbation of pre-recession health inequalities, the rise in poor health status not only for the unemployed, but also among

  11. Exploring the Effect of Geographical Proximity and University Quality on University-Industry Collaboration in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Salter, Ammon

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university–industry collaboration in the United Kingdom, Regional Studies. This paper concerns the geographical distance between a firm and the universities in its local area. It is argued that firms' decisions to collaborat...... collaboration. However, it is also found that if faced with the choice, firms appear to give preference to the research quality of the university partner over geographical closeness. This is particularly true for high-research and development intensive firms....

  12. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)

  13. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  14. Conspicuous and aposematic spines in the animal kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Moshe; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2005-04-01

    Spines serve as a common physical defence mechanism in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Here we argue that as in plants, defensive animal spines are often conspicuous (shape and colour) and should be considered aposematic. Conspicuous spines may evolve as signals or serve as a cue for potential predators. Spine conspicuousness in animals has evolved independently across and within phyla occupying aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, indicating that this convergent phenomenon is highly adaptive. Still, many spines are cryptic, suggesting that conspicuity is not simply constrained by developmental factors such as differences in the chemical composition of the integument. Aposematism does not preclude the signalling role of conspicuous spines in the sexual arena.

  15. Cultural differences between construction professionals in Denmark and United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, M.R.

    /Building Surveyors in relation to the Services Procurement Directive of the European Union. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken in order to develop a cultural profiling model and methods for the building sector to help identify areas of potential conflicts. The report is aimed at construction......This report presents the results of an investigation into cultural differences between professional members of the construction sector of Denmark and the United Kingdom. In particular it refers to differences between Arkitekter/Architects, Civilingeniører/Civil Engineers and Bygningskonstruktører...

  16. Nuclear power plant life extension in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodison, D.; Seddon, J.W.; Pape, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The safety cases for the United Kingdom's older nuclear power plant have been reviewed by their utilities in order to justify continued operation of the reactors up to an age of at least 30 year. These 'long term safety reviews' have identified worthwhile plant modifications and aspects where further studies or plant inspections are required. As the plants approach the age of 30 years, 'life extension reviews' are now being undertaken, concentrating on management of ageing, to support operation to at least 40 years. (author)

  17. Chernobyl: response of medical physics departments in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, J K

    1986-01-01

    This conference drew attention to gaps in United Kingdom arrangements for dealing with the effects (both supposed and real) of accidents at civil nuclear installations on the populations which surround them; it showed how, in the case of the Chernobyl accident, Medical Physicists in the National Health Service responded to plug these gaps in spite of the organisational difficulties which the crisis presented; and it suggested a method of incorporating this hitherto underestimated resource into national planning for civil nuclear accidents. Reports are included from Newcastle, Charing Cross Hospital, The London Hospital, Cambridge, Westminster Hospital, Leeds, Liverpool, Cardiff, Canterbury, Swansea (environmental measurements) and Mount Vernon.

  18. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  19. Nuclear energy and education in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that sources of energy for a country must be dependable and their use from the production of the basic fuel to the disposal of the wastes should be up to standards which people can understand and accept. In the United Kingdom, the educational system is the source of basic information on sources of energy that are available and which sources are currently being developed to supply present and future energy needs. THe author provides a synopsis of educational techniques and materials which are used to educate the public about nuclear energy production

  20. COMPARISON OF REHABILITATION POLICIES IN LITHUANIA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Jankauskienė

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the formation, implementation and evaluation of rehabilitation policy in Lithuania and the United Kingdom through a comparative analysis and two empirical sociological qualitative studies. The following scientific problematic issues were raised: what is the situation in the field of rehabilitation policy formation, development and assessment in the historical perspective in Lithuania and the United Kingdom, what are the advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of rehabilitation policy in Lithuania and the UK, and what are the possibilities to change and improve the formation and implementation of rehabilitation policy. A comparative analysis of the principles of development, financing, legal regulation, advantages and disadvantages has been carried out, using scientific publications, reports, publications of foreign research papers, legal acts as well as qualitative researches of experts in Lithuania and the United Kingdom. Rehabilitation policies have been found to have similarities in the United Kingdom and Lithuania, but they are quite different as well. Lithuania developed its rehabilitation policy in a relatively short time in all areas of development amid a rapidly changing environment, with effective legal regulation, ambitious measures and limited resources. The United Kingdom’s rehabilitation policy has a much longer history; it changed in many ways to adapt to the needs of patients and society. It is based on the approach to the patient as an individual having a particular disorder, and the rehabilitation system promotes an individual rehab program in which the patient is an active participant and can even contribute to the plan, select services they need, and control the rehabilitation budget assigned to them. The system of rehabilitation policy between Lithuania and the UK varies considerably. In the UK, the focus is on the improvement of rehabilitation policy, working with communities, introducing

  1. Factors influencing Patients' Utilization of Dental Health Services in Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Faeq A; Jafari, Fatimahi Am; Albeshri, Alanood Ts; Zailai, Abdulaziz M

    2018-01-01

    One way of prevention and early detection of oral diseases is by utilizing the dental health care services on a regular basis. The current study aims to know the factors that play a role in influencing the dental service utilization in Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was designed and implemented. Study subjects comprised of patients visiting the dental clinics at Jazan University and the primary dental centers of five different suburbs in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Items in the questionnaire were grouped into three sections; "demographic details," "self-reported dental visits," and "potential factors" contributing to dental visits. Chi-square p-value of 0.05 or less was considered as significant and logistic regression with 95% confidence interval (CI) was performed to get more precise results. The sample size was 395 (N) of which 44.8% were males and 53.4% were females. Less than half (45.8%) of the studied sample reported that their last visit to a dentist was within a span of one year and 33% of them think that a dentist should only be visited if they experience pain. Patients following instructions given by a dentist were 7 times [odds ratio (OR) = 0.13; CI = 0.04, 0.40] less likely to miss their regular dental appointments. Following this, patients receiving knowledge on their dental problems were seen to be twice (OR = 0.50; CI = 0.25, 0.98) less likely to be irregular with their dental visits. Finally, the patients who are better educated and literate were also 2 times (OR = 2.21; CI = 1.14, 4.28) more likely to be regular with their dental appointments in comparison with the patients who completed just their primary level education. Findings of this study will facilitate future oral health prevention programs to be more focused, thereby reducing the gap between high and low educated sectors of the population residing in Jazan. How to cite this article: Quadri FA, Jafari FAM

  2. Epidemiology and outcomes of pregnancy and obstetric complications in trauma in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaloglu, Emir; McDonnell, Declan; Chu, Justin; Lecky, Fiona; Porter, Keith

    2016-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of pregnancy and obstetric complications encountered in the management of pregnant trauma patients. Retrospective analysis of national trauma registry for recording of pregnancy status or obstetric complication in cases of trauma. Sub-division of patient cohort by severity of trauma and stage of pregnancy. Comparison of data sets between pregnant trauma patients and age-matched non-pregnant female trauma patients to determine patterns of injury and impact upon clinical outcomes. National registry data for the United Kingdom. For the five year period between 2009 and 2014, a total of 15,140 female patients, aged between 15 years old and 50 years old were identified within the trauma registry. A record of pregnancy was identified in 173 patients (1.14%) from within this cohort. Mechanisms of injury within the cohort of pregnant trauma patients saw increased rate of vehicular collision and interpersonal violence, especially penetrating trauma. Higher abbreviated injury scores were recorded for the abdominal region in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant cohort. Maternal mortality rates were seen to be higher, when compared with the non-pregnant trauma patient. Foetal survival rate from this series was 56% following trauma. Foetal death in pregnant trauma patients most frequently occurred in the 2nd trimester. No cases of isolated foetal survival were recorded following maternal trauma. Trauma to pregnant patients is rare in the United Kingdom, encountered in 1% of female trauma patients of child bearing age. Observations in altered mechanisms of injury and clinical outcomes were recorded. This provides useful information regarding the clinical management of pregnant trauma patients and offers potential areas to investigate to optimise their care, as well as to focus injury prevention measures. IV--Case series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  4. Determining prevalence of maltreatment among children in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, M A; Saleheen, H N; AlMadani, S; AlBuhairan, F S; Weber, A; Fluke, J D; Almuneef, M; Casillas, K L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the overall prevalence rates for the major forms of abuse among adolescents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the differences in prevalence by age, gender and living arrangement. The cross-sectional study was conducted in secondary high schools in five of the 13 main regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2012. Through a multistage stratified sampling technique, a sample (n = 16 939) of adolescents (15-19 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Child was used for data collection. The previous year's occurrence of violence exposure, psychological, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect were assessed. Nearly 90% of the adolescents were between 16 and 18 years of age, and over 80% were cared for by both of their biological parents. Annual prevalence of various forms of abuse in the year before the 2012 assessment ranged between 0.10 and 0.65, with the lowest rate for sexual abuse and the highest for psychological abuse. Significantly, greater rates of all forms of abuse/exposure were found when participants lived with their mother or father only (versus with both), and even greater rates for all when they lived with their biological parent and a step-parent. Rates for violence exposure, psychological abuse and neglect were significantly greater for girls, and rate of sexual abuse was greater for boys. More attention should be given to the effect of adolescent maltreatment particularly among girls. In addition, sexual abuse prevention programme should be targeted among boys. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mobilising for marine wind energy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, the United Kingdom has enthusiastically adopted marine wind energy as a potentially major source of electricity production and has become the leading nation in terms of output. This is in contrast to its relatively poor attainment of wind energy on land, and raises questions about the reasons for this difference in performance. This article traces the phases of development of marine wind energy in the UK with reference to factors that are instrumental in the uptake of this form of renewable energy. A number of features emerge from this analysis that stand in some contrast to the situation on land and help to explain the UK's current status. These include: recognition of an exceptional resource and relative ease of exploitation; government commitment and policy geared to controlled growth and strategic oversight, adequate economic support and start-up investment; the unusual rights and interests of the Crown Estate; and growing scale, confidence and organisation on the part of the industry. Set against these factors are the complexities of consenting, supply bottlenecks, and some stakeholder and public resistance, though these are outmatched by the drivers in favour of development and are being partly addressed. - Highlights: → The United Kingdom is demonstrating enthusiastic commitment to marine wind energy. → The features contributing to marine wind energy growth are analysed. → The UK has unique factors favouring the uptake of marine wind energy. → UK policy is geared to controlled growth and strategic oversight. → The Crown Estate's seabed rights and interests are a driver in implementation.

  6. Atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgul, Askin; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Gioia, Rosalinda; Crosse, John; Earnshaw, Mark; Ratola, Nuno; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of PBDEs has been studied in the atmosphere of four sites in the United Kingdom over a period of ten years. The concentrations have exhibited a sharp decrease after 2001–2003. This is evident in the urban sites of Manchester and London and at the semi-rural site of Hazelrigg. The average ΣPBDE half-lives for these three sites were 3.4, 2.0 and 3.5 years respectively. ΣPBDEs concentrations in the UK (in 2010 ΣPBDEs −3 ) are among the lowest reported in literature. Comparison of concentrations to estimated emissions and employment of PBDE profiles suggest that PBDEs in the UK atmosphere originate from primary emissions from products that contain mainly the penta-BDE technical mixture. The detection of BDE-183 in the majority of samples hints that octa-bromodiphenylether has also been used extensively in the UK, however to a smaller extent than the penta- product. PBDE levels have declined in the United Kingdom since 2000 in a manner that broadly supports national atmospheric emissions inventories.

  7. Indole: An evolutionarily conserved influencer of behavior across kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Wu, Guoyao; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Wood, Thomas K; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2017-02-01

    Indole is a key environmental cue that is used by many organisms. Based on its biochemistry, we suggest indole is used so universally, and by such different organisms, because it derives from the metabolism of tryptophan, a resource essential for many species yet rare in nature. These properties make it a valuable, environmental cue for resources almost universally important for promoting fitness. We then describe how indole is used to coordinate actions within organisms, to influence the behavior of conspecifics and can even be used to change the behavior of species that belong to other kingdoms. Drawing on the evolutionary framework that has been developed for understanding animal communication, we show how this is diversely achieved by indole acting as a cue, a manipulative signal, and an honest signal, as well as how indole can be used synergistically to amplify information conveyed by other molecules. Clarifying these distinct functions of indole identifies patterns that transcend different kingdoms of organisms. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A pragmatic pairwise group-decision method for selection of sites for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pragmatic pairwise group-decision approach is applied to compare two regions in order to select the more suitable one for construction of nulcear power plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The selection methodology is based on pairwise comparison by forced choice. The method facilitates rating of the regions or sites using simple calculations. Two regions, one close to Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf and another close to Jeddah on the Red Sea, are evaluated. No specific site in either region is considered at this stage. The comparison is based on a set of selection criteria which include (i) topography, (ii) geology, (iii) seismology, (iv) meteorology, (v) oceanography, (vi) hydrology and (vii) proximetry to oil and gas fields. The comparison shows that the Jeddah region is more suitable than the Dhahran region. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7006 - Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Value added tax exclusion... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7006 Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(f), use the following clause: Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997...

  11. The application of burnup credit for spent fuel operations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper begins by outlining the structure of the nuclear industry in the United Kingdom. It then sets out the methodology of burnup credit, and provides a brief discussion of the validation and robustness of the calculational route. This leads to a description of both the current and intended applications of burnup credit in the United Kingdom. (author)

  12. Supporting Minority Ethnic Children and Adolescents with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Difficulties in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The author addresses the mental health needs of ethnic minority children and young people in the United Kingdom and the services that are provided to support them. The author discusses the complex and distinctive pattern of ethnic minority distribution in the United Kingdom, along with a consideration of what is known about the mental health of…

  13. A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE ONLINE SPORTS BETTING INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman, Ville

    2015-01-01

    A strategic assessment of the sports betting industry in the United Kingdom. The dissertation focuses on the field of strategic management, through which it tries to identify the competitive advantage of three operators in the United Kingdom online sports betting market; Betfair Group plc, Bet365 and William Hill plc.

  14. Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged. United Kingdom-based vegetarians and

  15. Regionalization for uncertainty reduction in flows in ungauged basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.; Deckers, Dave L.E.H.; Rientjes, Tom H.M.; Krol, Martinus S.; Boegh, Eva; Kunstmann, Harald; Wagener, Thorsten; Hall, Alan; Bastidas, Luis; Franks, Stewart; Gupta, Hoshin; Rosbjerg, Dan; Schaake, John

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to contribute to the reduction of predictive uncertainty in flows in ungauged basins through application of a regionalization method to 56 well-gauged basins in the United Kingdom. The classical approach of regionalization is adopted, where regression relationships

  16. Conservation of Planar Polarity Pathway Function Across the Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rosalind; Strutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Planar polarity is a well-studied phenomenon resulting in the directional coordination of cells in the plane of a tissue. In invertebrates and vertebrates, planar polarity is established and maintained by the largely independent core and Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed (Ft-Ds-Fj) pathways. Loss of function of these pathways can result in a wide range of developmental or cellular defects, including failure of gastrulation and problems with placement and function of cilia. This review discusses the conservation of these pathways across the animal kingdom. The lack of vital core pathway components in basal metazoans suggests that the core planar polarity pathway evolved shortly after, but not necessarily alongside, the emergence of multicellularity.

  17. A regulatory view of containment integrity in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, P M; Patchett, C M [Health and Safety Executive, Bootle (United Kingdom). Nuclear Installations Inspectorate

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the approach of HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to containment integrity in the United Kingdom (UK). NII is that part of the regulatory authority, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), which administers the UK`s nuclear site licensing system. A major part of the licensing process lies in the assessment of licensees` submissions for new and existing plant. The purpose of this paper is to: briefly review our revised Safety Assessment Principles, describe our assessment and inspection activities on the primary containment building of the Sizewell B PWR which is progressing to full power operation in 1994 and, to indicate our views on the possible directions for future research into containment design and performance. (author). 5 refs.

  18. Alcohol and economic development: Observations on the kingdom of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Dorji, Gampo; Dalton, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Bhutan is a small country undergoing rapid social change arising from income growth, urbanisation and Western cultural influence. Markers of poverty, namely infectious disease and infant mortality, have improved dramatically. The attention of health authorities is now focused on the non-communicable disease and injury burdens, to which alcohol consumption is a major contributor. The paper draws on official data to characterise the consumption of alcohol and related harm, and the nature of the alcohol market, with commentary on crucial aspects of availability policies and drink-driving regulation that need reform. Kypri K, Dorji G, Dalton C. Alcohol and economic development: Observations on the kingdom of Bhutan. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:333ȃ336.]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. The management of household hazardous waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2009-01-01

    Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU) Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  1. A regulatory view of containment integrity in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, P.M.; Patchett, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach of HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to containment integrity in the United Kingdom (UK). NII is that part of the regulatory authority, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), which administers the UK's nuclear site licensing system. A major part of the licensing process lies in the assessment of licensees' submissions for new and existing plant. The purpose of this paper is to: briefly review our revised Safety Assessment Principles, describe our assessment and inspection activities on the primary containment building of the Sizewell B PWR which is progressing to full power operation in 1994 and, to indicate our views on the possible directions for future research into containment design and performance. (author). 5 refs

  2. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, D.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  3. The struggle against climate change in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    As the United Kingdom has been the first country in the world to adopt a law to struggle against climate change, The Climate Change Act 2008, which specifies a 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), this report propose an overview of the actions implemented by this country in the political, economical, and technological fields to struggle against climate change. The various organisations and political institutions concerned by this struggle are presented (governmental organisations and institutions, non governmental institutions). The content of the Climate Change Act is described: definitions of constraints and requirements, carbon reduction commitment (CRC), carbon budgets, systems and programmes dealing with energy production (Renewable Obligation, household energy supplier obligations), with firms (Climate Change Levy, Climate Change Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowances), with transports (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme), with buildings (Low Carbon Building Programme, Home Energy Saving Programme), with research and communication. Then, discussing the economy of climate change, this report comments the content of the Stern report, the reactions about it, and the economical consequences of struggle against climate change. These consequences can be drawbacks (increase of energy costs, inequalities of abilities to face transition costs, loss of international competitiveness) or benefits. The consequences of the economical crisis are also briefly discussed, as well as the consequences of the solutions to this crisis. The third part of this report gives an overview of the low carbon engineering and technology in the United Kingdom in the energy sector (renewable energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage) and in the transport sector. The last part comments the objectives of the 2009 Copenhagen conference

  4. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  5. Fast-reactor fuel reprocessing in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Buck, C.; Williams, J.

    1977-01-01

    Enriched uranium metal fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor has been reprocessed and refabricated in plants specifically designed for the purpose in the United Kingdom since 1961. Efficient and reliable fuel recycle is essential to the development of a plutonium-based fast-reactor system, and the importance of establishing at an early stage fast-reactor fuel reprocessing has been reinforced by current world difficulties in reprocessing high-burnup thermal-reactor oxide fuel. The United Kingdom therefore decided to reprocess irradiated fuel from the 250MW(e) Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) as an integral part of the fast reactor development programme. Flowsheet and equipment development work for the small-scale fully active demonstration plant has been carried out since 1972, and the plant will be commissioned and ready for active operation during 1977. In parallel, a comprehensive waste-management system has been developed and installed. Based on this development work and the information which will arise from active operation of the plant, a parallel development programme has been initiated to provide the basis for the design of a large-scale fast-reactor fuel-reprocessing plant to come into operation in the late 1980s to support the projected UK fast-reactor installation programme. The paper identifies the important differences between fast-reactor and thermal-reactor fuel-reprocessing technologies and describes some of the development work carried out in these areas for the small-scale PFR fuel-reprocessing operation. In addition, the development programme in aid of the design of a larger scale fast-reactor fuel-reprocessing plant is outlined and the current design philosophy discussed. (author)

  6. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  7. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  8. The Evolution of Teleophthalmology Programs in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Dawn A.; Mitry, Danny; Alexander, Philip; Mapani, Adam; Goverdhan, Srini; Aslam, Tariq; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A.; Keane, Pearse A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern ophthalmic practice in the United Kingdom is faced by the challenges of an aging population, increasing prevalence of systemic pathologies with ophthalmic manifestations, and emergent treatments that are revolutionary but dependent on timely monitoring and diagnosis. This represents a huge strain not only on diagnostic services but also outpatient management and surveillance capacity. There is an urgent need for newer means of managing this surge in demand and the socioeconomic burden it places on the health care system. Concurrently, there have been exponential increases in computing power, expansions in the strength and ubiquity of communications technologies, and developments in imaging capabilities. Advances in imaging have been not only in terms of resolution, but also in terms of anatomical coverage, allowing new inferences to be made. In spite of this, image analysis techniques are still currently superseded by expert ophthalmologist interpretation. Teleophthalmology is therefore currently perfectly placed to face this urgent and immediate challenge of provision of optimal and expert care to remote and multiple patients over widespread geographical areas. This article reviews teleophthalmology programs currently deployed in the United Kingdom, focusing on diabetic eye care but also discussing glaucoma, emergency eye care, and other retinal diseases. We examined current programs and levels of evidence for their utility, and explored the relationships between screening, teleophthalmology, disease detection, and monitoring before discussing aspects of health economics pertinent to diabetic eye care. The use of teleophthalmology presents an immense opportunity to manage the steadily increasing demand for eye care, but challenges remain in the delivery of practical, viable, and clinically proven solutions. PMID:26830492

  9. Trammel net size-selectivity for Hipposcarus harid (Forsskål, 1775 and Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775 in coral reef fisheries of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hosny Gabr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the size-selectivity of Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus harak caught in monofilament trammel nets of 50, 56, and 62 mm inner-panel mesh sizes. Fishing was carried out in the coral reef fisheries of Jeddah during the period from June 2013 to March 2014. The selectivity parameters were calculated using the SELECT method implemented in Pasgear 2 software. The normal location, normal scale, log-normal, gamma and bi-modal selectivity models were fitted to the data to estimate the selectivity curves. Results indicated that the log-normal model provided the best fit based on the lowest deviance value. Modal lengths estimated from the log-normal selectivity curves are: 19.73, 22.10, and 24.46 cm for H. harid, 18.41, 20.62, and 22.83 cm for L. harak caught with 50, 56 and 62 mm inner-panel mesh sizes, respectively. The length–girth relationship was estimated and described by the linear equation: G = 0.480 + 0.70 L (r2 = 0.95 for H. harid, and G = 0.73 L − 0.65 (r2 = 0.96 for L. harak. For proper management of H. harid and L. harak, the minimum inner-panel mesh size should be 62 mm to catch fish sizes larger than the length at maturity for both species.

  10. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  11. Fluid flow in crystalline rocks: Relationships between groundwater spring alignments and other surface lineations at Altnabreac, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, N.R.; McEwen, T.J.; Lee, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strath Halladale Granite in the region around Altnabreac, northern Scotland, United Kingdom, has been studied with a view to establishing a relationship between the regional distribution of faults and fracture zones, surface discharges of groundwater, and groundwater flow systems. A major component of the groundwater flow is through the rock fractures. Because of the extensive superficial cover the surface expression of major fractures was difficult to identify from the limited surface exposures. Geophysical surveys and aerial photography enabled the authors to define lineations which could be related to the presence of fractures. The areal distribution of groundwater spring discharges was mapped using thermal infrared line scan techniques. The distribution of these springs has been studied to assess their relationships to surface lineaments and to correlations with geophysical and fracture mapping data. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  12. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE ZULU KINGDOM: THE CIVIL WAR IN ZULULAND 1879-1884

    OpenAIRE

    D.H. Makobe

    2012-01-01

    The Destruction of the Zulu Kingdom: The civil war in Zululand 1879-1884, was originally submitted as a Ph.D dissertation in History at the University of London in 1975.Professor Jeff Guy, a well known historian on Zulu history and the present head of the History Department at the University of Natal, Durban branch has divided his work into three main parts. In the first part, entitled the "Invasion" he details the foundations of the Zulu Kingdom, the political structure of the Kingdom during...

  13. The keys of the kingdom as paradigm for building up the church in reformed church government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. le R. du Plooy

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an ecclesiological approach and concentrates on the prominent concepts the keys of the kingdom and building up the church. The article attempts to determine the significance those concepts may have for the government of the church and emphasises the close relationship between the keys of the kingdom and the building up of the church. According to Reformational viewpoints the administering of the keys serves the edification of the church. It becomes clear that the notae ecclesiae and the keys of the kingdom function as the basic elements of the church order and must be regarded as the basis or pillars upon which the church is built.

  14. Review of registration requirements for new part-time doctors in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Sharon; Dovey, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    By the time medical students graduate many wish to work part-time while accommodating other lifestyle interests. To review flexibility of medical registration requirements for provisional registrants in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada. Internet-based review of registration bodies of each country, and each state or province in Australia and Canada, supplemented by emails and phone calls seeking clarification of missing or obscure information. Data from 20 regions were examined. Many similarities were found between study countries in their approaches to the registration of new doctors, although there are some regional differences. Most regions (65%) have a provisional registration period of one year. Extending this period was possible in 91% of regions. Part-time options were possible in 75% of regions. All regions required trainees to work in approved practice settings. Only the UK provided comprehensive documentation of their requirements in an accessible format and clearly explaining the options for part-time work. Australia appeared to be more flexible than other countries with respect to part- and full-time work requirements. All countries need to examine their registration requirements to introduce more flexibility wherever possible, as a strategy for addressing workforce shortages.

  15. Monitoring of radon gas in caves of the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langridge, D; Stokes, R P; Jackson, C P

    2010-01-01

    A number of vocational training courses are held in caves in the Yorkshire Dales region of the United Kingdom. The instructors and students involved in these courses have the potential to be exposed to enhanced levels of radon ( 222 Rn) and its progeny as a result of their occupations. A prior radiological risk assessment for the training courses recommended that an environmental monitoring programme be carried out to establish the radon concentrations in the caves, and that the caving instructors wear personal radon dosemeters. Radon gas concentrations varied seasonally, being at their highest in summer and their lowest in winter. The lowest result was 40 Bq m -3 recorded in Lower Longchurn cave during winter, whilst the highest result was 4440 Bq m -3 recorded in Crackpot cave during the summer. As the individuals involved in the caving are entering atmospheres with radon gas concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 , the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (GB Parliament 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (London: Stationary Office) SI 1999/3232) apply. A system of work is therefore in place to control exposure to radon. This system of work stipulates an initial dose investigation level of 1 mSv, a second dose investigation level of 2 mSv and an annual dose limit of 6 mSv. The highest annual dose recorded to date is 2.2 mSv, although the average (median) annual dose is only 0.5 mSv.

  16. The Paradox of Happiness: Health and Human Rights in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Meier, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Averi

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction." Under this development paradigm of Gross National Happiness, the Bhutanese health system meets select normative foundations of the right to health, seeking to guarantee the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care and underlying determinants of health. However, where Bhutan continues to restrict the rights of minority populations-failing to address the ways in which human rights are indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated-additional reforms will be necessary to realize the right to health. Given the continuing prevalence of minority rights violations in the region, this study raises research questions for comparative studies in other rights-denying national contexts and advocacy approaches to advance principles of non-discrimination, participation, and accountability through health policy.

  17. Prescription medication by physiotherapists: a Brazilian view of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valton da Silva Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Many health systems (HS have adopted novel models of care which have included non-medical prescription (NMP by physiotherapists. The aim of this study was to verify in the literature the existence of this practice and its possible benefits. A literature review was carried out through search on Science Direct, PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar, and in the World Confederation for Physical Therapy and Chartered Society of Physiotherapy websites. In recent decades the United Kingdom adopted the NMP for health professionals, followed by Canada. In Australia and New Zealand physiotherapists have acted in the prescription and administration of medications under medical orders, which is the first step into independent prescription. Brazilian physiotherapists cannot prescribe any medication, despite of high demands from patients in the Brazilian HS, shortage of physicians in many regions and bureaucracy in accessing health services. The adoption of NMP by physiotherapists may play an important role in the HS, and it seems to be an inevitable achievement in the next years in Australia and New Zealand. The main benefits include decreasing bureaucracy for assistance, population demands for medication as well as major professional refinement.

  18. Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sujata; Rollins, Madeline G; Fuchs, Gabriele; Procter, Dean J; Hall, Elizabeth A; Cozzolino, Kira; Sarnow, Peter; Savas, Jeffrey N; Walsh, Derek

    2017-06-29

    Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses. These modified residues cluster in an extended loop in RACK1, phosphorylation of which selects for translation of viral or reporter mRNAs with 5' untranslated regions that contain adenosine repeats, so-called polyA-leaders. Structural and phylogenetic analyses revealed that although RACK1 is highly conserved, this loop is variable and contains negatively charged amino acids in plants, in which these leaders act as translational enhancers. Phosphomimetics and inter-species chimaeras have shown that negative charge in the RACK1 loop dictates ribosome selectivity towards viral RNAs. By converting human RACK1 to a charged, plant-like state, poxviruses remodel host ribosomes so that adenosine repeats erroneously generated by slippage of the viral RNA polymerase confer a translational advantage. Our findings provide insight into ribosome customization through trans-kingdom mimicry and the mechanics of species-specific leader activity that underlie poxvirus polyA-leaders.

  19. National survey to evaluate musuloskeletal health in retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T O; de Medici, A; Oduoza, U; Hakim, A; Paton, B; Retter, G; Haddad, F S; Macgregor, A

    2017-01-01

    To explore the musculoskeletal health of retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom (UK). Online national survey. Retired professional ballet dancers living in the UK. The survey explored: what musculoskeletal injuries or diseases are experienced by retired professional ballet dancers; which anatomical regions were affected by musculoskeletal injuries or diseases in retired professional ballet dancers; whether ballet dancers were forced to retire from professional ballet due to musculoskeletal injuries or disease. Forty-six retired ballet dancers responded. Thirty-six percent (n = 17) of respondents reported retiring from ballet due to musculoskeletal injury. The median age when respondents retired from professional ballet was 29 years. The most common issues that caused people to retire were hip and back pain (25%; n = 9 respectively), followed by hamstring injuries, ankle injuries, cervical spine injuries, and anterior knee pain (13% respectively; n = 5). Ninety-one percent (n = 42) reported experiencing muscle and joint pain post-retirement. Musculoskeletal pain and disease was a problem for respondents in this study. Further investigation is needed to define the problem, so management can be examined. Comparing performance and training regimes to injury rates in professional dancers, and then following these cohorts into retirement, would increase knowledge on this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The attitude of the state sphere towards singing associations in Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial dependence of singing societies in the state of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia is particularly analyzed in the paper, with a view to pointing to problems which hindered the advancement of music culture in the civil society. As other similar institutions of civic type, choirs did not have at their disposal sufficient financial, social and symbolic capital independent of the state, so they did not possess the power to influence on the government authorities. Although the period between World Wars brought evident improvement in the state treatment of music institutions, it could not be interpreted as a fundamental shift. The treatment of the Yugoslav singing union (Južnoslovenski pevački savez, which fought for promotion of music culture in the Yugoslav society, is particularly indicative. This largest music organization in the country, fostering ideology of integral Yugoslavism, strived to contribute to ethnic and social cohesion of different regions through singing. In its plans for improving singing practice this organization exhibited a clear vision for activism in favor of the nation and state, but the state authorities did not know how or did not desire to make use of it. Certain information suggests indolent and at times negative, discouraging attitude of authorities towards different ways of improvement of music practice, both art and society wise, which opens a new horizon for future studies and for better comprehension of contemporary problems as well.

  1. The management of animal bites in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeniou, E; Markeson, D; Iyer, S; Armstrong, A

    2013-01-01

    Animal bites represent a significant global health issue. The evidence in the literature regarding their management in many areas is conflicting and unclear. This project attempts to identify current evidence in the literature on the management of animal bites and assess if current practice in the United Kingdom is evidence based. A literature review on the management of animal bites was performed, and a national UK survey was contacted using a questionnaire based on the available evidence in the literature. The results from this survey show that 98% of plastic surgery units routinely use prophylactic antibiotics in all animal bite wounds; 58% close low-risk injuries primarily after initial washout, and there are conflicting opinions regarding the management of associated fractures and soft tissue injuries. The available data in the literature suggest that appropriate wound management is the most important factor for prevention of infection in animal bites. Antibiotic prophylaxis should only be given in high-risk wounds and primary closure should be performed in low-risk wounds. The management protocols of many plastic surgery units often diverge from the available evidence within the literature. On the basis of a thorough literature review, a guideline for the management of animal bites is presented. Future studies should investigate the management of associated fractures and soft tissue injuries.

  2. Darwinian sex roles confirmed across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Tim; Häderer, Ines K; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Anthes, Nils

    2016-02-01

    Since Darwin's conception of sexual selection theory, scientists have struggled to identify the evolutionary forces underlying the pervasive differences between male and female behavior, morphology, and physiology. The Darwin-Bateman paradigm predicts that anisogamy imposes stronger sexual selection on males, which, in turn, drives the evolution of conventional sex roles in terms of female-biased parental care and male-biased sexual dimorphism. Although this paradigm forms the cornerstone of modern sexual selection theory, it still remains untested across the animal tree of life. This lack of evidence has promoted the rise of alternative hypotheses arguing that sex differences are entirely driven by environmental factors or chance. We demonstrate that, across the animal kingdom, sexual selection, as captured by standard Bateman metrics, is indeed stronger in males than in females and that it is evolutionarily tied to sex biases in parental care and sexual dimorphism. Our findings provide the first comprehensive evidence that Darwin's concept of conventional sex roles is accurate and refute recent criticism of sexual selection theory.

  3. Providing Radiation Protection Experts in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.; Owen, D.

    2004-01-01

    The EEC Directive on Qualified Experts in Radiation Protection has been implemented in the United Kingdom by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99). These Regulations require Radiation Employers to appoint suitable Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) who must be consulted in certain circumstances when starting work with, or using ionising radiations. Radiation Protection Advisers have to have a current certificate of competence and, to gain one of these, must have demonstrated their competence in one of two ways either by achieving a National Vocational Qualification in Radiation Protection Practice or by being Certificated by an Assessing Body. Assessing Bodies have to be recognised by the Health and Safety Executive, who undertake a rigorous assessment process to determine whether the proposed Assessing Body is fit to undertake RPA Assessments. By July 2003, only two such Assessing Bodies had been approved in the UK. These two Assessing Bodies are ? RPA 2000 a company established by the four leading Radiation Protection Professional Societies in the UK for assessing anyone in the UK as Radiation Protection Advisers, And ? BNFL established by BNFL to assess the competence of BNFL's own Radiation Protection Advisers. This paper will describe the standards against which Radiation Protection Advisers are assessed, the manner in which each of these two Assessing Bodies carry out the assessment process and their experience to date. The way in which Radiation Employers carry out the appointment process will also be described. Potential future developments of the Assessment Process and standards will also be discussed. (Author)

  4. Radioactivity and United Kingdom estuaries: an overview identifying research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.

    1985-05-01

    The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)

  5. Medical leadership and management in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratsis, Yiannis; Armit, Kirsten; Zyada, Azra; Lees, Peter

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to outline the historical development of medical leadership in the United Kingdom (UK), present recent advances, and discuss professional development and future prospects. With increasing involvement of medical professionals in top managerial roles in the UK over the last 30 years, leadership development initiatives have been growing steadily and there is increasing recognition of the need for leadership and management skills for doctors. Such skills can help to greatly improve patient care as well as enhance organisational effectiveness and productivity. The central involvement of professional bodies such as the UK Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management, and the establishment of medical fellowship schemes, have provided a solid foundation for a new generation of aspiring medical leaders but there is still a long way to go to achieve a higher degree of professionalism for clinical leadership in the UK. The evidence base is weak such that integrated efforts by clinicians and management academics have much to offer in achieving the vision of socially responsible, clinically relevant and research informed medical leadership training. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Edmunds, W John

    2008-07-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls against human papillomavirus infection in the United Kingdom. Economic evaluation. UK. Population Schoolgirls aged 12 or older. Costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios for a range of vaccination options. Vaccinating 12 year old schoolgirls with a quadrivalent vaccine at 80% coverage is likely to be cost effective at a willingness to pay threshold of pound30,000 (euro37,700; $59,163) per QALY gained, if the average duration of protection from the vaccine is more than 10 years. Implementing a catch-up campaign of girls up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective. Vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost effective. A bivalent vaccine with the same efficacy against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 costing pound13- pound21 less per dose (depending on the duration of vaccine protection) may be as cost effective as the quadrivalent vaccine although less effective as it does not prevent anogenital warts. Routine vaccination of 12 year old schoolgirls combined with an initial catch-up campaign up to age 18 is likely to be cost effective in the UK. The results are robust to uncertainty in many parameters and processes. A key influential variable is the duration of vaccine protection.

  7. The renewable energies market in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    Targets for renewable energies in the United Kingdom (U.K.) have been set at 10 per cent of the total electricity produced by 2010. Out of a total annual consumption of 364 000 GWh, renewable energies now provide 2.8 per cent of the electricity in the U.K. As a result, market growth over the next decade is expected to reach 250 per cent. Several specific new regulations have also been introduced to support these targets. U.K. electricity supply companies must now set percentages from renewable sources, and new fiscal measures penalizing fossil-fuel consumption while promoting renewables are included in these new regulations. Extra funding to support renewables research and development, pilot and demonstration projects, marketing and dissemination activities to increase renewables take-up in the country has been earmarked. Renewables application in the filed of transportation fuels has been identified. Duty cuts on biodiesel fuel were made following the recent Green Fuel Challenge consultation exercise. Once demonstration projects are proposed, additional duty cuts for other biofuels might be made. There should be considerable expansion of the U.K. renewables market. Biomass, for primary energy and transportation fuels, offshore wind, small-scale hydro and photovoltaics (PVs) are all sectors where opportunities exist. Fuel cell and wave/tidal technologies are likely to show some promise once they make it to the commercial/mass production phase. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  8. United Kingdom procedures in case of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalfont, L.

    1988-01-01

    From the United Kingdom experience, general principles for establishing emergency plans are drawn. Every country with nuclear plant should have such emergency arrangements capable of dealing with the largest scale that can be envisaged as a practical possibility. While the effects of accidents cannot be anticipated in detail these plans should form a good flexible basis for providing the resources, communications and procedures that are likely to be needed. They encompass the administrative infrastructure of the area surrounding the nuclear installation and involve co-ordination with the police, fire services and ambulance services, the local and county authorities, the authorities responsible for food, agriculture, fisheries and water, and the health authorities including hospitals and medical services. Special training and procedures have to be established for the personnel that are involved and exercises graduating from the exercising of special procedures to large scale simulated accidents need to be carried out periodically. Good communication systems have to be established between the nuclear installations, the operational support centres or equivalent, the field and headquarters units of the relevant organizations, and the central government departments so that whatever additional resources and support are needed can be marshalled quickly and efficiently. (author)

  9. Flavonoids and Melanins: a common strategy across two kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Giorgia; Nervo, Giuseppe; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiations alter a number of metabolic functions in vivant. They produce damages to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins, generating reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen (O2), hydroxyl radical (HO) and superoxide anion (O2 (-)). Plants and animals, after their water emersion, have developed biochemical mechanisms to protect themselves from that environmental threat through a common strategy. Melanins in animals and flavonoids in plants are antioxidant pigments acting as free radical scavenging mechanisms. Both are phenol compounds constitutively synthesized and enhanced after exposure to UV rays, often conferring a red-brown-dark tissue pigmentation. Noteworthy, beside anti-oxidant scavenging activity, melanins and flavonoids have acquired secondary functions that, both in plants and animals, concern reproductions and fitness. Plants highly pigmented are more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Darker wild vertebrates are generally more aggressive, sexually active and resistant to stress than lighter individuals. Flavonoids have been associated with signal attraction between flowers and insects and with plant-plant interaction. Melanin pigmentation has been proposed as trait in bird communication, acting as honest signals of quality. This review shows how the molecular mechanisms leading to tissue pigmentation have many functional analogies between plants and animals and how their origin lies in simpler organisms such as Cyanobacteria. Comparative studies between plant and animal kingdoms can reveal new insight of the antioxidant strategies in vivant.

  10. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1989-09-01

    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.

  11. Civil gymnastics associations and sports in the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enable insight and systemization of data relevant for the appearance of sports in the Kingdom of Serbia through reviews of adequate monographs and series of publications. Primary assumption was founded on the expectation to determine a direct link between gymnastics and the falcon system of exercising with sports that was rising. The historic method has been used for the research. Work results indicate a significant role of civil gymnastics associations - falcons (the falcon and knight (Dusan the Mighty as a phenomenon in popularization and development of modern sports at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Serbia. All these associations, no matter what their name was, had intentions to maintain their existing and attract new membership, and they foresaw with their rules and statutes acceptance and the introduction of other sports activities and forming of clubs, apart from gymnastics which was the skeleton of exercising curriculum. Newly founded gymnastics - sports departments in fighting, marksmanship, skating, riding, swimming, rowing, velocipede, football developed and grew into sports clubs. Their separation from core gymnastics associations enabled faster development of individual sports branches, which stood for the first modern sports in Serbia.

  12. United Kingdom national paediatric bilateral cochlear implant audit: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen; Bele, Devyanee; Brinton, Julie; Lutman, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Prior to 2009, United Kingdom (UK) public funding was mainly only available for children to receive unilateral cochlear implants. In 2009, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence published guidance for cochlear implantation following their review. According to these guidelines, all suitable children are eligible to have simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants or a sequential bilateral cochlear implant if they had received the first before the guidelines were published. Fifteen UK cochlear implant centres formed a consortium to carry out a multi-centre audit. The audit involves collecting data from simultaneously and sequentially implanted children at four intervals: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, 1, 2, and 3 years after bilateral implants. The measures include localization, speech recognition in quiet and background noise, speech production, listening, vocabulary, parental perception, quality of life, and surgical data including complications. The audit has now passed the 2-year point, and data have been received on 850 children. This article provides a first view of some data received up until March 2012.

  13. Bacterial flagella: twist and stick, or dodge across the kingdoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Rossez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flagellum organelle is an intricate multiprotein assembly best known for its rotational propulsion of bacteria. However, recent studies have expanded our knowledge of other functions in pathogenic contexts, particularly adherence and immune modulation, e.g., for Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Flagella-mediated adherence is important in host colonisation for several plant and animal pathogens, but the specific interactions that promote flagella binding to such diverse host tissues has remained elusive. Recent work has shown that the organelles act like probes that find favourable surface topologies to initiate binding. An emerging theme is that more general properties, such as ionic charge of repetitive binding epitopes and rotational force, allow interactions with plasma membrane components. At the same time, flagellin monomers are important inducers of plant and animal innate immunity: variation in their recognition impacts the course and outcome of infections in hosts from both kingdoms. Bacteria have evolved different strategies to evade or even promote this specific recognition, with some important differences shown for phytopathogens. These studies have provided a wider appreciation of the functions of bacterial flagella in the context of both plant and animal reservoirs.

  14. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  15. Exploring support for shale gas extraction in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson-Hudson, Jessica; Knight, William; Humphrey, Mathew; O’Hara, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The development of shale gas in the United Kingdom (UK) using hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as ‘fracking’, remains in its infancy. Yet understanding public attitudes for this fledgling industry is important for future policy considerations, decision-making and for industry stakeholders. This study uses data collected from the University of Nottingham, UK nationwide online survey (n=3823) conducted in September 2014, to consider ten hypothesises about the UK public's attitudes towards shale gas. From the survey data we can see that 43.11% of respondents support shale gas extraction in the UK. Furthermore, our results show that women, class DE respondents, non-Conservative party supporters, and respondents who positively associate shale gas with water contamination or earthquakes are less likely to support the extraction of shale gas in the UK. We also discuss potential policy implications for the UK government arising from these findings. - Highlights: • September 2014 survey of British attitudes towards allowing shale gas extraction. • Over 75% or respondents correctly identify shale gas. • 43.11% of respondents support shale gas extraction in the UK.

  16. Emergency plans for civil nuclear installations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    The operators of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom have plans to deal with accidents or emergencies at their nuclear sites. These plans provide for any necessary action, both on and off the nuclear site, to protect members of the public and are regularly exercised. The off-site actions involve the emergency services and other authorities which may be called upon to implement measures to protect the public in any civil emergency. In a recent review of these plans by Government Departments and agencies and the nuclear site operators, a number of possible improvements were identified. These improvements are concerned mainly with the provisions made for liaison with local and national authorities and for public information and have been incorporated into existing plans. An outline is given of the most likely consequences of an accidental release of radioactive material and the scope of emergency plans. Details are also provided on the responsibilities and functions of the operator and other organizations with duties under the plans and the arrangements made for public information. (author)

  17. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  18. Conservation Station and Beyond: Experiences at Disney's Animal Kingdom That Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jackie; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Mellen, Jill; Dierking, Lynn; Adelman, Leslie; Burks, Kyle; Miller, Lance

    2001-01-01

    Describes a five-year plan for educational research and evaluation at the Disney Animal Kingdom. Focuses on conservation-related issues and presents some of the preliminary results from the study of visitor attitudes. (DDR)

  19. Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feikert, Clare; Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations...

  20. A review of the disposal of miscellaneous radioactive wastes in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookway, B.

    1980-01-01

    Current practices in the United Kingdom for waste disposal from ''minor users'' of radioactive materials are reviewed. The regulation of the disposal of solid, liquid and airborne wastes is discussed. (H.K.)

  1. The Privatization of Public Enterprises in the United Kingdom, 1979–1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    How do states have privatized public enterprises? In the book The Official History of Privatization, David Parker, a notorious economist of regulation and privatization, shed light on a country at the forefront of economic reforms, the United Kingdom.

  2. United Kingdom health research analyses and the benefits of shared data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S

    2016-06-24

    To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a

  3. Psychiatry training in the United Kingdom--part 2: the training process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, N; Kasiakogia, K

    2015-01-01

    In the second part of this diptych, we shall deal with psychiatric training in the United Kingdom in detail, and we will compare it--wherever this is meaningful--with the equivalent system in Greece. As explained in the first part of the paper, due to the recently increased emigration of Greek psychiatrists and psychiatric trainees, and the fact that the United Kingdom is a popular destination, it has become necessary to inform those aspiring to train in the United Kingdom of the system and the circumstances they should expect to encounter. This paper principally describes the structure of the United Kingdom's psychiatric training system, including the different stages trainees progress through and their respective requirements and processes. Specifically, specialty and subspecialty options are described and explained, special paths in training are analysed, and the notions of "special interest day" and the optional "Out of programme experience" schemes are explained. Furthermore, detailed information is offered on the pivotal points of each of the stages of the training process, with special care to explain the important differences and similarities between the systems in Greece and the United Kingdom. Special attention is given to The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Membership Exams (MRCPsych) because they are the only exams towards completing specialisation in Psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Also, the educational culture of progressing according to a set curriculum, of utilising diverse means of professional development, of empowering the trainees' autonomy by allowing initiative-based development and of applying peer supervision as a tool for professional development is stressed. We conclude that psychiatric training in the United Kingdom differs substantially to that of Greece in both structure and process. Τhere are various differences such as pure psychiatric training in the United Kingdom versus neurological and medical modules in Greece, in

  4. Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarry, Estelle F

    2008-01-01

    This thesis seeks to consider Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities. Through the literature review it has been identified that higher education is globally expanding. Competing knowledgebased economies with higher education institutions have led education to be considered a market commodity and consequently the marketization of higher education in competitive world markets. This is exemplified by discussion of the United Kingdom higher education ...

  5. A qualitative study of work-life balance amongst specialist orthodontists in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, S. J.; Bateman, L. E.; Collins, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting work-life balance amongst male and female orthodontists in the United Kingdom. Design: A qualitative interview-based study with a cross-sectional design. Subjects: Specialist orthodontists working in specialist practice and the hospital service in the United Kingdom were selected by purposive sampling. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eighteen orthodontic specialists. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework A...

  6. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  7. Ethnic and geographic variations in the epidemiology of childhood fractures in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Curtis, Elizabeth M; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    Fractures are common in childhood, and there is considerable variation in the reported incidence across European countries, but few data relating to ethnic and geographic differences within a single country. We therefore aimed to determine the incidence of childhood fractures in the United Kingdom (UK), and to describe age-, ethnicity- and region- specific variations. The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 7% of the UK population. The occurrence of a fracture between 1988 and 2012 was determined from the CPRD for all individuals ethnicity. Regional fracture incidence rates were also calculated based on general practitioner location within 14 Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) within the UK. The overall fracture incidence rate was 137 per 10,000 person-years (py). This was higher in boys (169 per 10,000 py) than girls (103 per 10,000 py) and white children (150 per 10,000 py) compared to those of black (64 per 10,000 py) and South Asian (81 per 10,000 py) ethnicity. Marked geographic variation in incidence was observed. The highest fracture rates were observed in Wales, where boys and girls had 1.82 and 1.97 times greater incidence, respectively, than those residing in Greater London. In the period 1988-2012, there was marked geographic and ethnic variation in childhood fracture incidence across the UK. These findings also implicate lifestyle and socio-economic differences associated with location and ethnicity, and are relevant to policy makers in the UK and internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wisdom’s rebellion: Kingdom politics as a guerrilla drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus P. Kruger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring kingdom politics in South Africa as a guerrilla drama, not only of a contemporary play of wisdom as human virtue, but specifically in the form of the personified Wisdom’s play (cf. Christ’s parable of the children on the marketplace; Lk 7. Firstly, it investigates the availability of hermeneutical space for such an enterprise, attending to the concept of rebellion vis-à-vis a scripture-based, imaginative, theodramatic articulation of the Wisdom’s play of the parable. Secondly, the public space for the enactment of such a ‘wisdom’s rebellion’ is probed. It should not be neutrally indifferent to, but positively advancing of, the nearly universally accepted ‘golden rule’. The public space should, in the public imagination, be seen and treated as a kind of public theatre, hospitable to a plurality of worldviews, each freely and imaginatively enacting its own political alternatives before the critical eyes of a democratic voting public. A follow-up article will attempt to outline the difference it might make to the human dignity of the participants (actors and in their humane political actions (theodramatic roles, if they can imagine themselves as performing (not only theorising about and not only feeling passionately about wisdom’s subversive play of God’s kingdom in South Africa.   Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na koninkrykspolitiek in Suid-Afrika as ’n guerrilladrama wat die vorm van ’n wysheidspel aanneem; nie alleen ’n eietydse spel van wysheid as ’n menslike deug nie, maar veral as spel van die gepersonifieerde Wysheid (vgl. Christus se gelykenis van die kinders wat op die markplein speel; Luk 7. Eerstens word na die beskikbaarheid van ’n hermeneutiese ruimte vir so ’n onderneming gevra. Daarby word aandag geskenk aan die konsep van rebellie in verband met ’n skriftuurlik gefundeerde, verbeeldingryke, teodramatiese uitwerking van Wysheid se spel na aanleiding van die

  9. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  10. Early Jurassic allotherians from South Wales (United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Clemens

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossils from two fissure fillings in Pant Quarry (designated Pant 4 and Pant 5, South Wales, United Kingdom, probably of Early Jurassic age document a taxonomically diverse vertebrate fauna, the Morganucodon-sphenodont fauna, composed of several kinds of reptiles, non-mammalian synapsids, and mammals. Six isolated molariform teeth from Pant 4 and 5 fissures clearly record the presence of Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, a genus previously known only from purported Late Triassic faunas of southwestern England, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Switzerland. Small morphological differences from teeth in the larger English and continental European samples warrant identification of the Welsh material as Thomasia cf. moorei. The highly derived morphology of an isolated molariform tooth from Pant 5 fissure indicates the presence of another, possibly allotherian, taxon. Fossilien aus zwei wahrscheinlich unterjurassischen Spaltenfüllungen (Pant 4 und Pant 5 im Steinbruch Pant in Süd-Wales dokumentieren eine taxonomisch diverse Wirbeltierfauna. Diese Morganucodon-Sphenodontiden-Fauna besteht aus verschiedenen Formen von Reptilien, Synapsiden und Säugetieren. Sechs isolierte molariforme Zähne aus den Spaltenfüllungen Pant 4 und Pant 5 belegen eindeutig das Vorkommen von Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, einer bisher nur aus vermutlich obertriassischen Faunen Südwest-Englands, Frankreichs, Belgiens, Luxemburgs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz bekannten Gattung. Geringe morphologische Unterschiede zu dem umfangreicheren Material aus England und Kontinental-Europa sprechen für die Identifikation des neuen Materials als Thomasia cf. moorei. Die stark abgeleitete Morphologie eines isolierten molariformen Zahnes aus der Spalte Pant 5 belegt das Vorkommen eines anderen Taxons, das möglicherweise auch den Allotheria zuzuordnen ist. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600018

  11. NPL support for environmental radioactivity measurements in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The United Kingdom was one of the first nations to initiate a civil nuclear power programme in the 1950s, with the first commercial generation of electricity being achieved in 1957. As the civil nuclear programme grew in size, an ongoing programme of environmental monitoring was instituted by central government that placed the responsibility for monitoring radioactivity in the local environment and the measurement of discharges of radioactive gases and liquids with the site operator, the Environment Agency, the Environment and Heritage Service, the Food Standards Agency and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (or their predecessors). This presentation will discuss the sources of radioactivity in the UK environment from the nuclear industry, natural and other sources, focussing on how these sources of radioactivity are monitored and what future trends may be, taking the Windscale fire of 1957, the Chernobyl accident and the Litvinenko incident of 2006 as examples of how unexpected events have been addressed in the UK. As the national metrology institute for the UK, the NPL is required to provide support to the National Measurement System infrastructure of the UK, including the measurement of radioactivity. The presentation will also describe the absolute standardisation of radioactivity at the NPL, and how this is disseminated to organisations measuring environmental radioactivity in the UK by means of directly traceable standards of radioactivity and through the provision of an ongoing series of proficiency test exercises. The outcomes of some recent proficiency tests will be discussed, with emphasis on how the general performance of laboratories participating in these proficiency tests has matured over the years since their inception in 1989. In addition, the data treatment of such proficiency tests will also be examined in order to illustrate that statutory regulatory bodies, laboratory accreditation organisations and customers are able to

  12. Relation between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index-for-age among Schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Mir Fa; Hakami, Bassam M; Hezam, Asma Aa; Hakami, Raed Y; Saadi, Fadwa A; Ageeli, Layla M; Alsagoor, Wafqah H; Faqeeh, Mohammad A; Dhae, Mohammed A

    2017-04-01

    To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study with multi-staged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended "decayed and filled teeth"/"decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)" method. The BMI-for-age was calculated using the value obtained from body weight and height (kg/m 2 ) of each child. The obtained results were plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and categorized accordingly. Chi-squared test was conducted to analyze the relation between BMI-for-age and dental caries. Logistic regression was performed to judge the predictor variables. The p-value Dental caries, fast food, and snacks between meals were significant independent predictor variables for BMI (p Dental caries was a strong predictor, and the analysis showed that children with untreated caries had 81% (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval = 0.65, 0.58) higher chance of suffering from low BMI. To conclude, this is the first study attempted to see the relationship between BMI-for-age and dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Negative relation between dental caries and BMI should warrant health promoters about dental caries as a reason for low BMI in a subset of children. High and alarming percentage of untreated dental caries demonstrates the oral health needs among the schoolgoing children in Jazan region. Public health dentists should develop and implement prevention programs so that the oral health issues among schoolchildren are addressed.

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  14. Isotopes, Inventories and Seasonality: Unraveling Methane Source Distribution in the Complex Landscapes of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Zazzeri, G.; Lanoisellé, M.; France, J.; Allen, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike the big open landscapes of many continents with large area sources dominated by one particular methane emission type that can be isotopically characterized by flight measurements and sampling, the complex patchwork of urban, fossil and agricultural methane sources across NW Europe require detailed ground surveys for characterization (Zazzeri et al., 2017). Here we outline the findings from multiple seasonal urban and rural measurement campaigns in the United Kingdom. These surveys aim to: 1) Assess source distribution and baseline in regions of planned fracking, and relate to on-site continuous baseline climatology. 2) Characterize spatial and seasonal differences in the isotopic signatures of the UNFCCC source categories, and 3) Assess the spatial validity of the 1 x 1 km UK inventory for large continuous emitters, proposed point sources, and seasonal / ephemeral emissions. The UK inventory suggests that 90% of methane emissions are from 3 source categories, ruminants, landfill and gas distribution. Bag sampling and GC-IRMS delta13C analysis shows that landfill gives a constant signature of -57 ±3 ‰ throughout the year. Fugitive gas emissions are consistent regionally depending on the North Sea supply regions feeding the network (-41 ± 2 ‰ in N England, -37 ± 2 ‰ in SE England). Ruminant, mostly cattle, emissions are far more complex as these spend winters in barns and summers in fields, but are essentially a mix of 2 end members, breath at -68 ±3 ‰ and manure at -51 ±3 ‰, resulting in broad summer field emission plumes of -64 ‰ and point winter barn emission plumes of -58 ‰. The inventory correctly locates emission hotspots from landfill, larger sewage treatment plants and gas compressor stations, giving a broad overview of emission distribution for regional model validation. Mobile surveys are adding an extra layer of detail to this which, combined with isotopic characterization, has identified spatial distribution of gas pipe leaks

  15. Comparative benefit of malaria chemoprophylaxis modelled in United Kingdom travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toovey, Stephen; Nieforth, Keith; Smith, Patrick; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Adamcova, Miriam; Tatt, Iain; Tomianovic, Danitza; Schnetzler, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Chemoprophylaxis against falciparum malaria is recommended for travellers from non-endemic countries to malarious destinations, but debate continues on benefit, especially with regard to mefloquine. Quantification of benefit for travellers from the United Kingdom (UK) was modelled to assist clinical and public health decision making. The model was constructed utilising: World Tourism Organization data showing total number of arrivals from the UK in countries with moderate or high malaria risk; data from a retrospective UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) drug utilisation study; additional information on chemoprophylaxis, case fatality and tolerability were derived from the travel medicine literature. Chemoprophylaxis with the following agents was considered: atovaquone-proguanil (AP), chloroquine with and without proguanil (C ± P), doxycycline (Dx), mefloquine (Mq). The model was validated for the most recent year with temporally matched datasets for UK travel destinations and imported malaria (2007) against UK Health Protection Agency data on imported malaria. The median (mean) duration of chemoprophylaxis for each agent in weeks (CPRD) was: AP 3.3 (3.5), C ± P 9 (12.1), Dx 8 (10.3), Mq 9 (12.3): the maximum duration of use of all regimens was 52 weeks. The model correctly predicted falciparum malaria deaths and gave a robust estimate of total cases--model: 5 deaths from 1118 cases; UK Health Protection Agency: 5 deaths from 1153 cases. The number needed to take chemoprophylaxis (NNP) to prevent a case of malaria considered against the 'background' reported incidence in non-users of chemoprophylaxis deemed in need of chemoprophylaxis was: C ± P 272, Dx 269, Mq 260, AP 252; the NNP to prevent a UK traveller malaria death was: C ± P 62613, Dx 61923, Mq 59973, AP 58059; increasing the 'background' rate by 50% yielded NNPs of: C ± P 176, Dx 175, Mq 171, AP 168. The impact of substituting atovaquone-proguanil for all mefloquine usage resulted in a 2

  16. Preface and summary of the United Kingdom contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettley, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of engineering structures is a matter of great practical importance for both economic and safety reasons. In practice this integrity must be assured by careful attention to many aspects of design, materials, fabrication, inspection etc. An important uncertainty is the possible presence of defects in the structure. Under appropriate circumstances, such defects can grow during service until they reach the size where they extend unstably and thus cause the failure of critical sections of the structure and the structure itself. The design and operation of these structures must therefore take account of the possible presence of cracks. The conventional approach is one based upon a set of conservative assumptions about the maximum defect size, nature and frequency of loadings on the structure, the materials properties, particularly crack growth rates and fracture toughness, etc. However many of these quantities are statistically distributed and we can never be absolutely sure that values worse than the chosen conservative limits will not be encountered. This is probably true of the relevant materials and must likewise be true of transient loadings. These uncertainties therefore oblige us to try to reduce failure probabilities in plant components by design, materials selection, manufacture, quality control, and pre-service and in-service inspection and monitoring. At this Specialist Meeting we are going to concentrate on in-service inspection and monitoring of LMFBRs. However, the techniques applicable to in-service inspection can of course be applied pre-service and it is generally recognised in the United Kingdom that there is a great need for intensive inspection of LMFBR plant both during and on completion of manufacture. Current experience indicates that design proposals for new reactors should pay particular attention to access, inspectability and replaceability. Because the environment experienced by components in large sodium cooled fast

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Cats in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriza-Gómara, M.; Dove, W.; Sandrasegaram, M.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakagomi, O.; Cunliffe, N.; Radford, A. D.; Morgan, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection, and genetic diversity of rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within 25 rescue catteries across the United Kingdom. Morning litter tray fecal samples were collected during the winter and summer in 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1,727 fecal samples were collected from 1,105 pens. Overall, the prevalence of rotavirus was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9%). Thirteen out of 25 (52%; 95% CI, 31.3 to 72.2%) centers housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. The prevalence of rotavirus was associated with season (odds ratio, 14.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 200.4]; P = 0.04) but not age or diarrhea. It was higher during the summer (4.7%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.3%) than in winter (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5%). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centers. G genotypes were characterized for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus-positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified, G3P[9] and G6P[9]. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P[9], which questions the previous belief that G6P[9] in people is of bovine origin. PMID:25411173

  18. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  19. The Private New Kingdom Tombs of Amarna, Thebes and Memphis: their relations to the architecture of private houses and temples

    OpenAIRE

    Veigel, Isabell

    2010-01-01

    This thesis refers to the architecture of the New Kingdom tombs in Amarna, Thebes and Memphis in terms of the influence between the architecture of houses, tombs and temples. Is it possible to transfer Diodor´s statement about the Egyptian tombs as “houses for the eternity” from Roman times into the New Kingdom? Do the New Kingdom tombs show the same characteristics as the architectural remains of the New Kingdom houses? With a comprehensive analysis of the architecture of tombs, houses an...

  20. Inching toward incrementalism: federalism, devolution, and health policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Michael S; France, George; Clinton, Chelsea

    2011-02-01

    In the United States, the recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 envisions a significant increase in federal oversight over the nation's health care system. At the same time, however, the legislation requires the states to play key roles in every aspect of the reform agenda (such as expanding Medicaid programs, creating insurance exchanges, and working with providers on delivery system reforms). The complicated intergovernmental partnerships that govern the nation's fragmented and decentralized system are likely to continue, albeit with greater federal oversight and control. But what about intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom? What impact did the formal devolution of power in 1999 to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have on health policy in those nations, and in the United Kingdom more generally? Has devolution begun a political process in which health policy in the United Kingdom will, over time, become increasingly decentralized and fragmented, or will this "state of unions" retain its long-standing reputation as perhaps the most centralized of the European nations? In this article, we explore the federalist and intergovernmental implications of recent reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom, and we put forward the argument that political fragmentation (long-standing in the United States and just emerging in the United Kingdom) produces new intergovernmental partnerships that, in turn, produce incremental growth in overall government involvement in the health care arena. This is the impact of what can be called catalytic federalism.

  1. Creating an innovative youth mental health service in the United Kingdom: The Norfolk Youth Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David

    2017-08-04

    Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Creating a climate that catalyses healthcare innovation in the United Kingdom - learning lessons from international innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-25

    The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds. Thematic analysis helped to explore how different stakeholder groups could facilitate/inhibit innovation at individual, organisational, and wider societal levels. We conducted 14 interviews and found that a conducive climate for healthcare innovation comprised of national/regional strategies stimulating commercial competition, promoting public/private relationships, and providing central direction (e.g. incentives for adoption and regulation through standards) without being restrictive. Organisational attitudes with a willingness to experiment and to take risks were also seen as important, but a bottom-up approach to innovation, based on the identification of clinical need, was seen as a crucial first step to construct relevant national policies.  There is now a need to create mechanisms through which frontline National Health Service staff in relation can raise ideas/concerns and suggest opportunities for improvement, and then build national innovation environments that seek to address these needs. This should be accompanied by creating competitive health technology markets to stimulate a commercial environment that attracts high-quality health information technology experts and innovators working in partnership with staff and patients.

  3. Molecular phylodynamics of the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Hughes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterosexual risk group has become the largest HIV infected group in the United Kingdom during the last 10 years, but little is known of the network structure and dynamics of viral transmission in this group. The overwhelming majority of UK heterosexual infections are of non-B HIV subtypes, indicating viruses originating among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The high rate of HIV evolution, combined with the availability of a very high density sample of viral sequences from routine clinical care has allowed the phylodynamics of the epidemic to be investigated for the first time. Sequences of the viral protease and partial reverse transcriptase coding regions from 11,071 patients infected with HIV of non-B subtypes were studied. Of these, 2774 were closely linked to at least one other sequence by nucleotide distance. Including the closest sequences from the global HIV database identified 296 individuals that were in UK-based groups of 3 or more individuals. There were a total of 8 UK-based clusters of 10 or more, comprising 143/2774 (5% individuals, much lower than the figure of 25% obtained earlier for men who have sex with men (MSM. Sample dates were incorporated into relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses to estimate the dates of internal nodes. From the resulting time-resolved phylogenies, the internode lengths, used as estimates of maximum transmission intervals, had a median of 27 months overall, over twice as long as obtained for MSM (14 months, with only 2% of transmissions occurring in the first 6 months after infection. This phylodynamic analysis of non-B subtype HIV sequences representing over 40% of the estimated UK HIV-infected heterosexual population has revealed heterosexual HIV transmission in the UK is clustered, but on average in smaller groups and is transmitted with slower dynamics than among MSM. More effective intervention to restrict the epidemic may therefore be feasible, given effective diagnosis programmes.

  4. Active travel to work and cardiovascular risk factors in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Anthony A; Mindell, Jennifer S; Webb, Elizabeth A; Millett, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Increasing active travel (walking, cycling, public transport) is increasingly seen as integral to strategies to raise physical activity levels. This study examined (1) sociodemographic correlates of active travel to work and (2) associations between active travel and cardiovascular risk factors in the United Kingdom (UK). Data come from Understanding Society, a nationally representative survey of UK residents in 2009/2011, analyzed in 2012. Multinomial logistic regression assessed associations between sociodemographic factors and mode of transport to work. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine associations between mode of travel and overweight/obesity, and having hypertension or diabetes. A total of 69% of participants traveled to work using private transport, with public transport, walking, and cycling used by 16%, 12%, and 3%, respectively. Use of any active travel was more likely in participants living in London. Black participants were more likely to walk (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.08, 1.84) or take public transport (AOR=2.34, 95% CI=1.88, 2.90) to work than whites. Using public transport, walking, or cycling to work was associated with a lower likelihood of being overweight (AOR=0.80, 95% CI=0.54, 0.88 for walking). Walking or cycling was associated with a lower likelihood of having diabetes, and walking was associated with a lower likelihood of having hypertension than private transport (AOR=0.83, 95% CI=0.71, 0.97). There are wide variations in the mode of travel to work across regions and sociodemographic groups in the UK. The protective association between active travel and cardiovascular risk demonstrated in this nationally representative study adds to growing evidence that concerted policy focus in this area may benefit population health. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Footprints of middle ages kingdoms are still visible in the contemporary surname structure of Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rodríguez-Díaz

    Full Text Available To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century, and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia, and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León. Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface.

  6. Footprints of middle ages kingdoms are still visible in the contemporary surname structure of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface.

  7. Phylogenetic characterisation of naturally occurring feline immunodeficiency virus in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, A; McMonagle, E L; Logan, N; Willett, B J; Biek, R; Hosie, M J

    2011-06-02

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a significant pathogen of domestic and non-domestic felids worldwide. In domestic cats, FIV is classified into five distinct subtypes (A-E) with subtypes A and B distributed most widely. However, little is known about the degree of intrasubtype viral diversity and this may prove critical in determining whether monovalent vaccines are likely to protect against FIV strains within a single subtype. Here, we characterise novel env sequences from 47 FIV strains recovered from infected cats in the United Kingdom and its environs. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all bar one sequence belonged to subtype A, the predominant subtype in Western Europe. A single sequence was identified as a likely subtype A/C recombinant, intriguing given that subtype C does not appear to exist in either the UK or North Western Europe and suggestive of a recombination event predating its introduction into the UK. Subtype A strains from the UK were not significantly differentiated from representative subtype A isolates found elsewhere suggesting multiple introductions of FIV into the country. Divergence among isolates was comparable to that observed for subtype A isolates worldwide, indicating that FIV in the UK covers the full spectrum of subtype A diversity seen globally. This study demonstrates that while subtype A is predominant in the UK, novel introductions may result in the emergence of novel subtypes or intersubtype recombinants, potentially circumventing vaccine strategies. However, the dominance of subtype A suggests that the development of a regional or subtype-specific protective vaccine for the UK could be achievable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost of diabetic foot in France, Spain, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchero, Huidi; Kangambega, Pauline; Lin, Lucien; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Brunet-Houdard, Solenne; Briatte, Christine; Retali, Gerald Reparate; Rusch, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Cost estimates for diabetic foot are available for developed countries based on cost data for different years. This study aimed to provide a comparison of the cost of diabetic foot in E5 (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom) and its characteristics across different conditions. PubMed, Central and Embase databases were searched in February 2017 for English language publications. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also searched manually. Reviews and research papers from E5 regions reporting on cost of diabetic foot were included. Reported cost was converted to equivalent 2016 $ for comparison purposes. All the costs presented are mean cost per patient per year in 2016 $. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The total cost of amputation ranged from $ 15,046 in 2001 to $ 38,621 in 2005. The direct cost of amputation ranged from $ 13,842 in 2001 to $ 83,728 during 2005-2009. Indirect cost of amputation was more uniform, ranging from between $ 1,043 to $ 1,442. The direct cost of gangrene ranged from $ 3,352 in 2003 to $ 8,818 in Germany. Although, for the same year, 2003, the cost for Spain was almost double that for Germany. The total cost of an uninfected ulcer was $ 6,174 in 2002, but increased to $ 14,441 in 2005; for an infected ulcer the cost increased from $ 2,637 to $ 2,957. The different countries showed variations in the components used to calculate the cost of diabetic foot. The E5 incurs a heavy cost from diabetic foot and its complications. There is an unmet need for the identification of cost-cutting strategies, as diabetic foot costs more than major cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumot Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is being monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown. Findings According to data from the literature and our own observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007, either on the Cook Islands or on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga. Conclusions The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever.

  10. Development of design procedures for fast reactors in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has been carried out in the United Kingdom during the past two decades to quantify the factors which control the integrity of structural components. The work which has been aimed at understanding the performance of structures at high temperature, is particularly relevant to the Fast Reactor. At the same time, because of the need to demonstrate the tolerance to defects in the low temperature as well as the high temperature components, defect assessment criteria are also of great importance. Emphasis is now being given to the development of design procedures specifically for Fast Reactors, making use of the research so far completed. The United Kingdom proposals are being integrated with those from France, Federal Republic of Germany and Italy as part of the European collaborative venture. The paper outlines the major developments which are currently in hand, and brings up to date the review of United Kingdom activities presented at Tokyo in 1986. (author)

  11. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham I Al-Khashan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%, and the southern region the lowest (27.5%. Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%, and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%. Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit.

  12. COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE BRIBERY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.

  13. Seismic design criteria and their application to major hazard plant within the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.

    1982-12-01

    The nature of seismic motions and the implications are briefly described and the development of seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants in various countries is described including possible future developments. The seismicity of the United Kingdom is briefly reviewed leading to the present position on seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants within the United Kingdom. Damage from past destructive earthquakes is reviewed and the existing codes of practice and standards are described. Finally the effect of earthquakes on major hazard plant is discussed in general terms including the seismic analysis of a typical plant item. (author)

  14. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six DNA regions were evaluated in a multi-national, multi-laboratory consortium as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it...

  15. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoch, C.L.; Seifert, K.A.; Huhndorf, S.; Robert, V.; Spouge, J.L.; Levesque, C.A.; Chen, W.; Crous, P.W.; Boekhout, T.; Damm, U.; Hoog, de G.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Hagen, F.; Houbraken, J.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Stielow, B.; Vu, T.D.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it

  16. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  17. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  18. Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, W.C.; Grimes, D.J.; Seitz, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of

  19. Dismantling the Perceived Barriers to the Implementation of National Higher Education Accreditation Guidelines in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsman, Andrys

    2010-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in its social sector, especially in setting up new schools and universities. The aim of the development is to prepare the Kingdom for a future that is not dependent on its oil resources which are predicted to run out in less than a hundred years. Driven by the country's monarch, King Abdullah, many…

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  1. 78 FR 58378 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8478] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun and the Moon'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... ``Peru: Kingdoms of the Sun and the Moon,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  2. The location choice of graduate entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonyová Eva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The graduates’ startup formation process represents a possible future role for universities in the form of active-participation, when speaking of the regional development. Tracking the path of entrepreneurial graduates who are moving between home, university, and employment, allows us to identify the specific motives that determine their migration decisions. The choice of location of graduate entrepreneurs is naturally affected by the context of their home region, as the availability of resources leads to a rising entrepreneurial intention. Similarly, the location of the startups flourish in densely populated urban regions, as well as in wealthier locations. At the same time, the vibrancy of the local entrepreneurial ecosystems is enhanced through mutual exchange and collaboration; and the higher the number of startups already present in a region, the higher the probability becomes for interaction and creativity. A leading tendency, not least to be mentioned, is that the preference to start new businesses is connected to highly-skilled creative sectors of the economy.

  3. United Kingdom to Join ESO on July 1, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    ESO and PPARC Councils Endorse Terms of Accession [1] The Councils of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , at their respective meetings on December 3 and 5, 2001, have endorsed the terms for UK membership of ESO, as recently agreed by their Negotiating Teams. All members of the Councils - the governing bodies of the two organisations - welcomed the positive spirit in which the extensive negotiations had been conducted and expressed great satisfaction at the successful outcome of a complex process. The formal procedure of accession will now commence in the UK and is expected to be achieved in good time to allow accession from July 2002. The European Southern Observatory is the main European organisation for astronomy and the United Kingdom will become its tenth member state [2]. ESO operates two major observatories in the Chilean Atacama desert where the conditions for astronomical observations are second-to-none on earth and it has recently put into operation the world's foremost optical/infrared telescope, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal. With UK membership, British astronomers will join their European colleagues in preparing new projects now being planned on a global scale. They will also be able to pursue their research on some of the most powerful astronomical instruments available. The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , is "delighted that we have come this far after the lengthy negotiations needed to prepare properly the admission of another major European country to our organisation. When ESO was created nearly 40 years ago, the UK was planning for its own facilities in the southern hemisphere, in collaboration with Australia, and decided not to join. However, the impressive scientific and technological advances since then and ESOs emergence as a prime player on the European research scene have convinced our UK colleagues of the great advantages of presenting a

  4. Critical Concerns for Oral Communication Education in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An examination of oral communication education in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) identified four critical concerns: (1) Today's college students are not getting adequate oral communication education; (2) Oral communication education is being relegated to a "module" in another discipline-specific course; (3) When an…

  5. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  6. Epidemiological studies of employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Booth, M.; Inskip, H.; Carpenter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Epidemiological Monitoring Unit at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine is carrying out several epidemiological studies of employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) in which mortality is being investigated in relation to radiation exposure. This paper summarises the results obtained so far and describes briefly studies currently in progress. (author)

  7. Status Report from the United Kingdom [Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, A A [Warren Spring Laboratory, Stevenage, Herts. (United Kingdom)

    1967-06-15

    The invitation to present this status report could have been taken literally as a request for information on experience gained in the actual processing of low-grade uranium ores in the United Kingdom, in which case there would have been very little to report; however, the invitation naturally was considered to be a request for a report on the experience gained by the United Kingdom of the processing of uranium ores. Lowgrade uranium ores are not treated in the United Kingdom simply because the country does not possess any known significant deposits of uranium ore. It is of interest to record the fact that during the nineteenth century mesothermal vein deposits associated with Hercynian granite were worked at South Terras, Cornwall, and ore that contained approximately 100 tons of uranium oxide was exported to Germany. Now only some 20 tons of contained uranium oxide remain at South Terras; also in Cornwall there is a small number of other vein deposits that each hold about five tons of uranium. Small lodes of uranium ore have been located in the southern uplands of Scotland; in North Wales lower palaeozoic black shales have only as much as 50 to 80 parts per million of uranium oxide, and a slightly lower grade carbonaceous shale is found near the base of the millstone grit that occurs in the north of England. Thus the experience gained by the United Kingdom has been of the treatment of uranium ores that occur abroad.

  8. Leaving an emissions trading scheme : Implications for the United Kingdom and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) may opt to leave the European Union (EU) emissions trading system (ETS) for greenhouse gases. This policy brief examines the implications. The UK is a large importer of emission permits. Thus, meeting its climate policy targets would be much more difficult without the EU ETS,

  9. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  10. Training Teachers in the United Kingdom for a Multicultural Society--The Rhetoric and the Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith

    1984-01-01

    Urges the introduction of more courses in multiracial and multicultural education in training institutions in the United Kingdom, rather than blaming the teachers for being racist and/or ethnocentric. In addition, a survey of teacher training institutions indicates that little is done in comparative education which would change ethnocentric…

  11. Speaking the language of the kingdom of God in the context of a society in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich (Fritz W. de Wet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Venturing to speak the biblical language of the kingdom of God, with its distinct covenantal intensity, in the context of a South African society in transition from paternalistic power structures to liberal democratic structures is not easy. How should the language of the kingdom of God be spoken in a society that demands ‘non-intrusive’ and ‘politically correct’ speech without – in the process – rendering the intense intentionality of its covenantal roots to that of a speech without zeal? Having to face the daunting task of ‘translating’ kingdom language into a type of language that suits the present-day context without sacrificing or diminishing its powerful intentionality demands the development of a new sensitivity. Such a sensitivity is required to incentivise the accommodation of the dimensions of truthful, authoritative and authentic communication in spoken language. In this research article, the implications of the speech act theory, as pioneered by scholars such as J.L. Austin and J. Searle, are utilised to identify possible markers for such a venture. Insight into the locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary dimensions present in speech acts is indicated as a relevant starting point for attempting to obtain a more comprehensive and perspective-rich understanding into speaking the language of the kingdom of God in a way that fits the present South African context.

  12. What the United Kingdom Can Teach the United States about School Uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Angela

    2011-01-01

    School uniforms are commonplace in the United Kingdom and seem to help promote students' respect for the teachers, the school, and themselves. Parents like the uniforms because they see it as a less expensive alternative. Teachers say they appreciate school uniforms because they help students focus on school and not each other's clothes. However,…

  13. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor,…

  14. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  15. Student Accommodation in Higher Education in the United Kingdom: Changing Post-War Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the changing attitudes towards student accommodation in higher education in the United Kingdom since the end of the Second World War. In the first part of this period there was a firm assumption, in universities and teacher training colleges, that the accommodation of students in or close to their university or college,…

  16. Barriers to Accountability Implementation in the Education Directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…

  17. Institutional investment in social rental housing : France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Tang, C.; Oxley, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, social landlords are facing decreasing governmental financial support for them to fulfil their role in the provision of social housing, which has led to increasing pressure on them to rely on private capital. Traditionally, bank loans were the main source of private capital,

  18. Designing a Probe To Explore Home Information Systems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year study of home information systems in the United Kingdom being conducted by Queen Margaret College (Scotland). Topics include development of an interview protocol; interactive multimedia; perceptions of technology; use of technology; work versus entertainment; gender issues; and time factors. (Author/LRW)

  19. The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for Adults with Autism in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…

  20. Young Campers in Love: Who Are the Grown-Ups in "Moonrise Kingdom?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture, especially movie culture, is the arena where the struggles of the diverse cultures belonging to age groups are carried out. "Moonrise Kingdom" is an unusual movie, different from the usual summer or coming of age movies. In such movies, different theories of youth are displayed, providing tools for constructing the…

  1. Rewriting the history: a new future for the nuclear energy in United Kingdom?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, B.

    2009-01-01

    From ends of the ninety, the new nuclear energy has been rejected three times like an option of viable energy generation for United Kingdom: once during the privatization of the electric supply industry and twice during the subsequent revisions to the energy politicians carried out in 2003. Nevertheless, three years more late, a new debate around the energy politics gave an unusual turning in the industry destination, characterized by the firm consideration in the political calendar about the new reactors development, as well as of governmental politicians guided to impel it. This recent interest arises of restlessness regarding the future security of the supply and to the necessity of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of United Kingdom. With the purpose of obtaining the sufficient support of civil politicians and investors for the new construction project, the industry will have to devise convincing arguments to prove that it has already solved those problems that it suffered in the past and, also that deserves to receive a special treatment in the liberated market of the electricity. This document synthesizes the structure of the nuclear industry in United Kingdom, some recent historical data and the reasons for those that the new nuclear reactors were not very received in the past. It also indicates the measures that have taken in recent times to modify that perspective. Finally, it analyzes the possible future of the nuclear energy at long term in United Kingdom. (Author)

  2. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  3. Fairer to Fathers: The Role of Schools in Nurturing Positive Fatherhood--A United Kingdom Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Fatherhood in this 21st century is changing. There is wider societal recognition that, for the sake of our children, we need to value fathers and the contribution they make to family life. In the United Kingdom, various initiatives are actively supporting "Dads" in their role. For fathers of children with disabilities, there are even…

  4. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  5. LEGAL STATUS OF ADVISORS IN THE FIELD OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystyna Kmetyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to research the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. In this article an author distinguishes and gives a legal description of the types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. The main provisions of the Rules of Conduct for Patent Attorneys, Ttrade Mark Attorneys and Other Regulated Persons (2015 are considered. Methods: to analyse the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom the method of induction, systematic approach, formal legal methods were used. Results: this research provides an opportunity to broaden the understanding of the institute of advisors in the field of intellectual property right (in particular patent attorneys and trademark attorneys in the UK and thus include this knowledge in domestic research on intellectual property right. Conclusions: the majority of types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom (patent attorneys, chartered patent attorneys, European patent attorneys, registered trademark attorneys and trademark attorneys, European trademark attorneys, etc. is well-educated professionals in all areas of intellectual property and are able to advise on a wide range of technical and commercial issues in this field. The obtained results will have a positive impact on the reform of the institute of representatives in the field of intellectual property in Ukraine in order to ensure its effectiveness and relevance to the challenges of the present.

  6. Use of primary care data for detecting impetigo trends, United kingdom, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Laura J; Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995-2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases.

  7. Mediation with Families in Separation and Divorce in the United Kingdom: Links with Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Gives a brief account of recent developments in matrimonial law related to divorce, custody, and visitation to the children of divorcing couples. Discusses the development of mediation, its organizational structure, and its place within the context of the legal system of the United Kingdom. Outlines the principles of conciliation. (Author/ABL)

  8. The Attribution of Income in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes an extensive comparison of the domestic law of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in respect of the attribution of income to a person for tax purposes. After a general introduction to both countries, the article looks at a series of specific situations in which the

  9. Communication received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a letter received by the Director General of the IAEA on 11 September 1998 from the Governor of the United Kingdom concerning the policy of the UK Government related to fissile material transparency, safeguards and irreversibility initiatives

  10. Research Map of Research Priorities in HE Studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSumih, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a research map for the key research priorities of higher education (HE) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study diagnoses and analyzes the research reality in HE studies in KSA in terms of strength points and improvement opportunities. It also explores the research map fields of current and prospective research priorities in…

  11. Karl Marx, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Black Underachievement in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…

  12. Information Literacy in Postsecondary Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…

  13. The Structure of Professional Profiles for Tourism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chris; And Others

    The tourism and leisure industries are among the fastest growing in the United Kingdom, generating jobs and spending and stimulating economic development. The hotel and catering sector is by far the best documented of the tourism industry and is the major employer. It is also an underqualified sector, despite a range of courses from craft to…

  14. Just Running Around: Some Reminiscences of Early Simulation/Gaming in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ments, Morry

    2011-01-01

    The article begins with an abbreviated CV of the author and then recounts the formation of Society for the Advancement of Games and Simulation in Education and Training (SAGSET) and the early days of simulation and gaming in the United Kingdom. Four strands of elements of development are described together with the key events of the 1970s and…

  15. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  16. Electrical - light current remote monitoring, control and automation. [Coal mine, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collingwood, C H

    1981-06-01

    A brief discussion is given of the application of control monitoring and automation techniques to coal mining in the United Kingdom, especially of the use of microprocessors, for the purpose of enhancing safety and productivity. Lighting systems for the coal mine is similarly discussed.

  17. Chemical control of Phytophthora ramorum causing foliar disease in hardy nursery stock in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith Turner; Philip Jennings; Sam McDonough; Debbie Liddell; Jackie Stonehouse

    2006-01-01

    A range of fungicides have been tested for activity against P. ramorum using both in vitro and in vivo tests. All fungicides had proven activity against Phytophthora species and either had full approval for use on hardy ornamental nursery stock in the United Kingdom, or could be used under the Revised Long Term Arrangements for Extension of Use (2002...

  18. Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…

  19. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin in the United Kingdom and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, T. I.; Redekop, W. K.; Langenskiold, S.; Kamali, F.; Wadelius, M.; Burnside, G.; Maitland-van der Zee, A.-H.; Hughes, D. A.; Pirmohamed, M.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United Kingdom and Sweden. Data from EU-PACT, a randomized controlled trial in newly diagnosed AF patients, were used to model the incremental costs per

  1. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  2. Interprofessional Anatomy Education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F.; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to…

  3. Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Territorial Sea Water of the Kingdom of Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juma, H.A.; Al-Madany, I.M.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first investigation for the analysis of heavy metal covering the territorial water of Kingdom of Bahrain. For the purpose of establishing baseline, as well as the assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals, sea water were collected from 23 different sites known as fishing areas of the territorial water of the Kingdom of Bahrain in the year 2007. The heavy metals analyzed were Arsenic, Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Vanadium (V), Zinc (Zn) and Mercury (Hg), using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Hg were in the range of 0.85-2.75, 0.06-5.20, 4.53-119.00, 1.03-28.62, 0.06-1.24, 0.71-20.1, 1.13-2.01, 1.13-9.93, 4.06-118.0 and 0.13-0.38 ug/1, respectively representing the baseline trace metal concentrations of sea water in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The results suggest that the Kingdom of Bahrain's marine waters seem to be of good quality as the concentrations of the metals reported the studied areas are far below the United Kingdom Water quality standards and United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended water quality criteria, with the exception of copper in all sites, and Mercury (Hg) in Msoor site. In general concentrations of the trace elements in sea water were similar to those of other areas worldwide, and were deemed not to be of any toxicological significance. (author)

  4. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government) marine data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Maxwell, David L.; Dye, Stephen R.; Fernand, Liam J.; Flatman, Stephen; Williams, Oliver J.; Rogers, Stuart I.

    2018-01-01

    The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom). Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys), through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures), although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN) database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing hydrological conditions

  5. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government marine data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Morris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom. Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with  >  1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys, through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures, although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing

  6. DNA barcodes for 1/1000 of the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Dewaard, Jeremy R; Landry, Jean-François

    2010-06-23

    This study reports DNA barcodes for more than 1300 Lepidoptera species from the eastern half of North America, establishing that 99.3 per cent of these species possess diagnostic barcode sequences. Intraspecific divergences averaged just 0.43 per cent among this assemblage, but most values were lower. The mean was elevated by deep barcode divergences (greater than 2%) in 5.1 per cent of the species, often involving the sympatric occurrence of two barcode clusters. A few of these cases have been analysed in detail, revealing species overlooked by the current taxonomic system. This study also provided a large-scale test of the extent of regional divergence in barcode sequences, indicating that geographical differentiation in the Lepidoptera of eastern North America is small, even when comparisons involve populations as much as 2800 km apart. The present results affirm that a highly effective system for the identification of Lepidoptera in this region can be built with few records per species because of the limited intra-specific variation. As most terrestrial and marine taxa are likely to possess a similar pattern of population structure, an effective DNA-based identification system can be developed with modest effort.

  7. Tinnitus services in the United Kingdom: a survey of patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Don; Hoare, Derek J; Carr, Simon; Ray, Jaydip; Stockdale, David

    2018-02-13

    Tinnitus service provision in the United Kingdom has been investigated from the healthcare provider's perspective demonstrating considerable regional variation particularly regarding availability of psychological treatments. An audiological-based tinnitus service, however, was reportedly available for all tinnitus patients in the UK. The aim of the current study was to define and evaluate nationwide tinnitus healthcare services from the patients' viewpoint. Secondary analyses were performed on data from a 33-item questionnaire provided by the British Tinnitus Association. The questionnaire had been distributed via email and social media. Responses from 937 participants who had or had previously experienced tinnitus were analysed. All but one person had at some time consulted their GP. About one in five received medication in primary care. The majority were referred to secondary care, generally an ENT surgeon or audiovestibular physician; some were referred directly to audiological services. In secondary care the majority underwent audiometric testing and over half underwent MRI scanning. Drugs were prescribed less frequently in secondary care. About one third of patients were referred onwards from diagnostic services in secondary care to receive therapeutic interventions for tinnitus. Therapy was generally delivered by an audiologist or hearing therapist. Just under two fifths of people discharged from secondary care returned to their GP, with most returning within one year. Over a third of this group were re-referred to secondary care. Few patients saw a psychologist (2.6%) though some psychological treatments were delivered by appropriately trained audiologists. Negative counselling from healthcare professionals in both primary and secondary care settings was reported. Although the UK has developed a national service for patients with tinnitus many people find it difficult to access, being blocked at the primary care level or after secondary care diagnostic

  8. A Geospatial Database for Wind and Solar Energy Applications: The Kingdom of Bahrain Study Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Joburi, Khalil; Dahman, Nidal

    2017-11-01

    This research is aimed at designing, implementing, and testing a geospatial database for wind and solar energy applications in the Kingdom of Bahrain. All decision making needed to determine economic feasibility and establish site location for wind turbines or solar panels depends primarily on geospatial feature theme information and non-spatial (attribute) data for wind, solar, rainfall, temperature and weather characteristics of a particular region. Spatial data includes, but is not limited to, digital elevation, slopes, land use, zonings, parks, population density, road utility maps, and other related information. Digital elevations for over 450,000 spot at 50 m spatial horizontal resolution plus field surveying and GPS (at selected locations) was obtained from the Surveying and Land Registration Bureau (SLRB). Road, utilities, and population density are obtained from the Central Information Organization (CIO). Land use zoning, recreational parks, and other data are obtained from the Ministry of Municipalities and Agricultural Affairs. Wind, solar, humidity, rainfall, and temperature data are obtained from the Ministry of Transportation, Civil Aviation Section. LandSat Satellite and others images are obtained from NASA and online sources respectively. The collected geospatial data was geo-referenced to Ain el-Abd UTM Zone 39 North. 3D Digital Elevation Model (DEM)-50 m spatial resolutions was created using SLRB spot elevations. Slope and aspect maps were generate based on the DEM. Supervised image classification to identify open spaces was performed utilizing satellite images. Other geospatial data was converted to raster format with the same cell resolution. Non-spatial data are entered as an attribute to spatial features. To eliminate ambiguous solution, multi-criteria GIS model is developed based on, vector (discrete point, line, and polygon representations) as well as raster model (continuous representation). The model was tested at the Al-Areen proposed

  9. A Geospatial Database for Wind and Solar Energy Applications: The Kingdom of Bahrain Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Joburi Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at designing, implementing, and testing a geospatial database for wind and solar energy applications in the Kingdom of Bahrain. All decision making needed to determine economic feasibility and establish site location for wind turbines or solar panels depends primarily on geospatial feature theme information and non-spatial (attribute data for wind, solar, rainfall, temperature and weather characteristics of a particular region. Spatial data includes, but is not limited to, digital elevation, slopes, land use, zonings, parks, population density, road utility maps, and other related information. Digital elevations for over 450,000 spot at 50 m spatial horizontal resolution plus field surveying and GPS (at selected locations was obtained from the Surveying and Land Registration Bureau (SLRB. Road, utilities, and population density are obtained from the Central Information Organization (CIO. Land use zoning, recreational parks, and other data are obtained from the Ministry of Municipalities and Agricultural Affairs. Wind, solar, humidity, rainfall, and temperature data are obtained from the Ministry of Transportation, Civil Aviation Section. LandSat Satellite and others images are obtained from NASA and online sources respectively. The collected geospatial data was geo-referenced to Ain el-Abd UTM Zone 39 North. 3D Digital Elevation Model (DEM-50 m spatial resolutions was created using SLRB spot elevations. Slope and aspect maps were generate based on the DEM. Supervised image classification to identify open spaces was performed utilizing satellite images. Other geospatial data was converted to raster format with the same cell resolution. Non-spatial data are entered as an attribute to spatial features. To eliminate ambiguous solution, multi-criteria GIS model is developed based on, vector (discrete point, line, and polygon representations as well as raster model (continuous representation. The model was tested at the Al

  10. Contribution of Heritability and Epigenetic Factors to Skeletal Muscle Mass Variation in United Kingdom Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, Gregory; Gao, Fei; Malkin, Ida; Needhamsen, Maria; Xia, Yudong; Yuan, Wei; Bell, Christopher G; Ward, Kirsten; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is one of the major components of human body composition, with deviations from normal values often leading to sarcopenia. Our major aim was to conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation study in an attempt to identify potential genomic regions associated with SMM. This was a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Community-based study. A total of 1550 middle-aged United Kingdom twins (monozygotic [MZ] and dizygotic [DZ]), 297 of which were repeatedly measured participated in the study. Appendicular lean mass assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technology, and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing DNA methylation profiling genome-wide were obtained from each individual. Heritability estimate of SMM, with simultaneous adjustment for covariates obtained using variance decomposition analysis, was h(2) = 0.809 ± 0.050. After quality control and analysis of longitudinal stability, the DNA methylation data comprised of 723 029 genomic sites, with positive correlations between repeated measurements (Rrepeated = 0.114-0.905). Correlations between MZ and DZ twins were 0.51 and 0.38 at a genome-wide average, respectively, and clearly increased with Rrepeated. Testing for DNA methylation association with SMM in 50 discordant MZ twins revealed 36 081 nominally significant results, of which the top-ranked 134 signals (P 0.40) were subjected to replication in the sample of 1196 individuals. Seven SMM methylation association signals replicated at a false discovery rate less than 0.1, and these were located in or near genes DNAH12, CAND1, CYP4F29P, and ZFP64, which have previously been highlighted in muscle-related studies. Adjusting for age, smoking, and blood cell heterogeneity did not alter significance of these associations. This epigenome-wide study, testing longitudinally stable methylation sites, discovered and replicated a number of associations between DNA methylation at CpG loci and SMM. Four replicated signals were

  11. An inevitable end? The collapse of the Lombard kingdom facing the Franks and the papacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gasparri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the Italian historiography, from Alessandro Manzoni (1822 to the two major Italian historians who studied the Lombards at the middle of the twentieth century, Gian Piero Bognetti and Ottorino Bertolini, the Lombards remained always separated from the Roman population, of which the pope was the natural leader; the Lombards, too, became very late Catholics, in time, though, to experience the "drama" of having to fight against the pope, whose supreme spiritual authority the Lombards themselves at that point recognized. Consequently, the fall of the independent kingdom by the hands of the Franks would be logical and inevitable. This is an old and outdated position: the end of the independent Lombard kingdom wasn’t inevitable. At the time of the Frankish conquest, the kingdom was politically solid inward, in economic growth and very dynamic outward. During the reigns of Liutprand, Ratchis and Aistulf (712-757, the kingdom exercised its hegemony over the whole Italy. In this period no strong elements of internal weakness emerged. Therefore, the defeat of 774 was substantially caused by external factors, ie the alliance between the Franks and the papacy. However, the attitude of the popes against the Lombard kingdom was not always hostile. Things changed only with Stephen II, because of two simultaneous events occurring in 751: the royal anointing of Pepin in the Frankish kingdom and the conquest of the Exarchate by Aistulf. Italian political balance broke and caused the decisive rapprochement between Rome and the Franks. But there were still many uncertainties, as proved, for example, by Charlemagne’s marriage with a daughter of Desiderius. Carloman’s death in 771 and, the following year, the election of the new pope Adrian I caused the repudiation of the Lombard bride by Charlemagne, his descent into Italy in 773, and the capture of Pavia the year after: Desiderius was exiled in France and Charlemagne became rex Langobardorum. The

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  15. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  17. Managing energy transactions across the Kingdom of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisot, A.

    2005-08-01

    Jordan's National Electric Power Company has constructed a synchronized, countrywide enterprise energy management network to provide energy companies with independent access to metering data from shared inter-tie points across the grid. The network is expected to play a key role in helping to support business processes between market participants while also providing the tools to maintain a secure and reliable source of affordable energy for the country's 5 million residents. Limited access to natural resources has placed significant constraints on the region. A background of Jordan's deregulation of the transmission grid was provided in this article, as well as details of government proposals in the past. Falling oil prices have meant an increase in involvement of private concerns in creating a sustainable business and regulatory environment. An outline of Jordan's energy assets was also provided, as well as details of the transmission system and its partitions. Details of data loggers were presented, as well as workstation terminals. Security safeguards such as a segmented network infrastructure, data validation and multilevel user authentication ensure that all billing and operational data is secure. Issues concerning revenue accuracy were discussed. It was concluded that a reliable metering and communications infrastructure is helping to support business processes between market participants. 3 figs.

  18. The psychosocial work environment and mental health of teachers: a comparative study between the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Janice; Leka, Stavroula; MacLennan, Sara

    2013-08-01

    There is limited research on teachers' psychosocial work environment and mental health, and most has been conducted in predominantly Western countries that share a number of important common characteristics that distinguish them from countries in many other regions of the world. Within the framework of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theoretical model, the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and mental health of teachers in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong (HK) was investigated. Full-time qualified teachers from both the UK and HK (N = 259) participated in the research. They were asked to fill in a set of questionnaires that measured their perceived stress, mental health, psychosocial work environment and demographic information. Perceived stress was found to predict teachers' mental health. Overcommitment, the intrinsic component of the ERI model, predicted mental health among HK teachers. There were significant differences in the psychosocial variables between UK and HK teachers. The results showed support for the ERI model and in particular for the relationship between stress and mental health and demonstrated the role of overcommitment in the teaching profession. Some implications are discussed for combating cultural differences in managing the psychosocial work environment of teachers.

  19. The United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network: a review of the first 15 years and introduction to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Evans, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    The United Kingdom Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) was established in 1988 to determine the ecological impact of acidic emissions control policy on acid-sensitive lakes and streams. AWMN data have been used to explore a range of causal linkages necessary to connect changes in emissions to chemical and, ultimately, biological recovery. Regional scale reductions in sulphur (S) deposition have been found to have had an immediate influence on surface water chemistry, including increases in acid neutralising capacity, pH and alkalinity and declines in aluminium toxicity. These in turn can be linked to changes in the aquatic biota which are consistent with 'recovery' responses. A continuation of the current programme is essential in order to better understand apparent non-linearity between nitrogen (N) in deposition and runoff, the substantial rise in organic acid concentrations, and the likely impacts of forecast climate change and other potential constraints on further biological improvement. - After 15 years of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network, we can now draw clear conclusions regarding the impact of emission reductions on acidified UK fresh waters

  20. A review of environmental governance and its effects on concentrate discharge from desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2013-01-01

    The most likely environmental impact of concentrate discharges (in most instances twice the concentration of the ambient environment) leaking from desalination plants on local marine ecosystems has been controversially discussed for many years. Increasing water demand and lack of renewable natural water resources in Saudi Arabia also result in greater dependence on desalination and consequently amplify the impact on marine environment and multifactorial ecosystems in near-field areas of desalination discharges. Accurate scientific baseline data should furnish information on various factors such as intake- and outfall locality, brine (concentrate) discharge and chemical characteristics (i.e. effluent concentration, mass flow rates (flux)), local effects, and even cumulative effects of desalination activities, at least on a regional and even on a national scale. Even if such data were available, in many cases they are non-transparent and are not even accessible, or tend to be overlooked as a result of ambiguous desalination-related policies. This paper focuses on national environmental regulations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and how such regulations help control the flow of concentrate discharge into the receiving waters. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  1. Disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the United Kingdom from the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P M

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.

  2. Analyzing Long-run Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the relation between energy consumption and economic growth is important to design effective energy policies that will promote economic growth, this study investigates the short run dynamics and causality among energy consumption, co2 emissions, oil prices and economic growth in Kingdom of Bahrain. To do so, annual data that covers the period from 1960 till 2015. Empirical work tests for unit root, co-integration relationship using Johansen (1988 approach and then estimate both long and short run dynamics using the vector error correction model (VECM. Results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the suggested variables. Since economic growth has a predictive power to estimate the energy demand of Kingdom of Bahrain, it is recommended that the government of Bahrain and policy designers shed the light on energy efficiency strategies and carbon emissions reduction policy in the long run without impeding economic growth in order to move towards sustainability.

  3. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emee Vida Estacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  4. Debt burden of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia at times of great depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is customary to look for the causes of widespread problems of public debt service at times of the Great Depression on the side of a sharp drop of foreign exchange earnings of the debtor country, in conditions of severe contraction of international trade and the introduction of a series of foreign trade restrictions. In the case of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in addition to these causes, which were generated by the Great Depression, there were some specific reasons on the side of public expenditures that were not related to the crisis, which led the country to sovereign debt default in 1932. Analysing these reasons is the subject matter of this paper. The aim of this paper is to indicate, on the basis of relevant macroeconomic indicators and economic-historical facts, how much the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was indebted and why it was not possible to avoid the accumulation of public debt in the years of Great Depression.

  5. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookway, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    Government policy towards radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is based on the system of dose limitations laid down by ICRP as interpreted by the National Radiological Protection Board for use in the United Kingdom. The paper describes the legislative and administrative arrangements by which this policy is enforced, including the work of the principal inspectorates, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the Radiochemical Inspectorate together with the latter's equivalents in Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is concluded that the present legislation, including that relating to planning and the setting up of public inquiries, is sufficiently all-embracing to ensure both strict control of the disposal of all the radioactive waste currently arising or which will arise in the future and a high degree of public involvement in the necessary decisions. (author)

  6. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Analyzing Long-run Relationship between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Hanan

    2017-11-01

    Since the relation between energy consumption and economic growth is important to design effective energy policies that will promote economic growth, this study investigates the short run dynamics and causality among energy consumption, co2 emissions, oil prices and economic growth in Kingdom of Bahrain. To do so, annual data that covers the period from 1960 till 2015. Empirical work tests for unit root, co-integration relationship using Johansen (1988) approach and then estimate both long and short run dynamics using the vector error correction model (VECM). Results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between the suggested variables. Since economic growth has a predictive power to estimate the energy demand of Kingdom of Bahrain, it is recommended that the government of Bahrain and policy designers shed the light on energy efficiency strategies and carbon emissions reduction policy in the long run without impeding economic growth in order to move towards sustainability.

  8. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg; Garduñ o, C. Patricio Roa; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world's desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  9. The ethics of medical tourism: from the United Kingdom to India seeking medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Is the practice of UK patients traveling to India as medical tourists morally justified? This article addresses that question by examining three ethically relevant issues. First, the key factor motivating citizens of the United Kingdom to seek medical treatment in India is identified and analyzed. Second, the life prospects of the majority of the citizens of the two nations are compared to determine whether the United Kingdom is morally warranted in relying on India to meet the medical needs of its citizens. Third, as neoliberal reforms are justified on the grounds that they will help the indigent populations affected by them, the impact of medical tourism--a neoliberal initiative--on India's socially and economically marginalized groups is scrutinized.

  10. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  11. The Development of the Sacred Landscape of Saqqara in the Old Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magli, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    Saqqara is one of the most important Necropolis in Egypt. In the course of the third millennium BC many Pharaohs choose Saqqara for their tombs. As a consequence the landscape constantly grew with the addition of new monuments, from the mastaba tombs of the first dynasty to the last pyramid of the Old Kingdom, that of Pepi II. The monuments were constructed respecting a series of topographical constraints which are not due to the morphology of the area but rather reflect symbolic - dynastic or astronomical - motivations. The analysis of these connections gives a better understanding of the choices made by the kings' architects in order to keep Maat - order - in the development of the site. Further, the way in which the sacred landscape came to be structured at the end of the Old Kingdom allows us to formulate a proposal for the possible location of the unique pyramid of the sixth dynasty which is still to be found: that of Userkare.

  12. The use of irradiated food for immunosuppressed hospital patients in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryke, D.C.; Taylor, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation has been recommended as a method for preparing foods for hospital patients requiring sterile diets as a result of intensive therapy or disease that has resulted in suppression of the immune system. It has a number of advantages over other methods and in recognition of this, in the United Kingdom, the use of irradiated foods for hospital patients has been specifically exempted from regulatory control. Due to a number of factors there is a move away from keeping patients in a sterile environment; however, irradiation may still have a role to play for vulnerable and high-risk patients. This paper summarizes the use of radiation-sterilized foods in hospitals in the United Kingdom and discusses the future potential for both radiation-sterilized and ‘radiation-pasturized’ foods

  13. Non-melanoma skin cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, C; Currie, R; Memon, A; Whitaker, S; Woolford, T

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides consensus recommendations on the management of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region on the basis of current evidence. Recommendations • Royal College of Pathologists minimum datasets for NMSC should be adhered to in order to improve patient care and help work-force planning in pathology departments. (G) • Tumour depth is of critical importance in identifying high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), and should be reported in all cases. (R) • Appropriate imaging to determine the extent of primary NMSC is indicated when peri-neural involvement or bony invasion is suspected. (R) • In the clinically N0 neck, radiological imaging is not beneficial, and a policy of watchful waiting and patient education can be adopted. (R) • Patients with high-risk NMSC should be treated by members of a skin cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) in secondary care. (G) • Non-infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (BCC) skin cancer prevention measures. (G) • Patients who have had a single completely excised BCC or low-risk cSCC can be discharged after a single post-operative visit. (G) • Patients with an excised high-risk cSCC should be reviewed three to six monthly for two years, with further annual review depending upon clinical risk. (G) • Those with recurrent or multiple BCCs should be offered annual review. (G).

  14. United Kingdom evidence on the behaviour of the beta or systematic risk of initial public offerings

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the beta or systematic risk of initial public offerings using a sample of newly issued stocks in the United Kingdom market. The findings are threefold. First, the beta risk estimation is found to decline over time. It corresponds with the differential information model which predicts that the risk of low information is high with uncertainty around it and will decline as the quantity of information increases. The quantity of information, in this case, is represented by time...

  15. Working Hours and Satisfaction: A comparative analysis of Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ASANO Hirokatsu; KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between working hours and working-hour satisfaction and that between working hours and life satisfaction for white-collar permanent employees in Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. We use data obtained from the International Survey on Work-Life Balance , which was conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) and the Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office (ESRI) in Japan. The survey shows that Japan has the highe...

  16. Tort personal injury claims statistics: is there a compensation culture in the United Kingdom?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Richard; Morris, Annette; Oliphant, Ken

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the most reliable sources of statistical information about the workings of the personal injury litigation system in the United Kingdom to present their principal data in clear, straightforward and accessible form, and to subject them to critical analysis. These figures provide the basis for an initial examination of the claim that a damaging compensation culture has developed in the UK in recent years.

  17. United Kingdom and United States Tourism Demand for Malaysia:A Cointegration Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Fateh; Abdul Rahim, Khalid; Chin, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Tourism industry has been an important contributor to the Malaysia economy. In this paper we inspect variations in the long run demand for tourism from United Kingdom and United States to Malaysia. The demand for tourism has been explained by macroeconomic variables, including income in origin countries, tourism prices in Malaysia, and travel cost between the two countries. Annual data from 1972 to 2006 are used for the analysis. Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Johansen’s maximum likelihood tests...

  18. Management, restructuring and industrial relations : organizational change within the United Kingdom broadcasting industry, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade researchers began to remedy a literature deficit in the study of broadcasting institutions – addressing in particular the issues of labour process, restructuring and industrial relations. This thesis which considers management change, industrial relations and restructuring within the United Kingdom (‘UK’) broadcasting industry employs a case study format with a view to highlighting the variations of industry (macro) and firm (micro) based restructuring. Organizational chang...

  19. Measles outbreak linked to European B3 outbreaks, Wales, United Kingdom, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jonny; Davies, Llion; McCarthy, Joanne; Perry, Malorie; Moore, Catherine; Cottrell, Simon; Bowley, Mererid; Williams, Chris; Shankar, Ananda Giri; Stiff, Rhianwen

    2017-10-01

    The United Kingdom achieved interrupted endemic measles transmission for 36 months in 2016. Despite this, ongoing challenges from sporadic measles cases typically imported from abroad remain. We summarise a B3 measles genotype outbreak in south-east Wales occurring between May and September 2017, linked with other European outbreaks, and lessons learnt. Seventeen confirmed cases and one probable case occurred principally in education and healthcare-settings. Six confirmed cases attended healthcare settings when infectious, without being isolated.

  20. Nurse prescribing for inpatient pain in the United Kingdom: a national questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Karen L; Courtenay, Molly; Cannons, Karin

    2011-07-01

    Nurses make a valuable contribution to pain services and have the potential to improve the safety and effectiveness of pain management. A recent addition to the role of the specialist pain nurse in the United Kingdom has been the introduction of prescribing rights, however there is a lack of literature about their role in prescribing pain medication. The aim of this study was to develop a profile of the experience, role and prescribing practice of these nurses. A descriptive questionnaire survey. 192 National Health Service public hospital inpatient pain services across the United Kingdom. 161 qualified nurse prescribers were invited to participate, representing 98% of known nurse prescribers contributing to inpatient pain services. The survey was completed in November 2009 by 137 nurses; a response rate of 85%. Compared with nurse prescribers in the United Kingdom in general, participants were highly qualified and experienced pain specialists. Fifty-six percent had qualified as a prescriber in the past 3 years and 22% reported that plans were underway for more nurses to undertake a nurse prescribing qualification. Although all participants worked in inpatient pain services, 35% also covered chronic pain (outpatient) services and 90% treated more than one pain type. A range of pain medications were prescribed, averaging 19.5 items per week. The role contained a strong educational component and contributed to informing organisational policy on pain management. Prescribing was said to improve nurses' ability to promote evidence-based practice but benefits were limited by legislation on prescribing controlled drugs. Findings demonstrate that pain nurses are increasingly adopting prescribing as part of their advanced nurse role. This has implications for the development needs of pain nurses in the United Kingdom and the future role development of nurses in other countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The United Kingdom’s Naval Shipbuilding Industrial Base: The Next Fifteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    the United Kingdom 71 Lauder College are developing improved procedures for selecting and training craft modern apprentices, as well as programmes...Next 15 Years for the names of the suppliers, information on what they provided, and the amount of money spent on them. We also asked the ship- yards...analysis on all money spent on suppliers; (2) ration- alise the supply base, consolidating contracts where possible (and where this fits the legal

  2. "This Modern Day Slavery": Sex Trafficking and Moral Panic in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the discourse and development of the British anti-sex trafficking movement. Following the European Union's largest expansion in 2004, the United Kingdom experienced a surge in immigration from Eastern Europe, which was greeted by fears about losing British culture, stolen jobs, and rising criminal activity. From this welter of concerns, I argue, the issue of sex trafficking coalesced into a moral panic about the dangers of immigration and the sexual exploitation of w...

  3. Warwickshire coalfield second monitoring report working paper No. 8. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K.; Roberts, P. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The second in a series of reports providing information relevant to the proposal to deep-mine coal in mid-Warwickshire, United Kingdom. Emphasis is placed upon an updating of energy policy, a progress report on the Belvoir and Selby developments, the impact of coal mining on local income and expenditure, the experience of new mining developments in the West Midlands, the further examination of waste disposal and a detailed look at the economic impacts of coal mining.

  4. The Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes [United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This Consultation Document reviews how the United Kingdom Department of Energy's nuclear R and D programmes support the Government's nuclear policy and reaches preliminary conclusions about their future direction. It describes the changes the Department has adopted, and is proposing, to ensure that it is better informed about the nuclear R and D it commissions and that the work is carried out cost-effectively. The areas of research reviewed are: safety; radiological protection; safeguards; reactor technology; fusion; decommissioning and waste management. (author)

  5. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A.; Heffron, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  6. Status of fast reactor control rod development in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    The two large fast reactors constructed in the United Kingdom, that is the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) differed substantially in their control systems. DFR was controlled by variation of the neutron leakage from the core while PFR uses conventional control rods containing neutron absorbing materials. This paper describes the development of the PFR control systems, the progressive design of the control systems for the prototype Civil Fast Reactor (CFR) and the supporting research and development programmes. (author)

  7. Shale gas policy in the United Kingdom: An argumentative discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, M; Rattle, I; Van Alstine, J

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas has become an energy policy priority in the United Kingdom in light of profitable extraction activities in the United States. Since 2012 the Coalition Government has created key economic drivers to encourage shale exploration, whilst growing activism in affected site communities has stirred significant media and academic commentary. This study examines the growing national debate as a matter of discourse, adopting an argumentative discourse analytic approach to assess data collected...

  8. The nuclear energy in the United Kingdom; L'energie nucleaire au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  9. Comparing Tax Routes to Welfare in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian

    Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...... conclusion is that tax routes to welfare deserves much closer and more public examination than they currently receive in either country....

  10. A review of the United Kingdom fast reactor program - March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the United Kingdom Fast Reactor Programme was given in March 1983. Operational experience with the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) is briefly summarized. The design concept of the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), including design codes, engineering components, materials and fuels development, chemical engineering/sodium technology, safety and reactor performance, is reviewed. The problems of PFR and CDFR fuel reprocessing are also discussed

  11. Use of dental clinics and oral hygiene practices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Kravitz, Hannah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Memish, Ziad A.; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a large household survey in 2013 to determine the current status of oral health practices and use of oral health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods The Saudi Health Information Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals ? 15 years of age. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure the association between having been to a dental clinic during the last year, and sex, age, marital status, education, time...

  12. The enhancement of natural radiation dosage by coal-fired power generation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1980-02-01

    The total fuel cycle of electricity generation from coal is assessed as a source of enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The various routes by which such exposure can arise are discussed and the consequent individual and collective radiation doses in the United Kingdom are estimated on the basis of a critical review of published data augmented by the results of recent, hitherto unpublished work within the CEGB. Further work is in progress to clarify particular areas of uncertainty that have been identified. (author)

  13. Index der Titelbestandteile zu Dilwyn Jones: An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and Phrases of the Old Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Simon D.

    2006-01-01

    Vorliegender Index erschließt die nicht-ersten Titelbestandteile der in Dilwyn Jones: An index of ancient Egyptian titles, epithets and phrases of the Old Kingdom. Oxford : Archaeopress, 2000, verzettelten Titel und Epitheta des Alten Reiches.

  14. Report and accounts of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority for the year ended 31 March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The report and accounts of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority for the year ended 31 March 1986 is presented. The contents include: a) a general report, b) technical report, c) facilities, expertise and organisation, d) accounts. (UK)

  15. The Text of an Agreement between the Agency and the United Kingdom for the Application of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-06

    The text of the Agreement of 14 December 1972 between the Agency and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for the application of safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  16. The trans-kingdom identification of negative regulators of pathogen hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2016-01-01

    Modern society and global ecosystems are increasingly under threat from pathogens, which cause a plethora of human, animal, invertebrate and plant diseases. Of increasing concern is the trans-kingdom tendency for increased pathogen virulence that is beginning to emerge in natural, clinical and agricultural settings. The study of pathogenicity has revealed multiple examples of convergently evolved virulence mechanisms. Originally described as rare, but increasingly common, are interactions where a single gene deletion in a pathogenic species causes hypervirulence. This review utilised the pathogen-host interaction database (www.PHI-base.org) to identify 112 hypervirulent mutations from 37 pathogen species, and subsequently interrogates the trans-kingdom, conserved, molecular, biochemical and cellular themes that cause hypervirulence. This study investigates 22 animal and 15 plant pathogens including 17 bacterial and 17 fungal species. Finally, the evolutionary significance and trans-kingdom requirement for negative regulators of hypervirulence and the implication of pathogen hypervirulence and emerging infectious diseases on society are discussed. © FEMS 2015.

  17. The capital asset pricing model versus the three factor model: A United Kingdom Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar Bhatnagar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe (1964, Lintner (1965 and Black (1972 Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM postulates that the equilibrium rates of return on all risky assets are a linear function of their covariance with the market portfolio. Recent work by Fama and French (1996, 2006 introduce a Three Factor Model that questions the “real world application” of the CAPM Theorem and its ability to explain stock returns as well as value premium effects in the United States market. This paper provides an out-of-sample perspective to the work of Fama and French (1996, 2006. Multiple regression is used to compare the performance of the CAPM, a split sample CAPM and the Three Factor Model in explaining observed stock returns and value premium effects in the United Kingdom market. The methodology of Fama and French (2006 was used as the framework for this study. The findings show that the Three Factor Model holds for the United Kingdom Market and is superior to the CAPM and the split sample CAPM in explaining both stock returns and value premium effects. The “real world application” of the CAPM is therefore not supported by the United Kingdom data.

  18. Comparison of Strategies to Overcome Drug Resistance: Learning from Various Kingdoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ogawara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance, especially antibiotic resistance, is a growing threat to human health. To overcome this problem, it is significant to know precisely the mechanisms of drug resistance and/or self-resistance in various kingdoms, from bacteria through plants to animals, once more. This review compares the molecular mechanisms of the resistance against phycotoxins, toxins from marine and terrestrial animals, plants and fungi, and antibiotics. The results reveal that each kingdom possesses the characteristic features. The main mechanisms in each kingdom are transporters/efflux pumps in phycotoxins, mutation and modification of targets and sequestration in marine and terrestrial animal toxins, ABC transporters and sequestration in plant toxins, transporters in fungal toxins, and various or mixed mechanisms in antibiotics. Antibiotic producers in particular make tremendous efforts for avoiding suicide, and are more flexible and adaptable to the changes of environments. With these features in mind, potential alternative strategies to overcome these resistance problems are discussed. This paper will provide clues for solving the issues of drug resistance.

  19. 200 years of soil carbon nitrogen and phosphorus change across the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, Ed; Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Bell, Vicky; Carnell, Ed; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Naden, Pam; Stuart, Marianne; Tomlinson, Sam; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2015-04-01

    Human intervention over the last 200 years has resulted in vast changes to the fluxes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) entering the United Kingdom's landscape. Industrialisation has resulted in N deposition, agricultural intensification has seen widespread use of N and P fertilizers and societal actions have resulted in extensive land use change. To understand the consequences of these anthropogenic inputs for our soils, freshwaters and ecosystems it is necessary to take an integrated long term large scale approach. Integration across the compartments of the critical zone - from atmosphere, plants to soil and stream - is necessary in order to trace the effects of deposition, fertilization, cultivation and land use change. Coherent integration of C, N and P dynamics is also crucial, as biological processes tightly couple these cycles, so that in unison C N and P control the generation of biomass and consequent production of soil organic matter, having knock on effects for dissolved and particulate fluxes and ecosystem function. The Long-Term Large-Scale (LTLS) project is developing an integrated model that simulates the pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N, and P) between atmospheric, vegetation, soil and aquatic systems for the whole of the United Kingdom for a period spanning from the onset of the industrial revolution up until the present day. In this paper we will present results demonstrating the changes in the soil macronutrient cycles in response to agrarian and social change in the United Kingdom over the last 200 years

  20. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Although uranium prospecting was commenced in the United Kingdom (area 244,813 km) at the end of the last century and was resumed just after the Second World War, it does not seem, for various reasons, despite the level of competence of its specialists and the level of instrumentation available, that the country has been adequately prospected for uranium. The small reserves discovered to date, some 7400t U for all the official NEA/lAEA categories, probably do not reflect the true uranium potential of the United Kingdom. However, they do indicate without doubt that the resources remaining to be discovered are so located that detection will be difficult. The most promising areas of investigation in our opinion are the Old Red Sandstones of the Devonian period on the one hand and the districts where the uraniferous black shales of the Cambro-Ordovician and Namurian have suffered perturbations which may have led to immobilization of their uranium content (in particular, granitizations). All the considerations put forward in this analysis lead us to place the United Kingdom in category 4 of the classification adopted for IUREP. (author)

  1. Groundwater Drought and Recovery: a Case Study from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, D.; McKenzie, A. A.; Bloomfield, J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the processes leading to the onset, duration and end of hydrological droughts is necessary to help improve the management of stressed or scarce water resources during such periods. In particular, the role and use of groundwater during episodes of drought is crucially important, since groundwater can provide relatively resilient water supplies during early stages of drought but maybe highly susceptible to relatively persistent or sustained droughts. Nevertheless, groundwater is seldom considered in drought analyses, and compared with other types of hydrological drought there have been few studies to date. The few previous studies of groundwater droughts at catchment- and regional-scale have shown that catchment and aquifer characteristics exert a strong influence on the spatio-temporal development of groundwater droughts as water deficit propagates through the terrestrial water cycle. In this context, the relationships between hydrogeological heterogeneity, catchment engineering infrastructure (storage), and decisions related to water resource management during drought events all shape the evolution and consequences of groundwater droughts. Here we examine the evolution of a recent regionally significant two-year drought across the United Kingdom (UK) and use it to investigate these relationships. We identify the drivers, characterise the development and spatio-temporal extent of the groundwater drought. In particular, we focus on the unusually rapid end and recovery from drought during what would normally be a period of groundwater recession. The UK, and in particular southern England, relies extensively on groundwater for public water supply, agricultural and industrial use, as well as for sustaining river flows that are essential to ecosystem health. In normal years relatively consistent rainfall patterns prevail, recharging aquifers over winter when evapotranspiration is minimal. However, by March 2012 large parts of the southern UK had

  2. Communication dated 10 December 2012 received from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 10 December 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency, enclosing a statement made by Morocco on behalf of the Arab Group, during the November 2012 session of the Board of Governors under the agenda item 'Any Other Business'. The aforementioned communication and, as requested by the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco, the enclosed statement are herewith circulated for the information of Member States.

  3. Communication dated 10 December 2012 received from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 10 December 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency, enclosing a statement made by Morocco on behalf of the Arab Group, during the November 2012 session of the Board of Governors under the agenda item 'Any Other Business'. The aforementioned communication and, as requested by the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco, the enclosed statement are herewith circulated for the information of Member States.

  4. Communication dated 10 December 2012 received from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 10 December 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency, enclosing a statement made by Morocco on behalf of the Arab Group, during the November 2012 session of the Board of Governors under the agenda item 'Any Other Business'. The aforementioned communication and, as requested by the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco, the enclosed statement are herewith circulated for the information of Member States.

  5. Communication dated 10 December 2012 received from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 10 December 2012 from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco to the Agency, enclosing a statement made by Morocco on behalf of the Arab Group, during the November 2012 session of the Board of Governors under the agenda item 'Any Other Business'. The aforementioned communication and, as requested by the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of Morocco, the enclosed statement are herewith circulated for the information of Member States.

  6. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  7. Differences in virulence and sporulation of Phytophthora kernoviae isolates originating from two distinct geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has only been isolated from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and New Zealand. To understand what differences may exist between isolates from these two distinct geographical regions, virulence studies on three host plants and sporulation on host leaves were conducted on select isolat...

  8. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Cremonese, L.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Several European countries with domestic shale gas reserves are considering extracting this natural gas resource to complement their energy transition agenda. Natural gas, which produces lower CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, has the potential to serve as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables. However, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact climate as well as local and regional air quality. In this study, we explore the impact of a potential shale gas development in Europe, specifically in Germany and the United Kingdom, on emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In order to investigate the effect on emissions, we first estimate a range of wells drilled per year and production volume for the two countries under examination based on available geological information and on regional infrastructural and economic limitations. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to the well development, gas production and processing stages of shale gas generation to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different storylines of potential shale gas development, including low emissions (high level of regulation), high emissions (low level of regulation) and middle emissions scenarios, which influence fleet make-up, emission factor and activity data choices for emissions quantification. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to promote discussion and communication of potential impacts, and to construct possible visions for a future shale gas development in the two study countries. In a follow-up study, the impact of pollutant emissions from these scenarios on air quality will be explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model.

  9. Clinicopathological patterns and distribution of Schistosomiasis in Asir Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, N A; Khan, A R

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study is to report, for the first time, the histopathologic pattern of Schistosomiasis from the Asir Region and to compare it to patterns reported from other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several studies have reported the patterns of Schistosomiasis in other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other countries where Schistosomiasis is endemic. Schistosomiasis is endemic in certain areas of Asir region, however no data is available concerning the clinicopathological pattern of Schistosomiasis in the Asir Region. This is a retrospective analysis of 217 cases of Schistosomiasis from surgical and biopsy files of Asir Central Hospital during a period from January 1990 to October 1999. Our study revealed that Schistosomiasis was more common among the expatriate population of Asir Region than Saudi nationals residing in this area. The urinary tract was most commonly involved, and then in descending frequency came the vermiform appendix, liver and large bowel. These findings are somewhat different from those observed in the Riyadh Region where the vermiform appendix was the most commonly affected organ. Based on the histopathologic pattern, our study describes the pattern of Schistosomiasis in the Asir Region and may serve as a base-line for future research work.

  10. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  11. A geographical perspective on the natural gas supply industry in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Keith

    2004-11-01

    Natural gas has, over the last 40 years, come to account for a substantial percentage of primary energy consumption (i.e. including inputs to electricity and heat generation) in the United Kingdom (UK). In 2002, this percentage (37.3) was exceeded in only two other European countries, the Netherlands (46.0) and Hungary (43.0) (International Energy Agency, 2003). Although oil has generally attracted greater attention than natural gas, the effects of the latter upon the energy economy of the UK have, in certain respects, been more profound. Most North Sea oil production is exported directly from the UK (69.4 per cent in 2003 (DTI, 2004)) and the balance has been processed within an oil refining system originally established to handle imported oil. By contrast, the availability of natural gas from the North Sea from the mid-1960s transformed the UK gas industry from a producer of secondary energy (i.e. town gas manufactured from coal and oil) to a distributor of primary energy. This transformation had a geographical dimension evident in the contrast between the essentially local distribution systems of the town gas industry and the national system created to deliver natural gas. The development of this system has been accompanied by very significant organisational changes as the gas industry became one of several network utilities transferred from public to private ownership in the UK since the 1980s. This paper reviews these events from a geographical perspective. It is divided into three main sections. The first describes the growth of the natural gas consumption in the UK. The second places this empirical material within a policy framework. The third relates spatial variations in the availability and cost of natural gas to patterns of economic development and welfare. The introduction of natural gas from the North Sea into the UK energy market has clearly had major consequences at the national scale. It rapidly displaced the town gas industry, superimposing a

  12. Geology and regional setting of the Al Masane ancient mine area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Clay M.

    1985-01-01

    Stratiform zinc-copper massive-sulfide deposits at Al Masane occur in thin dolomitic interbeds within Proterozoic felsic crystal tuff and mafic flows and volcaniclastics. These strata dip steeply westward and are underlain by shale and shaly graywacke to the east and overlain by lapilli crystal tuff to the west. This section is part of the Habawnah fold or mineral belt that extends from the Wadi Wassat area southward into Yemen. Western parts of the Habawnah fold belt, including the Al Masane area, are characterized by a bimodal assemblage of of phenocryst-poor basalts and sodic rhyolite crystal tuff, and by zinc-copper mineral deposits. Strata in the eastern part of the belt, mostly east of the Ashara fault zone, contain abundant phenocryst-rich mafic volcanic rocks, little felsic crystal tuff, and barren or locally nickeliferous massive pyrite deposits.

  13. Geology and mineralization of the Jabalat alkali-feldspar granite, northern Asir region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tayyar, Jaffar; Jackson, Norman J.; Al-Yazidi, Saeed

    The Jabalat post-tectonic granite pluton is composed of albite- and oligoclase-bearing, low-calcium, F-, Sn- and Rb-rich subsolvus granites. These granites display evidence of late-magmatic, granitophile- and metallic-element specialization, resulting ultimately in the development of post-magmatic, metalliferous hydrothermal systems characterized by a Mo sbnd Sn sbnd Cu sbnd Pb sbnd Zn sbnd Bi sbnd Ag sbnd F signature. Two main types of mineralization are present within the pluton and its environs: (1) weakly mineralized felsic and aplitic dikes and veins enhanced in Mo, Bi, Ag, Pb and Cu; and (2) pyrite—molybdenite—chalcopyrite-bearing quartz and quartz—feldspar veins rich in Mo, Sn, Bi, Cu, Zn and Ag. A satellite stock, 3 km north of the main intrusion, is composed of fine-grained, miarolitic, muscovite—albite—microcline (microperthite) granite. The flanks of this intrusion and adjacent dioritic rocks are greisenized and highly enriched in Sn, Bi and Ag. Quartz veins which transect the satellite stock contain molybdenite and stannite.

  14. The prevalence of dental anomalies in the Western region of saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for congenitally missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, transposition, germination, fusion, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dent, and any other unusual conditions that can be assessed with OPG. Results. The prevalence of patient that exhibited at least one dental anomaly was 396 (45.1%) patients. The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth was 226 (25.7%), impacted teeth 186 (21.1%), dilacerated teeth 10 (1.1%), supernumerary teeth 3 (0.3%), odontoma 1 (0.1%), and taurodontism was also 1 case (0.1%) of the total radiographs reviewed. Conclusions. Congenitally missing teeth were found to be the most prevalent anomaly (25.7%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (21.1%), whereas root dilacerations, supernumerary teeth, and taurodontism were the least frequent anomalies (1.1%, 0.3% and 0.1%, resp.).

  15. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  16. Occupational exposure to radiation in the United Kingdom and its contribution to the genetically effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binks, W; Marley, W G

    1960-12-01

    It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled.

  17. Biodiversity at the molecular level: the domains, kingdoms and phyla of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, T M; Hirt, R P; Williams, D M

    1994-07-29

    The results of comparative sequence analysis, mainly of small subunit (SSU) ribosomal (r)RNA sequences, have suggested that all of cellular life can be placed in one of three domains: the Archaea, Bacteria or Eucarya. There is some evidence that the Archaea may not be a monophyletic assemblage, but as yet this issue has not been resolved. Most of the lineages, and all of the deepest ones, in the tree based upon SSU rRNA sequences, are microbial. Traditional ideas of classification such as Whittaker's five kingdom scheme do not adequately describe life's diversity as revealed by sequence comparisons. There are many microbial groups that demonstrate much greater amounts of SSU rRNA sequence divergence than do members of the classical kingdoms, Animalia, Plantae and Fungi. The old microbial kingdoms Monera and Protista are clearly paraphyletic but as yet there is no consensus as to how they should be reorganized in taxonomic terms. New data from environmental analysis suggests that much of the microbial world is unknown. Every environment which has been analysed by molecular methods has revealed many previously unrecorded lineages. Some of these show great divergence from the sequences of cultured microorganisms suggesting that fundamentally new microbial groups remain to be isolated. The relationships of some of these new lineages may be expected to affect how the tree of life is organized into higher taxa, and to also influence which features will be recognized as synapomorphies. There is currently no objective measure whereby microbial diversity can be quantified and compared to the figures which are widely quoted for arthropods and other Metazoa.

  18. Modern Management and Diagnosis of Hypertension in the United Kingdom: Home Care and Self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P; Schwartz, Claire L; Tucker, Katherine L; McManus, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The effective diagnosis and management of hypertension is one of the most important parts of cardiovascular prevention internationally and this is no different in the United Kingdom. Approximately 14% of the UK population currently receive treatment for hypertension. Recent UK guidelines from the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence have placed greater emphasis on the utilization of out-of-office measurement of blood pressure to more accurately diagnose hypertension. The aim of the present study was to provide a state-of-the-art review of the evidence for screening, diagnosing, and managing hypertension, as implemented in the United Kingdom, with an emphasis on the role of self-monitored and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in routine clinical care. Consideration was given to the use of ambulatory and home monitoring to confirm a diagnosis of hypertension and the use of self-monitoring and self-management to monitor and guide treatment. The evidence for the use of self-monitoring in patients with hypertension was examined, both in isolation, and in combination with lifestyle and treatment interventions. There is a place for self-monitored blood pressure in specific underresearched populations such as the elderly, specialist conditions, ethnic groups, and during pregnancy and this is discussed here. The evidence supporting the use of out-of-office monitoring in all aspects of routine clinical care has increased substantially in recent years and is reflected in increased utilization by patients and clinicians alike. Several areas require further research but it is clear that out-of-office monitoring is here to stay and is fast becoming an important part of hypertension management in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational exposure to radiation in the United Kingdom and its contribution to the genetically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binks, W.; Marley, W.G.

    1960-01-01

    It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled

  20. Collecting the neclected kingdom: Guidelines for the field mycologist with emphasis on the larger fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buyck, B.; Læssøe, Thomas; Meyer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for collecting a group of organisms that has often been overlooked in earlier inventories: the kingdom Fungi and other groups that are traditionally collected by mycologists such as slime molds. After a short introduction on fungi and the feasibility of an ‘all fungal taxa......’ inventory, the authors divide the fungi in six ‘practical’ groups that require specific approaches: slime molds, lichens, parasitic fungi of plants and animals, larger mushrooms, microscopic fungi. Various topics are discussed in relation to three chronological stages (before, during and after...

  1. A kingdom-specific protein domain HMM library for improved annotation of fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stephen G

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pfam is a general-purpose database of protein domain alignments and profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, which is very popular for the annotation of sequence data produced by genome sequencing projects. Pfam provides models that are often very general in terms of the taxa that they cover and it has previously been suggested that such general models may lack some of the specificity or selectivity that would be provided by kingdom-specific models. Results Here we present a general approach to create domain libraries of HMMs for sub-taxa of a kingdom. Taking fungal species as an example, we construct a domain library of HMMs (called Fungal Pfam or FPfam using sequences from 30 genomes, consisting of 24 species from the ascomycetes group and two basidiomycetes, Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen of maize, and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In addition, we include the Microsporidion Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an obligate intracellular parasite, and two non-fungal species, the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum, both plant pathogens. We evaluate the performance in terms of coverage against the original 30 genomes used in training FPfam and against five more recently sequenced fungal genomes that can be considered as an independent test set. We show that kingdom-specific models such as FPfam can find instances of both novel and well characterized domains, increases overall coverage and detects more domains per sequence with typically higher bitscores than Pfam for the same domain families. An evaluation of the effect of changing E-values on the coverage shows that the performance of FPfam is consistent over the range of E-values applied. Conclusion Kingdom-specific models are shown to provide improved coverage. However, as the models become more specific, some sequences found by Pfam may be missed by the models in FPfam and some of the families represented in the test set are not present in FPfam

  2. United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum Progress Report. Data Studies during 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P. (ed.) [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) meets twice a year to discuss issues relating to the measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. Topics cover a wide range of applications in the UK nuclear industry. Links between members are maintained throughout the year, mainly through e-mail and the UKNSF website (www.uknsf.ofg.uk). Work of primary interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g. half-lives and gamma ray emission probabilities), fission yields, and neutron cross sections for fission and fusion. All known studies within the UK are summarised in this report. Specific applications and international links of relevance are also described. (author)

  3. Energy research and development in the United Kingdom: a discussion document. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for the future planning of United Kingdom research and development in energy technologies. It contains the first steps in the formulation of a national energy R and D strategy. Decision on energy R and D must be taken in the light of the overall aims of energy policies. The main objectives of energy policy are to meet the energy needs of the country at minimum cost in real resources over time, while paying due regard to security of supply, to public safety, to protection of the environment and, where major change is in prospect, to the social consequences of change.

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodings, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in the United Kingdom. The general technology underlying most aspects of power reactor C and I in the UK has not altered since the last progress report although there have been many improvements in detail. In one field, however, that of computer applications, the change has almost been one of kind rather than degree. The following fields are briefly described: The status of nuclear power in the UK, the development of sensors, the development of electronic equipment, signal processing - information technology, quality assurance and the validation and verification of software, expert systems, training simulators. (author). 1 ref

  5. A preliminary list of bee genera in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Engel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of those bee genera and subgenera occurring in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is provided. In total 22 genera are currently documented in the literature for the country, although a further 17 genera undoubtedly occur here based on extralimital records. The lists provided here will serve as a baseline for biodiversity studies on the bee fauna of the country that are presently underway. The anthidiine genus Icteranthidium Michener (Megachilidae and the dasypodaine genus Promelitta Warncke (Melittidae are newly recorded for the country.

  6. Warwickshire coalfield first monitoring report working paper No. 5. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K.; Roberts, P. (eds.)

    1982-05-01

    The first of a series of reports providing information relevant to the proposal to deep-mine coal in mid-Warwickshire, United Kingdom. The first part discusses the national energy situation and the difficulties involved in formulating an energy policy, then a brief history of coal mining in Warwickshire is presented. The second part compares experiments of the Selby and Belvoir coalfield, with the expansion of Coventry and Daw Mill collieries. The third, discusses the environmental and economic impact of the mining proposals.

  7. Addendum to the study of gymnastics and combat association foundation in the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the results of research whose goal was to consider particulars on the start and chronology of gymnastics and combat civil association foundation in the Kingdom of Serbia in a critical manner. That was possible thanks to the fact that one unpublished document in the legacy of Jovan Vanja Petrovic was found in the Museum of Physical Culture within Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Belgrade. The contents of a few found letters created one new perspective on the former knowledge about the first attempts of sports initiation in Serbia, outside Belgrade.

  8. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  9. Top Earnings Inequality and the Gender Pay Gap: Canada, Sweden and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Bell, Brian; Böhm, Michael Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the under-representation of women in top jobs for the overall gender pay gap. Using administrative annual earnings data from Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, it applies the approach used in the analysis of earnings inequality in top incomes, as well as reweighting techniques, to the analysis of the gender pay gap. The analysis is supplemented by classic O-B decompositions of hourly wages using data from the Canadian and U.K. Labour Force Surveys....

  10. United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum Progress Report. Data Studies during 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.P.

    2010-02-01

    The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) meets twice a year to discuss issues relating to the measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. Topics cover a wide range of applications in the UK nuclear industry. Links between members are maintained throughout the year, mainly through e-mail and the UKNSF website (www.uknsf.ofg.uk). Work of primary interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g. half-lives and gamma ray emission probabilities), fission yields, and neutron cross sections for fission and fusion. All known studies within the UK are summarised in this report. Specific applications and international links of relevance are also described. (author)

  11. Liability for injury to the unborn - Recent amendments to the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The adoption in the United Kingdom in 1976 of an Act to determine liability for injury to the unborn (foetus) has provided the opportunity to amend the Nuclear Installations Act which governs the liability of nuclear operators, which is now extended to such injury. Any 'injury' attributable to a nuclear operator which so affects a mother that her child is born disabled involves the liability of that operator within the meaning of the Nuclear Installations Act whether or not either parent has suffered an injury on that occasion. (NEA) [fr

  12. The Development Strategies of Electronic Records: United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia as Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Min Lin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of electronic records have been an indicator of modern government all over the world. The format of public records of government agencies have been gradually transformed to digitalform. How to manage the life cycle of electronic records have became an important issue. In this paper, the development strategies in electronic records of the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia are taken as examples to explain their state-of-the-art. Several suggestions are proposed as the reference for Taiwan’s government. [Article content in Chinese

  13. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  14. The United Kingdom Law on the authorisation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savinson, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explains the requirements of the law of the United Kingdom as to the authorisations needed to construct and operate nuclear power plants in Great Britain. For simplicity, the texts referred to apply to England and Wales, Scottish law differing in detail but not in principle. Implementation of this legal system is studied in particular from the viewpoint of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) which is at present the body exclusively responsible for generating and supplying electricity in England and Wales. (NEA) [fr

  15. Solar photovoltaic systems and their use as grid-connected generators in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, D K; Hacker, R J; Thornycroft, J M [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of building-integrated solar photovoltaic generators as grid-connected generators. This paper discusses the experience with this technology in Europe. Typical systems and their integration into domestic and non-domestic buildings are described. Information is provided on the energy output that can be expected from the systems and the economics of their use. The paper provides an overview of the requirements for photovoltaic systems as grid-connected generation plant in the United Kingdom. (Author)

  16. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  17. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnold

    Full Text Available Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE. Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  18. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  19. A decade of genomic history for healthcare-associated Enterococcus faecium in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Kathy E.; Reuter, Sandra; Reynolds, Rosy; Brodrick, Hayley J.; Russell, Julie E.; Török, M. Estée; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. We undertook whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 495 E. faecium bloodstream isolates from 2001–2011 in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UK&I) and 11 E. faecium isolates from a reference collection. Comparison between WGS and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified major discrepancies for 17% of isolates, with multiple instances of the same sequence type (ST) being located in genetically distant positions in the WGS tree. This confirms that WGS is superior to MLST for evolutionary analyses and is more accurate than current typing methods used during outbreak investigations. E. faecium has been categorized as belonging to three clades (Clades A1, hospital-associated; A2, animal-associated; and B, community-associated). Phylogenetic analysis of our isolates replicated the distinction between Clade A (97% of isolates) and Clade B but did not support the subdivision of Clade A into Clade A1 and A2. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that Clade A had been introduced multiple times into each hospital referral network or country, indicating frequent movement of E. faecium between regions that rarely share hospital patients. Numerous genetic clusters contained highly related vanA-positive and -negative E. faecium, which implies that control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals also requires consideration of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium. Our findings reveal the evolution and dissemination of hospital-associated E. faecium in the UK&I and provide evidence for WGS as an instrument for infection control. PMID:27527616

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and association with health, mental health, and risky behavior in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha; Hollinshead, Dana; Saleheen, Hassan; AlMadani, Sereen; Derkash, Bridget; AlBuhairan, Fadia; Al-Eissa, Majid; Fluke, John

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if ACEs impact the health and risk behavior burden among Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) adults. In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted across KSA to identify the retrospective prevalence of ACEs and their association with high risk behaviors and chronic diseases. Surveys from 10,156 adults in all 13 Saudi regions were obtained using an Arabic version of the WHO ACE-IQ (KSA ACE-IQ). Compared to respondents reporting no ACEs, even just one ACE contributed significantly to the odds of experiencing diabetes mellitus (OR=1.3), depression (OR=1.32), or anxiety (OR=1.79) outcomes. Two ACEs were necessary for statistically significant, higher odds to emerge for hypertension (OR=1.46), mental illness (OR=1.93), smoking (OR=1.17), alcohol use (OR=1.75), and drug use (OR=1.45). Respondents who reported four or more ACEs had greater odds of coronary heart disease (OR=1.94), and obesity (OR=2.25). Compared to those reporting no ACEs, respondents reporting four or more ACEs had over four times the odds of Alcohol or Drug Use, Mental Illness, Depression, and/or Anxiety outcomes and more than twice the odds of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and/or smoking outcomes. Findings from this analysis underscore the potential benefit of providing focused preventative approaches to mitigating ACEs in KSA in relation to both the specific and cumulative burden of health and risky behavior outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.