WorldWideScience

Sample records for regenerative energy sources

  1. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T.

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  2. Power plant engineering for the use of fossil, regenerative and nuclear energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, K.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power is the motor for technical advance and for the development of the standard of living in industrial countries. It has been provided for about 110 years on the industrial scale for general use by energy conversion in powerstations. This book gives the present state of technology for this and points out possible future developments. The author deals with the following aspects: Survey of available energy sources (fossil, regenerative, nuclear) the principles for the conversion of primary energy into electricity contamination of the environment resulting from energy conversion statements on the efficiency, availability of plant and costs. The reader can estimate the order of magnitude of energy and material flows and the dimensions of components and units from examples with answers. The book is intended for students and practical engineers in energy and powerstation technology. (orig.) With 210 figs [de

  3. Analysis and Design of an Energy Regenerative Snubber for Magnetically Coupled Impedance Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Siwakoti, Yam

    2018-01-01

    Magnetically coupled impedance source (MCIS) converters are prone to high voltage spikes across the inverter bridge (or dc-link) due to the presence of leakage and stray inductances in the high frequency loop. The problem manifolds because of a shoot-through state in impedance source converters......, but the solutions are not generic (i.e. structure-oriented) and they are quite lossy with intuitive modification in the circuit itself, resulting in significant changes in the performance of the power converter (e.g. increase in components stresses). To address this concern, a general passive regenerative inductor......-capacitor-diode (L-C-D) snubber is presented in this paper for all MCIS converters without any modification in the original circuit. The proposed circuit rechannel the leakage energy of the coupled magnetics and feedback it to input or network itself, which does not only avoid extreme voltage spikes across...

  4. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings; Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen und Wasserstofftechnik 2006. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J.; Luschtinetz, T. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database.

  5. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1 Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2 how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs and prolong the service life of batteries; (3 how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs, have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS. The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H∞ current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP. Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach.

  6. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology. Proceedings; Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen und Wasserstofftechnik 2008. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschtinetz, Thomas; Lehmann, Jochen (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Within the 15th symposium 'Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology' at 6th to 8th November, 2008, in Stralsund (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Processing of mine gas by means of membrane technology (T. Brinkmann, W. Clemens, A. Dengel, B. Hoting); (2) Energy storage in salt caverns / developments and concrete projects for adiabatic compressed air and for hydrogen storage (F. Crotogino, S. Huebner); (3) Application of an ORC plant in the area of a hybrid wind-hydrogen-plant (J. Eliasz, K. Rychlik); (4) Wind Farm Cluster Management Sysem (A.J. Gesino, C.A. Quintero Marrone, R. Mackensen, M. Wolff, B. Lange, K. Rohrig); (5) Results of a field test of a combination of a wood boiler and Stirling engine (B. Gross); (6) NANOSTIR - Optimisation of solid fuel operated Stirling CHP units by means of nano technological coatings (B. Gross); (7) Fundamental investigations of long-term behaviour / damage behaviour of big PEM stacks (September 2005 - October 2007) (M. Hinz, O. Luschtinetz, J. Lehmann); (8) HyFLEET:CUTE project: Results from the biggest hydrogen bus project in the world (T. Kampet); (9) Comparison of new chains of distribution for biogas and natural gas (M. Klamp); (10) Generation of hydrogen from formic acid at ambient temperature and its use in a H2/O2 fuel cell (B. Loges, A. Boddien, H. Junge, M. Beller); (11) PE membranes out of biological materials (E. Mendieta); (12) Offshore wind power affects generation, network and consumption (A. Miege, J. Lehmann, T. Luschtinetz, C. Sponholz, F. Gamallo); (13) Comparative investigations at fixed and tracking PV systems (R. Mueller, A. Rackwitz); (14) Energetic utilisation of biomass - boundary conditions, state of the art and perspectives (M. Nelles, D. Banemann, N. Engler, A. Schuech); (15) Supply networks - a new method of analysis for an optimized use of regenerative energy (R. Nieberle, A. Simroth); (16) Steam - vapour hybrid power plant supplied with

  7. 12. symposium for the use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.

    2005-01-01

    Topics of the conference were: renewable energy sources, wind energy, wood fueled space and water heating systems, SOFC fuel cell, storage of wind energy in the form of hydrogen, geothermal energy, usage of waste heat in low-temperature Rankine cycle engines, emissions trading, energy policy, solar hydrogen economy. (uke)

  8. Manual: Renewable Energy Sources in Germany; Handbuch Regenerative Energiequellen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, M.

    2004-07-01

    One of the measures to reduce CO2 is the utilization of renewable energies. Meanwhile, Germany has come to play a leading role worldwide in this subject and is the world leader especially regarding the use of wind and solar energy. The manual called ''Renewable Energy Sources in Germany'' shows the present state of the importance of renewable energies in Germany and describes the possibilities and future potentials for the future. The author describes the ways of utilizing renewable energies in a very comprehensive manner. He assesses the medium and long-term chances of renewable energies realistically from a neutral point of view, giving the readers a well-founded basis to build their own opinions about the subject. Thus the book makes a good contribution to rationalize the discussion on renewable energies which often is lead in an emotional way. The book covers following chapters: 1) Renewable energy sources in Germany 2) Basic data on renewable energies in Germany 3) Renewable energy source in building techniques 4) Power plant and thermal plant techniques of renewable energy sources 5) Evaluation methods for renewable energies in energy supply.

  9. Long-term transition to power/hydrogen energy system based on regenerative energy sources. Langfristiger Uebergang zum Strom/Wasserstoff-Energiesystem auf der Basis erneuerbarer Energiequellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R

    1989-01-01

    If we mean to secure the future of this planet in its present state we shall have to reduce drastically the emissions of trace gases influencing our climate like CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, FCHC, ozone, N/sub 2/O and stratospheric H/sub 2/O. CO/sub -/neutral energy sources in clude nuclear energy and regenerative energies (solar, wind, water, biomass, tidal energy). These energy sources provide energy carriers in terms of electricity, heat, biofuels, synthesis gas and hydrogen. The author discusses the power/hydrogen energy system, electrolytic generation of hydrogen and its capacity for storage and transport from sunny solar-energy utilization areas (Central Africa). Hydrogen can then be used in drive systems, power generation (power stations) and for space heating and process heat. The author discusses its profitability and underlines the fact that hydrogen will figure in the energy economy of the future. (HWJ).

  10. Integration of available regenerative energy sources in community networks for both electricity and heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcalde Melo, Henrique

    2013-03-06

    In the last years, energy prices for German households have been increasing constantly. Some reasons for that include: the dependency of Germany on external fossil fuels to supply its energy demand, the decision to invest in renewable energy generation and to shut down all its nuclear power plants. Nowadays households are already able to generate energy on-site, however the generation potential depends on climatic conditions as well as the specific location and the type of the building. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether a community of new efficient single-family houses can generate enough energy on-site to supply its electricity and heating demand over the year based on renewable energy sources and with the support of energy storage systems, including electric vehicles. The theoretical community is situated in the city of Cottbus, Germany. For this community, an electricity load profile was designed based on the use of common devices and separated in controllable and uncontrollable loads. Electricity is generated on-site through photovoltaic panels and small wind turbines, and the electricity generation potential is evaluated based on the community's available space, which is rather limited, and the actual regulations in the State of Brandenburg. A comparison of the available technologies to supply the heating demand as well as to store energy in the household sector is presented and discussed. It is assumed that each household has an electric vehicle that can be charged and also discharged in the community as an extra energy storage system. A software simulation system was designed with which an energy balance analysis is carried out based on hourly values of supply and demand. Under the assumptions taken for this study, the results of the simulation show that the community is able to generate more energy than consumed throughout a year, however in a few occasions there is not enough energy available to supply the community's energy demand

  11. Integration of available regenerative energy sources in community networks for both electricity and heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcalde Melo, Henrique

    2013-03-06

    In the last years, energy prices for German households have been increasing constantly. Some reasons for that include: the dependency of Germany on external fossil fuels to supply its energy demand, the decision to invest in renewable energy generation and to shut down all its nuclear power plants. Nowadays households are already able to generate energy on-site, however the generation potential depends on climatic conditions as well as the specific location and the type of the building. The aim of this work is to evaluate whether a community of new efficient single-family houses can generate enough energy on-site to supply its electricity and heating demand over the year based on renewable energy sources and with the support of energy storage systems, including electric vehicles. The theoretical community is situated in the city of Cottbus, Germany. For this community, an electricity load profile was designed based on the use of common devices and separated in controllable and uncontrollable loads. Electricity is generated on-site through photovoltaic panels and small wind turbines, and the electricity generation potential is evaluated based on the community's available space, which is rather limited, and the actual regulations in the State of Brandenburg. A comparison of the available technologies to supply the heating demand as well as to store energy in the household sector is presented and discussed. It is assumed that each household has an electric vehicle that can be charged and also discharged in the community as an extra energy storage system. A software simulation system was designed with which an energy balance analysis is carried out based on hourly values of supply and demand. Under the assumptions taken for this study, the results of the simulation show that the community is able to generate more energy than consumed throughout a year, however in a few occasions there is not enough energy available to supply the community's energy demand. Water can be

  12. ADRES : autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G.; Einfalt, A.; Leitinger, C.; Tiefgraber, D. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems (ADRES) research project demonstrates that decentralized network independent microgrids are the target power systems of the future. This paper presented a typical structure of a microgrid, demonstrating that all types of generation available can be integrated, from wind and small hydro to photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass or biogas operated stirling motors and micro turbines. In grid connected operation the balancing energy and reactive power for voltage control will come from the public grid. If there is no interconnection to a superior grid, it will form an autonomous micro grid. In order to reduce peak power demand and base energy, autonomous microgrid technology requires highly efficient appliances. Otherwise large collector design, high storage and balancing generation capacities would be necessary, which would increase costs. End-use energy efficiency was discussed with reference to demand side management (DSM) strategies that match energy demand with actual supply in order to minimize the storage size needed. This paper also discussed network controls that comprise active and reactive power. Decentralized robust algorithms were investigated with reference to black-start ability and congestion management features. It was concluded that the trend to develop small decentralized grids in parallel to existing large systems will improve security of supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Decentralized grids will also increase energy efficiency because regenerative energy will be used where it is collected in the form of electricity and heat, thus avoiding transport and the extension of transmission lines. Decentralized energy technology is now becoming more economic by efficient and economic mass production of components. Although decentralized energy technology requires energy automation, computer intelligence is becoming increasingly cost efficient. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Regenerative energies - the environmentally friendly solution. Seminar volume. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Assmann, G.; Froese, B.; Jahn, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Information Environment organised its 16th journalists seminar on 9th March 1995 in Hamburg. In the second part of the seminar competent scientist gave an overview to the following questions: 1. Renewable energy as an solution from the dead end street? 2. What part of the energy demand could be covered by regenerative energy sources at all? 3. Ecology contra economy? 4. Inexhaustible energy source sun? 5. When do we start to import solar energy from the desert? 6. Move into the energy autarkic solar house in the year 2000? 7. Wind power plant park Germany? 8. Geothermal - component of the energy-mix 2005. The present volume contains the lectures which were given on these subjects. (orig./UA) [de

  14. Regenerative heat sources for heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huenges, Ernst; Sperber, Evelyn; Eggers, Jan-Bleicke; Noll, Florian; Kallert, Anna Maria; Reuss, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The ambitious goal, the German Federal Government has set itself, to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 80% to 95% by the year 2050. As there are currently more than half of German energy consumption for the production of heat is required, big contributions to climate protection can be expected from this area if more renewable heat sources are used. Renewable heat sources such as bioenergy, solar thermal and geothermal energy in particular can be provided as compared to fossil fuels with significantly lower specific CO 2 emissions. Objectives in the heating market and scenarios for the transformation of the heat sector have been elaborated in the BMU Lead Study 2011. The main pillar of this scenario is the reduction of final energy consumption for heat by the energy-efficient renovation of existing buildings and further increasing demands on the energetic quality of new buildings. To cover the remaining energy demand, a focus is on the expansion of heating networks based on renewable energies. [de

  15. Environmental protection congress M-V. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2010. Proceedings; Klimaschutzkongress M-V. Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen und Wasserstofftechnik 2010. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschtinetz, Thomas; Lehmann, Jochen (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the Environmental Protection Congress M-V from 4th to 6th November, 2010, in Stralsund (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Conception for climate production in Stralsund (Matthias Ahlhaus); (2) Regenerative energies in the power land North Rhine Westfalia (Frank-Michael Baumann); (3) Heat storages - Supporting pillars of the comprehensive utilization of regenerative ideas (Juergen Buehl); (4) Logistics analysis of rice straw for power exploitations and potential green house gas mitigations - An example in Thailand (Mitra Kami Delivand); (5) The Heatpipe-Reformer registered - Development, start-up and testing (Andreas Dengel); (6) The ecological cost of the use of biomass of plants for energy production (Bohdan Deptula); (7) Hydrogen as fuel and energy storage: Strategy and implementation in NIP (Oliver Ehret); (8) The ORGA test: Development of a testing procedure for a practical evaluation of the fermenter biology and NaWaRo biogas plants (Nils Engler); (9) Large scale integration of offshore wind power through wind farm clusters (Alejandro J. Gesino); (10) NANOSITR - Healt, coldness and electricity from one biomass vessel (Bodo Gross); (11) OPTISTRAHL - A two-stage washer unit for biogas (Bodo Gross); (12) Innovation development for renewable energies (Bernward Janzing); (12) Strategic action options for energy supply utilities at renewable energies (Patrick Kemnitz); (13) Hydrogen - An option for a sustainable storage of wind power (Martin Kleimaier); (14) Small parabolic trough power plants - Actual technology and outlook (Joachim Krueger); (15) A photocatalytic generation of hydrogen: Efficient iron-based water reduction catalysts (Sebastian Losse); (16) Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka and India in a life cycle perspective (Samanthi Nirmala M. Menikpura); (17) High temperature low sag conductors in power system with wind power farms (Olgierd Malyszka); (18) Wind

  16. Comparative energy analysis on a new regenerative Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced. • New cycle has higher thermal efficiency and lower exhausted heat per output power. • Regenerator may remain useful in the new cycle even at high pressure ratio. • New regenerative Brayton cycle is suggested for low pressure ratio operations. - Abstract: Gas turbines are frequently used for power generation. Brayton cycle is the basis for gas turbine operation and developing the alternative cycles. Regenerative Brayton cycle is a developed cycle for basic Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency at low to moderate pressure ratios. A new regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced in the present study. Energy analysis has been conducted on ideal cycles to compare them from the first law of thermodynamics viewpoint. Comparative analyses showed that the new regenerative Brayton cycle has higher thermal efficiency than the original one at the same pressure ratio, and also lower heat absorption and exhausted heat per unite output power. Computed results show that new cycle improves thermal efficiency from 12% to 26% relative to the original regenerative Brayton cycle in the range of studied pressure ratios. Contrary to the original regenerative Brayton cycle, regenerator remains useful in the new regenerative Brayton cycle even at higher pressure ratio.

  17. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration. (paper)

  19. Aspects of safety science to be considered when comparing risks in the conversion of energy from fossil, nuclear and regenerative primary energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve a valid comparison it will be necessary to ensure that a roughly uniform level of knowledge and understanding in the application of risk analysis as well as in the specific energy technology is available to all the groups conducting the analyses. Experience of major risk studies has highlighted the improvements introduced as a direct result. That may not be essential to the risk comparison itself, but it seems a positive aspect certain to repay consideration. Quite apart from the actual execution of the risk studies it is important to consider at all stages the limitations of a purely numerical description of the risks. Whilst maintaining full scientific rigour in evaluating the risks, that will not tell the whole story and the study will need supplementary considerations to enable a full perspective to emerge. (orig.)

  20. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  1. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  2. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  3. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  4. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1972-01-01

    A study carried out around 1970 on the world energy future is described. One method is based on world energy evaluations extrapolated to 1985 and 2000. The other one is prospective and tries to account for changes in life style and technology and relations with the developing countries [fr

  5. Design of An Energy Efficient Hydraulic Regenerative circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S.; Ashok, S. Denis; Nagaraj, Shanmukha; Adithyakumar, C. R.; Reddy, M. Lohith Kumar; Naulakha, Niranjan Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Increasing cost and power demand, leads to evaluation of new method to increase through productivity and help to solve the power demands. Many researchers have break through to increase the efficiency of a hydraulic power pack, one of the promising methods is the concept of regenerative. The objective of this research work is to increase the efficiency of a hydraulic circuit by introducing a concept of regenerative circuit. A Regenerative circuit is a system that is used to speed up the extension stroke of the double acting single rod hydraulic cylinder. The output is connected to the input in the directional control value. By this concept, increase in velocity of the piston and decrease the cycle time. For the research, a basic hydraulic circuit and a regenerative circuit are designated and compared both with their results. The analysis was based on their time taken for extension and retraction of the piston. From the detailed analysis of both the hydraulic circuits, it is found that the efficiency by introducing hydraulic regenerative circuit increased by is 5.3%. The obtained results conclude that, implementing hydraulic regenerative circuit in a hydraulic power pack decreases power consumption, reduces cycle time and increases productivity in a longer run.

  6. Stationary super-capacitor energy storage system to save regenerative braking energy in a metro line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourfar, Reza; Asaei, Behzad; Iman-Eini, Hossein; Nejati fard, Razieh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Super-capacitors are used to store regenerative braking energy in a metro network. ► A novel approach is proposed to model easily and accurately the metro network. ► An efficient approach is proposed to calculate the required super-capacitors. ► Maximum energy saving is around 44% at off-peak period and 42% at peak period. ► Benefit/cost analyses are performed for the suggested ESS. - Abstract: In this paper, the stationary super-capacitors are used to store a metro network regenerative braking energy. In order to estimate the required energy storage systems (ESSs), line 3 of Tehran metro network is modeled through a novel approach, in peak and off-peak conditions based on the real data obtained from Tehran metro office. A useful method is proposed to predict the maximum instantaneous regenerative energy which is delivered to each station before applying ESS and based on that the ESS configuration for each station is determined. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed ESS is confirmed by economic evaluations and benefit/cost analyses on line 3 of Tehran metro network.

  7. The Hair Follicle: An Underutilized Source of Cells and Materials for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehrdad T; Higgins, Claire A; Almquist, Benjamin D

    2018-04-09

    The hair follicle is one of only two structures within the adult body that selectively degenerates and regenerates, making it an intriguing organ to study and use for regenerative medicine. Hair follicles have been shown to influence wound healing, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and harbor distinct populations of stem cells; this has led to cells from the follicle being used in clinical trials for tendinosis and chronic ulcers. In addition, keratin produced by the follicle in the form of a hair fiber provides an abundant source of biomaterials for regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the structure of a hair follicle, explain the role of the follicle in regulating the microenvironment of skin and the impact on wound healing, explore individual cell types of interest for regenerative medicine, and cover several applications of keratin-based biomaterials.

  8. New evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chengqun; Wang, Guolin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two different contribution ratio evaluation parameters according to the deceleration braking process are proposed. • Methodologies for calculating the contribution made by regenerative brake to improve vehicle energy efficiency are proposed. • Road test results imply that the proposed parameters are effective. - Abstract: Comprehensive research is conducted on the design and control of a regenerative braking system for electric vehicles. The mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to improve electric vehicle’s energy efficiency are discussed and analyzed by the energy flow. Methodologies for calculating the contribution made by regenerative brake are proposed. Additionally a new regenerative braking control strategy called “serial 2 control strategy” is introduced. Moreover, two control strategies called “parallel control strategy” and “serial 1 control strategy” are proposed as the comparative control strategy. Furthermore, two different contribution ratio evaluation parameters according to the deceleration braking process are proposed. Finally, road tests are carried out under China typical city regenerative driving cycle standard with three different control strategies. The serial 2 control strategy offers considerably higher regeneration efficiency than the parallel strategy and serial 1 strategy.

  9. STUDY ON ENERGY EXCHANGE PROCESSES IN NORMAL OPERATION OF METRO ROLLING STOCK WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Sulym

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analysis of the existing studies showed that the increasing of energy efficiency of metro rolling stock becomes especially important and requires timely solutions. It is known that the implementation of regenerative braking systems on rolling stock will allow significantly solving this problem. It was proved that one of the key issues regarding the introduction of the above-mentioned systems is research on efficient use of electric energy of regenerative braking. The purpose of the work is to evaluate the amount of excessive electric power of regenerative braking under normal operation conditions of the rolling stock with regenerative braking systems for the analysis of the energy saving reserves. Methodology. Quantifiable values of electrical energy consumed for traction, returned to the contact line and dissipated in braking resistors (excessive energy are determined using results of experimental studies of energy exchange processes under normal operating conditions of metro rolling stock with regenerative systems. Statistical methods of data processing were applied as well. Findings. Results of the studies analysis of metro rolling stock operation under specified conditions in Sviatoshinsko-Brovarskaia line of KP «Kyiv Metro system» stipulate the following: 1 introduction of regenerative braking systems into the rolling stock allows to return about 17.9-23.2% of electrical energy consumed for traction to the contact line; 2 there are reserves for improving of energy efficiency of rolling stock with regenerative systems at the level of 20.2–29.9 % of electrical energy consumed for traction. Originality. For the first time, it is proved that the most significant factor that influences the quantifiable values of the electrical energy regeneration is a track profile. It is suggested to use coefficients which indicate the amount and reserves of unused (excessive electrical energy for quantitative evaluation. Studies on

  10. Optimization of the alignment sensitivity and energy stability of the NIF regenerative amplifier cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopps, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    The work to improve the energy stability of the regenerative amplifier ('regen') for the National Ignition Facility is described. This includes a fast feed-forward system, designed to regulate the output energy of the regen by monitoring how quickly a pulse builds up over many round trips. Shot-to-shot energy fluctuations of all elements prior to (and including) the regen may be compensated for in this way, at the expense of a loss of approximately 50%. Also included is a detailed study into the alignment sensitivity of the regen cavity, with the goal of quantifying the effect of misalignment on the output energy. This is done by calculating the displacement of the eigenmode by augmenting the cavity ABCD matrix with the misalignment matrix elements, E, F. In this way, cavity misalignment issues due to thermal loading of the gain medium are investigated. Alternative cavity designs, which reduce the alignment sensitivity and therefore the energy drift over periods of continuous operation, are considered. Alterations to the amplifier head design are also considered

  11. Nonlinear Modeling and Coordinate Optimization of a Semi-Active Energy Regenerative Suspension with an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farong Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of a vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA. In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and a mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using a recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of the system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an EHA is built. Meanwhile, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control strategy of the system is designed. Then, the influence of the main parameters of the EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of the suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of the EHA are optimized via the genetic algorithm. The test results show that when a sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2 Hz and the amplitude of 30 mm, the spring mass acceleration root meam square value of the optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and the energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means that while meeting the requirements of vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, the energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.

  12. Sustainability analysis. Development of various indicators of sustainability for technical environmental analysis and evaluation of local heat supply networks on the basis of regenerative energies in comparison to fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehenberger-Risse, Diana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this thesis is to define indicators to evaluate local heat supply systems based on renewable energy compared to fossil energy reference scenarios. With these indicators a assessment matrix was developed as a planning instrument for the realization of sustainable and energy-efficient local heat supply systems. Further inferences from single projects on regions can be done. In these thesis a method was developed to assess the sustainability of local heat supply systems with the focus on ecology under consideration of economically and social aspects. This method uses a set of indicators composed of Input-, Output-, Efficiency- and Balance indicators. To realize advancement in comparison to present situations, an environmental quality target to advance the environmental impacts of minimum 75% was defined. For the developing and application of the indicators different examples from projects and scenarios of combined heat production from Biomass, Biogas, Solar heat combined with near-surface geothermal storage; geothermal energy and fossil peakload supply were calculated. These scenarios were related to a basis fossil energy scenario. Overall, the two district heating projects Speichersdorf and Mitterteich were compared. In this case, the project Speichersdorf with different coverage areas and decrease heat densities was investigated. The lengths of electrical grid of two areas are 10,828 m and 6,027 m. Those were opposed to the biomass district-heating project Mitterteich with a grid length of 360 m and a higher heat density decrease. Furthermore, a scenario for heat supply was designed and calculated using geothermal plant operating in duplicate to provide heat to the large coverage area for the storage project village. The calculation of the various processes and scenarios was performed with the program GEMIS 4.8 based on the total heat generated (final energy) by the respective supply type. The study examined the main system components; boilers, solar heat

  13. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  14. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  15. Vibration control of an energy regenerative seat suspension with variable external resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Donghong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an energy regenerative seat suspension with a variable external resistance is proposed and built, and a semi-active controller for its vibration control is also designed and validated. The energy regenerative seat suspension is built with a three-phase generator and a gear reducer, which are installed in the scissors structure centre of the seat suspension, and the vibration energy is directly harvested from the rotary movement of suspension's scissors structure. The electromagnetic torque of the semi-active seat suspension actuator is controlled by an external variable resistor. An integrated model including the seat suspension's kinematics and the generator is built and proven to match the test result very well. A simplified experimental phenomenon model is also built based on the test results for the controller design. A state feedback H∞ controller is proposed for the regenerative seat suspension's semi-active vibration control. The proposed regenerative seat suspension and its controller are validated with both simulations and experiments. A well-tuned passive seat suspension is applied to evaluate the regenerative seat's performance. Based on ISO 2631-1, the frequency-weighted root mean square (FW-RMS) acceleration of the proposed seat suspension has a 22.84% reduction when compared with the passive one, which indicates the improvement of ride comfort. At the same time, the generated RMS power is 1.21 W. The proposed regenerative seat suspension can greatly improve the driver's ride comfort and has the potential to be developed to a self-powered semi-active system.

  16. Analysis of downshift’s improvement to energy efficiency of an electric vehicle during regenerative braking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Song, Jian; He, Kai; Li, Chenfeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Downshift is effective in improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles. • Energy improvement of downshift varies with vehicle speed and brake strength. • The designed nonlinear sliding mode observer is accurate in estimating bake torque. • The proposed resembling PWM method is practical to regulate hydraulic pressure. • The effect of downshift on braking safety and comfort can be restrained by control. - Abstract: Downshift during regenerative braking helps to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicles. Two main problems are involved in the downshift process. One is the determination of optimal downshift point, and the other is the cooperative control of regenerative braking and hydraulic braking. In order to achieve a systemic solution to these problems, a hierarchical control strategy is brought forward for an electric vehicle with a two-speed automated mechanical transmission. For the upper controller, an off-line calculation and on-line look-up table method is adopted to obtain the optimal downshift point, and a series regenerative braking distribution strategy is designed. For the medium controller, a nonlinear sliding mode observer is designed to obtain the actual hydraulic brake torque. For the lower controller, cooperative control of regenerative braking and hydraulic braking is given to ensure brake safety during downshift process, and a resembling pulse width modulation method is proposed to regulated the hydraulic brake torque. Simulation results and hardware-in-loop test show that the proposed algorithm is effective in improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles.

  17. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  18. Nontraditional renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

  19. Energy recapture through deceleration - regenerative braking in electric vehicles from a user perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Bühler, Franziska; Franke, Thomas; Neumann, Isabel; Dielmann, Benno; Krems, Josef F

    2013-01-01

    We report results from a 1-year field study (N = 80) on user interactions with regenerative braking in electric vehicles. Designed to recapture energy in vehicles with electric powertrains, regenerative braking has an important influence on both the task of driving and energy consumption. Results from user assessments and data from onboard data loggers indicate that most drivers quickly learned to interact with the system, which was triggered via accelerator. Further, conventional braking manoeuvres decreased significantly as the majority of deceleration episodes could only be executed through regenerative braking. Still, some drivers reported difficulties when adapting to the system. These difficulties could be addressed by offering different levels of regeneration so that the intensity of the deceleration could be individually modified. In general, the system is trusted and regarded as a valuable tool for prolonging range. Regenerative braking in electric vehicles has direct implications for the driving task. We found that drivers quickly learn to use and accept a system, which is triggered via accelerator. For those reporting difficulties in the interaction, it appears reasonable to integrate options to customise or switch off the system.

  20. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  1. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  2. Renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, K.

    1996-01-01

    The author takes a look at causes of the present interest in the renewable, natural sources of energy. These are: the fuel deposits becoming exhausted, hazard to environment (especially carbon dioxide) and accessibility of these sources for under-developed countries. An interrelation is shown between these sources and the energy circulations connected with atmosphere and ocean systems. The chief ones from among them that are being used now are discussed, i.e. solar radiation, wind, water waves energy, tides, geothermal heat, and the like. Problems of conversion of the forms of these kinds of energy are also given a mention. (author)

  3. Sustainable urban rail systems: Strategies and technologies for optimal management of regenerative braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, Arturo; Palacin, Roberto; Batty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of principal regenerative braking strategies and technologies for urban rail. • Different energy storage technologies are assessed for use in urban rail. • Optimising timetables is a preferential measure to improve energy efficiency. • Energy storage systems improve efficiency and reliability of urban rail systems. • Reversible substations allow for a complete recovery of braking energy. - Abstract: In a society characterised by increasing rates of urbanisation and growing concerns about environmental issues like climate change, urban rail transport plays a key role in contributing to sustainable development. However, in order to retain its inherent advantages in terms of energy consumption per transport capacity and to address the rising costs of energy, important energy efficiency measures have to be implemented. Given that numerous and frequent stops are a significant characteristic of urban rail, recuperation of braking energy offers a great potential to reduce energy consumption in urban rail systems. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the currently available strategies and technologies for recovery and management of braking energy in urban rail, covering timetable optimisation, on-board and wayside Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) and reversible substations. For each measure, an assessment of their main advantages and disadvantages is provided alongside a list of the most relevant scientific studies and demonstration projects. This study concludes that optimising timetables is a preferential measure to increase the benefits of regenerative braking in any urban rail system. Likewise, it has been observed that ESSs are a viable solution to reuse regenerative energy with voltage stabilisation and energy saving purposes. Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors has been identified as the most suitable technology for ESSs in general, although high specific power batteries such as Li-ion may become a practical option for on

  4. Regenerative Energy Storage System for Space Exploration Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wærnhus Ivar

    2017-01-01

    The breadboard was operated for 1250 hours alternating between electrolyser mode and fuel cell mode with H2/H2O as reactants. During the tests, as long as the mechanical integrity of the system was maintained, no degradation effect was observed. At the end of the test period, the fuel cell was operated for three full cycles (approx. 50 hours with CO/CO2 as reactants. The performance on CO/CO2 was lower than for hydrogen, but sufficient to be used in a compact energy storage system for Mars exploration.

  5. Survey lecture on renewable energy sources. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliss, M

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with utilizable regenerative energy sources: geothermal energy, tidal energy, solar energy, running water energy, and wind energy. Tests for the development of these sources have been carried out, but only one of them has a considerable share in meeting the energy demand--that gained from running water. The others are only of regional importance (geothermal energy, tidal energy) or have lost the importance they once had (wind energy, biochemical energy in the form of wood). The latest discussions about the restrictions on fossil and nuclear energy sources and the environmental effects of the technologies necessary for their utilization have increased the interest in the ''inexhaustible'' energy sources. This is why the author outlines the possible importance of renewable energy sources.

  6. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  7. Assessment and preliminary design of an energy buffer for regenerative braking in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, R.; Mathur, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Energy buffer systems, capable of storing the vehicle energy during braking and reusing this stored energy during acceleration, were examined. Some of these buffer systems when incorporated in an electric vehicle would result in an improvement in the performance and range under stop and go driving conditions. Buffer systems considered included flywheels, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, spring, and regenerative braking. Buffer ranking and rating criteria were established. Buffer systems were rated based on predicted range improvements, consumer acceptance, driveability, safety, reliability and durability, and initial and life cycle costs. A hydropneumatic buffer system was selected.

  8. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  9. Hair Follicle: A Novel Source of Multipotent Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistriotis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The adult body harbors powerful reservoirs of stem cells that enable tissue regeneration under homeostatic conditions or in response to disease or injury. The hair follicle (HF) is a readily accessible mini organ within the skin and contains stem cells from diverse developmental origins that were shown to have surprisingly broad differentiation potential. In this review, we discuss the biology of the HF with particular emphasis on the various stem cell populations residing within the tissue. We summarize the existing knowledge on putative HF stem cell markers, the differentiation potential, and technologies to isolate and expand distinct stem cell populations. We also discuss the potential of HF stem cells for drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. We propose that the abundance of stem cells with broad differentiation potential and the ease of accessibility makes the HF an ideal source of stem cells for gene and cell therapies. PMID:23157470

  10. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  11. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  12. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  13. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  15. Potential sources of stem cells as a regenerative therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Oueida El-Sadik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abir Oueida El-SadikDepartment of Anatomy and Embryology, Scientific Research Unit, Female Health Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Stem cells are believed to hold enormous promise as potential replacement therapy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. Stem cells were investigated to be the alternative therapeutic source capable of differentiating into dopamine (DA neurons. Multiple important signaling factors were recorded for the induction of DA neuronal traits from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs such as fibroblast growth factor 8, sonic hedgehog, and Wnt 1. Recent protocols were described for the differentiation of human ESCs into DA neurons, achieving high efficiency of DA neuronal derivation. Despite that, the use of human ESCs is still ethically controversial. The transcription factors necessary for DA neuron development from adult neural stem cells (NSCs, such as Pitx3, Nurr1, En-1, En-2, Lmx1a, Lmx1b, Msx1, and Ngn2, were investigated. In addition to replacement of lost DA neurons, adult NSCs were recorded to provide neuroprotective and neurogenic factors for the mesencephalon. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells represent reliable stem cell sources of DA neurons. Future studies are recommended to provide further insight into the regenerative capacity of stem cells needed for the treatment of PD.Keywords: dopamine, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, Parkinson's disease, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells

  16. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  17. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  18. Regenerative Hydrogen-oxygen Fuel Cell-electrolyzer Systems for Orbital Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells have found application in space since Gemini. Over the years technology advances have been factored into the mainstream hardware programs. Performance levels and service lives have been gradually improving. More recently, the storage application for fuel cell-electrolyzer combinations are receiving considerable emphasis. The regenerative system application described here is part of a NASA Fuel Cell Program which was developed to advance the fuel cell and electrolyzer technology required to satisfy the identified power generation and energy storage need of the Agency for space transportation and orbital applications to the year 2000.

  19. Parameters Analysis of Hydraulic-Electrical Energy Regenerative Absorber on Suspension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To recycle the vibration energy of vehicles over rough roads, a hydraulic-electricity energy regenerative suspension (HEERS was designed in the present work, and simulations were performed with focus on its performance. On the basis of the system principle, the mathematical model of hydraulic-electrical energy regenerative absorber (HEERA and two degrees of freedom (DOF suspension dynamic model were constructed. Using the model of HEERA, simulations on force-displacement and force-velocity characteristics were performed with a 1.67 Hz frequency and a sinusoidal input adopted. And then in combination with HEERA model and two DOF suspension models, simulations on the performance of HEERS also were carried out. Finally, the influences of charging pressure and volume of the accumulator, hydraulic motor displacement, orifice area of check valve, and inner diameter of hydraulic pipelines on the performance of HEERA and HEERS were investigated in depth. The simulation results indicated that (i the damping characteristic of HEERA was coincident with the damping characteristics of traditional absorber; (ii the most remarkable influencing factor on the performance of HEERS was the hydraulic motor displacement, followed by orifice area of check valve, inner diameter of pipelines, and charging pressure of accumulator, while the effects of charging volume of accumulator were quite limited.

  20. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2014. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luschtinetz, Thomas; Lehmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings contains 38 papers with the following main topics: wind and hydrogen technology, developments in the use of bioenergy, fuel cells, photovoltaics. Two contributions were recorded separately for this database. [de

  1. Performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraputra, Chuttchaval; Tiptipakorn, Supun

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents performance and economic analysis of a plug and play regenerative brake for improving energy efficiency for traction elevators. The proposed regenerative brake recycles the energy loss of a dynamic brake and feeds into the grid while an elevator inverter is operating in the braking mode. According to field measurement of energy consumption, it reveals that the efficiency can be improved as much as 18%. The prototype of a regenerative brake 12 kW, 400V, 3ϕ is developed and tested on an elevator simulator. It is shown that it can transfer energy out of a DC capacitor before the dynamic brake kicks in. Further, an economic analysis is provided to carry out the payback period and the present worth equivalent to confirm economic feasibility.

  2. A multiobjective ? control strategy for energy harvesting in regenerative vehicle suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Alessandro; Di Iorio, Fabio; Tedesco, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    A significant amount of energy induced by road unevenness and vehicle roll and pitch motions is usually dissipated by conventional shock-absorbers. In this paper, a novel active multiobjective ? control design methodology is proposed which explicitly includes, besides the usual control objectives on ride comfort, road handling and suspension stroke, the amount of energy to be harvested as an additional, though conflicting, control objective and allows the designer to directly trade-off among them depending on the application. An electromechanical regenerative suspension system is considered where the viscous damper is replaced by a linear electrical motor which is actively governed. It is shown that the proposed control law is able to achieve remarkable improvements on the amount of the harvested energy with respect to passive or semi-active control strategies while maintaining the other objectives at acceptable levels. Simulative studies undertaken via CarSim are also reported that confirm the potentiality and flexibility of the proposed control design strategy.

  3. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  4. Effect of energy-regenerative braking on electric vehicle battery thermal management and control method based on simulation investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jingying; Qin, Datong; Peng, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is developed for battery. • The battery thermal model is integrated with vehicle driving model. • Real-time battery thermal responses is obtained. • Active control of current by regenerative braking ratio adjustment is proposed. • More energy is recovered with smaller battery temperature rise. - Abstract: Battery thermal management is important for the safety and reliability of electric vehicle. Based on the parameters obtained from battery hybrid pulse power characterization test, a two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is established. The battery model is then integrated with vehicle driving model to simulate real-time battery thermal responses. An active control method is proposed to reduce heat generation due to regenerative braking. The proposed control method not only subjects to the braking safety regulation, but also adjusts the regenerative braking ratio through a fuzzy controller. By comparing with other regenerative braking scenarios, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been validated. According to the results, the proposed control strategy suppresses battery temperature rise by modifying the charge current due to regenerative braking. The overlarge components of current are filtered out whereas the small ones are magnified. Therefore, with smaller battery temperature rise, more energy is recovered. Compared to the traditional passive heat dissipating, the proposed active methodology is feasible and provides a novel solution for electric vehicle battery thermal management.

  5. Energy Saving Performance Analysis of An Inverter-based Regenerative Power Re-utilization Device for Urban Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Zhiling; Hu, Leilei

    2018-04-01

    The inverter-based regenerative braking power utilization devices can re-utilize the regenerative energy, thus reduce the energy consumption of urban rail transit. In this paper the power absorption principle of the inverter-based device is introduced, then the key influencing factors of energy saving performance are analyzed based on the absorption model. The field operation data verified that the control DC voltage plays an important role and lower control DC voltage yields more energy saving. Also, the one year energy saving performance data of an inverter-based re-utilization device located in NanJing S8 line is provided, and more than 1.2 million kWh energy is recovered in the one year operation.

  6. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  7. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  8. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from different cell sources and their potential for regenerative and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrichman, R; Germanguz, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    2013-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have great potential as a robust source of progenitors for regenerative medicine. The novel technology also enables the derivation of patient-specific cells for applications to personalized medicine, such as for personal drug screening and toxicology. However, the biological characteristics of iPSCs are not yet fully understood and their similarity to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is still unresolved. Variations among iPSCs, resulting from their original tissue or cell source, and from the experimental protocols used for their derivation, significantly affect epigenetic properties and differentiation potential. Here we review the potential of iPSCs for regenerative and personalized medicine, and assess their expression pattern, epigenetic memory and differentiation capabilities in relation to their parental tissue source. We also summarize the patient-specific iPSCs that have been derived for applications in biological research and drug discovery; and review risks that must be overcome in order to use iPSC technology for clinical applications.

  9. Renal endogenous stem cells: a new source for regenerative medicine in preterms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavino Faa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The creation of new medical approaches based on stem cells to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD and in particular end stage renal disease (ESRD has become imperative in recent years, due to the significant burdens of patients affected by renal failure and to the limitations of dialysis and kidney transplantation to solve the problem. The initial prospective of utilizing stem cells for regenerating the affected kidney has been at the basis of excitement and hope for all patients affected by ESRD. Unfortunately, too many challenges have halted the possibility to make such regenerative approach a reality, and the vast majority of patients with CKD and renal insufficiency experience a reduced quality of life associated with high mortality. The problem appears particularly severe when ESDR develops in childhood. Children submitted to kidney transplantation have a 95% of survival rate at 5 years, but only 66% of them survive at 20 years after renal transplant. As a result, patients transplanted in childhood will need repeated renal transplants during their life.Renal regenerative medicine might experience a major renaissance in the next years, developing new methodologies stemmed from the previous attempts. Here, we present some major points to be addressed, in order to open a debate on the potential offered by the different regenerative methodologies:the “exogenous” approach; the “endogenous” approach; the “therapeutic” approach; the “prevention” approach. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  10. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Detlef; Schulz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [de

  11. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  12. Comparative analysis of two hybrid energy storage systems used in a two front wheel driven electric vehicle during extreme start-up and regenerative braking operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itani, Khaled; De Bernardinis, Alexandre; Khatir, Zoubir; Jammal, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of HESS Ultracapacitor and Flywheel for maximizing EV energy recovery. • Energy recovery performed for extreme two front-wheel driven EV brake conditions. • Regenerative EV braking control strategies and constraints for HESS. • Comparative cost effectiveness for two HESS solutions Ultracapacitors and Flywheel. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparative study of two hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) of a two front wheel driven electric vehicle. The primary energy source of the HESS is a Li-Ion battery, whereas the secondary energy source is either an ultracapacitor (UC) or a flywheel energy system (FES). The main role of the secondary source is to deliver/recover energy during high peak power demand, but also to increase battery lifetime, considered among the most expensive items in the electric vehicle. As a first step, a techno-economic comparative study, supported by strong literature research, is performed between the UC and the FES. The design and sizing of each element will be presented. The comparison criteria and specifications are also described. The adopted approach in this paper is based on an academic non-oriented point of view. In a second step, each of the HESS will be integrated in a more global Simulink model which includes the vehicle model, the traction control system (TCS), the regenerative braking system and the vehicle actuators. Simulation tests are performed for an extreme braking and vehicle starting-up operations. Tests are realized on two different surface road types and conditions (high and low friction roads) and for different initial system states. In order to show the most appropriate storage system regarding compactness, weight and battery constraints minimization, deep comparative analysis is provided.

  13. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  14. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Cao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H∞ robust control, a H2/H∞ controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  15. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ye [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Sengjie Jiao [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Binggang Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China)

    2010-09-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H-infinity robust control, a H2/H-infinity controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  16. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, M.; Jiao, S. [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Cao, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H{sub 2} optimal control and H{sub {infinity}} robust control, a H{sub 2}/H{sub {infinity}} controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. (authors)

  17. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs. This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.

  18. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  19. Non conventional energy sources and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno M, F.

    1995-01-01

    Geographically speaking, Mexico is in an enviable position. Sun, water, biomass and geothermal fields main non conventional energy sources with commercial applications, are presents and in some cases plentiful in national territory. Moreover the coastal tidal power which is in research stage in several countries. Non conventional energy sources are an alternative which allow us to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons or any other type of primary energetic, are not by oneself choices for the energy conservation, but energy replacements. At the beginning of this year, CONAE created the Direction of Non conventional Energy Sources, which main objective is to promote and impulse programs inclined towards the application of systems based in renewable energy sources. The research centers represent a technological and consultative support for the CONAE. They have an infrastructure developed along several years of continuous work. The non conventional energy sources will be a reality at the same time that their cost be equal or lower than the cost for the traditional generating systems. CONAE (National Commission for Energy Conservation). (Author)

  20. Mean energy polarized neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.A.; Zaika, N.I.; Kolotyj, V.V.; Prokopenko, V.S.; Semenov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Physical bases and realization scheme of a pulsed source of polarized neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV are described. The source comprises polarized deuteron source, transport line, low-energy ion and axial injector to the accelerator, U-240 isochronous cyclotron, targets for polarized neutron production, accelerated deuteron transport line and flight bases. The pulsed source of fast neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV can provide for highly polarized neutron beams with the intensity by 2-3 orders higher than in the most perfect source of this range which allows one to perform various experiments with high efficiency and energy resolution. 9 refs.; 1 fig

  1. Research into the Effect of Supercapacitor Terminal Voltage on Regenerative Suspension Energy-Regeneration and Dynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruochen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of supercapacitor initial terminal voltage on the regenerative and semiactive suspension energy-regeneration and dynamic performance, firstly, the relationship between supercapacitor terminal voltage and linear motor electromagnetic damping force and that between supercapacitor terminal voltage and recycled energy by the supercapacitor in one single switching period were both analyzed. The result shows that the linear motor electromagnetic damping force is irrelevant to the supercapacitor terminal voltage, and the recycled energy by the supercapacitor reaches the maximum when initial terminal voltage of the supercapacitor equals output terminal voltage of the linear motor. Then, performances of system dynamics and energy-regeneration were studied as the supercapacitor initial terminal voltage varied in situations of B level and C level road. The result showed that recycled energy by the supercapacitor increased at first and then decreased while the dynamic performance had no obvious change. On the basis of previous study, a mode-switching control strategy of supercapacitor for the regenerative and semiactive suspension system was proposed, and the mode-switching rule was built. According to simulation and experiment results, the system energy-regeneration efficiency can be increased by utilizing the control strategy without influencing suspension dynamic performance, which is highly valuable to practical engineering.

  2. Continuation of the energy policy turnaround. Regenerative full supply on the verge of breakthrough; Energiewende fortsetzen. Regenerative Vollversorgung vor dem Durchbruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Nina

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy is expanded in Germany - with worldwide political charisma. The full supply by renewable energy sources is within your grasp. However: How can the expansion be accelerated within scarce resources and climate change? Is there a decentral or central expansion? The author of this book points out the hurdles and challenges of full supply by renewable energies. Other aspects of this contribution are state autonomy, civic participation, complexity of development. Requirements for the next process of renewable, efficient, value-oriented energy policies are formulated.

  3. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a pleading in favor of hydroelectric power which in Romania originated more than 100 y ago. The hydroelectric potential of this country amounts to about 40 TWh / year. The hydroelectric yield is currently 15.5 TWh / year, 11.5 TWh / year of which being supplied by the Danube Power Plants. The hydroelectric power has a number of advantages: it is renewable, can be stocked and distributed according to the daily, weekly or seasonal energy demand, the energetic output is 82-89 %, if the project is carefully worked out the hydroelectric system has a small environmental impact, the service life can reach over 80 years, while the maintaining and operation costs are low. Some drawbacks are listed: the problems related to the population relocation, the environmental effects, especially the forest clearing, salt enrichment of affected soils. Arguments are presented from the economic point of view, backed up by ecological and technological advantages in favor of developing the micro hydroelectric power facilities

  4. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  5. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO 2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris

  6. Alternative energy sources: ECC report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renwick, Lord; Stoddart, Lord; Lauderdale, Earl of

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities Committee Report on Alternative Energy Resources was debated. Six alternative energy sources were first described - wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, wave and tidal power. Combined heat and power was also mentioned. General questions concerning alternative energy sources were then considered. In particular, their potential contribution to the energy demand was assessed. The evidence presented to the committee suggested that they would only make a small contribution in the near future and could not be considered as a substitute for coal and nuclear power. However, by the year 2030 it would be possible for 18% of the national electricity demand to be met by alternative energy sources. The economic and environmental issues were assessed briefly and the report's conclusions were summarized. An independent review of wave power was called for in view of conflicting evidence presented to the committee. The debate which followed lasted three hours and is reported verbatim. Other issues raised included energy conservation, public attitudes to energy, the environment, government and private funding of research and development of nuclear power, including fusion. (U.K.)

  7. Model predictive control-based efficient energy recovery control strategy for regenerative braking system of hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Marina Martinez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 7-degree-of-freedom model of hybrid electric vehicle with regenerative braking system is built. • A modified nonlinear model predictive control strategy is developed. • The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. • The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and hardware-in-loop tests. • Test results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. - Abstract: As one of the main working modes, the energy recovered with regenerative braking system provides an effective approach so as to greatly improve fuel economy of hybrid electric bus. However, it is still a challenging issue to ensure braking stability while maximizing braking energy recovery. To solve this problem, an efficient energy recovery control strategy is proposed based on the modified nonlinear model predictive control method. Firstly, combined with the characteristics of the compound braking process of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus, a 7 degrees of freedom model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics is built. Secondly, considering nonlinear characteristic of the vehicle model and the efficiency of regenerative braking system, the particle swarm optimization algorithm within the modified nonlinear model predictive control is adopted to optimize the torque distribution between regenerative braking system and pneumatic braking system at the wheels. So as to reduce the computational time of modified nonlinear model predictive control, a nearest point method is employed during the braking process. Finally, the simulation and hardware-in-loop test are carried out on road conditions with different tire–road adhesion coefficients, and the proposed control strategy is verified by comparing it with the conventional control method employed in the baseline vehicle controller. The simulation and hardware-in-loop test results show that the proposed strategy can ensure vehicle safety during emergency braking

  8. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajotova, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  9. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action NECHIBVUTE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This radio frequency (RF energy harvesting is an emerging technology and research area that promises to produce energy to run low-power wireless devices. The great interest that has recently been paid to RF harvesting is predominantly driven by the great progress in both wireless communication systems and broadcasting technologies that have availed a lot of freely propagating ambient RF energy. The principle aim of an RF energy harvesting system is to convert the received ambient RF energy into usable DC power. This paper presents a state of the art concise review of RF energy harvesting sources for low power applications, and also discusses open research questions and future research directions on ambient RF energy harvesting.

  10. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear power, useful energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a reprint of an article published in a newspaper named 'Liberation Champagne' from October 7, 2003. It makes a brief analysis of the future world energy needs, of the need to fight against the global warming and to find a substitution to fossil fuels on the way to depletion. The mankind has to face a contradictory problem: increasing the energy production and saving the fossil fuels. The only solution is to accelerate the development of nuclear energy and of renewable energy sources. This is also the only way to fulfill the Kyoto protocol commitments. Short paper. (J.S.)

  12. Antimatter as an Energy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons and positrons are constantly generated in space, and periodically manufactured by humans here on Earth. Harvesting of these particles in space and forming stable antimatter atoms and molecules would create a significant energy source for power and propulsion. Though dedicated fabrication of these particles on Earth consumes much more energy than could be liberated upon annihilation, manufactured antimatter represents a high-density energy storage mechanism well suited for spacecraft power and propulsion. In this paper the creation, storage, and utilization of antimatter is introduced. Specific examples of electrical energy generation and deep-space propulsion based on antimatter are also reviewed.

  13. Geothermal energy, a new energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murr, K

    1960-05-01

    A survey is made of the historical development of geothermal energy, and the geological situations appropriate for its exploitation are described. When prospecting for steam sources, several vertical drillings of about 200 m depth and 60-120 mm diameter are usually sufficient to give adequate knowledge of subsurface conditions. In Iceland, geothermal energy is used primarily for domestic space-heating and climate control in greenhouses, but due to the ready availability of hydroelectricity, geothermal energy is not widely applied for the generation of electricity. In Katanga (Congo), a tin mine is supplied by 220-275 kW power plant which is driven by a nearby hot-water source. Other major developments at the time (1960) included Larderello in Italy and Wairakei in New Zealand. Preliminary results from exploratory boreholes in El Salvador are discussed.

  14. Energy policy and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    According to Shell, by 2050, renewable energy sources may supply over 50% of the energy, worldwide. This concentration on renewable energy sources is primarily due to the intensified environmental demands. The UN climate panel has estimated that to avoid irreversible climate change it is necessary to reduce the global emissions of CO2 by 50 to 60% during the next 100 years. Biomass energy includes a number of biological raw materials from forestry and agriculture. The forests provide wood, wood chips, bark, branches and treetops, and from agriculture, straw. Although biomass energy is not entirely pollution-free, it is renewable and CO2-neutral as long as growth and consumption are in balance. In Norway, the total annual growth of available biomass corresponds to about 80 TWh. The technical potential is estimated to 30 TWh per year, allowing for operationally reasonable ways of producing the biomass. However, there is competition for the biomass since it is used by the wood processing industry. The use of biomass and waste for energy generation varies considerably among the Nordic countries. In Denmark, agriculture dominates and large quantities of straw are burned in cogeneration plants. Sweden and Finland have well-developed forest industries, and the wood processing industry in these countries uses much more biomass fuel (bark, fibre mud, black liquor) than the Norwegian wood processing industry. In Norway, more energy can be obtained by retrofitting old hydroelectric plants such as by installing a flexible liner in existing tunnels. This improves energy flexibility and increases energy production without negative environmental consequences. The potential for wind power is larger in Norway than in Denmark and Germany. The cost of wind power has fallen considerably as a consequence of the technological development of the sector

  15. Hepatocyte transplantation and advancements in alternative cell sources for liver-based regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte A; Sinha, Siddharth; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Dhawan, Anil

    2018-06-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has been actively perused as an alternative to liver replacement for acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. Current challenges in this field include a limited cell source, reduced cell viability following cryopreservation and poor engraftment of cells into the recipient liver with consequent limited life span. As a result, alternative stem cell sources such as pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, hepatic progenitor cells, amniotic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be used to generate induced hepatocyte like cells (HLC) with each technique exhibiting advantages and disadvantages. HLCs may have comparable function to primary human hepatocytes and could offer patient-specific treatment. However, long-term functionality of transplanted HLCs and the potential oncogenic risks of using stem cells have yet to be established. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are promising, and multiple clinical trials are investigating their effect in cirrhosis and acute liver failure. Here, we review the current status of hepatocyte transplantation, alternative cell sources to primary human hepatocytes and their potential in liver regeneration. We also describe recent clinical trials using hepatocytes derived from stem cells and their role in improving the phenotype of several liver diseases.

  16. Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S; Smith, A J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  17. Sustainability analysis. Development of various indicators of sustainability for technical environmental analysis and evaluation of local heat supply networks on the basis of regenerative energies in comparison to fossil energy sources; Nachhaltigkeitsanalyse. Entwicklung verschiedener Nachhaltigkeitsindikatoren zur umwelttechnischen Analyse und Bewertung von Nahwaermeversorgungsnetzen auf Basis regenerativer Energien im Vergleich zu fossilen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehenberger-Risse, Diana

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this thesis is to define indicators to evaluate local heat supply systems based on renewable energy compared to fossil energy reference scenarios. With these indicators a assessment matrix was developed as a planning instrument for the realization of sustainable and energy-efficient local heat supply systems. Further inferences from single projects on regions can be done. In these thesis a method was developed to assess the sustainability of local heat supply systems with the focus on ecology under consideration of economically and social aspects. This method uses a set of indicators composed of Input-, Output-, Efficiency- and Balance indicators. To realize advancement in comparison to present situations, an environmental quality target to advance the environmental impacts of minimum 75% was defined. For the developing and application of the indicators different examples from projects and scenarios of combined heat production from Biomass, Biogas, Solar heat combined with near-surface geothermal storage; geothermal energy and fossil peakload supply were calculated. These scenarios were related to a basis fossil energy scenario. Overall, the two district heating projects Speichersdorf and Mitterteich were compared. In this case, the project Speichersdorf with different coverage areas and decrease heat densities was investigated. The lengths of electrical grid of two areas are 10,828 m and 6,027 m. Those were opposed to the biomass district-heating project Mitterteich with a grid length of 360 m and a higher heat density decrease. Furthermore, a scenario for heat supply was designed and calculated using geothermal plant operating in duplicate to provide heat to the large coverage area for the storage project village. The calculation of the various processes and scenarios was performed with the program GEMIS 4.8 based on the total heat generated (final energy) by the respective supply type. The study examined the main system components; boilers, solar heat

  18. Energy Sources | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources Energy Sources Many opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of energy supply systems at the central plant and then evaluate potential renewable energy sources and systems. Central Plant Begin by evaluating energy efficiency at the central plant through: Fuel Sources Heat Pumps and Combined

  19. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  20. Regenerative similariton laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault North

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-pulsating lasers based on cascaded reshaping and reamplification (2R are capable of initiating ultrashort pulses despite the accumulation of large amounts of nonlinearities in all-fiber resonators. The spectral properties of pulses in self-similar propagation are compatible with cascaded 2R regeneration by offset filtering, making parabolic pulses suitable for the design of a laser of this recently introduced class. A new type of regenerative laser giving birth to similaritons is numerically investigated and shows that this laser is the analog of regenerative sources based solely on self-phase modulation and offset filtering. The regenerative similariton laser does not suffer from instabilities due to excessive nonlinearities and enables ultrashort pulse generation in a simple cavity configuration.

  1. Nuclear energy versus other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear and other sources of energy as they relate to the production of electricity. It first examines the current role of electricity in the world and its means of production and how future economic growth, associated with growing populations striving for better living conditions, will lead to increased demands for new electricity generation. The second part of the paper deals with the health and environmental impacts of the major options for generating electricity likely to be used to meet this need, and how a comparative assessment of these impacts is important to understand the full implications of electricity generation planning decisions. 6 refs, 12 figs

  2. Renewable sources of energy in Austria 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1993-07-01

    Present contribution of renewable sources of energy to the overall energy requirements in Austria. Estimated potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria: firewood and biogeneous fuels, environmental energy, combustible wastes. Ecological aspects of utilising renewable sources of energy. Market barriers and strategies for overcoming them

  3. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  4. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  5. Modeling the performance of hydrogen-oxygen unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Moro, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an electrolyzer in charge mode and a separate fuel cell in discharge mode. Instead, a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is a single device performing both energy conversions, achieving a higher compactness and power-to-weight ratio. This paper presents a performance model of a URFC based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte and working on hydrogen and oxygen, which can provide high energy and power densities (>0.7 W cm-2). It provides voltage, power, and efficiency at varying load conditions as functions of the controlling physical quantities: temperature, pressure, concentration, and humidification. The model constitutes a tool for designing the interface and control sub-system as well as for exploring optimized cell/stack designs and operational conditions. To date, only a few of such analyses have been carried out and more research is needed in order to explore the true potential of URFCs.

  6. Potential Use of Human Periapical Cyst-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hPCy-MSCs) as a Novel Stem Cell Source for Regenerative Medicine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Codispoti, Bruna; Pacifici, Andrea; Palmieri, Francesca; Marrelli, Massimo; Pacifici, Luciano; Paduano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attracting growing interest by the scientific community due to their huge regenerative potential. Thus, the plasticity of MSCs strongly suggests the utilization of these cells for regenerative medicine applications. The main issue about the clinical use of MSCs is related to the complex way to obtain them from healthy tissues; this topic has encouraged scientists to search for novel and more advantageous sources of these cells in easily accessible tissues. The oral cavity hosts several cell populations expressing mesenchymal stem cell like-features, furthermore, the access to oral and dental tissues is simple and isolation of cells is very efficient. Thus, oral-derived stem cells are highly attractive for clinical purposes. In this context, human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs) exhibit characteristics similar to other dental-derived MSCs, including their extensive proliferative potential, cell surface marker profile and the ability to differentiate into various cell types such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and neurons. Importantly, hPCy-MSCs are easily collected from the surgically removed periapical cysts; this reusing of biological waste guarantees a smart source of stem cells without any impact on the surrounding healthy tissues. In this review, we report the most interesting research topics related to hPCy-MSCs with a newsworthy discussion about the future insights. This newly discovered cell population exhibits interesting and valuable potentialities that could be of high impact in the future regenerative medicine applications.

  7. Potential Use of Human Periapical Cyst-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hPCy-MSCs as a Novel Stem Cell Source for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tatullo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are attracting growing interest by the scientific community due to their huge regenerative potential. Thus, the plasticity of MSCs strongly suggests the utilization of these cells for regenerative medicine applications. The main issue about the clinical use of MSCs is related to the complex way to obtain them from healthy tissues; this topic has encouraged scientists to search for novel and more advantageous sources of these cells in easily accessible tissues. The oral cavity hosts several cell populations expressing mesenchymal stem cell like-features, furthermore, the access to oral and dental tissues is simple and isolation of cells is very efficient. Thus, oral-derived stem cells are highly attractive for clinical purposes. In this context, human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs exhibit characteristics similar to other dental-derived MSCs, including their extensive proliferative potential, cell surface marker profile and the ability to differentiate into various cell types such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and neurons. Importantly, hPCy-MSCs are easily collected from the surgically removed periapical cysts; this reusing of biological waste guarantees a smart source of stem cells without any impact on the surrounding healthy tissues. In this review, we report the most interesting research topics related to hPCy-MSCs with a newsworthy discussion about the future insights. This newly discovered cell population exhibits interesting and valuable potentialities that could be of high impact in the future regenerative medicine applications.

  8. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  9. Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, P.A.; Carr, M.A.; Kim, S.S.; Beautyman, M.J. [US Naval Academy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 590 Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for energy content, and compared with the same analyses of wood (a more typical biomass fuel). Three different samples of food waste showed relative uniformity of properties despite being sampled on different days, with different menus. Food waste had lower oxygen content, higher nitrogen and ash content, and higher energy content than wood. The food waste in this study had approximately 70% water content. Temperatures and emissions from combustion of wood pellets, dried pelletized food waste, and dried non-pelletized food waste were measured and compared using a modified residential pellet stove. Temperatures were higher for food waste due to the higher energy content. Emissions of NO, HC, and soot were slightly higher for food waste. Despite the large water content, thermodynamic analysis showed that regenerative dehydration, in which waste energy from the combustion system is used to remove water from the incoming wet fuel, is possible. An excess enthalpy ratio is defined to formalize the comparison of waste sensible enthalpy with the energy required for dehydration. Analysis of fuel-lean combustion and fuel-rich gasification shows that little, if any, external energy would necessarily be required to remove the water from the incoming fuel. An equilibrium model was used to simulate waste food gasification by extending the simulation to high water content levels. Probable ranges for successful food waste gasification are identified. Energy recovery of waste food could result in cost savings by offsetting traditional fuel-use (e.g. natural gas for heating) and by reducing disposal costs. (author)

  10. Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, P.A.; Carr, M.A.; Kim, S.S.; Beautyman, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for energy content, and compared with the same analyses of wood (a more typical biomass fuel). Three different samples of food waste showed relative uniformity of properties despite being sampled on different days, with different menus. Food waste had lower oxygen content, higher nitrogen and ash content, and higher energy content than wood. The food waste in this study had approximately 70% water content. Temperatures and emissions from combustion of wood pellets, dried pelletized food waste, and dried non-pelletized food waste were measured and compared using a modified residential pellet stove. Temperatures were higher for food waste due to the higher energy content. Emissions of NO, HC, and soot were slightly higher for food waste. Despite the large water content, thermodynamic analysis showed that regenerative dehydration, in which waste energy from the combustion system is used to remove water from the incoming wet fuel, is possible. An excess enthalpy ratio is defined to formalize the comparison of waste sensible enthalpy with the energy required for dehydration. Analysis of fuel-lean combustion and fuel-rich gasification shows that little, if any, external energy would necessarily be required to remove the water from the incoming fuel. An equilibrium model was used to simulate waste food gasification by extending the simulation to high water content levels. Probable ranges for successful food waste gasification are identified. Energy recovery of waste food could result in cost savings by offsetting traditional fuel-use (e.g. natural gas for heating) and by reducing disposal costs.

  11. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenning, Michael A.; Gores, Gregory J.; Harper, C. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Significance Regenerative medicine is at the

  12. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Pfenning, Michael A; Gores, Gregory J; Harper, C Michel

    2015-12-01

    Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Regenerative medicine is at the vanguard of health care

  13. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    ). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot

  14. Potential of natural energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J D; Glanville, R; Gliddon, B J; Harrison, P L; Hotchkiss, R C; Hughes, E M; Swift-Hook, D T; Wright, J K

    1976-01-01

    Apart from fossil fuels and nuclear energy, five main alternative sources of power for electricity generation are: the sun, the wind, the waves, the tides, and the heat inside the earth. Each has been examined for its relevance to the energy situation in Britain and in particular to the CEGB's requirements as an electrical utility. None emerges from the analysis as directly competitive with nuclear power, provided that nuclear fulfills present expectations. As an insurance against unforeseen delays in the nuclear program, however, one or two of the options may well be worth closer consideration, particularly wave power, for which Britain is favorably placed. The best immediate prospect for using solar energy falls outside the province of the CEGB, in the area of domestic water heating. Wind power, despite the windiness of the British Isles, suffers in practice from a low load factor, which would greatly inflate the capital cost. Geothermal power in Britain, geologically one of the most stable parts of the world, appears to be available only at depths too great to be presently attractive for electricity generation. Finally, tidal power, although technically available in limited amounts, again suffers from high capital costs. (auth)

  15. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  16. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Thermal energy was shown to be efficiently converted into electrical power in a thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery (TRAB) using copper-based redox couples [Cu(NH3)4 2+/Cu and Cu(ii)/Cu]. Ammonia addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized to the total electrolyte volume, under maximum power production conditions). Adding a second cell doubled both the voltage and maximum power. Increasing the anolyte ammonia concentration to 3 M further improved the maximum power density to 136 ± 3 W m-2. Volatilization of ammonia from the spent anolyte by heating (simulating distillation), and re-addition of this ammonia to the spent catholyte chamber with subsequent operation of this chamber as the anode (to regenerate copper on the other electrode), produced a maximum power density of 60 ± 3 W m-2, with an average discharge energy efficiency of ∼29% (electrical energy captured versus chemical energy in the starting solutions). Power was restored to 126 ± 5 W m-2 through acid addition to the regenerated catholyte to decrease pH and dissolve Cu(OH)2 precipitates, suggesting that an inexpensive acid or a waste acid could be used to improve performance. These results demonstrated that TRABs using ammonia-based electrolytes and inexpensive copper electrodes can provide a practical method for efficient conversion of low-grade thermal energy into electricity.

  17. Regensim – Matlab toolbox for renewable energy sources modelling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind-hydro systems connected to local grids. Blocks like wind generators, hydro generators, solar photovoltaic modules and accumulators are implemented. The main objective is the study of the hybrid power system behavior, which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply.

  18. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  19. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  20. A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Rahimi, Mohammad; Gorski, Christopher A; Logan, Bruce

    2016-04-21

    Large amounts of low-grade waste heat (temperatures energy can be converted to electricity in battery systems. To improve reactor efficiency, a compact, ammonia-based flow battery (AFB) was developed and tested at different solution concentrations, flow rates, cell pairs, and circuit connections. The AFB achieved a maximum power density of 45 W m(-2) (15 kW m(-3) ) and an energy density of 1260 Wh manolyte (-3) , with a thermal energy efficiency of 0.7 % (5 % relative to the Carnot efficiency). The power and energy densities of the AFB were greater than those previously reported for thermoelectrochemical and salinity-gradient technologies, and the voltage or current could be increased using stacked cells. These results demonstrated that an ammonia-based flow battery is a promising technology to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  2. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  3. Renewable energy technologies. Plant concepts, applications and practical hints; Regenerative Energietechnologien. Anlagenkonzepte, Anwendungen und Praxistipps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2008-07-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive outline of renewable energy technologies, prototypes and innovations in technical facilities that are ready for the market. On the basis of current catalogues of technical rules, directives and guidelines, possible system configurations are outlined for each technology which are explained by means of examples, a system description, and a list of reference projects. There is also a glossary for the various technologies and a list of contact addresses. The textbook addresses architects, engineers, energy consultants, and students. (orig.)

  4. Conventional and unconventional energy sources for mankind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.

    1981-01-01

    Plenty of industrial nations of the world is founded on the fact that only 1% of their energy requirement is met by muscle power, both of human and animal origin, while 99% comes mostly from fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels are not an eternal source and hence to conserve it, other sources must also be used. Availability of energy sources such as coal, biogas, solar energy, wind, tidal energy is examined and their draw-backs are pointed out. Another energy source i.e. nuclear energy can however substantially contribute to the energy scene. Fission reactors can contribute nearly 25% of the world energy requirements within two decades. Breeder reactors, if successfully developed, can meet the energy requirements of the world for few thousands of years. Fusion reactors, if successful for commercial exploitation, will form almost an inexhaustible source of energy. An added advantage is that they produce much less radioactive waste than that produced by fission reactors. (author)

  5. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  6. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  7. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C; Nolta, Jan A; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-10-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it provides

  8. Contemporary energy storage sources. Energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy system for electricity production is impede because of needs to be stabilized with nearly equivalent installed power of energy storage devices. The development of more electrical energy storage facilities will be extremely important for electricity generation in the future. Using hydro pumping, combined with a long life and fast charge/discharge rate, highly efficient contemporary power energy storage as Altairnano lithium ion battery, currently is seems to be the best solution for fast penetration rate of wind and solar energy systems

  9. Evaluation of regenerative phase change drywalls: low-energy building application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K. [Nottingham Trent Unv., Applied Energy and Environmental Engineering Unit, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    An integrated phase change drywall system has been analytically evaluated for low-energy building applications. The mathematical model indicates that it is possible to attain higher levels of thermal performance and efficiency with lower values of transfer units (NTU). Even though the model does not take into account the variable nature of the thermophysical properties of phase change materials (PCMs), reasonable thermal performance is achievable. Experimental validation is therefore recommended. (Author)

  10. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  11. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  12. Matching energy sources to demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, A.

    1979-01-01

    Diagrams show the current pattern of energy usage in Scotland; primary energy inputs; the various classes of user; the disposition of input energy in terms of useful and waste energy; an energy flow diagram showing the proportions of primary fuels taken by the various user groups and the proportions of useful energy derived by each. Within the S.S.E.B. area, installed capacity and maximum demand are shown for the present and projected future to the year 2000. A possible energy flow diagram for Scotland in 1996 is shown. The more efficient use of energy is discussed, with particular reference to the use of electricity. The primary energy inputs considered are oil, coal, nuclear, hydro and gas. (U.K.)

  13. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  14. Regenerative Carbonate-Based Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States); Muto, Andrew [Southern Research Inst., Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Southern Research has developed a thermochemical energy storage (TCES) technology that utilizes the endothermic-exothermic reversible carbonation of calcium oxide (lime) to store thermal energy at high-temperatures, such as those achieved by next generation concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities. The major challenges addressed in the development of this system include refining a high capacity, yet durable sorbent material and designing a low thermal resistance low-cost heat exchanger reactor system to move heat between the sorbent and a heat transfer fluid under conditions relevant for CSP operation (e.g., energy density, reaction kinetics, heat flow). The proprietary stabilized sorbent was developed by Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI). A factorial matrix of sorbent compositions covering the design space was tested using accelerated high throughput screening in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Several promising formulations were selected for more thorough evaluation and one formulation with high capacity (0.38 g CO2/g sorbent) and durability (>99.7% capacity retention over 100 cycles) was chosen as a basis for further development of the energy storage reactor system. In parallel with this effort, a full range of currently available commercial and developmental heat exchange reactor systems and sorbent loading methods were examined through literature research and contacts with commercial vendors. Process models were developed to examine if a heat exchange reactor system and balance of plant can meet required TCES performance and cost targets, optimizing tradeoffs between thermal performance, exergetic efficiency, and cost. Reactor types evaluated included many forms, from microchannel reactor, to diffusion bonded heat exchanger, to shell and tube heat exchangers. The most viable design for application to a supercritical CO2 power cycle operating at 200-300 bar pressure and >700°C was determined to be a combination of a diffusion bonded heat

  15. Regenerative cooperative diversity networks with co-channel interference: Performance analysis and optimal energy allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said

    2013-02-01

    A study of the effects of co-channel interference on a multirelay system with decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is presented. Orthogonal relaying is considered, and all relays that correctly decode the message in the broadcasting phase participate in the adaptive relaying phase. First, the effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the receiver is derived. Then, considering outage as the performance metric, we obtain exact closed-form expression for the outage probability. Simple and general asymptotic expressions for the outage probability, which explicitly show the coding and the diversity gains, are also derived and discussed. Furthermore, we present optimal energy-allocation schemes for minimizing outage under different resource constraints. Monte Carlo simulations are further provided to confirm the analytical results and illustrate the outage performance for different interference conditions and optimization schemes. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  16. Regenerative cooperative diversity networks with co-channel interference: Performance analysis and optimal energy allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said; Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    A study of the effects of co-channel interference on a multirelay system with decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is presented. Orthogonal relaying is considered, and all relays that correctly decode the message in the broadcasting phase participate in the adaptive relaying phase. First, the effective signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the receiver is derived. Then, considering outage as the performance metric, we obtain exact closed-form expression for the outage probability. Simple and general asymptotic expressions for the outage probability, which explicitly show the coding and the diversity gains, are also derived and discussed. Furthermore, we present optimal energy-allocation schemes for minimizing outage under different resource constraints. Monte Carlo simulations are further provided to confirm the analytical results and illustrate the outage performance for different interference conditions and optimization schemes. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  17. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  18. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  19. Gingiva as a new and the most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells from the oral cavity to be used in regenerative therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Górski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, many researchers have focused their attention on new sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Consequently, MSCs that display self-renewal capacity, multidifferentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties have been isolated from human oral tissues, including tooth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Oral MSCs involve dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, dental follicle stem cells (DFCs, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP and gingival stem cells (GMSCs. Current research on oral stem cells is expanding at an unprecedented rate. That being the case, a plethora of in vitro differentiation assays, immunodeficient animal transplantations and preclinical trials have demonstrated that these cells exhibit strong potential for both regenerative dentistry and medicine. Oral MSCs have proved their capability to repair cornea, dental pulp, periodontal, bone, cartilage, tendon, neural, muscle and endothelial tissues without neoplasm formation as well as to treat inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. This article describes the current understanding of oral MSCs and their prospective applications in cell-based therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Special attention is placed on GMSCs as they are easily accessible and may be obtained in a convenient and minimally invasive way.

  20. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  1. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  2. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  3. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

  4. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  5. Energy as a technology: Thermodynamics, energy engineering, environment, renewable energy, rational energy use. 2. rev. ed.; Technologie Energie: Thermodynamik, Energietechnik, Umwelt, regenerative Energien, rationeller Energieeinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, R.

    2000-07-01

    The book discusses the technical and scientific fundamentals and the ecological consequences of anthropogenic energy conversion. The information is to make the public energy discussion more rational and less emotional. [German] Trotz oder gerade wegen der duesteren Zukunftsaussichten sind sachliche und fundierte Informationen ueber die Zusammenhaenge zu diesem Thema erforderlich. In diesem Buch werden schwerpunktmaessig die technisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Sachverhalte und die oekologischen Folgeerscheinungen, die im Zusammenhang mit der anthropogenen Energieumwandlung auftreten, dagestellt. Diese Kenntnisse sollten auch zu einer Versachlichung der Energiediskussion und einer rationaleren Beurteilung der Situation fuehren koennen. (orig.)

  6. Renewable Energy Sources Act and Trading of Emission Certificates: A national and a supranational tool direct energy turnover to renewable electricity-supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsten, Selder

    2014-01-01

    Aim: After the nuclear disaster at Fukushima in 2011, Germany decided to phase out atomic energy, without producing new CO 2 emissions. The article discusses the promotion systems that are used. Scope: The percentage of renewable energies in Germany's electricity consumption increased from 3 in 1990 to 23 in 2012. This development was introduced and guided by a law called Renewable Energy Sources Act. It guarantees a privileged acceptance of electricity and a fixed gratification for 20 years to the operators of regenerative power plants. It allows the operators to install regenerative power plants at a reduced risk. By contrast, the international means for CO 2 reduction is the trading of emission certificates, which is also valid for Germany. The article discusses how the promotion of the Erneuerbar-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) and other plant-based promotion systems fit into this condition. It also elucidates the actual decline of promotion, its problems to the country’s environmental economy and the approach of decentralized photovoltaic (PV) energy plants towards economical efficiency. Conclusions: Germany’s energy turnaround to a regenerative energy supply is characterized by a strong and differentiated promotion system. Substantial efforts have to be made as the percentage of the renewable energy sources has significantly increased but is still under 25%

  7. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  8. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  9. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  10. Regenerative electronic load for electric power sources tests using capacitive idling converter; Carga eletronica regenerativa para testes de fontes de energia eletrica utilizando conversor com capacitor flutuante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrusculo, Edson Adriano

    1996-07-01

    The conventional method for testing power supplies, batteries, uninterruptible power supply and other sources of electric power uses resistors as load. This results in wasted heat and increases the equipment production cost. This work presents a Regenerative electronic Load to substitute those resistors. The basic topology is a capacitive idling Cuk converter. This converter allows to control independently the input current and permits to provide a sinusoidal output current. An appropriate gate command allows to have some soft-commutation without the use of any auxiliary circuit. The same converter, with input and output changed, can operate as a Power Supply with Input Power Factor Correction. The characteristics of soft-commutation and high efficiency are maintained. A simple high-efficiency transformer allows output isolation. All theoretical results are experimentally verified. (author)

  11. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.; Young, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  12. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  13. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  14. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  15. Promotion of renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcu, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Romania's climate and geographical conditions offer the following types of renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass and geothermal energy. These are here considered within the country's energy balance on medium and long term. Romania has a significant renewable energy potential. Unfortunately at present this potential is not used but to a small extent, except for hydraulic energy and biomass (especially as firewood), the latter being used in the great majority of cases in low performance installations. Government Decision No. 443/2003 on the promotion of electric energy generation from RES and Government Decision No. 1535/2003 regarding the Strategy of RES, establish the legal framework necessary for the promotion of RES in Romania. Consequently, an Action Plan defining actions, measures, responsibilities and financial sources has been settled. (author)

  16. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  17. Engineering economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook presents a comprehensive picture of the economic aspects, feasibility and adaptability of alternative energy sources and their interconnections. The author intends for this treatment of energy sources to be total and complete. It therefore includes such topics as low temperature and high temperature fuel cells, rechargeable storage batteries (including lead acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium, and sodium-sulfur), Redox flows cells energy system in compatibility with fuel cells and storage batteries, MHD energy systems using non-fossil renewable fuels, solar energy system using direct thermal units and photovoltaic generators, wind energy conversion systems, tidal ocean wave energy converters, geothermal energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. The book is structured so that each major energy source is given one chapter. Each chapter begins with a discussion of the basic structural components of the energy source, as well as operational and fuel characteristics. This is followed by an economic analysis, which includes incremental energy cost curves and economic coordination equations for each possible system of operation. Where appropriate, economic scheduling of generation is applied to several modes of system consumption (e.g., localized dispersed systems, interconnected load centers, and central systems)

  18. Regenerative braking system of PM synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Lv, Chengxing; Zhao, Na; Zang, Hechao; Jiang, Huilue; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Fengli

    2018-04-01

    Permanent-magnet synchronous motor is widely adopted in many fields with the advantage of a high efficiency and a high torque density. Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist PMSM system achieve better fuel economy and lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of the regenerative braking systems of PMSM. The mode of PWM duty has been adjusted to control regenerative braking of PMSM using energy controller for the port-controlled Hamiltonian model. The simulation analysis indicates that a smooth control could be realized and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by Regenerative Braking Systems.

  19. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  20. Erich Regener and the ionisation maximum of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881-1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under water and in the atmosphere. Along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, he discovered the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the first to estimate the energy density of cosmic rays, an estimate that was used by Baade and Zwicky to bolster their postulate that supernovae might be their source. Yet Regener's name is less recognised by present-day cosmic ray physicists than it should be, largely because in 1937 he was forced to take early retirement by the National Socialists as his wife had Jewish ancestors. In this paper we briefly review his work on cosmic rays and recommend an alternative naming of the ionisation maximum. The influence that Regener had on the field through his son, his son-in-law, his grandsons and his students, and through his links with Rutherford's group in Cambridge, is discussed in an appendix. Regener was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics by Schrödinger in 1938. He died in 1955 at the age of 73.

  1. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  2. Regenerative laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Landerman, A.; Melikian, G.

    1975-01-01

    Regenerative apparatus for exhausting the working medium from the optical cavity of a laser and for supplying preheated diluent to the reaction chamber of a laser is disclosed. In an aftercooler thermal energy is exchanged between the working medium exhausted from the optical cavity and a cryogenic coolant which is subsequently utilized as the motive fluid for an ejector and as a diluent in the production of laser gas. Highly toxic and corrosive gases are condensed out of the working medium as the cryogenic coolant is evaporated and superheated. A preheater transfers additional heat to the diluent before the diluent enters the reaction chamber. (U.S.)

  3. Alternative energy sources in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    The hereby presented report was elaborated for the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic by the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in Prague from July to October 1999. The report is constituted so as to provide a complete introductory overview of the situation in the Czech Republic relating to alternative energy sources. For the purposes of this report, the term alternative energy sources is conceived as renewable energy sources and combined generation of heat and electricity. Renewable energy sources comprise sun, water, wind, geothermal energy and energy generated from biomass or waste. The report features a glimpse at the history of alternative energy sources' utilisation in the Czech Republic, a description of the current state and an extrapolation of existing trends into expectable medium- and long-run developments. The report also includes an insight into the relevant legal framework and a general scan of market opportunities. The objective of the report is to prepare a solid starting platform for Dutch companies which specialise in renewable energy sources and/or cogeneration and which may be interested in extending their scope of activities to the Czech Republic

  4. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  5. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  6. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  7. Unused energy sources inducing minimal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A [Inst. fur Reaktorentwicklung, Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH, German Federal Republic

    1974-01-01

    The contribution of hydroelectricity to the growing worldwide energy demand is not expected to exceed 6%. As the largest amount of hydroelectric potential is located in developing nations, it will find its greatest development outside the currently industrialized sphere. The potential of 60 GW ascribed to tidal and geothermal energy is a negligible quantity. Solar energy represents an essentially inexhaustible source, but technological problems will preclude any major contribution from it during this century. The environmental problems caused by these 'new' energy sources are different from those engendered by fossil and nuclear power plants, but they are not negligible. It is irresponsible and misleading to describe them as pollution-free.

  8. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  9. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  10. Biomass as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, M.; Naveau, H.; Declerck, C.; Vanacker, L.; Mahy, D.; Schepens, G.

    The object of this paper is to evaluate the possible production and utilization of biomass as an energy source in Belgium. Four conversion methods are considered - methanation, fermentation, incineration and gasification - from a technological and economic viewpoint.

  11. Exploiting Sun's Energy Effectively as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renewable energy, solar energy, photosynthesis, electrolysis, photocatalysis, photovoltaic cell. Abstract. Using Sun's energy effectively to drive important, industriallyrelevant chemical reactions is currently an area of researchthat is attracting a large attention. This route circumventsour reliance on non-renewable sources of ...

  12. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  13. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result...... of a long and fruitful cooperation between public and private institutions within energy system research and analysis. The purpose of the article is to explain the modelling approach, to highlight strengths and challenges of the chosen approach, to create awareness about the possible applications...... of Balmorel as well as to inspire to new model developments and encourage new users to join the community. Some of the key strengths of the model are the flexible handling of the time and space dimensions and the combination of operation and investment optimisation. Its open source character enables diverse...

  14. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  15. A comparative table of various energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions. (Aoki, K.)

  16. Comparative table of various energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    This table provides wide informations on the technological facets of various sources of primary energy. One of the outstanding features of this table is that it exposes and compares various technological problems involved in the energy conversion processes. The primary energy sources treated here are the solar energy (heat and light are treated separately), the geothermal energy, coal (gasification and liquefaction are treated separately), oil, natural gas, oceano-energy (tidal energy, temperature difference, and wave energy are treated separately), organic wastes, oil shale, tar sand, hydraulic power, wind power, biomass, uranium, thorium, and deuterium and lithium. On the other hand, the comparisons are made in three major items, i.e. charactersitics as natural resources, conversion or refinement to secondary energy sources, and economical characteristics. The first item includes the estimated and recognized amount of deposits, easiness of mining, storage, and transportation, and cleanliness and safety. As for conversion characteristics, the easiness, controlability, efficiency, cleanliness, and safety of various conversion processes are compared. Finally, as for economical problems, cost comparisons are made for gathering or mining those resources, including required energy input, man power, required facilities, and site conditions.

  17. Sources, availability and costs of future energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.G.

    1977-08-01

    An attempt is made to put the future energy scene in perspective by quantitatively examining energy resources, energy utilization and energy costs. Available data on resources show that conventional oil and gas are in short supply and that alternative energy sources are going to have to replace oil and gas in the not too distant future. Cost/applications assessments indicate that a mix of energy sources are likely to best meet our energy needs of the future. Hydro, nuclear and coal are all practical alternatives for meeting electrical needs and electricity is a practical alternative for space heating. Coal appears to be the most practical alternative for meeting much of the industrial energy need and frontier oil or oil from the tar sands appear to be the most practical alternatives for meeting the transportation need. Solar energy shows promise of meeting some of the space heating load in Canada if economical energy storage systems can be developed. The general conclusion is that the basic energy problem is energy conversion. (author)

  18. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico

    2015-01-01

    recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first...... organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family...

  19. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  20. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  1. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable

  2. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  3. Energy Spread Sources in TESLA and TTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Tessier, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The beam energy spread in the TESLA linac must be small enough to limit the emittance dilution due to the dispersive effects. This report summarizes the major sources of energy spread both for the TESLA linac and the TTF linac, where these estimations will be carefully checked with beam experiments. The first part recalls the intra-bunch energy spread while the second part looks into the bunch-to-bunch energy spread induced by rf field fluctuations within the bunch train and from pulse-to-pulse. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL) [de

  5. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  6. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  7. The nuclear energy: an essential source of the energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the energy consumption facing the environmental quality, the author presents the energy sources, used and possible. He shows the necessity to reduce the dependency towards the fossil fuels. He discusses the possibility of the CO 2 storage, the electric power use to decrease the CO 2 emissions. He then analyses the cogeneration alternative, the hybrid vehicles and the advantages of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  8. Indian energy sources in 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, A. C.

    Indian energy sources for electrical power generation are surveyed with a view to the development of the available hydroelectric resources. The capital-intensive nature of hydroelectric projects and their long gestation periods have impeded the rapid exploitation of the hydroelectric resources in the country, which are expected to provide 37% of the 16,200 MW capacity anticipated by 2001. Alternative sources of power such as solar and wind energy, biogas conversion and the use of industrial waste heat to produce electricity are discussed with case studies presented.

  9. La mucosa nasal como vía y fuente para la medicina regenerativa Nasal mucosa as pathway and source for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Hernández-Ramírez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los pilares fundamentales que sustentan a la medicina regenerativa y se señala que de ellos, sin lugar a dudas, el que más ha avanzado es el representado por las células madre, en particular las adultas, que de manera progresiva se han ido extendiendo en la práctica clínica. Se destaca que recién se ha explorado la mucosa nasal como una vía útil y sencilla para el acceso al organismo de elementos potencialmente útiles en la medicina regenerativa, y también como fuente de células madre con posibilidades de introducción en el área clínica. Se comentan las características fundamentales de la mucosa nasal, se mencionan algunos medicamentos que se han usado a través de la ruta intranasal y se refiere la posibilidad de usar esta vía para la administración de células madre que puedan ejercer sus acciones sobre el sistema nervioso central. Estos datos se complementan con los promisorios resultados que se han obtenido con el trasplante de células procedentes de la mucosa nasal.The fundamental pillars of the regenerative medicine were set forth in this paper. One of the most advanced is undoubtedly the field of stem cells, particularly adult stem cells, which has progressively spread into the clinical practice. It was underlined that the nasal mucosa has been recently explored as a useful simple pathway through which the potentially useful elements of regenerative medicine may have access to the body; and also as a source of stem cells with possibilities of being introduced in the clinical area. Comments were made on the fundamental characteristics of the nasal mucosa; some drugs that have been administered through intranasal route were mentioned together with the possibility of using this pathway for stem cells that might have their impact on the central nervous system. All these data were completed with the promising results of transplantation of stem cells from the nasal mucosa.

  10. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  11. Health evaluation of energy-generating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The American Medical Association's House of Delegates, at its December 1976 Clinical Convention, requested that an evaluation be made of the health hazards of nuclear, fossil, and alternative energy-generating sources, for employees of energy-producing facilities as well as for the general population. This report is a summary evaluation of such hazards prepared in response to that request. This report, which was adopted by the House of Delegates on June 21, 1978, appears here in a revised and corrected version

  12. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  13. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastroamidjojo, MSA.

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  14. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-01-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  15. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  16. Energy price comparison of new, renewable, and fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun; Sunardi

    2014-01-01

    Low cost transportation for people and goods is essential to the economic well-being of the nation. Until now, if the oil prices rise, the cost of transportation will automatically follow and most of the people suffering due to soaring prices of food and other items. Almost 100 percent of Indonesian transportation energy demand is supported by oil. Supply disruption - or even the threat of disruption - in the Middle East or elsewhere may lead to a shift in consumer prices and the cost of the industry in significant numbers. While costs in the energy sector, especially electricity in developed countries that also contribute significantly to support the transport sector, is much more stable and predictable. Energy requirements are so high in the transport sector tends to force people to seek the source and means of energy in other forms such as electricity or hydrogen that can match or exceed the performance of fuel oil. This paper aims to analyze the economics of energy price comparison to see the extent of the economic opportunities some kind of energy to play a significant role in the transport sector and the subsequent impact on the energy system. From the results obtained by the analysis that will be increasingly necessary role of nuclear energy and other specific energy as a source of electrical energy considering its economical aspects are relatively better. (author)

  17. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  18. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  19. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  20. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  1. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  2. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  4. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  5. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  6. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  7. Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

  8. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-01

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  9. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  10. The Infrapatellar Fat Pad as a Source of Perivascular Stem Cells with Increased Chondrogenic Potential for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Paul; Khan, Nusrat; Biant, Leela; Péault, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the location of perivascular markers (CD146, CD34, neural/glial antigen 2 [NG2], platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β [PDGFRβ], and α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) in relation to endothelial markers (CD31, CD144, von Willebrand factor [vWF]). Pericytes and adventitial cells were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (3.8% and 21.2%, respectively) using flow cytometry with a viability of 88%. The mean numbers of pericytes and adventitial cells isolated were 4.6 ± 2.2 × 10 4 and 16.2 ± 3.2 × 10 4 , respectively, equating to 7.9 ± 4.4 × 10 3 and 20.8 ± 4.3 × 10 3 cells per gram of harvested tissue. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting demonstrated that cultured PSCs were CD44+CD90+CD105+; polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that pericytes retained their CD146+ phenotype and expressed the pericyte markers PDGFRβ and NG2. Differentiation was confirmed using histochemical stains and genetic expression. Using a pellet model, the IFP PSCs and the MSCs generated significantly more extracellular matrix than bone marrow MSCs (p < .001 and p = .011, respectively). The IFP PSCs generated significantly more extracellular matrix than IFP MSCs (p = .002). Micromass culture demonstrated that differentiated PSCs were upregulated compared with MSCs for COL2A1, ACAN, and SOX9 expression by factors of 4.8 ± 1.3, 4.3 ± 0.9, and 7.0 ± 1.7, respectively. The IFP was a significantly better source

  11. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  12. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  13. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  14. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  15. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  16. Prospects of renewable energy sources in India: Prioritization of alternative sources in terms of Energy Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shibani K.; Puppala, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The growing energy demand in progressing civilization governs the exploitation of various renewable sources over the conventional sources. Wind, Solar, Hydro, Biomass, and waste & Bagasse are the various available renewable sources in India. A reliable nonconventional geothermal source is also available in India but it is restricted to direct heat applications. This study archives the status of renewable alternatives in India. The techno economic factors and environmental aspects associated with each of these alternatives are discussed. This study focusses on prioritizing the renewable sources based on a parameter introduced as Energy Index. This index is evaluated using cumulative scores obtained for each of the alternatives. The cumulative score is obtained by evaluating each alternative over a range of eleven environmental and techno economic criteria following Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. The eleven criteria's considered in the study are Carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2 ), Sulphur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ), Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO x ), Land requirement, Current energy cost, Potential future energy cost, Turnkey investment, Capacity factor, Energy efficiency, Design period and Water consumption. It is concluded from the study that the geothermal source is the most preferable alternative with highest Energy Index. Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar sources are subsequently preferred alternatives. - Highlights: • FAH process is used to obtain cumulative score for each renewable alternative. • Cumulative score is normalized by highest score of ideal source. • Energy Index shows how best a renewable alternative is. • Priority order is obtained for alternatives based on Energy Index. • Geothermal is most preferable source followed by Hydro, Wind, Biomass and Solar.

  17. Regenerative medicine primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2013-07-01

    The pandemic of chronic diseases, compounded by the scarcity of usable donor organs, mandates radical innovation to address the growing unmet needs of individuals and populations. Beyond life-extending measures that are often the last available option, regenerative strategies offer transformative solutions in treating degenerative conditions. By leveraging newfound knowledge of the intimate processes fundamental to organogenesis and healing, the emerging regenerative armamentarium aims to boost the aptitude of human tissues for self-renewal. Regenerative technologies strive to promote, augment, and reestablish native repair processes, restituting organ structure and function. Multimodal regenerative approaches incorporate transplant of healthy tissues into damaged environments, prompt the body to enact a regenerative response in damaged tissues, and use tissue engineering to manufacture new tissue. Stem cells and their products have a unique aptitude to form specialized tissues and promote repair signaling, providing active ingredients of regenerative regimens. Concomitantly, advances in materials science and biotechnology have unlocked additional prospects for growing tissue grafts and engineering organs. Translation of regenerative principles into practice is feasible and safe in the clinical setting. Regenerative medicine and surgery are, thus, poised to transit from proof-of-principle studies toward clinical validation and, ultimately, standardization, paving the way for next-generation individualized management algorithms. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  19. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  20. Regenerative medicine blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Harper, C Michel; Gores, Gregory J; Pfenning, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Regenerative medicine, a paragon of future healthcare, holds unprecedented potential in extending the reach of treatment modalities for individuals across diseases and lifespan. Emerging regenerative technologies, focused on structural repair and functional restoration, signal a radical transformation in medical and surgical practice. Regenerative medicine is poised to provide innovative solutions in addressing major unmet needs for patients, ranging from congenital disease and trauma to degenerative conditions. Realization of the regenerative model of care predicates a stringent interdisciplinary paradigm that will drive validated science into standardized clinical options. Designed as a catalyst in advancing rigorous new knowledge on disease causes and cures into informed delivery of quality care, the Mayo Clinic regenerative medicine blueprint offers a patient-centered, team-based strategy that optimizes the discovery-translation-application roadmap for the express purpose of science-supported practice advancement.

  1. Comparison between regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC) and basic organic Rankine cycle (BORC) based on thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization considering exergy efficiency and levelized energy cost (LEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Bingxi; Yang, Jinfu; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermoeconomic comparison of regenerative RORC and BORC is investigated. • The Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective compares with the corresponding single-objective solutions. • The three-objective optimization of the RORC and BORC is studied. • The RORC owns 8.1% higher exergy efficiency and 21.1% more LEC than the BORC under the Pareto-optimal solution. - Abstract: Based on the thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization by using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), considering both thermodynamic performance and economic factors, the thermoeconomic comparison of regenerative organic Rankine cycles (RORC) and basic organic Rankine cycles (BORC) are investigated. The effects of five key parameters including evaporator outlet temperature, condenser temperature, degree of superheat, pinch point temperature difference and degree of supercooling on the exergy efficiency and levelized energy cost (LEC) are examined. Meanwhile, the Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective for maximizing exergy efficiency and minimizing LEC is obtained and compared with the corresponding single-objective solutions. Research demonstrates that there is a significant negative correlation between thermodynamic performance and economic factors. And the optimum exergy efficiency and LEC for the Pareto-optimal solution of the RORC are 55.97% and 0.142 $/kW h, respectively, which are 8.1% higher exergy efficiency and 21.1% more LEC than that of the BORC under considered condition. Highest exergy and thermal efficiencies are accompanied with lowest net power output and worst economic performance. Furthermore, taking the net power output into account, detailed investigation on the three-objective optimization for maximizing exergy efficiency, maximizing net power output and minimizing LEC is discussed

  2. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  3. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    2003-01-01

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  4. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  5. Alternative and renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-09-01

    The paper reviews the use of biomass as a source of energy and shows from a number of examples, particularly the growing of sugar beet for the manufacture of ethanol, that this way of producing fuel is not desirable. On a world basis it is possible that there might be a confrontation between the needs for 'food' and 'technological' calories of which there is already a hint in the so-called 'energy crop strategy'. In conclusion, given the present world food supply position, the intensification of food production should be given priority over attempts to produce fuel from biomass and we should not aim to use the photosynthetic process to provide technical calories. Other ways must be found to provide the latter, and it is suggested that nuclear energy should make an increasing contribution even in the developing countries. (Auth.)

  6. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  7. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S, E-mail: douglasborgesdomingos@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  9. White paper for the exploitation of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Avella, R.; Braccio, G.; Caserta, G.; Chiado' Rana, M.; Ciciolla, C.; Conte, G.; De Lillo, A.; Gerardi, V.; Giuliani, G.; Pignatelli, V.; Pirazzi, L.; Ricci, A.; Sarno, A.; Sonnino, A.; Viggiano, D.; Pazzi, V.; Silvestrini, G.; Morselli, F.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Italian government attributes at the renewable energy sources a remarkable strategy. Therefore supports the progressive integration of this energy sources in energy market and develop the co-operation with Mediterranean area countries [it

  10. Personalized Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Arjmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  11. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  12. Coal: an economic source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coal, in spite its abundance availability in Pakistan, is a neglected source of energy. Its role as fuel is not more than five percent for the last four decades. Some of the coal, mined, in used as space heating in cold areas of Pakistan but more than 90% is being used in brick kilns. There are 185 billion tonnes of coal reserves in the country and hardly 3 million tonnes of coal is, annually, mined. Lakhra coal field is, presently, major source of coal and is considered the largest productive/operative coal field of Pakistan. It is cheaper coal compared to other coals available in Pakistan. As an average analysis of colas of the country, it shows that most of the coals are lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur content. The energy potential is roughly the same but the cost/ton of coal is quite different. It may be due to methods of mining. There should be some criteria for fixing the cost of the coal. It should be based on energy potential of unit mass of coal. (author)

  13. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-25

    Within the 3rd EUROSOLAR Conference at 25th to 26th May, 2009, in Ludwigshafen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) Municipal power supply - Renewable energies (Hermann Scheer); (b) The significance of municipal regulations for the development of renewable energies by the example of Rheinland-Pfalz (Gerhard Weissmueller); (c) The solar regulation of the city Marburg (Franz Kahle); (d) Large-area solar-potential register SUN-AREA, the example Osnabrueck (Martina Klaerle); (e) Energy autonomy by means of methods at municipal and state level (Stephan Grueger); (f) Concession process according to paragraph 46 EnWG as a start for a locally regenerative strategic reorientation (Christian Theobald); (g) Municipal utilities and regenerative power generation (Johannes van Bergen); (h) The hybrid power plant Enertrag (Michael Wenske); (i) Eco-power with ecological added value (Uwe Leprich); (j) Increase of added value at biogas by means of grid connection (Leonhard Thien); (k) Biogas products for private customers (Oliver Hummel); (l) Marketing of biogas as a fuel - WEGAS Wendlaender BioGas (Hans-Volker Marklewitz); (m) Geothermal heat in the Upper Rhine Graben by the example of the geothermal power plant Landau (Peter Hauffe); (n) The Act on Heating with Renewable Energy Sources - A chance for new fields of business for municipal utilities (Klara Siraki); (o) Direct marketing of electricity from renewable energies as a chance for municipal utilities (Martin Altrock, Matthias Stark); (p) The significance of EEG and EEWaermeG 2009 in the further enlargement of renewable energies (Fabio Longo); (q) Taking over of the gas grid by the municipal utility Waldkirch GmbH (Dieter Nagel); (r) Municipal added value - municipal economical effects of decentral power generation (Michael Wuebbels).

  14. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  15. an assessment of household energy types, sources, uses and its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    these energy types/sources, seasons and the disappearing forest. KEYWORDS: Energy, Types, Sources, Household, Consumption. INTRODUCTION. The running of any given economic sector. (industrial, domestic) is powered by various forms of energy that can be sourced from renewable and non-renewable sources ...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at... batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations. (b) A reserve source of...

  17. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  18. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  19. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  20. Renewable energy sources: the case of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J

    1979-04-01

    Industrial nations have based their economic and social development on the use of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas). This trend is being followed by many developing countries, which have neither the natural resources nor the manpower to adopt this path. As a result, one finds in many of these countries islands of prosperity (based on consumption patterns copied from industrial nations surrounded by a sea of poverty. The problems resulting from this dual social structure are obvious in many parts of the world. It is argued here that renewable energy sources are a natural basis for the development of the poorer countries and that intelligent use of hydropower, biomass, and direct solar energy can shortut many of the problems faced today by industrial nations. The case of Brazil is analyzed as one of the countries in which these solutions are being tried. 5 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  1. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  2. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S; Rinkinen, J [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  3. Correlation between renew able energy source's energy output and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, G.H.M.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The common problem to all renew energy sources (RESs) is the mismatch between their energy output and load demand. In remote areas, the solution of this problem is in general employing a small diesel-generator or a storage battery. But, the storage battery is a major cost element of RESs and small diesel-generator is unreliable and costly. Therefore, a proposed technique has been introduced in this work to determine correlation between the energy output of wind energy systems (WES) and isolated loads. solar photovoltaic power system (PVS) and two of energy storage facilities are used here for this correlation. The proposed technique includes also two models for optimizing the generation and costs of WES accompanied with PVS, storage battery and water storage (reservoir) to accommodate an isolated load. The proposed technique is applied with the dynamic programming to coordinate the energy output of a WES with residential and pumping load in remote area of egypt. The results of this application reveal that minimization of both capacity of the storage battery and the whole power system cost are obtained. 4 figs

  4. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  5. Sustainability for power generation exemplarily shown by regenerative energy systems. Final report; Nachhaltigkeit am Beispiel regenerativer Energiesysteme zur Stromerzeugung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, T.J.; Wagner, H.J.

    2005-07-01

    Since the energy sector plays a key role in the concept of sustainable development, aspects of sustainability should be addressed within the scope of technology assessments. This applies particularly to new energy systems and new technological solutions. To evaluate sustainability, indicators are needed. A system of indicators was designed within a research project carried out by the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics of the Ruhr-University Bochum. At first, the Brundtland-Definition for sustainable development was put in terms for energy conversion systems. Secondly, indicators were selected. For this purpose, a standardized procedure was developed that allows quantified multi criteria analysis. Overall objective was to cover all significant issues of sustainability by a minimum number of indicators. Seven appropriate indicators were identified: cumulated energy demand, power production costs, demand of air, water and area, as well as two new developed indicators to describe risks related to the security of energy supply, and employment effects. To prove the applicability of the indicator system, sample calculations were made for several solar and wind energy systems as well as for a natural gas fired power plant. Beside these examples, the indicator set in principle is applicable to any other technological pathway. It enables comparisons between conventional power generation technologies and innovative (renewable) energy systems. (orig.)

  6. An Open Source Extensible Smart Energy Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, Linda [V-Squared, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Aggregated distributed energy resources are the subject of much interest in the energy industry and are expected to play an important role in meeting our future energy needs by changing how we use, distribute and generate electricity. This energy future includes an increased amount of energy from renewable resources, load management techniques to improve resiliency and reliability, and distributed energy storage and generation capabilities that can be managed to meet the needs of the grid as well as individual customers. These energy assets are commonly referred to as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). DERs rely on a means to communicate information between an energy provider and multitudes of devices. Today DER control systems are typically vendor-specific, using custom hardware and software solutions. As a result, customers are locked into communication transport protocols, applications, tools, and data formats. Today’s systems are often difficult to extend to meet new application requirements, resulting in stranded assets when business requirements or energy management models evolve. By partnering with industry advisors and researchers, an implementation DER research platform was developed called the Smart Energy Framework (SEF). The hypothesis of this research was that an open source Internet of Things (IoT) framework could play a role in creating a commodity-based eco-system for DER assets that would reduce costs and provide interoperable products. SEF is based on the AllJoynTM IoT open source framework. The demonstration system incorporated DER assets, specifically batteries and smart water heaters. To verify the behavior of the distributed system, models of water heaters and batteries were also developed. An IoT interface for communicating between the assets and a control server was defined. This interface supports a series of “events” and telemetry reporting, similar to those defined by current smart grid communication standards. The results of this

  7. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  8. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  9. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  10. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-20

    This is the repository for Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS), which is an open source operating system that is engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. BEMOSS offers the following key features: (1) Open source, open architecture – BEMOSS is an open source operating system that is built upon VOLTTRON – a distributed agent platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). BEMOSS was designed to make it easy for hardware manufacturers to seamlessly interface their devices with BEMOSS. Software developers can also contribute to adding additional BEMOSS functionalities and applications. (2) Plug & play – BEMOSS was designed to automatically discover supported load controllers (including smart thermostats, VAV/RTUs, lighting load controllers and plug load controllers) in commercial buildings. (3) Interoperability – BEMOSS was designed to work with load control devices form different manufacturers that operate on different communication technologies and data exchange protocols. (4) Cost effectiveness – Implementation of BEMOSS deemed to be cost-effective as it was built upon a robust open source platform that can operate on a low-cost single-board computer, such as Odroid. This feature could contribute to its rapid deployment in small- or medium-sized commercial buildings. (5) Scalability and ease of deployment – With its multi-node architecture, BEMOSS provides a distributed architecture where load controllers in a multi-floor and high occupancy building could be monitored and controlled by multiple single-board computers hosting BEMOSS. This makes it possible for a building engineer to deploy BEMOSS in one zone of a building, be comfortable with its operation, and later on expand the deployment to the entire building to make it more energy efficient. (6) Ability to provide local and remote monitoring – BEMOSS provides both local and remote monitoring

  11. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.

    2013-01-01

    -related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas......Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal....... Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once...

  12. Degenerative and regenerative phenomena in pigmented rabbit irides following irradiation with the Xenon arc lamp at different pulse energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, A.; Portmann, H.; Zypen, E. van der; Fauckhauser, F.

    1980-01-01

    The morphological condition of the pigmented rabbit iris following irradiation with a Xenon arclamp at four different pulse energies was analyzed. It was shown that: 1. There is a direct relationship between the applied pulse energy and the extent, as well as the rate, of secondary-degenerative transformations. 2. Secondary-degenerative and repair processes occur simultaneously. 3. As opposed to the primary damage event, secondary degeneration appears to progress from the back to the front of the iris. 4. As a rule, pulse energies of less than 1 Joule do not lead to secondary perforation of the iris. Fifteen weeks after the damage event, regeneration of connective tissue and the larger blood vessels, as well as of myelinated and unmyelinated nerves may be found. 5. The inducing factors, as well as those sustaining the process of secondary degeneration after irradiation of the rabbit iris with high pulse energies, cannot be explained on the basis of morphological findings alone. (orig.) [de

  13. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  14. A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Wulin; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    addition to the anolyte (2 M ammonia in a copper-nitrate electrolyte) of a single TRAB cell produced a maximum power density of 115 ± 1 W m-2 (based on projected area of a single copper mesh electrode), with an energy density of 453 W h m-3 (normalized

  15. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  16. An online low energy gaseous ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shuoxue; Guo Liping; Peng Guoliang; Zhang Jiaolong; Yang Zheng; Li Ming; Liu Chuansheng; Ju Xin; Liu Shi

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of helium and/or hydrogen in nuclear materials may cause performance deterioration of the materials. In order to provide a unique tool to investigate the He-and/or H-caused problems, such as interaction of helium with hydrogen and defects, formation of gas bubbles and its evolution, and the related effects, we designed a low energy (≤ 20 keV) cold cathode Penning ion source, which will be interfaced to a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM), for monitoring continuously the evolution of micro-structure during the He + or H + ion implantation. Studies on discharge voltage-current characteristics of the ion source, and extraction and focusing of the ion beam were performed. The ion source works stably with 15-60 mA of the discharge current.Under the gas pressure of 5 x 10 -3 Pa and 1.5 x 10 -2 Pa, the discharge voltage are about 380 V and 320 V, respectively. The extracted ion current under lower gas pressure is greater than that under higher gas pressure, and it increases with the discharge current and extraction voltage. The ion lens consisting of three equal-diameter metal cylinder focus the ion beam effectively, so that the beam density at the 150 cm away from the lens exit increases by a over one order of magnitude. For ion beams of around 10 keV, the measured beam density is about 200 nA · cm -2 , which is applicable for ion implantation and in situ TEM observation for many kinds of nuclear materials. (authors)

  17. Energy: sources, economics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.

    2003-01-01

    The demands of providing energy whilst reducing greenhouse gas emissions makes the use of nuclear power and hydroelectricity a practical alternative. The Australian government accepts that present global greenhouse gas emissions produce global warming. It is not apparent that any degree of global warming can be prevented by less than global elimination of greenhouse gas emissions or even that this will remove any such global warming which has already occurred. The evidence and references discussed also indicate that the effect of the total elimination of CO 2 emissions by Australia at the 2000 rate of 279.9 million tonnes will be overwhelmed by global levels and increases, for example the present emission of 3500 million tonnes by China at 2.8 tonnes per capita from 1250 billion people and the virtual certainty of its increase . It is therefore necessary to question whether a country like Australia is otherwise justified (unless nuclear power or other measures to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions are accepted worldwide) in adopting an) energy-generating systems intended to lead to its own elimination of CO 2 emissions if they create social, economic and resource costs (and possibly other environmental non-greenhouse gas problems) exceeding those of nuclear sources

  18. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  19. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, M.A.; Hoberecht, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life

  20. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  1. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  2. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  3. The imperative for regenerative agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded. Regenerative agriculture has at its core the intention to improve the health of soil or to restore highly degraded soil, which symbiotically enhances the quality of water, vegetation and land-productivity. By using methods of regenerative agriculture, it is possible not only to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in existing soils, but to build new soil. This has the effect of drawing down carbon from the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving soil structure and soil health, soil fertility and crop yields, water retention and aquifer recharge - thus ameliorating both flooding and drought, and also the erosion of further soil, since runoff is reduced. Since food production on a more local scale is found to preserve the soil and its quality, urban food production should be seen as a significant potential contributor to regenerative agriculture in the future, so long as the methods employed are themselves 'regenerative'. If localisation is to become a dominant strategy for dealing with a vastly reduced use of fossil fuels, and preserving soil quality - with increased food production in towns and cities - it will be necessary to incorporate integrated ('systems') design approaches such as permaculture and the circular economy (which minimise and repurpose 'waste') within the existing urban infrastructure. In

  4. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO 2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  5. Summary of: Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  6. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  7. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  8. Renewable energy sources in Basque Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ente Vasco de la Energia

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Basque Energy Authority makes an analysis on the final results obtained during 1980 decade promoting renewable energies: Minihydroelectric power plants, solar thermal, photovoltaics, biomass and Wind Energy. New goals until the year 2000 are outlined

  9. Renewable energy sources for tenable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manazza, G.

    1992-01-01

    Planning criteria for feasible tenable development strategies for industrialized and developing countries are discussed. Attention is given to the role to be played by industrial countries in renewable energy source development and technology transfer to curb the onslaught of global greenhouse effects related environmental problems. The paper cautions against the use of the expression 'tenable' in combination with 'growth'. It recommends, instead, the substitution of the expression, 'tenable growth', which implies the indefinite growth of something which is physical, with 'tenable development', a preferred term, since it denotes the realization of an optimum strategy, compatible with environmental ecosystems, for the betterment of living conditions. An assessment is made of the overall social-economic impacts of such a strategy on the proposed European free trade market and on developing countries struggling to survive in a fiercely competitive world. Here, the paper notes that, for the effective implementation of a tenable development strategy, it is of prime importance to make optimum use of the education system to instil a new set of social values and modify individual behaviour relative to the development and use of natural resources

  10. Foster alternate sources of energy or perish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    With proper planning, load identification and community sharing, the energy requirements of the non-commercial sector can be left to the renewable energy resources. Of course, the day is not far off when the world energy demand shall fully count on the renewable energy resources of the world. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  11. Energy sources taxes. 1989-1992 Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pery, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    Owing to the development of nuclear power industry and energy conservation, the french energy independence has well progressed since 1973. But french imports are still higher than 50 percent of energy consumption in the country and important uncertainties exist such the cost of energy supply or the risks of supply disruption. This paper describes energy fiscal policy and taxes in France and its development possibilities

  12. Source composition of cosmic rays at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliusson, E.; Cesarsky, C.J.; Meneguzzi, M.; Casse, M.

    1975-01-01

    The source composition of the cosmic ray is usually calculated at an energy of a few GeV per nucleon. Recent measurements have however indicated that the source composition may be energy dependent. In order to give a quantitative answer to this question the source composition at 50GeV/nucleon has been calculated using an exponential distribution of path lengths and in the slab approximation. The results obtained at high energy agree very well with the source composition obtained at lower energies, except the abundance of carbon which is significantly lower than the generally accepted value of low energies [fr

  13. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  14. Energy and information technologies in regenerative medicine: effect of the interaction of biologically active plant substrates with the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph P Babinets

    2015-06-01

    Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland   The results of development and research of new type device intended for correction of the functional state of the person, and to neutralize the negative influence of external electromagnetic radiation of different origin, which is a part of the active energy carrier in the form of extracts from plants located in the synergistic relationship. Keywords: electromagnetic radiation, the information signal, biocorrector, converter, Kirlian photography, acupuncture meridians.   В статье приведены результаты разработки и исследований устройств нового типа, предназначенных как для коррекции функционального состояния человека, так и для нейтрализации негативного влияния внешних электромагнитных излучений различного происхождения, в составе которых находится активный энергетический носитель в виде вытяжек из растений, находящихся в синергетической взаимосвязи. Ключевые слова: электромагнитные излучения, информационный сигнал, биокорректор, нейтрализатор, кирлианография, акупунктурные меридианы.

  15. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Turksen is a very well known scientist in the stem cell biology field and he is also internationally known for his fundamental studies on claudin-6. In addition to his research activity he is editor for the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series (Humana Press and editor-in-chief of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports.....

  16. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  17. Energy models for commercial energy prediction and substitution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Samuel, Anand A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three models have been projected namely Modified Econometric Mathematical (MEM) model, Mathematical Programming Energy-Economy-Environment (MPEEE) model, and Optimal Renewable Energy Mathematical (OREM) model. The actual demand for coal, oil and electricity is predicted using the MEM model based on economic, technological and environmental factors. The results were used in the MPEEE model, which determines the optimum allocation of commercial energy sources based on environmental limitations. The gap between the actual energy demand from the MEM model and optimal energy use from the MPEEE model, has to be met by the renewable energy sources. The study develops an OREM model that would facilitate effective utilization of renewable energy sources in India, based on cost, efficiency, social acceptance, reliability, potential and demand. The economic variations in solar energy systems and inclusion of environmental constraint are also analyzed with OREM model. The OREM model will help policy makers in the formulation and implementation of strategies concerning renewable energy sources in India for the next two decades

  18. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  19. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  20. On friction braking demand with regenerative braking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.M.; Lampérth, M.U.; Wilkins, S.

    2002-01-01

    Developments in Hybrid Electric and pure Electric Vehicles are intended to improve the operational efficiency of road vehicles. Regenerative braking, which has long been established in rail vehicles, is integral to efficiency improvement, with up to 30% of overall traction energy demand satisfied by

  1. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  2. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  3. Energy. From natural sources to production challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Human beings have always needed energy to feed themselves and move about. Energy can be found in various forms. Today's technologies are capable of tapping all possible resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, wind, sun) to produce large quantities of energy. Now, at the start of the 21. century, energy remains essential for mankind. It represents a major political, economic, scientific and environmental challenge. Of the many properties found in material objects, energy is not only one of the most important but also one of the most abstract, since it is not actually tangible. (authors)

  4. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Pignotti, S.

    2000-01-01

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion [it

  5. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  6. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  7. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  8. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  9. Conversion of biomass into energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonescu, S.; Garjoaba, M.; Antonescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assists the identification of possible application and markets of the CHP-plants in the NAS states, and forms the first part of a detailed study on economical and ecological prospects of small scale and large heat pipe reformers in NAS. It is well known that the energy strategy of the European Union, foresees the increase of the participation of the renewable energy from the total of the energy resources of the European Union, up to 12% in 2010. This participation is of a great importance for the adequate reduction of green house effect gases. From the energy production point of view it is proven the fact that in 2010 the production of renewable energy will be: electricity - 675 tWh; heat - 80 Mtoe (930 TWh). From the above mentioned energy demand, the biomass will cover: electricity - 230 TWh-34,1%; heat - 75 Mtoe (93,8%)

  10. Multi-Source Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Nodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increasing interest in the development of wireless sensor networks. But the unsatisfactory or limited available energy source is one of the major bottlenecks which are limiting the wireless sensor technology from mass deployment. Ambient energy harvesting is the most promising solution towards autonomous sensor nodes by providing low cost, permanent, and maintenance-free energy source to wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we first invested available energy s...

  11. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  12. Error-rate performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can

  13. New results on performance analysis of opportunistic regenerative relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may

  14. Quo Vadis medycyno regeneracyjna?: Quo Vadis Regenerative Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Suszyńska, Malwina

    2013-07-01

    There are presented the most important sources of pluripotent stem cells for potential application in the regenerative medicine. This review summarizes also advantages and disadvantages for potential application of these cells in clinical medicine.

  15. Sustainable biotechnology: sources of renewable energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Om V; Harvey, Steven P

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anuj K. Chandel, Om V. Singh, and L.Venkateswar Rao 63 Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James J. Valdes and Jerry B. Warner...

  16. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  17. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  18. The potential of new renewable energy sources in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, P.; Kaiser, T.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of an evaluation made by the so-called 'Swiss Energy Trialogue' ETS on the potential offered by new renewable energy sources in Switzerland. The evaluation forecasts an important contribution to Swiss energy supply by renewable energy sources by the year 2050. The authors are of the opinion that, in spite of a considerable increase in the offers of renewable energy and the full use of energy saving potential, a discrepancy will exist between estimates of energy needs and the actual energy available from renewable resources if large-scale power generation facilities are not built. Activities proposed by the Swiss government are discussed and analysed. In particular, possible contributions to be made by renewable energy sources are examined. Suggestions made by ETS concerning possible courses of action are discussed

  19. Regenerative medicine in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, J C R; Fishman, J M; Juniat, S; Tolley, N; Birchall, M A

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering using biocompatible scaffolds, with or without cells, can permit surgeons to restore structure and function following tissue resection or in cases of congenital abnormality. Tracheal regeneration has emerged as a spearhead application of these technologies, whilst regenerative therapies are now being developed to treat most other diseases within otolaryngology. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Ovid Medline and Ovid Embase, from database inception to 15 November 2014. A total of 561 papers matched the search criteria, with 76 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Articles were predominantly pre-clinical animal studies, reflecting the current status of research in this field. Several key human research articles were identified and discussed. The main issues facing research in regenerative surgery are translation of animal model work into human models, increasing stem cell availability so it can be used to further research, and development of better facilities to enable implementation of these advances.

  20. Integration of new distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Bakken, Bjoern H.; Hetland, Jens

    2001-01-01

    In years with average runoff, Norway will be a net importer of electric power. The use of electric energy is not declining and so the gap between supply and demand is increasing. A large-scale increase of the production of new hydroelectric power is unlikely for political reasons. Gas power by today's technology is controversial and basing the national energy supply on import is undesirable. It is possible to concentrate on decentralized electricity production in small units. On the supply side, increased taxation can be used to reduce consumption; but this may hit unfairly. Direct regulation to limit consumption is undesirable in a free market. One solution on the consumer side may be a more flexible energy use by way of new technology, incorporating thermal energy. Research and development in a united energy sector is needed to realize the potential of small combined heating and power units connected to the existing system. Some efforts have already been made

  1. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2001-01-01

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  2. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  3. The development of the renewable energy sector - Source for more and better jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincaru, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    In a global world, isolation becomes impossible. An important set of values are unanimously recognized, and 'like peace, the prosperity is indivisible and for being sustainable must be shared'. The problems of the global environment and their consequences have essentially contributed to 'the crystallization' of the necessity to pass to the Sustainable Development, meaning the incorporation of two important dimensions: the social one and the environmental one along with the economic objectives. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Environment problems and their consequences; 3. Energetic security - transition to regenerative sources of energy; 4. Renewable energy sector and its impact on employment; 5. Conclusions. The following special conclusions concerning the renewable energy sector are highlighted: 1) it is a knowledge-based-sector which use intensively the labour force; 2) it includes a higher potential of high-skill job creation, characterized by higher productivity per capita, above the average of the national economy, by promoting friendly environment technologies; 3) it is a friendly environment sector with perspectives for modelling the structural changes on medium and long term; 4) it is likely to have an positive impact on workers' health and safety (workplace quality, pollution, hazardous substances and physical demanding work) and on the entire population; 5) it ensures that the potential for environmentally related innovations is exploited overall and that the emerging eco-jobs opportunities (in all skill range) can be met; 6) it supports the shift towards technologies that incorporate all the costs (technologies compatible with life cycles)

  4. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  5. Spent grain as energy source for breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, P; Meyer-Pittroff, R [Technical Univ. of Munich, Freising (West Germany)

    1990-01-01

    About 1.7 million tons of spent grain are produced from brewing operations each year in the Federal Republic of Germany. Because there is more spent grain than can be sold as cattle fodder, other uses for this product are being sought. These include composting, methane generation, and direct combustion. Researchers are using anaerobic fermentation as a means of producing biogas and using waste energy from the brewery to heat the fermenter. Combustion of spent grain can give a net energy of 12.8 MJ per kg dry grain. With biogas production, about 15-20% of the whole primary energy or 50% of the primary energy used in the boiling house could be substituted by the biogas.

  6. Non-conventional sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhishikar, Subhash

    1993-01-01

    The article describes flat plate solar collector, concentration solar collector, applications of solar energy, biomass gasification process, and biomass fueled Stirling engine. Cost aspect is also considered. (M.G.B). 3 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  8. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems [it

  9. Comparing nuclear power with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco C.

    2001-01-01

    The economics of electric generation of nuclear, hydro, oil and gas origin are compared. A similar comparison is also made from the health and environment standpoint for the fossil, nuclear, solar and wind generation. A risk assessment for energies of different origin is outlined and the significance of the greenhouse effect is emphasised. A comprehensive economic and environmental evaluation is recommended for the energy planning

  10. Electrolyzer for NASA Lunar Regenerative Fuel Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water electrolyzer stacks are a key component of regenerative fuel cells, designed to replace batteries as a means of storing electric energy on the lunar surface....

  11. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the regenerative fuel cell project element is to develop power and energy storage technologies that enable new capabilities for future human space...

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  13. 27-Level DC–AC inverter with single energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper reports a novel 27-level DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source. ► The efficiency of the inverter is very high. The output waveform is almost sinusoidal. ► The cost is low as the number of power switches required is only 12. - Abstract: A novel design of multilevel DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source is presented in this paper. The proposed approach enables multilevel output to be realised by a few cascaded H-bridges and a single energy source. As an illustration, a 27-level inverter has been implemented based on three cascaded H-bridges with a single energy source and two capacitors. Using the proposed novel switching strategy, 27 levels can be realized and the two virtual energy sources can be well regulated. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed inverter.

  14. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  15. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umapathaiah, R.; Sharma, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  16. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M.; Parsons, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  17. Nuclear power: an eco friendly energy source for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Singh, Om Pal

    2009-01-01

    When viewed from a large set of criteria such as abundance of energy resources, environmental impacts, low fuel inventory, quantum of waste generated and green house gas emissions, nuclear power can be considered as a large scale sustainable energy source. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment, especially in relation to kilowatt-hr produced, because nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases and produce small quantity of waste. In other words, nuclear energy is the most environmental friendly electricity source. There are no significant adverse effects to water, land, habitat, species and air resources. The present paper discusses the sustainability and feasibility of nuclear power as an eco friendly energy source in the changing and challenging competitive power market. (author)

  18. Long-range prospects of world energy demands and future energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Yasuji

    1998-01-01

    The long-range prospects for world energy demands are reviewed, and the major factors which are influential in relation to energy demands are discussed. The potential for various kinds of conventional and new energy sources such as fossil fuels, solar energies, nuclear fission, and fusion energies to need future energy demands is also discussed. (author)

  19. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The nuclear energy in the frame of the energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogas, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the different technological alternatives for addressing the energy challenges of our society (security of supply, competitiveness and sustain ability), emphasizing the need for nuclear energy to achieving those goals. Recently, the view of society about nuclear power has shifted from a position of outright hostility towards an acceptance still not totally defined. That is so, that people of environmentalism as the founders of Green peace James Love lock, Patrick Moore or the writer Gwyneth Cravens have said that nuclear energy is the option to produce energy that less increases CO 2 emissions, and that without it targets for reduction may not meet. (Author) 4 refs

  1. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, M.; Benjamin, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  2. Energy research and energy technologies. Fossil energy sources. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    After an introduction into the research programme and an overview of the sponsored projects, the main part of the book gives a description of the projects in the research area fossile energy sources. Several indexes provide access to this comprehensive compilation: a project number index, an index of interconnected projects, and an index of companies. The organization plan of ''BEO'', the project group biology, energy, ecology, is appended. (UA) [de

  3. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  4. CFD simulation of energy sources in EAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Büyükkaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of energy production and heat transfer by carbon combustion and electrical arc is performed using Fluent computational fluid dynamic (CFD software in this manuscript. The heat energy generated by carbon burning and electric arc radiation during combustion of the scrap in the EAO has been examined in detail. For this reason, modeling studies have utilized the combustion reactions of carbon particles and electromagnetically emitted radiation. Firstly, particle surface and gas reactions are investigated in terms of injected carbon burning. The result of the chemical reaction at the burner outlet is about 3000 K of the core temperature during combustion. It has been determined that the temperature which acts on the slag is 2200 K. The radiation temperature was found to be highest in the area under the electrodes and fell to 1850 K in the area where the melt was poured. Under steady operating conditions, it was seen that electric energy was absorbed by about 5.5% of the electrodes. As a result of this study, CFD software can be used to model combustion and radiation and energy generation and heat transfer for an electric arc furnace at the design study.

  5. Methane hydrates. An overlooked energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, R.; Castellazzi, L.; Bassano, C.

    2001-01-01

    A virtually unthought-of world energy reserve, at least twice as large as known fossil-fuel reserves, opens new opportunities and deserves investments in research on methods for discovering and exploiting deposits, and in the development of relevant technologies [it

  6. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  7. The potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Besides hydropower and biomass, solar energy and biomass are candidates for renewable sources of energy. The demand for biomass, solar energy and ambient heat has been rising in all spheres: from 6.8% in 1983 to about 10% in 1990. The development of the market for solar and heat pump systems is continuing its positive tendency. It is expected, that solar as well as heat pump technologies could provide substantial contribution to the energy supply in Austria. The technical usable potential of renewable sources of energy in Austria is analysed. (author)

  8. Development of alternative/renewable sources of energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.

    2005-01-01

    The depleting Conventional Energy Resources and highly raised prices of fuel oil, coal, firewood and such other fossil fuels, have forced the mankind to think about the utilization of Alternative / Renewable Sources of Energy. Alternative / Renewable Energy is very attractive, reliable and cost competitive energy. Sun is readily available to provide a clean, abundant and virtually infinite energy to meet the significant portion of mankind's energy-needs. The possible use of renewable-energy sources is discussed in this paper, in order to fill the estimated gap between the available energy-sources and energy-needs of our country in the near future. Designing, Fabrication and Installation of different renewable-energy devices by PCSIR are also discussed in this paper. Different renewable-energy devices such as, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar dehydrators, solar water-desalination plants, solar heating and cooling of buildings, solar operated absorption-type chiller, solar furnace, solar architecture, developed by PCSIR are discussed in some detail so that the role of renewable-energy sources for their direct use (as heat and power) can be determined. Various technical aspects are discussed to reduce the unit cost with improved efficiency. (author)

  9. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  10. Tapping the zero-point energy as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by combining the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-organization. The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence. Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output

  11. Modeling and Demonstrating Regenerative Braking of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor with Various Deceleration Rates Using V by F Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    dynamics within the regenerative braking process. A discussion was provided regarding the energy within the system during the experiment. F. THESIS ...within the system during the regenerative braking process. Chapter V concludes the thesis with the information gained from the research, and provides...CONCLUSION This thesis explored ideas in which the USN can benefit from energy recovery systems that implements regenerative braking technologies

  12. Research and development in alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamptey, J.; Moo-Young, M.; Sullivan, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper comprehensively discusses the various bioconversion and thermochemical processes. It recommends that the most urgent research and development issues should relate to direct microbial conversion systems for starch and cellulosic material and to basic biomass combustion rates and mechanisms. An overview of some of the major renewable energy resources and conversion technologies along with the potentials and problems associated with these are also presented.(author). 235 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  14. Regenerative rehabilitation: a new future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Childers, Martin K

    2014-11-01

    Modern rehabilitation medicine is propelled by newfound knowledge aimed at offering solutions for an increasingly aging population afflicted by chronic debilitating conditions. Considered a core component of future health care, the rollout of regenerative medicine underscores a paradigm shift in patient management targeted at restoring physiologic function and restituting normative impact. Nascent regenerative technologies offer unprecedented prospects in achieving repair of degenerated, diseased, or damaged tissues. In this context, principles of regenerative science are increasingly integrated in rehabilitation practices as illustrated in the present Supplement. Encompassing a growing multidisciplinary domain, the emergent era of "regenerative rehabilitation" brings radical innovations at the forefront of healthcare blueprints.

  15. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  16. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  17. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  18. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, 3-4 (2010), s. 144-156 ISSN 1364-5706 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804; EC FP6 project ENIMET(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-019063 Program:1M; GA; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Nanotechnology * regenerative medicine * nanofibers Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2010

  19. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  20. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  1. Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km 2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed. [it

  2. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  3. Dynamic droop scheme considering effect of intermittent renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic droop control scheme for islanded microgrids dominated by intermittent renewable energy sources, which is able to perform desirable power sharing in the presence of renewable energy source fluctuation. First, allowable maximum power points of wind generator and PV...... flexibility and effectiveness in the presence of the renewable energy sources fluctuation....... controller of each DG unit is activated through local logic variable inferred by wind speed and solar insolation information. Simulation results are given for validating the droop control scheme. The proposed dynamic droop scheme preserves the advantage of conventional droop control method, and provides...

  4. A Source-level Energy Optimization Framework for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    strategies. The framework also lays a foundation for the code optimization by automatic tools. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first that achieves this for a high-level language such as Java. In a case study, the experimental evaluation shows that our approach is able to save from 6.4% to 50...... process. The source code is the interface between the developer and hardware resources. In this paper, we propose an energy optimization framework guided by a source code energy model that allows developers to be aware of energy usage induced by the code and to apply very targeted source-level refactoring...

  5. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  6. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  7. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  8. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of hydrogen from water electrolysis is estimated, assuming that the electricity was produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the sectors of power generation, heat and transportation are calculated, based on a state-of-the-art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The cost of hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) is higher than the current price of fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen will not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. (Author)

  9. Mesquite: a possible source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) as fuel was studied by means of rough cost analysis. Four possible means of energy conversion were considered: namely, production of commercial electricity, conversion to methane and methanol, and as a boiler fuel for industry. By the harvesting method proposed, which consisted of root plowing all the mesquite within the immediate vicinity of the plant and hauling the trees whole to the plant for shredding, only the use as industrial boiler fuel appeared economically competitive with other fuels, and here, the competitiveness is dependent upon an unknown parameter - the cost of hauling to the plant.

  10. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  11. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadjivassiliadis, J.

    1996-01-01

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  13. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, Jose

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  14. Air quality dispersion models from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Along with the continuing development of new air quality models that cover more complex problems, in the Clean Air Act, legislated by the US Congress, a consistency and standardization of air quality model applications were encouraged. As a result, the Guidelines on Air Quality Models were published, which are regularly reviewed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA. These guidelines provide a basis for estimating the air quality concentrations used in accessing control strategies as well as defining emission limits. This paper presents a review and analysis of the recent versions of the models: Simple Terrain Stationary Source Model; Complex Terrain Dispersion Model; Ozone,Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Models; Long Range Transport Model; Other phenomenon Models:Fugitive Dust/Fugitive Emissions, Particulate Matter, Lead, Air Pathway Analyses - Air Toxic as well as Hazardous Waste. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  15. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaigham, N.A.; Nayyar, Z.A.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner

  16. Innovative Basis of Research of Energy-Efficient Potential and Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov Seymur Latif oglu; Hasanov Elnur Latif oglu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, countries of the world have been trying to attract new energy sources (wind, sun, biogas, waves, drainage, non-conventional energy sources such as hydroelectric power of small rivers) in their fuel-energy balance. Azerbaijan has renewable natural resources, favorable for its energy-efficient potential, according to the amount of sunny and windy days. In this article was given total information about renewable energy potential of Azerbaijan Republic. In this article we use inf...

  17. Risk analysis of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmer, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores two points raised by Miller Spangler in a January 1981 issue: public perception of risks involving nuclear power plants relative to those of conventional plants and criteria for evaluating the way risk analyses are made. On the first point, he concludes that translating public attitudes into the experts' language of probability and risk could provide better information and understanding of both the attitudes and the risks. Viewing risk analysis methodologies as filters which help to test historical change, he suggests that the lack of information favors a lay jury approach for energy decisions. Spangler responds that Congress is an example of lay decision making, but that a lay jury, given public disinterest and polarization, would probably not improve social justice on the nuclear issue. 5 references, 4 figures

  18. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  19. Access to primary energy sources - the basis of national energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Jan; Szlązak, Rafał A.

    2017-11-01

    National energy security is of fundamental importance for economic development of a country. To ensure such safety energy raw material, also called primary energy sources, are necessary. Currently in Poland primary energy sources include mainly fossil fuels, such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas and crude oil. Other sources, e.g. renewable energy sources account for c. 15% in the energy mix. Primary energy sources are used to produce mainly electricity, which is considered as the cleanest form of energy. Poland does not have, unfortunately, sufficient energy sources and is forced to import some of them, mainly natural gas and crude oil. The article presents an insightful analysis of energy raw material reserves possessed by Poland and their structure taking account of the requirements applicable in the European Union, in particular, those related to environmental protection. The article also describes demand for electricity now and in the perspective of 2030. Primary energy sources necessary for its production have also been given. The article also includes the possibilities for the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, however, climatic conditions there are not are not particularly favourable to it. All the issues addressed in the article are summed up and ended with conclusions.

  20. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  1. Energy policy and economy of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohoczky, F.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The potential and expected economic impact of various forms of renewable energy are discussed briefly some figures are presented of the expected output of various forms of renewable. Economic and environmental benefits are stressed. (R.P.)

  2. Overview of renewable energy sources development in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, J.; Lepy, S.; Roudergues, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Generation from Renewable Energy Sources is booming. As for any conventional generation technology, RES specific technical features can be accommodated by the electric system with no tremendous difficulty, provided the grid can be aptly adapted and developed. (authors)

  3. Renewable energy sources, finance and sustainability outlook and latest evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesani, P.

    2008-01-01

    Environment-related reasons, pressure by public opinion, and above all the strong belief that green technologies will be highly profitable pave the way to higher investments of private finance on renewable energy sources [it

  4. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  5. Comparative studies of energy sources in gynecologic laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kenneth S K; Lyons, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Energy sources incorporating "vessel sealing" capabilities are being increasingly used in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery although conventional monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery remain popular. The preference for one device over another is based on a combination of factors, including the surgeon's subjective experience, availability, and cost. Although comparative clinical studies and meta-analyses of laparoscopic energy sources have reported small but statistically significant differences in volumes of blood loss, the clinical significance of such small volumes is questionable. The overall usefulness of the various energy sources available will depend on a number of factors including vessel burst pressure and seal time, lateral thermal spread, and smoke production. Animal studies and laboratory-based trials are useful in providing a controlled environment to investigate such parameters. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of one energy source over another. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. All rights reserved.

  6. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  7. ENEA programm in the field of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, G; Ambrosini, G

    1989-09-01

    In consideration of Italy's strong dependence on imported energy and in view of the targets established by the Italian National Energy Plan, renewable sources, especially solar, are expected to play a strategic role in Italy, due to Italy's favourable geographical position. The Italian Energy Plan has allocated a central task to ENEA (Italian Commission for Alternative Energy Sources), that has to take care of research and development activities, pursue demonstration programs, promote Italian industry for the development of technologies in the energy sector and finally to qualify the Italian industry. ENEA has also the task to provide advice and support to the Public Administration in initiatives in the field of new types of energy and energy saving.

  8. Renewable energy for rural development to protect environmental pollution from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Energy is the key input for technological industrial, social and economical development of a nation. The present energy scenario is heavily biased towards the conventional energy sources, such as petroleum products, coal, atomic energy, etc., which are finite in nature and causes environmental pollution. The energy utilization pattern is also meant for the energy requirement in urban areas. To meet the growing energy requirement of rural areas through the conventional energy sources will cause serious harmful effect on the environmental pollution. The man's thurst to use more energy after about 150 thousand years ago, invention of wheel, use of petroleum products for power generation and invention of steam and coal has brought him to use the energy sources for his comfort irrespective of the environmental consideration. The extensive use of energy operated devices in domestic, industrial, transport and for agriculture sectors in urban and rural areas have resulted in economical development of the society

  9. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  10. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  11. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  12. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  13. Alpine water as a potential for regenerative materials and energy systems, in particular for electrolytic production of hydrogen; Alpenwasser als Potential fuer regenerative Stoff- und Energiesysteme, insbesondere fuer die elektrolytische Wasserstoffproduktion - Zwischenbericht 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reller, A.; Meissner, S.

    2003-09-15

    This comprehensive interim report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of work done as part of a survey on the use of water resources in the Swiss Alps. The complexity of the demands placed on water resources is discussed, both with respect to quantity and quality. The water uses discussed include those for households, trade and industry and agriculture, the use of water for power generation, in tourism, for inland navigation and for its use as mineral water. Economical and ecological aspects are also examined. Further, the article deals with activities regarding high-pressure electrolysis systems for the production of hydrogen from water.

  14. A multivariate-utility approach for selection of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Husseiny, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A deterministic approach is devised to compare the safety features of various energy sources. The approach is based on multiattribute utility theory. The method is used in evaluating the safety aspects of alternative energy sources used for the production of electrical energy. Four alternative energy sources are chosen which could be considered for the production of electricity to meet the national energy demand. These are nuclear, coal, solar, and geothermal energy. For simplicity, a total electrical system is considered in each case. A computer code is developed to evaluate the overall utility function for each alternative from the utility patterns corresponding to 23 energy attributes, mostly related to safety. The model can accommodate other attributes assuming that these are independent. The technique is kept flexible so that virtually any decision problem with various attributes can be attacked and optimal decisions can be reached. The selected data resulted in preference of geothermal and nuclear energy over other sources, and the method is found viable in making decisions on energy uses based on quantified and subjective attributes. (author)

  15. Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Sources for Energy Loss Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal allocation of renewable distributed generation (RDG, i.e., solar and the wind in a distribution system becomes challenging due to intermittent generation and uncertainty of loads. This paper proposes an optimal allocation methodology for single and hybrid RDGs for energy loss minimization. The deterministic generation-load model integrated with optimal power flow provides optimal solutions for single and hybrid RDG. Considering the complexity of the proposed nonlinear, constrained optimization problem, it is solved by a robust and high performance meta-heuristic, Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS algorithm. Results obtained from SOS algorithm offer optimal solutions than Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Firefly Algorithm (FFA. Economic analysis is carried out to quantify the economic benefits of energy loss minimization over the life span of RDGs.

  16. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  17. Do energy efficiency measures promote the use of renewable sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the factors behind the deployment of renewable energy, focusing particularly on the effect of energy efficiency policies and measures. The impact of these factors is appraised within the context of several phases of the use of renewable sources. We therefore apply the quantile regression technique to a set of 21 European Countries in two time spans: from 1990 to 1998, and from 1999 to 2006. We control variables of policy, environment, socioeconomic characteristics, and electricity generation. For the second period, energy efficiency policies and measures concerning renewable sources effectively promote renewables, namely in the take-off phase. We shed light on the lobbying effect of traditional energy industries, showing that it depends both on the period under analysis, and on the kind of traditional energy source.

  18. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  19. Energy research and energy technologies. Renewable energy sources -rational use of energy. Report of the year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At first introductory explanations of the main focus of the programme and an overview of the supported projects are given. The main part contains the project descriptions of the main focuses of support: Renewable energy sources and rational use of energy are described. Several registers have been prepared in order to access the extensive material: Register of project numbers; register of joint projects; register of companies. Finally the organisational plan of the project carrier Biology, Energy, Ecology (BC BEE) is explained. (UA) [de

  20. The analysis of security cost for different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eunju; Kim, Wonjoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Global concerns for the security of energy have steadily been on the increase and are expected to become a major issue over the next few decades. Urgent policy response is thus essential. However, little attempt has been made at defining both energy security and energy metrics. In this study, we provide such metrics and apply them to four major energy sources in the Korean electricity market: coal, oil, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear. In our approach, we measure the cost of energy security in terms of supply disruption and price volatility, and we consider the degree of concentration in energy supply and demand using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index (HHI). Due to its balanced fuel supply and demand, relatively stable price, and high abundance, we find nuclear energy to be the most competitive energy source in terms of energy security in the Korean electricity market. LNG, on the other hand, was found to have the highest cost in term of energy security due to its high concentration in supply and demand, and its high price volatility. In addition, in terms of cost, we find that economic security dominates supply security, and as such, it is the main factor in the total security cost. Within the confines of concern for global energy security, our study both broadens our understanding of energy security and enables a strategic approach in the portfolio management of energy consumption.

  1. Adaptive Regenerative Braking in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kubaisi, Rayad

    2018-01-01

    Elektrofahrzeuge fahren lokal emissionsfrei und tragen damit dazu bei, die Emissionen in Städten zu reduzieren. Zusätzlich, zeichnen sich Elektrofahrzeuge durch ein dynamisches Fahrverhalten aus. Nachteilig wirkt sich bei den meisten Elektrofahrzeugen, die geringe Reichweite auf die Akzeptanz bei Neuwagenkäufern aus. Eine der Maßnahmen zur Erhöhung der Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeuge ist das regenerative Bremsen. Hierbei wird die kinetische Energie des Fahrzeugs durch generatorisches...

  2. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  3. Study theorizes use of geothermal sources for energy in refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Beintema, K.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal sources for direct heating can theoretically serve as an alternative source of high-temperature heat in processing plants. Cutting CO2 emissions from a refinery requires reducing the amount of fuel burned. Heat obtained from geothermal energy is more efficiently used for directly powering

  4. Renewable energy sources in Europe; Erneuerbare Energien in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book on renewable energy sources in Europe includes contributions on the following issues: Europe's energy and climate policy on the crossroad; possible promotion of renewable energy in Europe; regulation and innovations in a multi-level system - European energy and climate protection legislation - freedom of action for the member states; lessons learned - in the implementation of the European renewable energy guideline; Options for the development of the renewable energy guideline; status and development of the legal system of the energy domestic market; actual developments in the legislation of the EuGH on the compatibility of green electricity promotion systems with free movement on goods; Europe without critical power situations; prerequisites and consequences of a European electricity market coupling; selected grants of the EU commission for green energy promotion; assistance guidelines of the EU commission for energy and environment purposes.

  5. Renewable energy sources - the opportunity for a safer future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodrom, Andrei; Federenciuc, Dumitru; Ignat, Vasile; Dobre, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The researches have shown that the potential of renewable energy sources is huge as they can in principle meet many times the world's energy demand. Renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar, hydropower and geothermal can provide energy services based on the use of local available resources. Starting from this fact, a transition to renewable-based energy systems is looking increasingly likely as their costs have dropped while the price of oil and gas continue to fluctuate. In the past 30 years, the sales of solar and wind energy systems continued to increase because the capital and electricity production costs decreased simultaneously with the performance enhancement. It is becoming clear that future growth in the energy sector will be primarily in the renewable energy systems and to some extent natural gas-based systems and not in conventional oil and coal sources. It is also important to have governmental assistance and popular support in developing these alternate energy sources, that among others, reduce local and global atmospheric emissions, provide commercially attractive options, particularly in developing countries and rural areas and create the transition to the energy sector of the future. This paper tries to approach the renewable energy sources currently analyzed by the experts, emphasizing their strengths and weaknesses. The conventional energy sources based on oil, coal and natural gas have proven to be highly effective drivers of economic progress but at the same time damaging to the environment and human health. Furthermore they tend to be cyclical in nature, due to the effects of oligopoly in production and distribution. These traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental issues, among these the future reduction of greenhouse gas specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Renewable energy sources currently supply between 15 - 20% of world's total energy demand. This supply is dominated by biomass

  6. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  7. Pion linac as an energy-tagged ν source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goldman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum and flux of neutrinos from a linear pion accelerator are calculated analytically under the assumption of a uniform accelerating gradient. The energy of a neutrino from this source reacting in a detector can be determined from timing and event position information.

  8. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  9. Study and Analysis of an Intelligent Microgrid Energy Management Solution with Distributed Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Ganesan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust energy management solution which will facilitate the optimum and economic control of energy flows throughout a microgrid network is proposed. The increased penetration of renewable energy sources is highly intermittent in nature; the proposed solution demonstrates highly efficient energy management. This study enables precise management of power flows by forecasting of renewable energy generation, estimating the availability of energy at storage batteries, and invoking the appropriate mode of operation, based on the load demand to achieve efficient and economic operation. The predefined mode of operation is derived out of an expert rule set and schedules the load and distributed energy sources along with utility grid.

  10. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  11. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  12. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  13. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  14. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  15. Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil with other energy sources and pave the way for new systems, which will benefit from what we call the 'virtues of oil'. They produce energy carriers for multi-fuel and multi-product strategies, where flexibility is a key target, allied to other co-benefits, especially those related to the increased use of renewable energy sources. The concept of alternative energy systems can bring a new light to the oil transition era discussion and might also influence energy policies for promoting renewables

  16. Potential for unconventional energy sources for the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, L H; Wright, J K; Syrett, J J

    1977-01-01

    The unconventional sources considered are solar energy, wind power, wave and tidal power, and geothermal heat. Their potential contribution to energy supply in the UK is being assessed as part of a wider exercise aimed at formulating a national energy R and D strategy sufficiently robust to be valid for a wide range of possible future conditions. For each of the sources considered, the present state of knowledge of the magnitude of the potential resource base is outlined and the inherent characteristics of each are discussed in terms of environmental impact and of estimated cost relative to conventional technology. With respect to the latter, attention is drawn to the inherent variability of most of the sources, which imposes upon them a cost penalty for back-up plant and/or large scale storage is firm power is to be assured. The progress that has been made in drawing up, for each of the sources, a national R and D program compatible with the assessment of development potential is outlined, and a tentative estimate is made of the maximum credible contribution the sources could make to energy supply in the UK by the end of the century. The concluding paragraphs deal with the prospects for the next century and indicate that the long-term uncertainties on energy supply justify a determined effort to convert the most promising of the unconventional sources into the well-researched technological options that may be needed.

  17. Renewable energy sources in the Colombian energy policy, analysis and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this work; five basic elements for the formulation of a policy on renewable energy sources for Colombia, are discussed. A balance of the institutions of the energy sector related to the formulation, elaboration and execution of plans, programs and projects on renewable energy sources is carried out. The technology costs that take advantage of such sources are compared and the 967 Law issued in 2001 and its regulatory decree are analyzed. This law promotes the efficient and rational use of energy and also promotes the alternative energies

  18. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  19. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  20. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  1. Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Optical Core Networks with Dual Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new energy efficient routing algorithms in optical core networks, with the application of solar energy sources and bundled links. A comprehensive solar energy model is described in the proposed network scenarios. Network performance in energy savings, connection blocking...... probability, resource utilization and bundled link usage are evaluated with dynamic network simulations. Results show that algorithms proposed aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may raise the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile....

  2. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy.

  3. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  4. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  5. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  6. Energy and exergy prices of various energy sources along with their CO2 equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Hepbasli, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Various types of energy sources are used in the residential and industrial sectors. Choosing the type of sources is important. When an energy source is selected, its CO 2 equivalent and energy and exergy prices must be known for a sustainable future and for establishing energy policies. These prices are based on their energy values. Exergy analysis has been recently applied to a wide range of energy-related systems. Thus, obtaining the exergy values has become more meaningful for long-term planning. In this study, energy and exergy prices of various energy sources along with CO 2 equivalents are calculated and compared for residential and industrial applications in Turkey. Energy sources considered include coal, diesel oil, electricity, fuel oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, heat pumps and geothermal, and their prices were obtained over a period of 18 months, from January 2008 to June 2009. For the residential and industrial sectors, minimum energy and exergy prices were found for ground source heat pumps, while maximum energy and exergy prices belong to LPG for both sectors.

  7. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... in both energy and reserve markets. In this context, the main contribution of this thesis is the design and development of optimal offering strategies for the joint participation of renewables in the energy and reserve markets. Two distinct control policies for the splitting of available wind power...

  8. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  9. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A H

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  10. Energy efficiency of the CTX magnetized coaxial plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Platts, D.A.; McKenna, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the CTX coaxial plasma source in creating spheromaks is determined experimentally to be in agreement with the theoretical prediction of lambda/sub sp//lambda/sub g/, where del x B = lambda/sub sp/ B in the spheromak, and lambda/sub g/ identical with μ 0 I/sub g//phi/sub g/ with I/sub g/ the source current and phi/sub g/ the magnetic flux through either source electrode. This is shown to be equivalent to magnetic helicity conservation. The spheromak impurity radiation was measured using an absolutely calibrated single chord bolometer system. The theoretical efficiency is within the experimental uncertainty of the ratio of spheromak radiated energy to source input energy in a group of ''dirty'' discharges. But the radiation measurement uncertainty is too large to determine whether a substantial part of the excess source energy not used in the production of spheromak magnetic energy is radiated from the spheromak volume

  11. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  12. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  13. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Becker, Julia K.; Caramete, Laurentiu; Curutiu, Alex; Engel, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Isar, P. Gina; Maris, Ioana C.; Meli, Athina; Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Stanev, Todor; Tascau, Oana; Zier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  14. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  15. Mathematical modelling of electricity market with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the electricity market with conventional energy sources on fossil fuel and non-conventional renewable energy sources (RESs) with stochastic operating conditions. A mathematical model of long-run (accounting for development of generation capacities) equilibrium in the market is constructed. The problem of determining optimal parameters providing the maximum social criterion of efficiency is also formulated. The calculations performed have shown that the adequate choice of price cap, environmental tax, subsidies to RESs and consumption tax make it possible to take into account external effects (environmental damage) and to create incentives for investors to construct conventional and renewable energy sources in an optimal (from the society view point) mix. (author)

  16. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Montanino, G.

    1992-01-01

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  17. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  19. Renewable Energy Sources - Technologies and Development of the Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car, S.

    2010-01-01

    The usage of renewable energy sources is a substitute for usage of fossil fuels, whose quantities are limited, and it represents an essential contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases; at the same time it has a great economic significance for the development of new industries and creation of new jobs. To speed up gradual transition from fossil to renewable sources, governments of all EU member states harmonise their legislations and subordinate regulations promoting investments in usage of renewable sources and thus creating opportunities for new jobs especially in the production of plants and equipment for utilisation of wind power, solar energy, small hydro power plants, biomass and other kinds of renewable sources. In the last 10 years Croatia has adopted a number of acts and regulations that also stimulate investors to utilise renewable sources, and the source of such subsidies is a higher price of electricity paid by all the consumers. On the other hand, the development of domestic industry and gaining references necessary for gaining new contracts are very difficult because of stiff international competition and foreign sources of finance, which often require purchase of foreign equipment as a condition for contract award. In such conditions the utilisation of renewable sources does not contribute either to economic development or creating new jobs in Croatia, but in the countries in which such equipment is produced.(author).

  20. Weber's dictionary. Pocket edition. Vol. 2. Renewable energy sources. Webers Taschenlexikon. Bd. 2. Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of our major energy sources natural gas, petroleum and coal are limited. Their combustion essentially contributes to air pollution widh all its health hazards and environmental impacts. Apart from the fact that power plants supplying energy with the help of nuclear fission are disputed, uranium reserves are limited, too. The developmental state of nuclear fusion, an the other hand, still defies concrete statements as the future availability of fusion-based energy. Considering above facts it is evident that renewable energy sources will be gaining in importance. The book above all intends to give a consistent survey on the forms and capacities of renewable energy sources, existing technologies and technologies currently being developed, historical aspects, the social and environmental compatibility of renewable energy sources, economic aspects, and future prospects. The dictionary contains 197 independent alphabetically arranged and basically coherent chapters which are to provide the basis for profound reflections on the subject.

  1. Trophic Effects and Regenerative Potential of Mobilized Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue as Alternative Cell Sources for Pulp/Dentin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Osako, Yohei; Hirose, Yujiro; Nakashima, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) subsets mobilized by granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration. The supply of autologous pulp tissue, however, is very limited in the aged. Therefore, alternative sources of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are needed for the cell therapy. In this study, DPSCs, bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue (AD)-derived stem cells of the same individual dog were isolated using G-CSF-induced mobilization (MDPSCs, MBMSCs, and MADSCs). The positive rates of CXCR4 and G-CSFR in MDPSCs were similar to MADSCs and were significantly higher than those in MBMSCs. Trophic effects of MDPSCs on angiogenesis, neurite extension, migration, and antiapoptosis were higher than those of MBMSCs and MADSCs. Pulp-like loose connective tissues were regenerated in all three MSC transplantations. Significantly higher volume of regenerated pulp and higher density of vascularization and innervation were observed in response to MDPSCs compared to MBMSC and MADSC transplantation. Collagenous matrix containing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)-positive odontoblast-like cells was the highest in MBMSCs and significantly higher in MADSCs compared to MDPSCs. MBMSCs and MADSCs, therefore, have potential for pulp regeneration, although the volume of regenerated pulp tissue, angiogenesis, and reinnervation, were less. Thus, in conclusion, an alternative cell source for dental pulp/dentin regeneration are stem cells from BM and AD tissue.

  2. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  3. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems

  4. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); M. Corselli (Mirko); W.C. Chen (William); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We

  5. Renewable energy sources, subsidised indefinitely?; Erneuerbare Energien. Ein ewiger Subventionstatbestand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlhaeuser, Kurt; Roth, Hans [Stadtwerke Muenchen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The German Renewables Act, EEG, specified a guaranteed reimbursement rate for electric power from renewable energy sources. Normally, the reimbursement rate is far higher than the market value of the power generated and thus makes the plant economically interesting for its owner. It remains to be seen if the renewable energy sources with the biggest potential, i.e. wind power and solar power, will have to be subsidized indefinitely, or whether they can find their place in the electricity market also without the EEG and other funding mechanisms.

  6. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  8. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  9. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. A source of energy : sustainable architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestvik, Harald N.

    2011-07-01

    An update on the environmental challenges. Meant to inspire and be a source of energy.Tearing down myths and floodlighting paradoxes. Particularly relevant for students of architecture, architects and concerned citizens. Training tasks, recommendations for further source books and web sites, are included. From the content: Climate change and consensus, Population growth, Food production, The sustainable city, Transportation myths and facts, A mini history of environmental architecture, Architects' approach to sustainable design, The failure of western architects; a case study; China, The passive, zeb and plus energy building, Natural ventilation, Sustainable materials, Plastics in building, Nuclear energy, Solar energy, The grid of the future, Indoor climate and health. The sick building syndrome, Radon, Universal design, Paradoxes, Bullying techniques, Trust yourself, Timing, Which gateway will you choose?, On transience. (au)

  11. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  12. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  13. Temporomandibular Joint Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Van Bellinghen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporomandibular joint (TMJ is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ diseases have led to increased interest in regenerative strategies combining stem cells, implantable scaffolds and well-targeting bioactive molecules. To succeed in functional and structural regeneration of TMJ is very challenging. Innovative strategies and biomaterials are absolutely crucial because TMJ can be considered as one of the most difficult tissues to regenerate due to its limited healing capacity, its unique histological and structural properties and the necessity for long-term prevention of its ossified or fibrous adhesions. The ideal approach for TMJ regeneration is a unique scaffold functionalized with an osteochondral molecular gradient containing a single stem cell population able to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation such as BMSCs, ADSCs or DPSCs. The key for this complex regeneration is the functionalization with active molecules such as IGF-1, TGF-β1 or bFGF. This regeneration can be optimized by nano/micro-assisted functionalization and by spatiotemporal drug delivery systems orchestrating the 3D formation of TMJ tissues.

  14. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  15. Photon energy tunability of advanced photon source undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.

    1987-08-01

    At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or ''tuned'' by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5 to 20 keV are discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and intensity parameters are presented for two typical classes of devices

  16. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, Anne de; Chorin, Jacky

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  17. A Control Architecture to Coordinate Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage Systems in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Coordinated operation of microgrids requires that energy management system takes into account both the available power in renewable energy sources (RES) and storage capacity of energy storage systems (ESS). In this paper, a coordinated architecture of islanded AC microgrids with smooth switching...

  18. Energy: Sources and Issues. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Jane E.; O'Neil, Karen E.

    This syllabus provides a list of concepts and understandings related to four areas of energy. They are: (1) the nature of energy (an energy definition, basic categories of energy, forms of energy, laws of energy conversion, and measuring energy); (2) energy sources of the past and present (history of energy use and present major sources of…

  19. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  20. Primary energy sources and greenhouse effect; Sources d'energie primaires et effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, B. [Commission Nationale d' Evaluation des Recherches sur la Gestion des Dechets Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of the diminution of fossil energy and climate change, the two most difficult demands to satisfy are providing electricity to megalopolises and fuels for transportation. Renewable energies have to be promoted but will not be able to replace fossil fuels in their current uses before several decades. According to the previsions for this century, carefulness is necessary to preserve the future of humanity and the environment. (author)

  1. Impacts of non-nuclear energy sources on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavkaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal) , which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. If humankind is going to have a future on this planet, at least a high-technology future, with a significant population of several billions of humans continuing to inhabit the Earth, it is absolutely inevitable that we will have to find another energy source. Table 1: The environmental effects for some energy systems; SOURCES: Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Ozone layer depletion - Changes of atmospheric conditions - Decrease of air quality (Coal , petroleum) - Acid rains and destroy of forests (coal, petroleum ) - Pollution from toxic wastes (coal ash, slag and smoke hole gases) - Pollution of surface water - Seaside and sea pollutions (petroleum) - Terrain devolution - Large amount of fuel and transportation requirements - Sources depletion SOURCES: Hydroelectric ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - Large area requirements - Population situation changes - Erosion and usage changes - Ecosystem changes and health effects - Disappearing of biological variety - Downfall of dams - Leave out of production SOURCES: Renewable (sun, wind, geothermal, biomass) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Decrease of air quality (geothermal, biomass) - Large area usage - Ecologic system changes - Fabrication effects (CO 2 effect due to production of photovoltaic cells that work with sun) - Noise (wind) SOURCES: Nuclear (All energy chain) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Radioactive oscillation because of serious reactor accident - Radiation of waste storage. In this study, the environmental effects for some energy systems are investigated with all details

  2. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  3. Autonomous hydrogen power plants with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.; Izosimov, D.B.; Tumanov, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    One studies the principles to design independent hydrogen power plants (IHPP) operating on renewable energy sources and the approaches to design a pilot IHP plant. One worded tasks of mathematical simulation and of calculations to substantiate the optimal configuration of the mentioned plants depending on the ambient conditions of operation and on peculiar features of a consumer [ru

  4. Analyses of High-Energy Sources with ESA Gaia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, R.; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudcová, Věra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1248, - (2010), s. 583-584 ISSN 1551-7616. [X-ray astronomy 2009. Bologna, 07.09.2009-11.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : high-energy sources * gamma-ray bursts * low-dispersion spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  5. State of art and perspectives of using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskij, B.M.; Mikhalevich, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    State of art of renewable energy sources for the beginning of the nineties and perspectives up to 2020 are considered by the forecast of the European Commission. The program of the World Sun Summit up to 1996-2005 is presented

  6. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C; Kallivokas, L F; Huh, C; Lake, L W

    2010-01-01

    that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized

  7. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied

  8. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...

  9. Broiler breeders utilise body lipid as an energy source | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, where 80 g was allocated daily in Phase 2 this was clearly insufficient to sustain performance, but in this case egg production was considerably higher in birds that had been given larger amounts of food in Phase 1, and which could therefore draw on body lipid reserves as a source of energy. Rate of lay increased ...

  10. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings | Olver | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings.

  11. Energy sources of yoghurt bacteria and enhancement of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy sources of yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) were examined with a focus on probable impact of sucrose on their galactose uptake. Yoghurt bacteria were isolated from samples of yoghurt which were purchased from different outlets and kept under refrigeration ...

  12. Market-based support schemes for renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union set ambitious goals regarding the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and the majority of European governments have implemented policies stimulating investments in such technologies. Support schemes differ in many aspects, not only in their effectivity and

  13. Gamma ray energy spectrum of a buried radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, N B

    1957-07-01

    Because of current attempts to utilize airborne gamma-ray scintillation spectrometers as a means of detecting and identifying buried radioactive mineral deposits, it has become important to study the effects of multiple scattering on the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a source buried in a semi-infinite medium. A series of ten experiments was made. First a scintillation detector was located in air at a fixed distance above a 250 microcurie cobalt-60 source suspended in a large tank. The level of water was raised from 25 cm below the source to 50 cm above, and the gamma-ray energy spectrum was observed. It was found that the high energy portion of the cobalt-60 spectrum remained identifiable even when the source was submerged more than five half-lengths. Further, the ratio of the counting rate of the total incident gamma radiation to the counting rate of the primary 1.33 MeV radiation was found to be very nearly linearly proportional to the depth of water cover. This leads to an empirical method for determining the depth of burial of a cobalt-60 point source. (author)

  14. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  15. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  16. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam, E-mail: knchoi@inu.ac.kr; Rho, Hee Hyuk, E-mail: rdoubleh0902@inu.ac.kr [Dept. of Information and Telecommunication Engineering Incheon National University Incheon 22012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  17. Secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer has been built and tested. In this instrument the primary source of x rays is a tungsten-target tube powered by a high-voltage (75 kV), a high-power (3.7 kW) generator from a wavelength spectrometer (G.E. XRD-6). The primary polychromatic x rays irradiate an elemental foil, the secondary source. Its characteristic essentially monochromatic x rays are used to irradiate the sample. Fluorescent x rays from the sample are detected and resolved by a lithium-drifted silicon detector, multichannel-analyzer system. The design of the instrument provides a convenient means for changing the secondary, and hence, the energy of the excitation radiation

  18. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  19. High energy neutron source for materials research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Requirements for neutron source for nuclear materials research are reviewed and ESNIT, Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test facility proposed by JAERI is discussed. Its principal aims of a wide neutron energy tunability and spectra peaking at each energy to enable characterization of material damage process are demanding but attractive goals which deserve detailed study. It is also to be noted that the requirements make a difference in facility design from those of FMIT, IFMIF and other high energy intense neutron sources built or planned to date. Areas of technologies to be addressed to realize the ESNIT facility are defined and discussed. In order to get neutron source having desired spectral characteristics keeping moderate intensity, projectile and target combinations must be examined including experimentation if necessary. It is also desired to minimize change of flux density and energy spectrum according to location inside irradiation chamber. Extended target or multiple targets configuration might be a solution as well as specimen rotation and choice of combination of projectile and target which has minimum velocity of the center of mass. Though relevant accelerator technology exists, it is to be stressed that considerable efforts must be paid, especially in the area of target and irradiation devices to get ESNIT goal. Design considerations to allow hands-on maintenance and future upgrading possibility are important either, in order to exploit the facility fully for nuclear materials research and development. (author)

  20. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  1. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi; Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  2. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  3. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halladjian, G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  4. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  5. CHESS-the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, B.W.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1980-01-01

    The Wilson Laboratory at Cornell University has done pioneering work on development of high energy synchrotrons. In the last decade, the 12 GeV synchrotron has been the most energetic electron synchrotron in the world. In 1975 plans were formulated to build a 4-8 GeV storage ring in the same tunnel as the synchrotron and to use the latter as the injector for the storage ring. This small radius (the normal bend magnets have R = 87 m), coupled with the relatively high electron energy of the storage ring, makes these magnets potent sources of synchrotron radiation. In June of 1978 the National Science Foundation funded a project to create CHESS, the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. (orig./FKS)

  6. Employment effects through enhanced use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelbroenner, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonn-based association Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., (forum for energies of the future), carried out a study investigating whether and to what extent enhanced use of renewable energy sources may contribute to improving in the future the employment situation in Germany. Taking as a basis the current conditions determining expenses and profits in the energy sector and the related employment situation, the study elaborates several scenarios and analyses their conceivable effects. The objective of the study presented in this issue was to assess the gross and net employment effects possibly to be achieved by programmes fostering power generation from renewable sources, and the financial input required in form of investments by industry and governmental grants. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  8. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  9. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  10. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  11. Diagnostic Spectrometers for High Energy Density X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x-ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule-class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser-produced plasmas; tabletop high-harmonic-generation x-ray sources; high-brightness zeta-pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x-ray free electron lasers and compact inverse-Compton x-ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high-energy-density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength-calibrated x-ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x-ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed-power-driven accelerator, laser-produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved-crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high-energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off-Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength

  12. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  13. Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-source energy harvester based on solar and radioisotope energy sources is designed and simulated in this work. We established the calculation formulas for the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, and then studied and analyzed the optimization thickness of the semiconductor, doping concentration, and junction depth with simulation of the transport process of β particles in a semiconductor material using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP (version 5, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In order to improve the efficiency of converting solar light energy into electric power, we adopted PC1D (version 5.9, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia to optimize the parameters, and selected the best parameters for converting both the radioisotope energy and solar energy into electricity. The results concluded that the best parameters for the multi-source energy harvester are as follows: Na is 1 × 1019 cm−3, Nd is 3.8 × 1016 cm−3, a PN junction depth of 0.5 μm (using the 147Pm radioisotope source, and so on. Under these parameters, the proposed harvester can achieve a conversion efficiency of 5.05% for the 147Pm radioisotope source (with the activity of 9.25 × 108 Bq and 20.8% for solar light radiation (AM1.5. Such a design and parameters are valuable for some unique micro-power fields, such as applications in space, isolated terrestrial applications, and smart dust in battlefields.

  14. The effect of energy distribution of external source on source multiplication in fast assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, R.A.; Vakilian, M.

    1976-02-01

    The essence of this study is the effect of energy distribution of a source on the detection rate as a function of K effective in fast assemblies. This effectiveness, as a function of K was studied in a fission chamber, using the ABN cross-section set and Mach 1 code. It was found that with a source which has a fission spectrum, the reciprocal count rate versus mass relationship is linear down to K effective 0.59. For a thermal source, the linearity was never achieved. (author)

  15. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Csikósová

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basisof theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, descriptionof the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources,reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesisis reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the companyis implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air, the missionof the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic sideof it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes he questionnaire offerfor effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance(benefits from the government and EU funds.

  16. New impetus to the economy through renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper shows that the renewable energy sources offer a unique chance: to replace the 'deus ex machina' philosophy by the 'deus ex sole' approach. The reasons why the energy industry refuses to consider exploitation of renewable energy sources are quite obvious. Any deep-cutting change in energy policy priorities would imply likewise deep cuts in the utilities' returns from investments made for existing, conventional power generation systems and transmission infrastructure, which would entail losses in a branch of industry never seen before. It is high time, however, to demand a basic switch in policy and to pave the way for solar energy by appropriate political and economic incentives now, as Germany as one of the highly industrialised countries must not turn a blind eye to its responsability for the global environment. Even if there were not the risk of a global environmental crisis as a consequence of current resource squandering, good economic reasoning and a sense of responsability for the developing economies of the world be reason enough to alter the energy policy approach without hesitation. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  18. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  19. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Kanudia, A.; Tosato, GC.

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the potential role of unconventional fossil fuels in a global low carbon energy system. Making use of a systemic approach, the paper presents an original application of a global partial equilibrium energy system model (TIAM-JET). In order to give a worldwide perspective with higher detail on European energy systems, the model links a set of extra-European macro-regions to the 30 European countries. First, a review of the most recent estimates of the available stocks of unconventional hydrocarbon resources is used to build the set of assumption for the scenario analysis. Secondly, a set of scenarios assuming different availability and cost of unconventional fuels are added to both a Current Trend scenario and a Carbon Constrained (CC) scenario, to explore the perspectives of unconventional gas and oil in a scenario halving CO 2 emissions by 2050, which is consistent with a 2 degree temperature increase. The results show if/how unconventional sources can contribute to the robustness of the European energy system with respect to the stress of a strong carbon constraint. We define this robustness as the capacity of the energy system to adapt its evolution to long-term constraints and keep delivering energy services to end users. In our approach robustness represents the long-term dimension of energy security. Assessing this ''system property'' requires analysing the wide range of factors that can exercise a stabilizing influence on the energy services delivery system, together with their relations, actual interactions and synergies. The energy system approach used for the analysis seeks to take into account as much of this complexity as possible. We assess the robustness of the EU system to the carbon constraint by looking at how the CC scenario affects energy system costs and energy prices under scenarios with different deployment of unconventional sources. This provides insights on the synergies and/or trade-offs between energy security and

  20. Guidelines for the calibration of low energy photon sources at beta-ray brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With the development of improved methods of implanting brachytherapy sources in a precise manner for treating prostate cancer and other disease processes, there has been a tremendous growth in the use of low energy photon sources, such as 125 I and 103 Pd brachytherapy seeds. Low energy photon sources have the advantage of easier shielding and also lowering the dose to normal tissue. However, the dose distributions around these sources are affected by the details in construction of the source and its encapsulation more than other sources used for brachytherapy treatments, such as 192 Ir. With increasing number of new low energy photon sources on the market, care should be taken with regard to its traceability to primary standards. It cannot be assumed that a calibration factor for an ionization chamber that is valid for one type of low energy photon source, automatically is valid for another source even if both would use the same isotope. Moreover, the method used to calculate the dose must also take into account the structure of the source and the encapsulation. The dose calculation algorithm that is valid for one type of low energy source may not be valid for another source even if in both cases the same radionuclide is used. Simple ''point source'' approximations, i.e. where the source is modeled as a point, should be avoided, as such methods do not account for any details in the source construction. In this document, the dose calculation formalism adopted for low energy photon sources is that recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) as outlined by Task Group-43 (TG-43). This method accounts for the source and capsule geometry. The AAPM recommends brachytherapy photon sources to be specified in terms of 'Air Kerma Strength' that is also used in the formalism mentioned above. On the other hand, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends that the specification be done in terms of Reference Air

  1. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  2. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  3. Biogas 2007. Energy source of the future; Biogas 2007. Energietraeger der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within this VDI meeting, held between 14th and 15th June, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Perspectives of the use of biogas in the background of the instruments according to the launch of renewable energies (B. Dreher); (b) Biogas in the energy mix and as export product - demand of action in EEG (C. da Costa Gomez); (c) Cultivation of regenerative raw materials for production of fermentation gas (A. Vetter); (d) Consequences of the cultivation of power plants on nature and landscape (W. Peters); (e) Agrarian residual substances and wastes of biofuel production as fermentation substrates (G. Langhans); (f) Biological waste management - comparison between composting and fermentation (Ch. Dornack, A. Schnapke); (g) Treatment and utilization of residues of fermentation (H. Doehler); (h) State of the art of the production and utilization of biogas using the NawaRo plant (P. Weiland, Ch. Rieger, J. Schroeder, R. Kissel, H. Bachmaier, V. Plogsties, J. Vogtherr); (i) Dry fermentation for continuous biogas processes - progress report (R. Schneider); (j) Status Quo and potential of development of mechanical-biological waste treatment under special consideration of fermentation and energetic utilization (K. Fricke, H. Santen, T. Bahr, A. Huettner); (k) Optimization of the plant operation by means of process monitoring and process modelling (M. Mueller, F. Scholwin, B. Fritsche); (l) Power supply and heat supply of the bio energy village Juehnde (E. Fangmeier); (m) Processing of regenerating raw materials for the optimization of the biogas yield: Which effects can be reached in the biogas process by means of pre-treatment of biomass such as corn and triticale? (B. Schumacher, H. Oechsner, Th. Senn, Th. Jungbluth); (n) Biogas production by means of dry fermentation: State of the art (A. Schattauer, P. Weiland); (o) Biogas as a fuel: AGROPTI - gas in Sweden (T. Ahrens, P. Weiland); (p) Bio energy as a system service

  4. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  5. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  6. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  7. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  8. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C; Kallivokas, L F; Huh, C; Lake, L W

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation's kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil

  9. Methanol as an energy source and/or energy carrier in membrane processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.; Drioli, E.

    2007-01-01

    Methanol is commonly considered a hydrogen source and/or hydrogen carrier. In fact, methanol can be produced by partial oxidation of biomass and in this case it is considered a source for hydrogen and therefore for energy. It can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen; in this case, it

  10. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiit, Valdur

    2000-01-01

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  11. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyi, Lwin [Energy Resources Section, Environment and Natural Resources Management Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region`s vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  12. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Kyi

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  13. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  14. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, J; Sidek, L M; Desa, M N M; Julien, P Y

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  15. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Nuno; Cabral, Pedro; Azevedo, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The integration of large amounts of renewable energy is an important challenge for the future management of electric systems, since it affects the operation of the electric power system and the design of the transmission and distribution network infrastructure. This is specially due to the connection requirements of the renewable energy technologies, to the extension and adjustment of the grid infrastructure and to the identification of new solutions for operational reserve, in order to maintain the overall system flexibility and security. In this paper, the impact of high penetration of intermittent energy sources, expected in long term in the Portuguese Power System, is analysed and the operational reserve requirements to accomplish a reliable and reasonable electrical energy supply are identified. It was concluded that pumped storage power plants, special power plants with regulating capabilities, will have an important task to provide the operational reserve requirements of the Portuguese Power System. This technology assumes a fundamental role not only to ensure the adequate levels of security of supply but also to allow the maximum exploitation of the installed capacity in renewable energy sources. (authors)

  16. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  17. Practical Investigation for Road Lighting using Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged A. Abu Adma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Hybrid renewable energy systems are recently used to counteract the limitations of solar and wind as solo renewable energy sources due to adverse weather conditions. This study explains a design of a fully independent -off grid- hybrid solar and wind road lighting system according to geography and weather conditions recorded from the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics. The computerized model is designed step by step by the aid of Simulink-Matlab and the simulation was successfully run to show the performance of each module.

  18. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  19. How to classify the hydro power renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchevski, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this report various classifications of hydropower renewable energy sources (HRES) used in several countries like: USA, China, Russia, EU and Bulgaria are given and discussed. The existence of numerous differences and peculiarities in the various national classifications all over the world require the creation of a common unification. In particular the peculiarity and heterogeneity of HRES in Bulgaria demands a creation of specific regulations about. There is a necessity in a creation of a new law of RES and preparation of united EU energy policy

  20. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.