Sample records for refuse

  1. School Refusal

    Wimmer, Mary


    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  2. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E


    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Refusing What We Are

    McIlvenny, Paul

    In an interview, Michel Foucault (1983: 336) said that the target today perhaps “is not to discover what we are but to refuse what we are… to promote new forms of subjectivity”. Protest actions by a range of new social movements have been studied extensively, but few studies have focused...... on the communicative practices and mediated actions in which new identities and forms of subjectivity are discursively produced, contingently achieved and made visible in situ. This paper investigates what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’, practices in which alternative modes of subjectivation and of being governed...

  4. Recovery methods in municipal refuse management

    Affholder, M.; Gony, J.N.; Colardeau, J.


    Various refuse screening tecniques and methods for organizing selective collection of paper, cardboard, and glass are described. Recovery of incinerated refuse developed by USBM and the French Bureau of Geological and Mining Research is detailed. The economics of municipal refuse recovery methods are examined. The sale of recovered material is explored.

  5. School Refusal: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Kayhan Bahali


    Full Text Available Children regularly and voluntarily go to school in order to fulfill the expectations of society from them to continue their education or schooling. School continuation has been made compulsory by laws. Nonetheless, contrary to popular belief, for some children it is distressing to go to school. These children have difficulty continuing school and/or refuse to go to school. Today school refusal is defined as a child’s inability to continue school for reasons, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of school refusal has been reported to be approximately 1% in school-age children and 5% in child psychiatry samples. The prevalence of school refusal is similar among boys and girls. School refusal can occur at any time throughout the child’s academic life and at all socio-economic levels. School refusal is considered a symptom rather than a clinical diagnosis and can manifest itself as a sign of many psychiatric disorders, with anxiety disorders predominant. Separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms are the most common disorders co-occurring with school refusal. While separation anxiety disorder is associated with school refusal in younger children, other anxiety disorders, especially phobias, are associated with school refusal in adolescents. Children who have parents with psychiatric disorders have a higher incidence of school refusal, and psychiatric disorders are more frequently seen in adult relatives of children with school refusal, which supports a significant role of genetic and environmental factors in th etiology of school refusal. School refusal is a emergency state for child mental health. As it leads to detrimental effects in the short term and the long term, it should be regarded as a serious problem. The long-lasting follow-up studies of school refusing children have revealed that these children have a higher incidence of

  6. [Refuse disposal at the hospital].

    Knoll, K H


    For the classification of hospital-wastes in the categories infectious-contaminate or special waste are only significant views of the prevention by nosocomial infection in the hospital. Solely infectious waste become removed hospital-intern and -extern on conditions of hygienic prevention, namely through secure packing during the transport, combustion or desinfection. Special wastes to be defeated by special-conditions. The hygienist of the hospital is only competent for the classification of the wastes in the hospital as well as for their refuse.

  7. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal

    Huijer, Marli; Leeuwen, Evert van


    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed a

  8. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul


    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  9. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason


    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  10. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul


    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  11. Reclamation of acid coal refuse

    Olsen, F.J.; Chong, S.K. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA))


    Slurry (coal refuse), which contains pyritic materials, produces sulfuric acid when wetted and oxidized. The acidity, together with droughtiness and high surface temperatures, create a complex problem for revegetation. Four grasses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), redtop (Agrostis alba L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb.), were planted on an acid slurry site at Captain Mine, Arch of Illinois Inc., Perry County, IL, USA, to evaluate the effects of soil amendments. Organic material from composted garbage (0, 112, 224 and 336 Mg/ha), limestone (0, 45, 90 and 135 Mg/ha) and a mixture of organic material and limestone (56/22.5, 112/45 and 168/67.5 Mg/ha) were incorporated into the slurry. All the grasses established succesfully and persisted best on treatments involving the addition of limestone. Tall fescue and reed canarygrass were the grasses best suited for the revegetation of the acid slurry impoundments. The grasses did not accumulate heavy metals to levels considered potentially toxic to livestock. The application of limestone with or without organic material appears to be a possible alternative method for revegetating acid slurry without the addition of a soil cover. 6 tabs., 12 refs.

  12. Ethical considerations of refusing nutrition after stroke.

    Sandman, Lars; Agren Bolmsjö, Ingrid; Westergren, Albert


    The aim of this article is to analyse and discuss the ethically problematic conflict raised by patients with stroke who refuse nutritional treatment. In analysing this conflict, the focus is on four different aspects: (1) Is nutritional treatment biologically necessary? (2) If necessary, is the reason for refusal a functional disability, lack of appetite or motivation, misunderstanding of the situation or a genuine conflict of values? (3) If the latter, what values are involved in the conflict? (4) How should we deal with the different kinds of refusal of nutritional treatment? We argue that patients' autonomy should be respected as far as possible, while also considering that those who have suffered a stroke might re-evaluate their life as a result of a beneficial prognosis. However, if patients persist with their refusal, health care professionals should force nutritional treatment only when it is clear that the patients will re-evaluate their future life.

  13. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by...

  14. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill



    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  15. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Myren HJ


    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  16. Refusal Strategies Among Omani EFL Students

    Rahma Al-Mahrooqi


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the refusal speech act among Omani EFL college students. It examined how they refused in various situations and whether their responses were appropriate in terms of culture and accurate in terms of language. Forty-one English as foreign language (EFL learners completed a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of 12 scenarios by supplying written refusals to three requests, three suggestions, three invitations, and three offers. Students’ responses were rated by two professors: one a native English speaker and the other not. A convenient sampling procedure was employed. The findings indicated that students’ responses were largely inappropriate and inaccurate. Further examination showed that they were heavily influenced by the students’ culture, many being mere translations of refusal responses in Omani Arabic. Others were inappropriate because they were too direct, due to students’ lack of knowledge of the role of social status when issuing refusals to a person of high status. Language mistakes were mainly in the sentence structure, which affected the meaning clarity. Findings suggest that, to help students become better communicators in English, it is important to teach them directly the most common speech acts, especially those they might frequently use in their everyday conversations with professors and classmates.

  17. Causes of family refusal for organ donation.

    Ghorbani, F; Khoddami-Vishteh, H R; Ghobadi, O; Shafaghi, S; Louyeh, A Rostami; Najafizadeh, K


    Family refusal represents a barrier for organ donation together with other cultural and religious factors possible ignorance and clinical obstacles. We performed this retrospective study by phone employing our organ procurement unit database, using a list of families of potential organ donors who had refused organ donation. In 2009, 146 potential organ donor families refused donation. We contacted 81 families. The main reason expressed by there families to justify the refusal to donate the deceased's organs was denial and rejection of brain-death criteria (44.4%). Other causes were believing in a miracle (13.6%); fear about organ trade and unknown organ destination (9.9%); religious beliefs (8.6%); insecutrity about the brain-death diagnosis (6.2%); unstable family mood (6.2%); unknown donor wishes about donation (4.9%); belief in body integrity after death (3.7%); and fear of objection by other family members (2.5%). Our findings showed several reasons for family refusal for organ donation; among the main cause is poor acceptance of brain death. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about brain death and organizing strategies to confirm brain death for families are necessary to meet the organ shortage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal.

    Huijer, M; van Leeuwen, E


    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed about the pros and cons of treatment and have to decide by weighing them, is not sufficient. A different ethical approach is needed to deal with the various evaluations that play a role in treatment refusal. If patients forgo further treatment, while curative or palliative methods are available, there is no perspective from which to integrate the weighing of pros and cons of treatment and the preferences and values of individual cancer patients. A discrepancy thus results as regards what "good reasons" are, evoking misunderstandings or even breaking off communication. Suggestions are given for follow up research.

  19. Conscientious refusal to assist with abortion.

    Dooley, D


    Abortion is a moral issue affecting the identity and integrity of physicians and nurses. Ethical reasoning helps reasonable and sincere people who do not agree on abortion to understand the sources of disagreement and to explore shared principles in the differences. Discussions of abortion cannot be limited to the conflict between the rights of a woman to control her reproduction and the rights of a fetus to live. Religious, cultural, feminist, and political beliefs must also be considered. This complexity must be considered when examining whether physicians and nurses have rights to refuse to assist in abortion on conscientious grounds. People with fundamentally different moral outlooks already determine what is morally right or wrong, good or evil. Health professionals who refuse to assist in abortion base their decision on beliefs about moral duties, injunctions of natural law, and the essentially nonnegotiable rights of people to be protected from intentional harm. They know and regret the adverse effects for pregnant women but there is no compelling motivation to change their opposition to abortion. There is no morally neutral position from which to judge conscientious refusals in abortion. Society should develop a position that respects autonomy of belief and grants the right to physicians and nurses to conscientiously refuse to assist in abortions. In those countries where the abortion law grants physicians the right to refuse but not nurses, society needs to reflect on why nurses have been accorded second class professional and moral status. In those countries which have not yet formulated an abortion law, the government should consider how it can find enough health workers who will in good conscience assist in abortions. Governments must first seriously consider a presumptive right to conscientious refusal in abortion before health systems can redistribute sectors of responsibility among health workers and implement changes in recruitment policies for

  20. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark

    Busck, Ole Gunni


      Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social and envir......  Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social...

  1. Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women ...

    Effect of Health Education on Refuse Disposal Practices of Women in Jos, Plateau State. ... and practices of proper domestic refuse handling and factors affecting same ... Conclusion: Health education intervention was found to be effective in ...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person...

  3. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by...

  4. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings...

  5. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District...

  6. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of...

  7. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  8. 48 CFR 807.304-77 - Right of first refusal.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal... Right of first refusal. (a) In addition to the Right of First Refusal of Employment clause specified in... workers who are adversely affected by the contract award and who are qualified for the jobs the...

  9. Children of divorce: the differential diagnosis of contact refusal.

    Freeman, Bradley W


    Contact refusal is a common phenomenon that can occur during the course of, or after, divorce, which affects the relationship between a child and the parent. This article defines the concept of contact refusal and discusses the importance of its recognition. The concept is further narrowed to focus on the child as the one refusing contact, not the parent, which can happen as well. Various types of contact refusals are illustrated in the article through clinical vignettes, and an approach to categorizing the various types of contact refusal is presented.

  10. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  11. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.


    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  12. Conscientious refusal in healthcare: the Swedish solution.

    Munthe, Christian


    The Swedish solution to the legal handling of professional conscientious refusal in healthcare is described. No legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession or class of professional tasks exists in Sweden, regardless of the religious or moral background of the objection. The background of this can be found in strong convictions about the importance of public service provision and related civic duties, and ideals about rule of law, equality and non-discrimination. Employee's requests to change work tasks are handled on a case-by-case basis within the frames of labour law, ensuring full voluntariness, and also employer's privilege regarding the organisation and direction of work, and duties of public institutions to provide services. Two complicating aspects of this solution related to the inclusion of 'alternative medical' service providers in a national health service, and professional insistence on conscientious refusal rights to accept legalised assisted dying are discussed. The latter is found to undermine the pragmatic reasons behind recent attempts by prolife groups to challenge the Swedish solution related to legal abortion in courts.

  13. Advanced reclamation of coal refuse ponds

    Honaker, R.Q.; Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering


    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that may also be considered to be environmentally harmful. The fine coal fraction in a preparation plant consists of the purest particles in the entire preparation plant and, thus, if recovered, could enhance the quality of the plant product. However, until recently, the ability to effectively recover fine coal has been limited due to the lack of efficient fine particle separation technologies. As a result, a large portion of the fine coal produced in the US during this century has been disposed into refuse pond along with the acid producing components of the associated gangue material. Research conducted by Southern Illinois University scientists has found that advanced fine coal cleaning technologies can be used to recover high quality coal from refuse ponds while also utilizing a novel technique for neutralizing the acid generation potential of the pyrite-rich reject stream. Various circuitry arrangements will be discussed and metallurgical results presented in this publication.

  14. Corrosion of boiler tube alloys in refuse firing: Shredded vs bulk refuse

    Krause, H.H. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Daniel, P.L.; Blue, J.D. (Babcock Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States))


    Results of corrosion probe exposures at two mass burning incinerators were compared with those conducted in a unit burning refuse-derived fuel. Tests were conducted with carbon steel, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and high nickel-chromium alloys. Corrosion rates at similar metal and gas temperatures were essentially the same for both types of fuel. Boiler tube performance in the waterwalls of other incinerators confirmed these results. Boiler design and operating conditions appear to be more important factors in tube wastage than the extent of refuse processing.

  15. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Marsh, Jason


    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty.

  16. Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.

    Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu


    Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal.

  17. Physicians' evaluations of patients' decisions to refuse oncological treatment

    van Kleffens, T; van Leeuwen, E


    Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended oncological treatment. Results: Patients base their treatment refusals mainly on personal values and/or experience. Physicians mainly emphasise the medical perspective when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. From a medical perspective, a patient's treatment refusal based on personal values and experience is generally evaluated as irrational and difficult to accept, especially when it concerns a curative treatment. Physicians have a different attitude towards non-curative treatments and have less difficulty accepting a patient's refusal of these treatments. Thus, an important factor in the physician's evaluation of a treatment refusal is whether the treatment refused is curative or non-curative. Conclusion: Physicians mainly use goal oriented and patients mainly value oriented rationality, but in the case of non-curative treatment refusal, physicians give more emphasis to value oriented rationality. A consensus between the value oriented approaches of patient and physician may then emerge, leading to the patient's decision being understood and accepted by the physician. The physician's acceptance is crucial to his or her attitude towards the patient. It contributes to the patient's feeling free to decide, and being understood and respected, and thus to a better physician–patient relationship. PMID:15738431

  18. 50 CFR 14.53 - Detention and refusal of clearance.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detention and refusal of clearance. 14.53... PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Inspection and Clearance of Wildlife § 14.53 Detention and refusal of clearance. (a) Detention. Any Service officer, or Customs officer...

  19. The Functional Profiles of School Refusal Behavior: Diagnostic Aspects

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Albano, Anne Marie


    School refusal behavior is a common problem seen by mental health professionals and by educators but little consensus is available as to its classification, assessment, and treatment. This study assessed 143 youth with primary school refusal behavior and their parents to examine diagnoses that are most commonly associated with proposed functions…

  20. 24 CFR 906.13 - Right of first refusal.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of first refusal. 906.13... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP PROGRAMS Purchaser Requirements § 906.13 Right of first refusal. (a... housing unit, to offer the unit for sale first to the current resident of the unit....

  1. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water...

  2. 49 CFR 105.55 - Refusal to obey a subpoena.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to obey a subpoena. 105.55 Section 105.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Subpoenas § 105.55 Refusal to obey a...

  3. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because...

  4. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing...

  6. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  7. Empirical Examination of a Multicomponent Treatment for Pediatric Food Refusal.

    Hoch, Theodore A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Farrar-Schneider, Debra; Berkowitz, Merrill J.; Owens, J. Carl; Knight, Terry L.; Snyder, Angela M.; Rizol, Laura M.; Wise, David T.


    This paper reports on assessment and treatment of food refusal for four inpatient boys (ages 2,3,3, and 9) receiving tube feedings. It used a contingency contacting procedure extended by a component analysis. Data suggest that food refusal appeared to be maintained primarily by negative reinforcement contingencies. Caregiver responses indicated a…

  8. Resíduos hospitalares Hospital refuse

    Francisco Xavier Ribeiro da Luz


    Full Text Available Foram relatadas informações diversas sobre resíduos sólidos hospitalares: volumes produzidos, formas de acondicionamento no local de produção, de transporte interno, de armazenamento para a coleta, de remoção e de destinação final usuais em estabelecimentos especialmente norte-americanos. Soluções foram analisadas e apresentadas sugestões para as condições brasileiras.Information on solid waste handling specially in American hospitals: volumes and kinds of refuse, conditioning forms, internal transportation, is reported. Comments are presented on them and suggestions are made having in mind Brasilian conditions.

  9. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Yavorsky, Paul M.


    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  10. Recycling of aged refuse from a closed landfill.

    Zhao, Youcai; Song, Liyan; Huang, Renhua; Song, Lijie; Li, Xiong


    In this study, refuse excavated from a typical refuse landfill in Shanghai after 8-10 years of placement was characterized in terms of particle size, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and biodegradable matter. The refuse contained a large and diverse population of micro-organisms with a high capacity for decomposing refractory organic matter present in some wastewaters, including leachate. It was found that the aged refuse was quite stable after about a decade of decomposition in the warm, humid climate of southern China. The fine fractions resembled and had the properties of black soil, a medium that is suitable for green construction, organic fertilizer, or as bioreactor media for biological treatment of organic wastewaters. Excavation of the aged refuse would make about 50% of the space available for fresh refuse. The plastics, glass, textiles, and cans can be readily mechanically separated and recycled after cleaning. It is estimated that at least 200 millions tonnes of such aged refuse are available in China alone, and at least 10 times that much is buried worldwide. Hence, the evaluation of mined landfill waste and consideration of its potential uses is of great significance.

  11. Gasification of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF

    Haydary Juma


    Full Text Available In this work, the gasification of a fraction of municipal solid waste, MSW, generally separated from inorganic materials and biodegradable components, the so-called refuse-derived fuel (RDF, was studied using material characterisation methods, and the modelling of an industrial scale process was presented. The composition of RDF was determined by the separation of a representative sample into its basic components (paper, foils, hard plastics, textiles. All RDF components as well as a representative mixed sample of the RDF were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, elemental analysis and bomb calorimetry to determine their proximate and elemental compositions, and a higher heating value. An industrial scale gasification process was studied by mathematical modelling and computer simulations. All techniques, gasification with air, gasification with oxygen, and gasification with both oxygen and steam were investigated under different conditions. The RDF conversion of 100 % was achieved by the gasification with air at the air to RDF mass ratio of 3.2. The gas heating value was 4.4 MJ/Nm3. The gasification of RDF using oxygen enables the production of gas with the heating value of around 10 MJ/Nm3 at the oxygen to RDF mass ratio of 0.65. By increasing the steam to the RDF mass ratio, the contents of H2 and CO2 increased, while the content of CO, reactor temperature and the gas heating value decreased.

  12. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing countries are faced with. Health hazard, traffic ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. Communal collection, block ...

  13. Combining stimulus fading, reinforcement, and extinction to treat food refusal.

    Freeman, K A; Piazza, C C


    The food refusal of a 6-year-old girl with destructive behavior was treated using stimulus fading, reinforcement, and escape extinction. Intake increased and compliance with prompting procedures remained relatively stable despite the increased consumption requirement.

  14. Leaching refuse after sphalerite mineral for extraction zinc and cobalt

    S. Brožová


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a possibility of zinc and cobalt extraction from refuse after sphalerite mineral leaching. It contains theoretic analysis of hydrometallurgical processes. Practical part describes samples and their leaching in 10 % and 20 % sulphuric acid. In the end of the paper it is evaluated under which conditions the highest yield of zinc and cobalt from refuse after sulphide ore leaching is reached.

  15. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Wade, Katherine


    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  16. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Chao Chung-Liang


    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  17. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  18. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.


    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  19. Energy and pollution characteristics of refuse-derived fuel

    Chung, H.I.; Choo, J.; Yu, J. [Korea Inst. of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)


    This abstract presented energy, heat value, and pollution concentration characteristics for waste- and refuse-derived fuel. Studies have shown that while recycling and waste-to-energy projects are economically feasible, the impacts of solid waste pre-sorting on the cost of waste-to-energy facilities is uncertain due to the inherent complexity of solid waste composition. Combustible waste is sorted from municipal waste, construction waste, and industrial waste, and used as a raw material for refuse-derived fuel. A heat value evaluation was conducted for products generated at a typical refuse-derived fuel plant. The results of the study will be used to co-ordinate waste-to-energy facilities.

  20. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)


    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  1. [Increasing immunization coverage by intervening on determinants of refusal].

    Brunelli, M; Valsecchi, M; Speri, L; Simeoni, L; Campara, P; Porchia, S; Bolzonello, E; Russo, F; Bonavina, M G; Bovo, C


    With the regional decree 3664/2008, the Veneto Region adopted measures for improvements in the immunization program, among which the "Investigation into determinants for vaccine refusal in the Veneto Region", entrusted by the Department of Prevention Local Health Unit 20 (Ulss 20) of Verona. The objective of the study was to understand which type of parent that accessed immunization services (total adherent, partial adherent or complete refusals) and what factors lead to their choice regarding immmunizations in order to better plan strategies to maintain vaccination coverage.

  2. Tin cans and refuse incineration: upgrading the scrap

    Dapper, G.; Dijkstra, S.J.; Loon, van A.P.M.


    In the series of investigations whether and how it is possible to reclaim the iron and tin constituents after incineration, several experiments were performed with the refuse incinerator of Amsterdam. The operating conditions were varied and the influence on the behaviour of the tin cans were determ

  3. [Anorexia and refusal to eat in the elderly].

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Thomas, Philippe


    The question of the links between anorexia and the refusal to eat in the elderly is often the cause of major difficulties with regard to therapeutic strategies within caregiving teams. Likewise, few studies have been carried out into the diachronic links between teenage anorexia and that of the elderly. The role of the multi-disciplinary team is essential.

  4. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment...

  5. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.


    .... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...

  6. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.


    .... Critical construction periods shall include at a minimum: (i) Foundation preparation including the removal... revegetated upon completion of construction. (c) Placement. (1) All vegetative and organic materials shall be... professional engineer, shall inspect the refuse pile during construction. The professional engineer...

  7. Can a physician refuse to help a patient? American perspective.

    Hood, Virginia L


    Refusal to help means for most people declining to accept the duty to treat. The reasons for refusing to help and how we think about these reasons from an ethical and professional viewpoint are outlined by considering ethical principles, an historical perspective, the law, societal contracts, medicine as a moral enterprise, professional codes, a physician's personal beliefs, reasons for refusing to help and physician discretion. Refusing to help a patient is not consistent with the ethical principle of beneficence, the concept of the primacy of patient welfare or the obligation of the profession to care for the sick. However duty to treat should not be exploited by institutions or place physicians in circumstances that they consider morally, psychologically or physically unacceptable. Following the principle of distributive justice, physicians are obligated to participate in the public debate to ensure that all patients have their needs met by developing or improving health care systems and addressing the new ethical questions that are likely to be generated.

  8. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation...

  9. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela


    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  10. Domestic Refuse Handling Practices Among Adult Females in a ...

    It was an interventional/community-based study involving a total of 436 adult ... Health education was given on domestic refuse handling and reinforcement by ... to the various challenges faced by them particularly the absence of community sanitation members. ... Key words: Solid waste, practices, female adults, obstacles.

  11. Improvement of refuse collection in Kitwe: A participatory approach

    B. Kazimbaya-Senkwe (Barbara); K.M. Sankwe; J. Frijns (Jos)


    textabstractThis project set out to define the refuse collection problem in Kitwe and to propose ways of improving the same. Through a household survey, interviews with relevant institutions and a physical survey of the town, it was established that the Kitwe City Council is not able to provide an a

  12. Magnetometric Studies of Catalyst Refuses in Nanocarbon Materials

    Eklund Peter


    Full Text Available AbstractIt is shown that magnetometry can be employed as an effective tool to control the content of a ferromagnetic constituent in nanocarbon materials. We propose a thermochemical treatment protocol to achieve extensive cleaning of the source nanocarbon materials from ferromagnetic refuses.

  13. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  14. Causes of organ donation refusal in southern Iran.

    Dehghani, S M; Gholami, S; Bahador, A; Nikeghbalian, S; Eshraghian, A; Salahi, H; Kazemi, K; Shamsaei, A; Malek-Hosseini, S A


    Family refusal is an important factor that limits the number of organ donations. Some studies from different centers have reported various reasons for family decisions of organ donation refusal. This study evaluated the reasons for organ donation refusal by family members covered in our organ procurement organization. This cross-sectional study was performed among families of potential organ donors who satisfied brain death criteria as identified between March 2009 and March 2010. Among 125 potential donors 73 (58.4%) families refused donation. Their main reasons were as follows: lack of acceptance of brain death n=26 (35.6%), belief in miracle and patient recovery (n=22; 30.1), fear of gossip regarding sale rather than autonomous organ donation (n=11; 15.1%), and fear about deformation of the donor's body (n=9; 12.3%). Family members play an important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the case of brain death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  16. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.10 Section 322.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  17. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry.


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation...

  18. A Genre-based Analysis of English Refusal Letters



    The present study analyzes ten English refusal letters of two subcategories based on Swales ’genre analysis model and finds that difference exists in the generic features of the two subcategorized types. Teachers should reveal the underlying rationale behind linguistic features of a specific genre so that students can not only identify genre but also apply it appropriately.

  19. insect vectors of pathogens in selected undisposed refuse dumps in ...



    Jun 23, 2012 ... insects and their role in disease transmission are highlighted. Proper disposal of ... Keywords: Insects, refuse dumps, diseases, Kaduna, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ..... further noted that at present, only individual solutions are used at the household .... to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon. PubMed. gov ( ...

  20. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo


    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  1. 37 CFR 1.295 - Review of decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration.


    ... refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. 1.295 Section 1.295 Patents, Trademarks, and... decision finally refusing to publish a statutory invention registration. (a) Any requester who is dissatisfied with the final refusal to publish a statutory invention registration for reasons other than...

  2. 48 CFR 52.207-3 - Right of First Refusal of Employment.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of First Refusal of....207-3 Right of First Refusal of Employment. As prescribed in 7.305(c), insert the following clause: Right of First Refusal of Employment (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor shall give Government personnel...

  3. 78 FR 38340 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment


    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCY: Department of Defense...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, by... corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment''. Follow...

  4. 78 FR 17670 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment


    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment, by any of... corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal of Employment''. Follow...

  5. 75 FR 4565 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment


    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Right of First Refusal of Employment AGENCIES: Department of . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose Right of First Refusal of Employment is a..., DC 20405, telephone (202) 501-4755. Please cite OMB Control No. 9000-0114, Right of First Refusal...

  6. Absorption of phosphorus from wastewater by aged refuse excavated from municipal solid waste landfill

    ZHAO You-cai; SHAO Fang


    Municipal solid waste(refuse) landfill stabilizes as the refuse degrades. After years of biodegradation, the refuse in the landfill becomes stabilized and aged, which may vary with the local climate, humidity, and composition of refuse placed. In this work, it is found that the refuse with an age of over 8 years at Shanghai Refuse Landfill has been significantly stabilized and sufficiently aged and is thus suitable for excavation. The 8-year old aged refuse is mechanically screened, and the fine fractions of refuse(aged refuse) with a diameter less than 2 cm are then used as a biological absorbent for removal of both inorganic and organic phosphorus in livestock wastewater and prepared aqueous solution. It is proved that the aged refuse is very effective for the quantitative removal of both types of phosphorus. The absorption mechanism is proposed. It is considered that phosphorus is firstly absorbed onto the surface of the aged refuse and then used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms which ultimately leave the aged refuse as sludge.

  7. Parental Refusal of Vitamin K and Neonatal Preventive Services: A Need for Surveillance.

    Marcewicz, Lauren H; Clayton, Joshua; Maenner, Matthew; Odom, Erika; Okoroh, Ekwutosi; Christensen, Deborah; Goodman, Alyson; Warren, Michael D; Traylor, Julie; Miller, Angela; Jones, Timothy; Dunn, John; Schaffner, William; Grant, Althea


    Objectives Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infants is a coagulopathy preventable with a single dose of injectable vitamin K at birth. The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigated vitamin K refusal among parents in 2013 after learning of four cases of VKDB associated with prophylaxis refusal. Methods Chart reviews were conducted at Nashville-area hospitals for 2011-2013 and Tennessee birthing centers for 2013 to identify parents who had refused injectable vitamin K for their infants. Contact information was obtained for parents, and they were surveyed regarding their reasons for refusing. Results At hospitals, 3.0% of infants did not receive injectable vitamin K due to parental refusal in 2013, a frequency higher than in 2011 and 2012. This percentage was much higher at birthing centers, where 31% of infants did not receive injectable vitamin K. The most common responses for refusal were a belief that the injection was unnecessary (53%) and a desire for a natural birthing process (36%). Refusal of other preventive services was common, with 66% of families refusing vitamin K, newborn eye care with erythromycin, and the neonatal dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusions for Practice Refusal of injectable vitamin K was more common among families choosing to give birth at birthing centers than at hospitals, and was related to refusal of other preventive services in our study. Surveillance of vitamin K refusal rates could assist in further understanding this occurrence and tailoring effective strategies for mitigation.

  8. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles


    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  9. Heuristic methods for a refuse collection vehicle routing problem

    Mourao, M.C.; Almeida, M.T.


    The problem of generating the set of routes that minimizes the total time required to collect the household refuse in a particular quarter of Lisbon can be formulated as a Capacitated Arc Routing Problem with some side constraints. Our aim is to obtain approximate solutions, as the problem is known to be NP-hard. We present heuristic methods to generate feasible solutions and report their performance over a set of test problems.

  10. Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care.

    Sidhu, H.; Heasley, R. N.; Patterson, C C; Halliday, H L; Thompson, W.


    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally and postnatally) were made from hospitals in Northern Ireland between...

  11. Refusal as a democratic catalyst for mathematics education development

    Dalene Swanson


    Full Text Available Discussions about the connections between mathematics and democracy amongst the general populace have not been explicitly well rehearsed. A critical relationship with democracy for mathematics education may involve directing and redirecting its purposes. But, we ask, what if the ‘choice’ to not participate in experiences of mathematics education, or in its (redirection, were itself also a critical relationship with mathematics education? What if this refusal and disobedience to the evocative power of mathematics were a democratic action? We argue that consideration of mathematics education for democracy and development must take seriously specific acts of refusal that directly confront the construction of inequality common in most development contexts. Globalisation and development discourses, via citizenship and nationalism, construct relationships with learners and mathematics education in very specific ways that delimit possibilities for egalitarianism and democratic action. But, might such action not be recognised, not as refusal to participate per se, but as a refusal to participate in mathematics education’s colonising and/or globalising neo-liberal gaze? In arguing for the opening of a position of radical equality, we introduce Jacques Rancière to mathematics education theory, noting that for Rancière emancipation is the intentional disregard for ideological narratives such as the ones produced by mathematics education discourses. Thus, we provoke serious reconsideration of the assumptions behind most school improvement and professional development projects, as well as mathematics education policies and practices framed by globalising development discourses, and in the process we challenge our colleagues to consider ‘refusal’ not as deficit or failure, but as a critical position of radical equality in relation to mathematics education.

  12. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining.

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter


    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed.

  13. Ambiguities and Asymmetries in Consent and Refusal: Reply to Manson.

    Lawlor, Rob


    John Harris claims that is it 'palpable nonsense' to suggest that 'a child (or anyone) might competently consent to a treatment but not be competent to refuse it.' In 'Transitional Paternalism: How Shared Normative Powers Give Rise to the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal' Neil Manson aims to explain away the apparent oddness of this asymmetry of consent and refusal, by appealing to the idea of shared normative powers, presenting joint bank accounts as an example. In this article, I will argue that Manson's account fails to explain away the oddness. Rather, I will argue that there are ambiguities to which Manson has not paid sufficient attention. In fact, as odd as it may sound, I argue that Manson actually agrees with Harris (at least in relation to the asymmetry of competence). He fails to recognize that he agrees with Harris because he is not careful enough to distinguish between different asymmetries, which I have labelled the asymmetries of choice, permissibility and competence.

  14. Trinko and Re-Grounding the Refusal to Deal Doctrine

    Adam Candeub


    Full Text Available Verizon Communications Inc. v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, LLP (“Trinko”, the most important Supreme Court antitrust review of the refusal to deal antitrust doctrine in twenty years, pitted a local incumbent monopolist telephone company (“ILEC”, Verizon, against a class of competitive local exchange companies (“CLECs”, the new entrants to local telephone service spawned by the 1996 Telecommunications Act (“1996 Act” or “Telecom Act”, and their customers. The Supreme Court rejected the CLECs’ claim that Verizon violated the antitrust laws by failing to provide interconnection services as the Act required. The CLECs based their claim upon two antitrust doctrines: “refusal to deal” and “essential facilities,” both of which require monopolists to provide vital vertical inputs to their downstream competitors. Here, the input was interconnection or “access” on a wholesale level to Verizon’s telephone network that its competitors needed in order to provide retail phone service. The Court ruled that if a legal mechanism exists, as with the 1996 Act, to compel access to the putative monopolist’s resource, the refusal to deal doctrine has nothing to remedy and, therefore, plaintiffs did not state an antitrust claim.

  15. Energy Recycling in Municipal Refuse and Its Pollution Control in Combustion

    吴发勇; 段丽平; 陈红; 谢茂清


    Recycling the energy in municipal refuse and controlling the secondary pollution are common concerns.After analyzing the status and disposal of the municipal refuse in China, this paper proposes a technique of refuse incineration, using a fluid-bed incinerator, which converts refuse into energy.The technique of controlling secondary pollution in combustion is also discussed.In this paper, the technique of incineration using a fluid-bed incinerator is introduced.During the combustion process, the refuse is mixed with coal and remover and a noxious gas removal system is installed, which helps to decrease the generation and emission of noxious material, such as dioxins.The result shows that the secondary pollution in refuse incineration is efficiently controlled.

  16. Vaccination refusal: ethics, individual rights, and the common good.

    Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L


    Among the obstacles to the success of vaccination programs is the apparent recent increase in hesitancy and outright resistance to the recommended vaccination schedule by some parents and patients. This article reviews the spectrum of patient or parental attitudes that may be described as vaccine refusal, explores related ethical considerations in the context of the doctor-patient relationship and public health, and evaluates the possible responses of physicians when encountering resistance to vaccination recommendations. Health care providers should view individuals hesitant about or opposed to vaccines not as frustrations or threats to public health, but as opportunities to educate and inform.

  17. Refuse-derived Fuel Energy Recovery by Plasma Technology

    Marián LÁZÁR


    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of experiments focused upon high temperature gasification of waste with a significant proportion of combustibles. This is refuse-derived fuel (RDF obtained by sorting the combustible components of communal waste. During the gasification of this waste in a plasma reactor (with a waste humidity of circa 24.9 %, when calculated per 1 kg of waste, syngas was obtained in an amount of 1.35 to 1.84 m3∙kg-1. Apart from gas, the gasification process also creates slag of a glassy structure suitable for further use.

  18. Effect of leachate recycle and inoculation on microbial characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors


    Population development of key groups of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria involved in municipal refuse decomposition under laboratory landfill bioreactors with and without leachate recycle adinoculation was measured since modeling municipal refuse was landfilled in bioreactors for about 210 days. Hydrolytic fermentative bacteria (HFB), hydrogen-producing acetogenic bacteria (HPAB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), anaerobic and aerobic cellulolytic bacteria and denitrabacteria were enumerated by the most probable number technique. The results showed that the dominant microorganismgroups were the methanogenic bacteria including hydrolytic fermentative, hydrogen-producing acetogenic and methane-producing bacteria. They were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected by leachate recycle and refuse inoculation. The amounts of HFB or HPAB in digesters D4 and D5 operated with noculation and leachate recycle reached their maximum values of1010-1012 cells/g dry refuse for HFB or 105-106 cells/g dry refuse for HPAB on day 60, in digester D3 operated with leachate recycle on day 120 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (105 cells/g dry refuse), and in digesters D1 and D2 on day 210 for HFB (109 cells/g dry refuse) or on day 90 for HPAB (104-106 cells/g dry refuse). The population of methane-producing bacteria in digesters D4 and D5 sharply increased on days 60 and 90 respectively, however in igesters D1, D2 and D3 on day 120. Leachate recycle and inoculation changed the cellulolytic microorganisms composition of refuse ecosystem, the higher amounts of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were measured in digesters D4 and D5 (107 cells/g dry refuse), followed by digesters D3 (106 cells/g dry refuse), D2 or D1(104 cells/g dry refuse). However, the amounts of aerobic cellulolytic bacteria were much lower than that of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria. And it was higher in digester D3 than those in digesters D1, D2

  19. 49 CFR 199.103 - Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test.


    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.103 Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. (a) An operator may not knowingly use as an employee any person who— (1) Fails a drug test required by... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of persons who fail or refuse a drug test. 199...

  20. Dispreferred Responses in Interlanguage Pragmatics Refusal Sequences in Learner-NS Interactions

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar


    This study examines the pragmatic strategies that learners utilize to negotiate a resolution when refusing a native speaker of higher status in three asymmetric situations (+Power, +Distance). Following Pomerantz's (1984) analysis of dispreferred responses, this study focuses on refusals to an invitation, a request, and a suggestion. Refusal…

  1. Refusing artificial nutrition and hydration: does statutory law send the wrong message?

    Sieger, Carol E; Arnold, Jason F; Ahronheim, Judith C


    Ethical consensus and appellate court decisions view artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) as medical treatment that can be refused like other treatments. However, advance directive statutes may produce obstacles for refusal of ANH, as distinct from other life-sustaining treatments, in patients who lack capacity. This paper reviews state statutes and appellate case law regarding medical decision making for patients who lack decisional capacity. Twenty states (39%) have one or more explicit statutory provisions delineating a separate and more stringent standard for ANH refusal. These standards include higher evidentiary standard; requirement for specific preauthorization, qualifying medical conditions, second medical opinion, or judicial review; refusal not permitted; refusal not permitted if death would result from "starvation" or "dehydration"; and previous law with higher standard applies to old documents. In 11 of these states and in eight others, statutory law contains language that could be misinterpreted, implying, but not rising to, an explicitly higher standard. Four appellate decisions departed from the judicial consensus that ANH can be refused like other treatments, but subsequent court decisions or legislative enactments reduced or eliminated their impact. Legislators and the courts should ask whether higher standards for ANH refusal are appropriate in light of case law authority that ANH should not be treated differently and in light of statutory language that preserves those common law rights. These higher standards may make it more difficult in certain states to refuse ANH for patients who lack capacity or place a burden on good practice by making providers fearful of the law.

  2. 20 CFR 410.666 - Effect of Appeals Council's decision or refusal to review.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of Appeals Council's decision or refusal to review. 410.666 Section 410.666 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL....666 Effect of Appeals Council's decision or refusal to review. The Appeals Council may deny a...

  3. Acquisition of cup drinking using previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement.

    Kelley, Michael E; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Oberdorff, Amanda J


    We used previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement in the acquisition of cup drinking. Cup drinking increased with positive and negative reinforcement, both alone and in combination (without escape extinction), indicating that treatment of food refusal can establish some foods as appetitive stimuli whereas others remain aversive.

  4. 29 CFR 102.88 - Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board.


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refusal to conduct referendum; appeal to Board. 102.88..., SERIES 8 Procedure for Referendum Under Section 9(e) of the Act § 102.88 Refusal to conduct referendum... appear to the regional director that no referendum should be conducted, he shall dismiss the petition by...

  5. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    Frescura, Marina


    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  6. Family Influences on Treatment Refusal in School-Linked Mental Health Services

    Keeley, Mary L.; Wiens, Brenda A.


    This study analyzed family influences on treatment refusal in school-linked mental health services (SLMHS). Specifically, it assessed whether levels of family cohesion, conflict, and organization were related to whether a family refused to initiate recommended treatment. Children (N = 133) referred for emotional and behavioral problems and their…

  7. Realization of Speech Acts of Refusals and Pragmatic Competence by Turkish EFL Learners

    Han, Turgay; Burgucu-Tazegül, Assiye


    The purpose of the present study is to examine a) how lower-intermediate and upper-intermediate level Turkish learners of English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) realize refusals in English, b) the differences between native and non-native speakers of English in the use of refusals, and c) if L2 proficiency affects possible pragmatic transfer or not.…

  8. 21 CFR 314.127 - Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug application.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve an abbreviated new drug... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.127 Refusal to approve an abbreviated new...

  9. Refusing HIV testing in an urgent care setting: results from the "Think HIV" program.

    Liddicoat, Rebecca V; Losina, Elena; Kang, Minhee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P


    Efforts to increase HIV case identification through routine, voluntary HIV testing are hindered by high refusal rates. Our objective was to identify patients most likely to refuse routine HIV testing. We developed a new HIV testing program at four Massachusetts urgent care centers. Patients were asked if they were interested in routine HIV testing. We performed analyses to assess differences in characteristics between those who refused testing and those who accepted it. Data were available for 9129/10,354 (88%) patients offered routine HIV testing from January to December 2002. Of these 9129 patients, 67% refused testing. In the crude analysis, HIV test refusal was associated with female gender, white race, older age, and higher educational level. In multivariate analysis, non-English-speaking patients who were Hispanic, Haitian, and other race were more likely to refuse testing than their English-speaking counterparts. Among all patients, "not at risk" and "already tested" were the most common reasons for test refusal. Two thirds of patients refused routine HIV testing when it was offered in a statewide urgent care-based program. If routine HIV testing programs are to be successful, strategies must be developed to increase HIV test acceptance among patients most likely to refrain from testing.

  10. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Luana Sorrenti


    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.

  11. Prostate Cancer Patients’ Refusal of Cancer-Directed Surgery: A Statewide Analysis

    K. M. Islam


    Full Text Available Introduction. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in USA. The surgical outcomes of prostate cancer remain inconsistent. Barriers such as socioeconomic factors may play a role in patients’ decision of refusing recommended cancer-directed surgery. Methods. The Nebraska Cancer Registry data was used to calculate the proportion of prostate cancer patients recommended the cancer-directed surgery and the surgery refusal rate. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the socioeconomic indicators that were related to the refusal of surgery. Results. From 1995 to 2012, 14,876 prostate cancer patients were recommended to undergo the cancer-directed surgery in Nebraska, and 576 of them refused the surgery. The overall refusal rate of surgery was 3.9% over the 18 years. Patients with early-stage prostate cancer were more likely to refuse the surgery. Patients who were Black, single, or covered by Medicaid/Medicare had increased odds of refusing the surgery. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors were related to the refusal of recommended surgical treatment for prostate cancer. Such barriers should be addressed to improve the utilization of surgical treatment and patients’ well-being.

  12. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    Frescura, Marina


    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  13. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Clarke, Kyra


    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  14. Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia

    Christensen Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of participants in longitudinal studies due to non-contact, refusal or death can introduce bias into the results of such studies. The study described here examines reasons for refusal over three waves of a survey of persons aged ≥ 70 years. Methods In a longitudinal study involving three waves, participants were compared to those who refused to participate but allowed an informant to be interviewed and to those who refused any participation. Results At Wave 1 both groups of Wave 2 non-participants had reported lower occupational status and fewer years of education, had achieved lower verbal IQ scores and cognitive performance scores and experienced some distress from the interview. Those with an informant interview only were in poorer physical health than those who participated and those who refused. Depression and anxiety symptoms were not associated with non-participation. Multivariate analyses found that verbal IQ and cognitive impairment predicted refusal. Results were very similar for refusers at both Waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Longitudinal studies of the elderly may over estimate cognitive performance because of the greater refusal rate of those with poorer performance. However, there is no evidence of bias with respect to anxiety or depression.

  15. 37 CFR 1.47 - Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing when an inventor... Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A Patent § 1.47 Filing when an inventor refuses to sign or cannot be reached. (a) If a joint inventor refuses to join in an application for patent or cannot be found...

  16. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.21 Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application. (a)...

  17. Thinking through Moments of Sexual Refusal in "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake"

    Clarke, Kyra


    This paper explores two scenarios in which young women refuse the sexual advances of young men in the films "Looking for Alibrandi" and "The Rage in Placid Lake." The paper highlights the heteronormative nature of education around refusing sex, which reinstates gendered stereotypes of masculine as active and feminine as…

  18. Utilisation of Coloured Paper Refuse in Eco-products

    TAKÁTS, Alexandra


    Full Text Available In the course of our research we have found a solution for recycling coloured advertisingpaper in a cellulose fibre based composite. This paper quality is produced in huge quantities and canbe recycled with difficulties even in paper industry. Our aim was to produce a kind of organiccomposite that does not contain any adhesives fixing the matrix part of the composite. An eco-productgenerated this way has similar physical and mechanical attributes to medium density fibreboard(MDF. Fibre made of coloured newspaper can easily be adapted to board production while, at thesame time, this supports also the development of an environment oriented product policy. Boardbasedcomposites produced by utilizing recycled refuse paper can be used for designing and creatingenvironmentally friendly products following the eco-design trend.

  19. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    McNicholas, Fiona


    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  20. Assessment of latest technology in coal refuse fire extinguishment

    Maneval, D.R.


    It is easier, cheaper, and less hazardous to prevent fires in coal refuse banks than to extinguish them. This can be done by compacting in thin layers (to reduce air and air flow), sealing edges with various materials (crushed linestone is good, it gives off CO/sub 2/ when heated), etc. In particular the tippler form of pile construction should be avoided. Once these piles do ignite (by spontaneous combustion or other means), it is often difficult and hazardous (gases, explosions, unsafe regions, etc) to work at extinguishing them. Various methods are given. Once the fire is put out, the pile should be reworked, compacting and sealing it, so the process does not start again. (LTN)

  1. Low Temperature Dechlorination of Densified Refuse Derived Fuel in Pyrolysis

    LI Wei; XIE Qiang


    Study on behavior of chlorine contained in oval-shaped densified refuse derived fuel (d-RDF) prepared from unicipal solid waste in pyrolysis was carried out by means of temperature-programmed electrical furnace, and the gasevolving from pyrolysis was investigated by FTIR. De-HCl rate was calculated by determining the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the fraction of Cl left in the pyrolysis residue. The results show that Cl in the d-RDF releases primarily in the form of HCl during the pyrolysis, and the initial releasing temperature of HCl enhances with the increase of heating rate. Meanwhile, the higher the end temperature of pyrolysis, the more the Cl released. De-HCl rate is about 70% when the end temperature of pyrolysis is around 600℃. Besides, mechanism of Cl release is discussed.

  2. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail:; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  3. Wrongness, Responsibility, and Conscientious Refusals in Health Care.

    Liberman, Alida


    In this article, I address what kinds of claims are of the right kind to ground conscientious refusals. Specifically, I investigate what conceptions of moral responsibility and moral wrongness can be permissibly presumed by conscientious objectors. I argue that we must permit HCPs to come to their own subjective conclusions about what they take to be morally wrong and what they take themselves to be morally responsible for. However, these subjective assessments of wrongness and responsibility must be constrained in several important ways: they cannot involve empirical falsehoods, objectionably discriminatory attitudes, or unreasonable normative beliefs. I argue that the sources of these constraints are the basic epistemic, relational, and normative competencies needed to function as a minimally decent health-care professional. Finally, I consider practical implications for my framework, and argue that it shows us that the objection raised by the plaintiffs in Zubik v. Burwell is of the wrong sort. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 48 CFR 252.222-7001 - Right of first refusal of employment-Closure of military installations.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of first refusal of... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7001 Right of first refusal...: Right of First Refusal of Employment—Closure of Military Installations (APR 1992) (a) The...

  5. Characteristics and prognosis of patients with early-stage endometrial cancer who refuse adjuvant radiotherapy.

    Koskas, Martin; Huchon, Cyrille; Amant, Frederic


    To investigate the risk factors for refusing adjuvant radiotherapy in patients who have undergone surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer, and to compare their survival rates with patients who have undergone adjuvant radiotherapy. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for patients operated on for histologically-proven early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer, between 1988 and 2012, were screened. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses tested the associations between refusal of adjuvant radiotherapy and demographic, tumoral, and management characteristics. Overall and cancer-related survival rates were compared between 376 patients who refused adjuvant radiotherapy and 752 patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy, matched for demographics (age, race, year of diagnosis, marital status, region), tumoral (grade, FIGO stage, size), and management (lymphadenectomy performed) criteria. 434 of the 16,014 patients (2.7%) who were proposed adjuvant radiotherapy refused this treatment. Older, widowed, divorced, or separated patients, who were recently diagnosed and managed in the Northern plains or Pacific coast (USA), with limited tumoral extension, were more likely to refuse adjuvant radiotherapy. Five-year cancer-related survival was significantly lower in patients who refused adjuvant radiotherapy (88.9% vs. 95.7%, pradiotherapy. Refusing adjuvant radiotherapy increased cancer-related death but probably does not reduce overall survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents who refuse or delay HPV vaccine: Differences in vaccination behavior, beliefs, and clinical communication preferences.

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Calo, William A; Marciniak, Macary W; Brewer, Noel T


    We sought to estimate the national prevalence of HPV vaccine refusal and delay in a nationally-representative sample of parents of adolescents. We also compared parents who refused versus delayed HPV vaccine in terms of their vaccination beliefs and clinical communication preferences. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted an online survey of 1,484 US parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old child in their household. We used weighted multinomial logistic regression to assess correlates of HPV vaccine refusal and delay. Overall, 28% of parents reported that they had ever "refused or decided not to get" HPV vaccine for their child, and an additional 8% of parents reported that they had "delayed or put off getting" HPV vaccine. Compared to no refusal/delay, refusal was associated with lower confidence in adolescent vaccination (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.91), lower perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness (RRR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.50-0.91), and higher perceived harms (RRR = 3.49, 95% CI, 2.65-4.60). In contrast, delay was associated with needing more information (RRR = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.08-2.85). Most parents rated physicians and information sheets as helpful for making decisions about HPV vaccination, although parents who reported refusal endorsed these resources less often. Our findings suggest that HPV vaccine refusal is common among parents of adolescents and may have increased relative to previous estimates. Because the vaccination beliefs and communication preferences of parents who refuse appear to differ from those who delay, targeted communication strategies may be needed to effectively address HPV vaccine hesitancy.

  7. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.


    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  8. Turning refuse plastic into multi-walled carbon nanotube forest

    Eugene Oh, Jaegeun Lee, Seung-Ho Jung, Seungho Cho, Hye-Jin Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Kun-Hong Lee, Kyong-Hwa Song, Chi-Hoon Choi and Do Suck Han


    Full Text Available A novel and effective method was devised for synthesizing a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT forest on a substrate using waste plastic obtained from commercially available water bottles. The advantages of the proposed method are the speed of processing and the use of waste as a raw material. A mechanism for the CNT growth was also proposed. The growth rate of the CNT forest was ~2.5 μm min−1. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the outer diameters of the CNTs were 20–30 nm on average. The intensity ratio of the G and D Raman bands was 1.27 for the vertically aligned CNT forest. The Raman spectrum showed that the wall graphitization of the CNTs, synthesized via the proposed method was slightly higher than that of commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. We expect that the proposed method can be easily adapted to the disposal of other refuse materials and applied to MWCNT production industries.

  9. Gasification process of refuse derived fuel in circulating fluidized bed

    Ichikawa, S.; Kinoshita, Y.; Lee, C.W.; Itaya, Y.; Mori, S. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    This paper presents a fuel gas production system involving gasification of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Although RDF is considered to be a viable source of energy, combustion of RDF has not spread widely because of a lack of conventional incinerators, erosion due to hydrogen chloride, and emissions of dioxin. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the pyrolysis behaviour of 3 kinds of RDF and the particle motion in a cold model CFB. The objective was to clarify operating parameters for optimum control. It was shown that an increase in combustion temperature improves the yield of the combustible gas components and the energy recycling efficiency from the RDF. The highest heating value of pyrolysis gas was obtained at 873 to 973 degrees K. The gas flow rate in the pneumatic valve of the CFB was an important control factor for the circulation flux and solids holdup in the riser. High holdups were observed when minute silica sand particles were used in the CFB. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  10. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  11. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E


    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper.

  12. 29 CFR 102.19 - Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or reissue.


    ... Unfair Labor Practices 1 Complaint § 102.19 Appeal to the general counsel from refusal to issue or.... Consideration of an appeal untimely filed is within the discretion of the General Counsel upon good cause...

  13. Effects from different types of construction refuse in the soil on electrodialytic remediation

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Eriksson, Thomas; Hansen, Henrik K.


    of different sorts of construction refuse on electrodialytic soil remediation was investigated in laboratory cells. An insulator, a stone, resulted in an uneven Cu removal in the close vicinity of the stone itself. An electric conductive screw disturbed the Cu removal due to the redox reactions occurring...... at the surface of the screw causing pH changes in the soil. Two types of refuse with ionic conducting properties were placed within the test cell, a piece of brick and concrete. The brick did not influence the Cu removal from the soil to a high extent, but it was seen that during the remediation the Cu...... poor. It is very important to be aware of the presence of construction refuse at such sites when planning an electrochemical remediation action. All the refuse types investigated here influenced the Cu removal negatively compared to the reference experiment. $CPY 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights...

  14. Development of new high-rate composting process of municipal refuse

    Kajimoto, H.; Tamura, T.; Kumagaya, T.; Shimada, T.; Yoneda, M.; Hamamoto, I.


    In Japan, the composting technique is being re-evaluated as one of the alternative techniques for solid waste disposal. A review is made of the municipal refuse high-rate composting technique from the viewpoints of the changed properties of munficipal refuses and environmental protection. As the result of an operation of a pilot plant having a composting capacity of one ton of refuse per day, a new process suited to the properties of today's municipal refuses in Japan was developed. The feature of the new process is to control the moisture content of fresh compost (obtained from the primary digester) by a mechanical press and produce fully ripened compost without non-compostable materials such as plastics and glass.

  15. Process Effects of Refusal on Psychological Stress Response for Elementary School Students

    井邑, 智哉


    The process in which refusal affects psychological stress response was examined. A total of 300 participants (157 men, 143 women) completed the questionnaire survey. A model was constructed based on the assumption that the seven types of refusal facilitate the attainment of social support from friends. Thus, we proposed social support affects psychological stress response. A covariance structural analysis was conducted, indicating that modesty decreased depression-anxiety and displeasure-ange...

  16. Parental refusal of vaccination and transplantation listing decisions: a nationwide survey.

    Ladd, Jennifer M; Karkazis, Katrina; Magnus, David


    Many professional societies and research studies recommend complete vaccination before pediatric solid organ transplantation. Nevertheless, incompletely vaccinated children often receive transplants. As the number of parents refusing to vaccinate children for nonmedical reasons increases, pediatric transplantation programs face difficult listing decisions. Given the importance of psychosocial criteria in listing decisions, this study explores how parental refusal of vaccination affects those listing decisions. Surveys were emailed to individuals at 195 pediatric solid organ transplantation programs in the United States, with a 71% response rate. Forty-four respondents (39%) reported that their programs have had cases involving parental refusal of vaccination. In response to hypothetical scenarios, 93 respondents (82%) would list a child not vaccinated for medical reasons, whereas only 54 respondents (47%) would list a child whose parents refused vaccination. Only five respondents (4%) reported that their programs had written policies regarding parental refusal of vaccination. These data reveal inconsistencies across pediatric transplantation programs regarding how parental refusal of vaccination affects listing decisions and raise the issue of whether and how the reason for incomplete vaccination should be factored into listing decisions. We recommend further discussion and the development of written guidelines to unify programs' assessments of incompletely vaccinated pediatric transplantation candidates.

  17. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi


    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dialysis patients refusing kidney transplantation: data from the Slovenian Renal Replacement Therapy Registry.

    Buturović-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Gubenšek, Jakob; Arnol, Miha; Bren, Andrej; Kandus, Aljoša; Ponikvar, Rafael


    Kidney transplantation is considered the best renal replacement therapy (RRT) for patients with end-stage renal disease; nevertheless, some dialysis patients refuse to be transplanted. The aim of our registry-based, cross-sectional study was to compare kidney transplant candidates to dialysis patients refusing transplantation. Data were collected from the Slovenian Renal Replacement Therapy Registry database, as of 31 December 2008. Demographic and some RRT data were compared between the groups. There were 1448 dialysis patients, of whom 1343 were treated by hemodialysis and 105 by peritoneal dialysis (PD); 132 (9%) were on the waiting list for transplantation, 208 (14%) were preparing for enrollment (altogether 340 [23%] dialysis patients were kidney transplant candidates); 200 (13.7%) patients were reported to refuse transplantation, all ≤ 65 years of age; 345 (24%) were not enrolled due to medical contraindications, 482 (33%) due to age, and 82 (6%) due to other or unknown reasons. No significant difference was found in age, gender, or presence of diabetes between kidney transplant candidates vs. patients refusing transplantation (mean age 50.5 ± 13.9 vs. 51.3 ± 9.6 years, males 61% vs. 63%, diabetics 18% vs. 17%). The proportion of patients ≤ 65 years old who were refusing transplantation was 28% (187/661) for hemodialysis and 17% (13/79) for PD patients (P = 0.03). There is a considerable group of dialysis patients in Slovenia refusing kidney transplantation. Compared to the kidney transplant candidates, they are similar in age, gender and prevalence of diabetes. Patients treated by peritoneal dialysis refuse kidney transplantation less often than hemodialysis patients.

  19. [Accumulation of respiratory diseases among employees at a recently established refuse sorting plant].

    Sigsgaard, T I; Bach, B; Taudorf, E; Malmros, P; Gravesen, S


    An increasing number of plants for re-use of refuse have been constructed in Denmark in recent years. The Kaastrup Plant near Skive was opened in spring 1986. The plant accepts household rubbish and industrial refuse separately. The refuse is sorted by machine (industrial refuse is sorted partially manually) and in a large partially open machine plant, refuse is converted into fuel pellets. During a period of eight months, eight out of 15 employees developed respiratory symptoms. In seven, bronchial asthma was diagnosed and chronic bronchitis in one person. Four had initial symptoms of the organic dust toxic syndrome. After further six months, another case of occupationally-conditioned asthma occurred in the plant. Only two out of nine had previously had asthma or atopic disease. The investigation did not reveal any evidence of type-I allergy. Six out of nine had specific precipitating antibodies to refuse while all had negative RAST tests to this. In spring 1989, from six to eighteen months after the onset of the symptoms, six had still dyspnoea on exertion and three had positive histamine-provocation tests and seven out of nine had left the plant. Occupational medical measurements revealed dust concentrations of 8.1 mg/cubic millimeter in September 1986 and total germs of up to 3 x 10(9) cfu/cubic meter. Construction of the plant involved considerable contact with the refuse on account of the cleansing processes and open systems and it was reconstructed in the course of 1987/1988 so that the hygienic conditions are now acceptable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. An audit of consent refusals in clinical research at a tertiary care center in India

    S J Thaker


    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Ensuring research participants′ autonomy is one of the core ethical obligations of researchers. This fundamental principle confers on every participant the right to refuse to take part in clinical research, and the measure of the number of consent refusals could be an important metric to evaluate the quality of the informed consent process. This audit examined consent refusals among Indian participants in clinical studies done at our center. Materials and Methods: The number of consent refusals and their reasons in 10 studies done at our center over a 5-year period were assessed. The studies were classified by the authors according to the type of participant (healthy vs patients, type of sponsor (investigator-initiated vs pharmaceutical industry, type of study (observational vs interventional, level of risk [based on the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR "Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants"], available knowledge of the intervention being studied, and each patient′s disease condition. Results: The overall consent refusal rate was 21%. This rate was higher among patient participants [23.8% vs. healthy people (14.9%; P = 0.002], in interventional studies [33.6% vs observational studies (7.5%; P < 0.0001], in pharmaceutical industry-sponsored studies [34.7% vs investigator-initiated studies (7.2%; P < 0.0001], and in studies with greater risk (P < 0.0001. The most common reasons for consent refusals were multiple blood collections (28%, inability to comply with the study protocol (20%, and the risks involved (20%. Conclusion: Our audit suggests the adequacy and reasonable quality of the informed consent process using consent refusals as a metric.

  1. Effect of leachate recycling and inoculation on the biochemical characteristics of municipal refuse in landfill bioreactors


    Activity development of key groups of enzymes involved in municipal refuse decomposition was measured in laboratory landfill hioreactors with and without leachate recycling and inoculation for about 210 days.The results showed that the enzymes (amylase,protease,cellulase,lipase and pectinase ) were present in fresh refuse but at low values and positively affected hy leachate recycling and refuse inoculation.The total average of cellulase activity in digesters D3 operated with leachate recycling but no inoculation,D4 and D5 operated with leachate recycling and inoculation was much higher than that in digesters D1 and D2 without leachate recycling and inoculation by 88%-127%,117%-162% and 64%-98%.The total average of protease activity was higher in digester D4 than that in digesters D1,D2,D3and D5 by 63%,39%,24% and 24%,respectively,and the positive effect of leachate and inoculation on protease activity of landfilled refuse mainly was at the first two months.The total average of amylase activity was higher in digesters D3,D4 and D5 than that in digesters D1 and D2 by 83%-132%,96%-148% and 81%-129%.During the early phase of incubation,the stimulatory effect of inoculation on lipase activity was measured,but refuse moisture was the main factor affecting lipase activity of landfilled refuse.The inoculation,initial and continuous inoculation of microorganisms existing in leachate,was the mainly stimulatory factor affecting pectinase activity of landfilled refuse.

  2. Investigating cross-linguistic differences in refusal speech act among native Persian and English speakers

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the speech act of refusal performed by native Persian and English speakers with respect to linguistic devices. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, refusal utterances were analyzed with respect to semantic formulas - that is words, phrases, or sentences meeting a particular semantic criterion to perform an act of eliciting. In the second phase, gender differences were examined, as well. One hundred movies (50 in Persian, 50 in English were used as instruments for gathering the data. The movies were watched closely, and the utterances native speakers employed in their refusals were transcribed and analyzed. Persian speakers used excuse more than English speakers; however, they applied strategies such as regret, non-performative statements, and lack of enthusiasm less frequently than English speakers. The Chi-square (χ² formula was then conducted to find out whether there were any significant differences in performing refusal speech act among the speakers of the two languages. The results showed that there were some differences between the two languages with regard to refusal utterances and gender. Finally, pedagogical implications of study for language learning and teaching have been enumerated.

  3. Are they really refusing to travel? A qualitative study of prehospital records

    Christopher Sarah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refusal by the patient to travel after calling an emergency ambulance may lead to a preventable waste of scarce resources if it can be shown that an alternative more appropriate response could be employed. A greater understanding is required of the reasons behind 'refusal to travel' (RTT in order to find appropriate solutions to address this issue. We sought to investigate the reasons why patients refuse to travel following emergency call-out in a rural county. Methods Written records made by ambulance crews for patients (n = 397 who were not transported to hospital following an emergency call-out during October 2004 were retrospectively analysed. Results Twelve main themes emerged for RTT which included non injury or minor injury, falls and recovery after treatment on scene; other themes included alternative supervision, follow-up and treatment arrangements or patients arranging their own transport. Importantly, only 8% of the sample was recorded by ambulance crews as truly refusing to travel against advice. Conclusion A system that facilitates standardised recording of RTT information including social reasons for non-transportation needs to be designed. 'Refused to travel' disclaimers need to reflect instances when crew and patient are satisfied that not going to hospital is the right outcome. These recommendations should be considered within the context of the plans for widening the role of ambulance services.

  4. Interlanguage Pragmatics: A Study of the Refusal Strategies of Indonesian Speakers Speaking English

    Novy Amarien


    Full Text Available Abstract. This is a pilot study investigating the interlanguage pragmatics of the refusal strategies (RSs of Indonesian Speakers Speaking English (ISSE. The aims of the study are to investigate strategies ISSE use in their refusals of, specifically, offering and requesting initiation acts (IAs. Data were taken from 30 Discourse Completion Tasks undertaken by five males and females in the following groups: Indonesian speakers Speaking Indonesian (ISSI, ISSE and Australian Speakers Speaking English (ASSE. The study revealed that ISSE strategies in refusing offers were `intercultural', that is apparently uninfluenced by L1 patterns and yet not characteristic of L2 patterns. Pragmatic transfer was not in evidence. The data in this study could be the basis for further research in Indonesian interlanguage pragmatics.

  5. [Are we legally allowed to administer blood for lifesaving to a patient who refuses it?].

    Shimasaki, H; Yamamoto, H; Magaribuchi, T; Urabe, N; Shimasaki, A


    We surveyed the literatures and discussed the legal issues whether we should administer blood for lifesaving to a patient who refuses it. The valid refusal of the transfusion requires the distinct intention of a competent patient. Minors below fifteen years of age are incompetent and their parents make a substituted judgement. Anyone must not give priority to the parents' belief and blood ought to be transfused if necessary for the children's benefits. We could evade liability for withholding blood only when we manage an operation arranged to succeed without blood transfusion, undergoing the sufficient treatments to avoid the risks, as well as on the basis of the valid refusal of a patient. The release deed and the intervention of hospital directors, ethics committees and courts are invalid for the immunity from liability. Anesthesiologists have to take the responsibility on themselves of administering blood or not. A statute law should be established to define what is a patient's valid intention and who is responsible.

  6. The issue of refuse derived fuel - quantities, characterisation and use; Das Ersatzbrennstoffproblem - Aufkommen, Charakterisierung und Einsatz

    Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verfahren und Umwelt; Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. [Thome-Kozmiensky Ingenieure, Nietwerder (Germany)


    Due to the many mechanical-biological waste treatment plants in operation and under construction as well as the ongoing implementation of the Household Waste Technical Code the use of refuse derived fuels in processes of the primary, cement, steel, power and other industries is becoming increasingly important. Ultimately all the detail questions being raised boil down to the one question of whether the mechanical-biological treatment of household waste and industrial waste similar to household waste offers economic or ecological advantages over thermal waste treatment, which in the meantime is acknowledged as environmentally benign and technically reliable. The present paper gives a classification of solid refuse derived fuels. It then goes on to explain the various types of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants and depict the quantities of refuse derived fuel required and residue fractions produced by each.

  7. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani


    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusalRefusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  8. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu


    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill.

  9. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G


    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD.

  10. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan


    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  11. Methodology for regional economic analysis of urban refuse as an energy source for the Northeast

    Meier, P.M.; Le, T.


    The potential contribution of municipal refuse as an energy source depends on the spatial distribution and characteristics of population and the cost of alternative fuels. A methodology for regional economic analysis of urban refuse as an energy source requires a methodology that integrates population, interregional fuel price variations, and other engineering variables into a single model that can be subjected to sensitivity analysis helpful to the policy maker. Such a framework in the context of the Northeast States is developed. The area includes New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia.

  12. Specifications for refuse-derived fuels utilisation in industrial power plants; Bedingungen fuer die Ersatzbrennstoffverwertung in Industriekraftwerken

    Seiler, U.; Hoelter, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Concepts and definitions in the refuse-derived fuels sector are presented, as well as forecasts of the volumes to be expected. Utilisation options are presented, and specifications for a refuse-derived fuel are laid down. The necessary treatment stages are described, and the cost of the various processes is compared. (orig.)

  13. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos


    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  14. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    arises whether a child may refuse to consent to life-saving medical treatment ... things, that the following be taken into account: (i) the child's age, maturity and stage ... other relevant characteristics; (ii) the child's physical and emotional security ...

  15. Behavioural treatment of a food refusal conversion disorder in a mentally retarded adult.

    Weinman, B; Haydon, S; Sapan, J


    A 31-year-old woman with mental retardation who demonstrated total food refusal as the symptom of a conversion disorder was successfully treated with behavioural management techniques. The treatment utilized a shaping paradigm combined with relaxation procedures. The results supported the hypothesis that conversion disorder symptoms are maintained through their consequences, and the efficacy of behavioural treatments for those disorders.

  16. 45 CFR 5b.8 - Appeals of refusals to correct or amend records.


    ... Services Administration; Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; Center for Disease Control... circumstances of the delay. The subject individual's request to amend or correct the record, the responsible... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals of refusals to correct or amend...

  17. 76 FR 46820 - Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac...


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Proposal To Refuse To Approve a Supplemental New Drug Application for Bromday (Bromfenac Ophthalmic Solution), 0.09%; Opportunity for a Hearing AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the...

  18. 30 CFR 780.25 - Reclamation plan: Siltation structures, impoundments, and refuse piles.


    ... for each proposed siltation structure, impoundment, and refuse pile within the proposed permit area....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may review and download the incorporated document from the Natural... copy of this document at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information...

  19. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier


    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship.

  20. High-context and Low-context communication:A Case Study of A Chinese Refusal

    吴建晓; 钱敏


    Edward Hall offers us an effective means of examining cultural similarities and differences, that is the classification of high-context and low-context culture. The paper attempts to analyze a case of a Chinese refusal from the perspective of high-context and low-context communication and explores the differences between the two types of communication.

  1. Interim storage of wastes and refuse derived fuels; Zwischenlagerung von Abfaellen und Ersatzbrennstoffen

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J.; Versteyl, A.; Beckmann, M. (eds.)


    Authors comment on interim storage of municipal wastes and refuse derived fuels. Topics of the 16 contributions are: Logistics and engineering, planning, estimation of storage time, cost and commitment, amend ment of the regulations, penal risks of interim storage, material flow management at waste incinerators, fire prevention, environmental risk, insurances. (uke)

  2. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    Fanta Wondimagegn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

  3. Additive, Multi-Component Treatment of Emerging Refusal Topographies in a Pediatric Feeding Disorder

    Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.


    This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…

  4. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Food Refusal in Handicapped Children.

    Riordan, Mary M.; And Others


    Chronic food refusal of four handicapped children (one-three years old) was modified by a procedure involving the delivery of reinforcement (social praise, access to preferred foods, brief toy play periods) contingent upon consumption of a targeted food item. (CL)

  5. Resisting Colonial Education: Zitkala-Sa and Native Feminist Archival Refusal

    Terrance, Laura L.


    This paper examines resistance through a Native Feminist lens, employing the boarding school memoirs of Zitkala-Sa. Within a "story" of appropriation in methodology, it considers protest and parody, and presents archival refusal as modes of resistance to colonial education. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M


    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  8. An Alternating Treatments Comparison of Two Intensive Interventions for Food Refusal.

    Ahearn, William H.; And Others


    The effects of two methods of negative reinforcement on three young children (ages two and three) with developmental delays and chronic food refusal were examined. Physically guiding the child to accept food contingent on noncompliance and nonremoval of the spoon until the child ate were tested. Both treatments were effective; however, parents…

  9. Missed opportunities: refusal to confirm reactive rapid HIV tests in the emergency department.

    Ishani Ganguli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection remains a major US public health concern. While HIV-infected individuals now benefit from earlier diagnosis and improved treatment options, progress is tempered by large numbers of newly diagnosed patients who are lost to follow-up prior to disease confirmation and linkage to care. METHODOLOGY: In the randomized, controlled USHER trial, we offered rapid HIV tests to patients presenting to a Boston, MA emergency department. Separate written informed consent was required for confirmatory testing. In a secondary analysis, we compared participants with reactive results who did and did not complete confirmatory testing to identify factors associated with refusal to complete the confirmation protocol. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen of 62 (21.0%, 95% CI (11.7%, 33.2% participants with reactive rapid HIV tests refused confirmation; women, younger participants, African Americans, and those with fewer HIV risks, with lower income, and without primary care doctors were more likely to refuse. We projected that up to four true HIV cases were lost at the confirmation stage. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need to better understand the factors associated with refusal to confirm reactive HIV testing and to identify interventions that will facilitate confirmatory testing and linkage to care among these populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00502944; NCT01258582.

  10. Choosing none of the above: Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    Nijstad, B.A.


    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  11. Choosing none of the above : Persistence of negativity after group discussion and group decision refusal

    Nijstad, Bernard A.


    Within psychology and other disciplines, group decision making is a much-studied topic. However, the conditions in which groups do not decide but rather refuse to choose among available options have not been studied systematically. This research begins to fill this void, studying the effects of the

  12. Psychological Factors behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study

    Ek, Hans; Eriksson, Rikard


    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal,…

  13. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)


    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  14. A Study on the Perception of Jordanian EFL Learners’ Pragmatic Transfer of Refusals

    Ibrahim Fathi Huwari


    Full Text Available This study investigates the perception of Jordanian EFL learners’ (JEFL pragmatic transfer of refusal strategies in terms of contextual and cultural factors. Data were collected using a discourse completion test (DCT and a scaled-response questionnaire (SRQ to elicit perception data from the participants. Data from the SRQ were analyzed based on the speaker’s right to refuse the initiating act. Findings revealed that the right the speaker has to refuse the initiating act was assigned high ratings by the three groups (i.e., M > 3.00 in all social categories. Individually, however, the groups displayed the rating value differently where the AEL1 group’s perception of the speaker’s right was relatively higher than that of the JEFL and JAL1 groups in all the social categories. The JEFL participants’ negative pragmatic transfer criteria were met in the first and third social categories. The study concludes with a discussion of important directions for future research. Keywords: Perception, Refusal, Pragmatic transfer, Pragmalinguistic transfer, Sociopragmatic transfer

  15. War Memories and the Refusal of Male Dominance in Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon"

    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah


    This study investigates the role of the war memories in the construction of the female gender identity in Evelyin Shakir's "Oh, Lebanon," in which the female protagonist refuses to belong to her Arab identity when she lives in the United States because of the brutal war memories she witnesses in Lebanon. Such memories make the…

  16. Using Food Redistribution to Reduce Packing in Children with Severe Food Refusal

    Gulotta, Charles S.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Layer, Stacy A.


    Positive- and negative-reinforcement-based procedures typically have targeted acceptance for children with severe food refusal; however, these procedures do not always result in successful swallowing. Once acceptance is achieved, some children expel the food repeatedly or pack (hold or pocket) it in their mouths for extended periods of time. This…

  17. An Alternating Treatments Comparison of Two Intensive Interventions for Food Refusal.

    Ahearn, William H.; And Others


    The effects of two methods of negative reinforcement on three young children (ages two and three) with developmental delays and chronic food refusal were examined. Physically guiding the child to accept food contingent on noncompliance and nonremoval of the spoon until the child ate were tested. Both treatments were effective; however, parents…

  18. Insulin refusal in Iranian patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Fazaelipoor, Zahra; Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad


    To achieve tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to introduce insulin therapy much earlier in the disease course. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. Many patients require insulin therapy after several years of disease in order to maintain good glycemic control and prevent complications. But many patients do not receive insulin therapy in a timely manner because of a negative appraisal of this treatment. Understanding the cause of this negative attitudes is necessary for better evaluation to overcome for this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for insulin refusal among patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study from Yazd Diabetes Research Center. 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who had an HbA1c ≥8.0% despite optimal oral therapy were identified that participated in this study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated questionnaires. This study showed that Insulin refusal was common. 77% of participant reported being unwilling to take insulin if prescribed. Fear of injection is an important cause for insulin refusal among patients. Insulin refusal is an important problem among our patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin use should focus on injection-related concerns, education and correction of misconceptions.

  19. Insulin refusal in Iranian patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Akram Ghadiri-Anari


    Full Text Available To achieve tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, it may be necessary to introduce insulin therapy much earlier in the disease course. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. Many patients require insulin therapy after several years of disease in order to maintain good glycemic control and prevent complications. But many patients do not receive insulin therapy in a timely manner because of a negative appraisal of this treatment. Understanding the cause of this negative attitudes is necessary for better evaluation to overcome for this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasons for insulin refusal among patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study from Yazd Diabetes Research Center. 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who had an HbA1c ≥8.0% despite optimal oral therapy were identified that participated in this study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated questionnaires. This study showed that Insulin refusal was common. 77% of participant reported being unwilling to take insulin if prescribed. Fear of injection is an important cause for insulin refusal among patients. Insulin refusal is an important problem among our patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin use should focus on injection-related concerns, education and correction of misconceptions.

  20. [A patient who refused treatment after self-poisoning with paracetamol

    Kramers, C.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.


    Two patients, a 20-year-old man and a 33-year-old woman, were admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Both patients refused treatment initially but eventually complied. The man had a paracetamol concentration of 47.5 mg/l 2.5-5.0 h after ingestion, so antidote treatment was not considered necessary. Th

  1. Modern on-line control system for refuse-fueled power plants. Moderne Leittechnik fuer Muellverbrennungsanlage

    Grasmueck, L. (Asea Brown Boveri AG, Mannheim (Germany, F.R.)); Klitzke, H.J. (Goepfert und Reimer und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Schumacher, E. (Technische Werke Ludwigshafen am Rhein AG (Germany, F.R.))


    30 years after commissioning a refuse-fueled power plant in Ludwigshafen was retrofitted and extended. A process control system provides an optimal waste combustion and flue gas cleanup. An on-line central strategy, special requirements on waste combustion and solutions are presented in this report. (orig.).

  2. 21 CFR 516.131 - Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing.


    ... eligibility for indexing. 516.131 Section 516.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 516.131 Refuse to file a request for determination of eligibility for indexing. (a) If a request for determination of eligibility for indexing contains all of the information required by § 516.129, FDA shall...

  3. Reasons Given by High School Students for Refusing Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening

    Sanders, Ladatra S.; Nsuami, Malanda; Cropley, Lorelei D.; Taylor, Stephanie N.


    Objective: To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public high schools in a southern urban United States…

  4. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    Karine Markosyan


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs’ demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n=62 of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants’ age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P<0.01, reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P<0.01, and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P=0.02 significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV.

  5. The Right of Psychiatric Patients to Refuse Medication: Where Should Social Workers Stand?

    Bentley, Kia J.


    Addresses differences among competence, commitment, and mental illness; the right to privacy; and the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Reviews professional motivations in relation to both sides of controversy over rights of psychiatric patients to refuse medication. Presents position for social work profession that stands for…

  6. School Factors Associated with School Refusal- and Truancy-Related Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.


    The primary aim of this study was to investigate how students' perceptions of relationships with peers at school and teachers' classroom management are associated with school refusal-related reasons and truancy-related reasons for school non-attendance. The study included controls for emotional stability and relevant parental variables. A student…

  7. Characteristics of H2S emission from aged refuse after excavation exposure.

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Du, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Hu, Li-Fang; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Long, Yu-Yang


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S(g)) emission from landfills is a widespread problem, especially when aged refuse is excavated. H2S(g) emission from aged refuse exposed to air was investigated and the results showed that large amounts of H2S(g) can be released, especially in the first few hours after excavation, when H2S(g) concentrations in air near refuse could reach 2.00 mg m(-3). Initial exposure to air did not inhibit the emission of H2S(g), as is generally assumed, but actually promoted it. The amounts of H2S(g) emitted in the first 2 d after excavation can be very dangerous, and the risks associated with the emission of H2S(g) could decrease significantly with time. Unlike a large number of sulfide existed under anaerobic conditions, the sulfide in aged municipal solid waste can be oxidized chemically to elemental sulfur (but not sulfate) under aerobic conditions, and its conversion rate was higher than 80%. Only microorganisms can oxidize the reduced sulfur species to sulfate, and the conversion rate could reach about 50%. Using appropriate techniques to enhance these chemical and biological transformations could allow the potential health risks caused by H2S(g) after refuse excavation to be largely avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    Chandran Thoovakkunon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need

  9. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil


    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  10. Refuse-derived fuels and fuel preparation plants of proven quality from REMONDIS; Guetegesicherte Sekundaerbrennstoffe und Brennstoffanlagen von REMONDIS

    Fendel, A. [Remondis AG und Co. KG, Luenen (Germany); Glorius, T. [Remondis Trade and Sales, Essen (Germany)


    Efforts to conserve resources have been reinvigorated by a number of factors, including the interest of various waste-producing industries in reutilisation and, initially on the part of the cement and lime industry but later also power plant operators, the search for a quantitatively and qualitatively reliable source of less expensive refuse-derived fuels of the greatest possible homogeneity. Other factors that have stimulated the demand for partially biogenic refuse-derived fuels have been the requirements imposed for the purpose of reducing climatically harmful emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Treaty and the now established market for CO{sub 2} emission trading. Rising primary energy prices are a powerful incentive for operators of power plants and industrial firing installations to lower their energy costs through the use of refuse-derived fuels. The refuse-derived fuel must be brought to a quality level where it can substitute fossil fuels without operational or technical constraints. This applies in particular to power plants and cement and lime works, since these depend on cocombustion. Refuse-derived fuels are therefore subject to very stringent quality requirements. In the ideal case this will result in a refuse-derived fuel whose properties come very close to those of the fuel being substituted. Novel preparation technologies have facilitated the breakthrough of two new generations of refuse-derived fuels, namely BPG registered and SBS registered. The quality requirements agreed upon with the purchasers of these fuels necessitate very extensive and involved preparation processes.

  11. Understanding the reasons for the refusal of cholecystectomy in patients with cholelithiasis: how to help them in their decision?

    Peron, Adilson; Schliemann, Ana Laura; Almeida, Fernando Antonio de


    Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals.

  12. Trans*+ing Classrooms: The Pedagogy of Refusal as Mediator for Learning

    sj Miller


    Full Text Available Gender and sexuality norms, conscribed under cis/heteropatriarchy, have established violent and unstable social and educational climates for the millennial generation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, agender/asexual, gender creative, and questioning youth. While strides have been made to make schools more supportive and queer inclusive, schools still struggle to include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender*+, intersex, agender/asexual, gender creative, queer and questioning (LGBT*+IAGCQQ-positive curricula. While extensive studies must be done on behalf of all queer youth, this work specifically focuses on how to support classroom teachers to uptake and apply a pedagogy of refusal that attends to the most vulnerabilized population of queer youth to date, those that are trans*+. A pedagogy of refusal will be explored through an evolving theory of trans*+ness, then demonstrated through a framework for classroom application, followed by recommendations for change.

  13. Caesarean Section Refusal in the Irish Courts: Health Service Executive v B.

    Wade, Katherine


    In the Irish High Court case of Health Service Executive v B, it was held that a competent woman could not be forced to have a caesarean section against her will notwithstanding the fact that her refusal increased the risk of injury and death to both her and her unborn child.1 This case is of particular interest since it is the first reported case on caesarean section refusal in Ireland. This commentary provides a critical analysis of the judgment, focusing on aspects of the law on informed consent and the way in which the judge reached the conclusion that an order for an enforced caesarean section should not be made. It is argued that, while the outcome can be justified, the reasoning appears at times to be unpersuasive. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: a test of specificity theory.

    Oei, T P; Burrow, T


    Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.




    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J


    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  17. Performance characteristics of turbo blower in a refuse collecting system according to operation conditions

    Jang, C. M.; Kim, D. W. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. Y. [ANST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A simulator for a refuse collecting system is designed to investigate the performance characteristics of a turbo blower operating at different rotational frequencies. The simulator consists of an air intake, a waste chute, circular duct, waste collector and turbo blower. Experimental measurements and numerical simulation with three-dimensional Navier- Stokes equations have been performed to analyze the performance of the turbo blower. Throughout numerical simulation of the simulator, it is found that the input energy of the blower can be reduced by controlling the rotational frequency of impeller while the efficiency of the blower keeps constant. The required outlet pressure and flow rate of the blower can be also adjusted along the system resistance of the refuse collecting system. Detailed flow characteristics inside the blower are analyzed for different rotational frequencies

  18. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate


    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen and Vadbäcken have been contaminated by toxic leachate from a municipal refuse dump. In this study, female perch were caught in Molnbyggen and the reference lake, Lake Djursjön, to further investiga...

  19. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  20. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A


    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. Howe...

  1. Understanding patient acceptance and refusal of HIV testing in the emergency department

    Christopoulos Katerina A; Weiser Sheri D; Koester Kimberly A; Myers Janet J; White Douglas AE; Kaplan Beth; Morin Stephen F


    ABSTRACT Background Despite high rates of patient satisfaction with emergency department (ED) HIV testing, acceptance varies widely. It is thought that patients who decline may be at higher risk for HIV infection, thus we sought to better understand patient acceptance and refusal of ED HIV testing. Methods In-depth interviews with fifty ED patients (28 accepters and 22 decliners of HIV testing) in three ED HIV testing programs that serve vulnerable urban populations in northern California. Re...

  2. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth


    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  3. Effect of Inoculation with Effective Microorganisms and Leachate Recycle on Degradation of Municipal Refuse

    沈东升; 何若; 朱荫湄


    Biodegradation of waste in landfill is a slow process requiring decades for completion. Accelerated degradation of municipal refuse in modulated landfill environments may alleviate or eliminate pollution to the land, water and air. In this work, nineteen effective microorganisms (EMs) were isolated from old landfill refuse by enrichment culturing techniques and used for the inoculum of municipal refuse. The preliminary experiments demonstrate that a combination of EMs inoculation in landfill with leachate recycle resulted in increased rates of decomposition and faster process stability. The concentrations of COD, VFA and SO42- in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle decreased more rapidly than others. Gas production from digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle commenced around 32 days, which is a week shorter than with leachate recycle only. And peak cumulative gas production was obtained much earlier in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle (150 days) compared to 180 days with leachate recycle only. Moreover, in the first two months, the rate of settlement in digester with EMs inoculation and leachate recycle was more rapid than others.

  4. Nitrogen removal through different pathways in an aged refuse bioreactor treating mature landfill leachate.

    Xie, Bing; Lv, Zhuo; Hu, Chong; Yang, Xuezhi; Li, Xiangzhen


    In this study, an aged refuse bioreactor was constructed to remove nitrogen in a mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency and the microbial community composition in the bioreactor were investigated. The results showed that the aged refuse bioreactor removed more than 90 % of total nitrogen in the leachate under the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 0.74 g/kg (vs) day, and the total nitrogen removal rate decreased to 62.2 % when NLR increased up to 2.03 g/kg (vs) day. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the average cell number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor was 1.58 × 10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.41 % of total bacteria. The number of anammox bacteria in the reactor was 1.09 × 10(8) cells/g, which accounted for 0.27 % of total bacteria. Isotopic (15)N tracing experiments showed that nearly 10 % of nitrogen was removed by anammox. High-throughout 454 pyrosequencing revealed that the predominant bacteria in the bioreactor were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes, including various nitrifiers and denitrifiers with diverse heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolic pathways, supporting that nitrogen was removed through different pathways in this aged refuse bioreactor.

  5. Parental authority, patient's best interest and refusal of resuscitation at borderline gestational age.

    Mercurio, M R


    Potential conflict exists when parents refuse a medical intervention for their child that the physician feels obligated to provide. For the anticipated delivery of a preterm newborn, this conflict might exist if the parents refuse resuscitation. At borderline viability, most neonatologists are likely to respect the parents' wishes. However, there will be some gestational age threshold above which the physician will feel compelled to resuscitate despite parental refusal, and will be ethically justified in doing so. The location of that threshold should be determined by the application of sound ethical reasoning, rather than relying on habit or arbitrary standards. That reasoning should include an honest assessment of the benefits and burdens to the child, short-term and long-term, of attempted resuscitation, made in light of relevant mortality and morbidity data. However, a rational analysis will also require consideration of whether the patient's best interest standard should be strictly applied, or whether the interests of others, such as family members, should also be taken into account.

  6. Heavy Metal Contamination of Foods by Refuse Dump Sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria

    J. K. C. Nduka


    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin, root crop (cocoyam, and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps.

  7. Three-stage aged refuse biofilter for the treatment of landfill leachate

    LI Hongjiang; ZHAO Youcai; SHI Lei; GU Yingying


    A field-scale aged refuse (AR) biofilter constructed in Shanghai Refuse Landfill, containing about 7 000 m3 aged refuse inside, was evaluated for its performance in the treatment of landfill leachate. This AR biofilter can be divided into three stages and can manage 50 m3 landfill leachate per day. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of AR were analyzed for evaluating the AR biofilter as leachate treatment host. The results revealed that over 87.8%--96.2% of COD and 96.9%--99.4% of ammonia nitrogen were removed by the three-stage AR biofilter when the influent leachate COD and ammonia nitrogen were 5 478-10 842 mg/L and 811-1 582 mg/L, respectively. The final effluent was inodorous and pale yellow with COD and ammonia nitrogen below 267--1,020 mg/L and 6--45 mg/L, respectively. The three-stage AR biofilter had efficient nitrification but relative poor denitrification capacity with a total nitrogen (TN) removal of 58%--73%. The external temperature of AR biofilter did not influence the total ammonia nitrogen removal significantly. It was concluded that the scale-up AR biofilter can work very well and can be a promising technology for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  8. Feasibility study of utilization of coal mine refuse, Estill County, Kentucky. Final report


    Reported is a feasibility study of commercial utilization for Eastern KY coal mine refuse at the South-East Coal Co. Cleaning plant in Estill County, KY. Included are descriptions of the physical facilities, sampling and testing methodology, geotechnical properties analyses, typical coal analyses, mineralogical characterizations, slow and quick firing test results, general marketing review of products, and environmental aspects. A good potential for economic development in Estill County exists with the anticipated uses of coal mine refuse as a raw material for the production of construction materials, particularly sintered lightweight aggregate. The refuse responded to the sintering process and a high quality, lightweight product was produced. The aggregate performed well in structural concrete and bituminous surfacing mixes. Other potential uses would be for lightweight concrete masonry blocks and soilless growing media. Inherent characteristics of the sintered material would provide for highly skid-resistant road surfacing aggregate and highly insulative structural building products. Market research results point to definitely feasible markets in East and East-Central KY and to the need for extensive, intensive marketing programs for commercial success of the proposed products. (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  9. Three-stage aged refuse biofilter for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Li, Hongjiang; Zhao, Youcai; Shi, Lei; Gu, Yingying


    A field-scale aged refuse (AR) biofilter constructed in Shanghai Refuse Landfill, containing about 7000 m3 aged refuse inside, was evaluated for its performance in the treatment of landfill leachate. This AR biofilter can be divided into three stages and can manage 50 m3 landfill leachate per day. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of AR were analyzed for evaluating the AR biofilter as leachate treatment host. The results revealed that over 87.8%-96.2% of COD and 96.9%-99.4% of ammonia nitrogen were removed by the three-stage AR biofilter when the influent leachate COD and ammonia nitrogen concentration were in the range 5478-10842 mg/L and 811-1582 mg/L, respectively. The final effluent was inodorous and pale yellow with COD and ammonia nitrogen below 267-1020 mg/L and 6-45 mg/L, respectively. The three-stage AR biofilter had efficient nitrification but relative poor denitrification capacity with a total nitrogen (TN) removal of 58%-73%. The external temperature of AR biofilter did not influence the total ammonia nitrogen removal significantly. It was concluded that the scale-up AR biofilter can work very well and can be a promising technology for the treatment of landfill leachate.

  10. Production of fuel briquettes from olive refuse and paper mill waste

    Yaman, S.; Sahan, M.; Haykiri-acma, H.; Sesen, K.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University 80626, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Some processes have been widely applied to biomass in order to take advantage of its energy potential. In particular, these processes are based on pyrolysis or gasification. In this study, briquetting was applied to olive refuse and paper mill waste to form fuel briquettes. For this purpose, the particle sizes of both biomass samples were decreased to -250 {mu}m and then they were briquetted in a steel die under pressure between 150 and 250 MPa at ambient temperature. Effects of the moisture content of the biomass samples and briquetting pressure on the shatter index, compressive strength, and water resistance of the briquettes obtained were investigated. This study showed that the mechanical strength of the briquettes produced only from the olive refuse was not high enough. On the other hand, strong briquettes were produced using paper mill waste. When olive refuse was blended with fibrous paper mill waste, briquettes with sufficiently high mechanical strength could be produced. Burning profiles of the samples were derived applying derivative thermogravimetry technique under dynamic dry air atmosphere up to 1273 K with a heating rate of 40 K{center_dot}min{sup -1} and then combustion characteristics of the briquettes were compared.

  11. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver


    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples in the Romanian Criminal Law

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU


    In the paper we have examined the constitutive content of the offense of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples, with elements of similarity and differences between the current and the old law...

  13. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. in vivo exposure by patients with specific phobias.

    Garcia-Palacios, A; Botella, C; Hoffman, H; Fabregat, S


    The present survey explored the acceptability of virtual reality (VR) exposure and in vivo exposure in 150 participants suffering from specific phobias. Seventy-six percent chose VR over in vivo exposure, and the refusal rate for in vivo exposure (27%) was higher than the refusal rate for VR exposure (3%). Results suggest that VR exposure could help increase the number of people who seek exposure therapy for phobias.

  14. Characterisation of refuse-derived fuels on the basis of their combustion characteristics; Charakterisierung von Ersatzbrennstoffen hinsichtlich brennstofftechnischer Eigenschaften

    Beckmann, M.; Ncube, S. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimer (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verfahren und Umwelt


    Refuse-derived fuels and biomass-derived fuels are used in power stations and industrial production processes, either in monocombustion plants or in cocombustion plants. Their energy content, ignition and combustion characteristics, slag formation and corrosion potential make them difficult fuels. The contribution starts by reviewing the combustion characteristics of refuse-derived and biomass-derived fuels and analyzing their influence on the combustion characteristics. Various methods of defining the combustion characteristics of these fuels are explained. (orig.)

  15. Effects of nitrogen conversion and environmental factors on landfill CH4 oxidation and N2O emissions in aged refuse.

    Zhang, Houhu; Zhao, Keqiang; Yan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qinfang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Zun, Zhao; Ke, Fan


    We determined the effects of nitrification capacity and environmental factors on landfill methane oxidation potential (MOP) using an aged refuse in laboratory batch assays and compared it with two different types of soils. The nitrogen conversion in the three experimental materials after 120 h incubation yielded first-order reaction kinetics at an initial concentration of 200 mg kg(-1) NH4(+)-N. The net nitrification rate for the aged refuse was 1.50 (p bacteria during CH4 co-oxidation, the average value of the MOP in the aged refuse at a temperature range of 4-45 °C was 2.34 (p landfill can be neglected after applying an aged refuse bio-cover because of the much higher MOP in the aged refuse. The calculated maximum MOP value in the aged refuse was 12.45 μmol g(-1) d.w. h(-1), which was much higher than the documented data.

  16. Prediction of nursery school-aged children who refuse fluoride varnish administration in a community setting: a Childsmile investigation.

    Humphris, Gerry M; Zhou, Yuefang


    Young children of pre-school age may find a minimal intervention (fluoride varnish application) difficult to tolerate. To determine the significant predictors for refusing a fluoride varnish application from child, parental and nurse behaviour factors. Data included videos from 238 children (52% female, aged 3-5 years) receiving a fluoride varnish application in a Scottish nursery school setting. The St Andrews Behavioural Interaction Scheme (SABICS) was used for video coding and retrieved child refusal status, initial anxious behaviour, and nurse behaviour. A parental survey collected parent's dental anxiety [Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS)] and the child's home behaviour [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Child demographics, dental status, and previous varnish application experience were recorded. Multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to predict child refusal of the varnish application. The response rate was 79%. Twelve children refused. The significant predictors of varnish refusal included initial anxious child behaviour (β = 5.14, P = 0.001), no previous varnish application (β = -3.89, P = 0.04), and no nurse praise (β = -1.06, P = 0.02). Information giving (P = 0.06) and reassurance (P = 0.08) were borderline significant. Initial anxiety behaviour, previous varnish experience, and not using praise by the nursing staff predicted fluoride varnish application refusal. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Parental delay or refusal of vaccine doses, childhood vaccination coverage at 24 months of age, and the Health Belief Model.

    Smith, Philip J; Humiston, Sharon G; Marcuse, Edgar K; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth


    We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24-35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24-35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist providers in responding to parents who may delay

  18. Developmentally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescent school refusal: rationale and case illustration.

    Heyne, David; Sauter, Floor M; Ollendick, Thomas H; Van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel


    School refusal can be difficult to treat and the poorest treatment response is observed among older school refusers. This poor response may be explained, in part, by the impact of developmental transitions and tasks upon the young person, their family, and the treatment process. This paper describes and illustrates the @school program, a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to promote developmental sensitivity when planning and delivering treatment for adolescent school refusal. Treatment is modularized and it incorporates progress reviews, fostering a planned yet flexible approach to CBT. The treatment is illustrated in the case of Allison, a 16-year-old female presenting with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A case formulation guided the selection, sequencing, and pacing of modules targeting predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors. Treatment comprised 16 sessions with Allison (interventions addressing depression, anxiety, and school attendance) and 15 concurrent sessions with her mother (strategies to facilitate an adolescent's school attendance), including two sessions with Allison and mother together (family communication and problem solving to reduce parent-adolescent conflict). Two treatment-related consultations were also conducted with Allison's homeroom teacher. Allison's school attendance improved during the course of treatment. By post-treatment, there was a decrease in internalizing behavior, an increase in self-efficacy, and remission of depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. Clinically significant treatment gains were maintained at 2-month follow-up. Factors influencing outcome may include those inherent to the @school program together with less specific factors. Special consideration is given to parents' use of both authoritative and autonomy-granting approaches when helping an adolescent to attend school.

  19. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    Jarrod J Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps rather than colony source (lab/field. At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities

  20. Minimum quantity of urban refuse compost affecting physical and chemical soil properties

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    Full Text Available The increasing production of urban waste requires urgent responses because of various environmental problems that arise when urban refuse is stored in landfills or incinerated. Recycling of domestic waste and composting of its organic fraction has been indicated as a possible disposal solution. A three-year experiment was conducted to quantify the minimum rate of urban refuse compost (URC addition able to improve some physical and chemical soil properties at the lowest cost and environmental impact. URC was added to a silty clay soil and to a sandy loam soil 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% rate (w/w. Samplings were made 12, 24 and 36 months after URC application. To study the only effect of compost on soil due to its interaction with the soil matrix, each soil-compost mixture was divided into three boxes and kept outdoors weed free. After 12 months, 3% URC resulted the minimum quantity able to ameliorate several soil properties. In silty clay soil this rate significantly ameliorated microaggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity, but negative effects were observed on electrical conductivity. After 24 months, 3% rate significantly increased soil organic matter content. In the sandy loam soil, after 12 months, 3% rate of URC determined a positive effect on organic matter and cone resistance in dry soil condition. Electrical conductivity increased at 3% URC addition. The minimum URC quantity affecting hydraulic conductivity and plastic limit was 6%, and 9% for the liquid limit. Under these experimental conditions, the lowest rate (3% of URC incorporation to soils appears to be the minimum quantity able to improve most of the soil properties influencing fertility. What the results show is that, to achieve sustainability of urban refuse compost application to agricultural soil, further research is needed to investigate soil property changes in the range between 0% and 3%.

  1. Minimum quantity of urban refuse compost affecting physical and chemical soil properties

    Andrea Rocchini


    Full Text Available The increasing production of urban waste requires urgent responses because of various environmental problems that arise when urban refuse is stored in landfills or incinerated. Recycling of domestic waste and composting of its organic fraction has been indicated as a possible disposal solution. A three-year experiment was conducted to quantify the minimum rate of urban refuse compost (URC addition able to improve some physical and chemical soil properties at the lowest cost and environmental impact. URC was added to a silty clay soil and to a sandy loam soil 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% rate (w/w. Samplings were made 12, 24 and 36 months after URC application. To study the only effect of compost on soil due to its interaction with the soil matrix, each soil-compost mixture was divided into three boxes and kept outdoors weed free. After 12 months, 3% URC resulted the minimum quantity able to ameliorate several soil properties. In silty clay soil this rate significantly ameliorated microaggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity, but negative effects were observed on electrical conductivity. After 24 months, 3% rate significantly increased soil organic matter content. In the sandy loam soil, after 12 months, 3% rate of URC determined a positive effect on organic matter and cone resistance in dry soil condition. Electrical conductivity increased at 3% URC addition. The minimum URC quantity affecting hydraulic conductivity and plastic limit was 6%, and 9% for the liquid limit. Under these experimental conditions, the lowest rate (3% of URC incorporation to soils appears to be the minimum quantity able to improve most of the soil properties influencing fertility. What the results show is that, to achieve sustainability of urban refuse compost application to agricultural soil, further research is needed to investigate soil property changes in the range between 0% and 3%.

  2. [Interest of propranolol in the treatment of school refusal anxiety: about three clinical observations].

    Fourneret, P; Desombre, H; de Villard, R; Revol, O


    School refusal anxiety is a pathopsychological disorder which touches the young child, between 8 and 13 years. Even if the school refusal is studied for a long time, there is not still consensus as for the specific definition of this disorder or on the best way of treating it. Nevertheless, accountable of long-lasting difficulties in school integration, its short and medium term consequences are serious and well known: school desertion, mood disorder and behavioral problems. Speed and quality of the medico-psychological and educational interventions represent a important factor for evolution and prognosis. Although, psychological interventions remain essential, sometimes the interest of an associated psychotropic medication should be discussed. This one can indeed either improve their results or supporting their installations. Despite more than twenty controlled trials in the pediatric population, no definitive psychopharmacological treatment data exist for anxiety disorder in childhood and especially for school refusal disorder. The majority of the studies stress as well the interest of benzodiazepines as tricyclic antidepressants but without being able to specify the possible superiority of a chemical on the other. On the other hand, the side effects of each one are well-documented, in particular for the benzodiazepines (potential abuse, sedation, potential desinhibition, mnemonic disorder), limiting thus their uses in child. In this work, we would like to emphasize the interest of propranolol in the treatment of somatic symptoms usually met in school refusal anxiety. Although beta-blockers have been used in the treatment of neurovegetative symptoms associated with situational anxiety disorders, there is no controlled data and only some open data to guide pediatric use for anxiety disorders in children. Nevertheless, prescribed with low posology and in substitution of benzodiazepine, this medication enabled us in three severe clinical cases to shorter notably the

  3. The Effect of Instruction on Learners' Pragmatic Awareness: a Focus on Refusals

    Josep Guzmán Pitarch


    Full Text Available The benefits of instruction on learners’ production and awareness of speech acts is well documented (see Alcón and Martínez-Flor, 2008, for a review of pragmatics in instructional contexts. However, few studies examine the influence that instruction may have on the cognitive processes involved in speech act production (Félix- Brasdefer, 2008. In order to address this research gap, and taking into account the discussion in research on the concept of attention and related terms such as awareness (see Al-Hejin, 2004, for a review of the role of attention and awareness in second language acquisition research this paper reports on the benefits of instruction on learners’ attention and awareness during the performance of refusals. Thus, based on a pedagogical proposal for teaching refusals at the discourse level, we focus on the benefits that this pedagogical proposal can have on the information attended to during the planning and execution of refusals. Secondly, we explore whether instruction makes a difference in learners’ awareness of refusals.El beneficio de la instrucción en la producción y la consciencia de los actos de habla se ha estudiado en diversos estudios (Alcón and Martinez-Flor, 2008. Sin embargo, muy pocos estudios analizan la influencia que de la instrucción en los procesos cognitivos que intervienen en la producción de los actos de habla (Félix-Brasdefer, 2008. Con la finalidad de abordar esta cuestión, y teniendo en consideración la discusión en torno a los conceptos de atención y consciencia (véase Al-Hejin, 2004, para una revisión de estos conceptos en el campo de la adquisición de segundas lenguas, el presente artículo analiza el beneficio de la instrucción en la atención y la consciencia pragmática durante el rechazo de peticiones. Después de exponer una propuesta pedagógica para enseñar a rechazar peticiones desde un punto de vista discursivo, se presentan los resultados de dicha propuesta en relaci

  4. The limits of parental authority to accept or refuse medical treatment.

    Miller, Geoffrey


    The legal and ethical right of parents to refuse medical treatment for their children differs from the authority possessed by competent adults with decisional capacity. Parents have a duty to act in the best interests of their children from the children's perspective and not to inflict harm. Best interests are determined by weighing benefits and burdens, which includes using evidence-based outcomes and value judgments. The result is placed along a risk/benefit spectrum. If the result is close to low risk/high benefit, the parents have a strong obligation to accept a health care team recommendation. Otherwise, parents may choose between reasonable medical options without threat or coercion.

  5. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.

    Hoffman, Anna


    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families.

  6. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome as a Consequence of Delusional Food Refusal: A Case Study.

    Hargrave, David D; Schroeder, Ryan W; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E


    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, typically resulting from malnutrition secondary to chronic alcohol abuse. Less often, other conditions can lead to malnutrition and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We describe a 35-year-old man who developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with a typical neurologic and neuropsychological presentation after somatic delusions led him to refuse to eat. Cases like his serve to heighten awareness of the interplay between psychiatric and neurologic conditions, their sometimes atypical pathogenesis, and the value to primary care providers of consulting with psychiatrists, neurologists, and neuropsychologists when managing patients with possible Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

  7. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A


    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

  8. Electric refuse collection vehicle with a range extender; Elektrisches Abfallsammelfahrzeug mit Range Extender

    Fuchs, Andreas


    At the Frankfurt Motor Show IAA 2012, MAN will be presenting the Metropolis, a heavy-duty truck for use in urban areas that produces no emissions and is ultra-quiet. Using mains electricity generated from renewable sources, it can operate without producing any CO{sub 2}. The truck's modular lithium-ion battery is located under the ab. A quiet and efficient diesel engine from the Volkswagen Group generates power as needed and functions as a range extender for the truck. At the end of 2012, the MAN Metropolis will start a two-year field test as a refuse collection vehicle. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program.

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk


    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support.

  10. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois

    Morrow, William S.


    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  11. The right not to hear: the ethics of parental refusal of hearing rehabilitation.

    Byrd, Serena; Shuman, Andrew G; Kileny, Sharon; Kileny, Paul R


    To explore the ethics of parental refusal of auditory-oral hearing rehabilitation. Case study with medical ethical discussion and review. Two young brothers present with severe-to-profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The parents, both of whom have normal hearing and work as sign language interpreters, have decided to raise their children with American Sign Language as their only form of communication. They have chosen not to pursue cochlear implantation nor support the use of hearing aids. This case raises significant questions concerning whether hearing rehabilitation should be mandated, and if there are circumstances in which parental preferences should be questioned or overridden with regard to this issue. In addition, legal concerns may be raised regarding the possible need to file a report with Child Protective Services. Although similar cases involving the Deaf community have historically favored parental rights to forego hearing rehabilitation with either cochlear implantation or hearing aids, we explore whether conclusions should be different because the parents in this case are not hearing impaired. The ethics of parental rights to refuse hearing rehabilitation are complex and strikingly context-dependent. A comprehensive appreciation of the medical, practical, and legal issues is crucial prior to intervening in such challenging situations. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Validation of the drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire in Arab and Asian samples.

    AlMarri, Tayyiba S K; Oei, Tian P S; AbRahman, Rosalisa Murni


    The influence of an individuals' belief in their ability to resist drinking alcohol has recognised importance in understanding the pattern of drinking behaviours among Caucasian samples. Measures used to investigate this construct, such as the drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-revised (DRSEQ-R; [Oei, T. P. S., Hasking, P. A., & Young, R. M. (2005). Drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire-revised (DRSEQ-R): A new factor structure with confirmatory factor analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 297-307.]) have been widely used and have established psychometric properties. However, the exploration of the utility of this questionnaire with samples of different ethnicity, religion and living in different countries remains scarce. In the current study, Arab Muslim samples living in the United Arab Emirates and Oman (n=356) and Asian predominately Muslim samples living in Malaysia and Indonesia (n=256) were used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the DRSEQ-R has a three factor structure. Internal consistency ranged from alpha .96 to alpha .86 and validity was good. This study offers evidence of the utility of this measure with Arab and Asian samples.

  13. Exploring risk in professional nursing practice: an analysis of work refusal and professional risk.

    Beardwood, Barbara A; Kainer, Jan M


    This article explores risk in professional nursing practice. Professional risk refers to the threat of professional discipline if it is found that a registered nurse has violated professional nursing practice standards. We argue professional risk is socially constructed and understood differently by nurse regulatory bodies, unions, professional associations and frontline nurses. Regulatory bodies emphasize professional accountability of nurses; professional associations focus on system problems in health-care; unions undertake protecting nurses' right to health and safety; and frontline nurses experience fear and uncertainty in their attempt to interpret practice standards to avoid professional discipline. Perspectives of professional risk are investigated by analyzing three professional nursing bodies' views of professional codes governing the right of nurses to refuse unsafe work assignments. The workplace dynamics surrounding work refusal experienced by frontline nurses are illustrated primarily through the lens of the 2003 SARS influenza outbreak in Ontario, Canada. We conclude that frontline nurses in Ontario are required to manage risk by following professional protocols prioritizing patient care and professional accountability which disregard the systemic, unpredictable and hazardous circumstances in their everyday practice. Moreover, we argue professional protocols cannot anticipate every eventuality in clinical practice creating the fear of professional discipline for nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Alcohol expectancies, drinking refusal self-efficacy and drinking behaviour in Asian and Australian students.

    Oei, Tian P S; Jardim, Claudia Lee


    The effects of alcohol expectancies (AE) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in predicting alcohol consumption in Caucasians has been well studied. However, the role of AE and DRSE in Asian students is still not well understood. This study reported on this using Caucasian (n=98) and Asian (n=92) student samples. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to measure their hazardous alcohol consumption, and the drinking expectancy profile (DEP) to assess their alcohol related expectancies and ability to resist drinking in certain situations. Results showed that Caucasians reported significantly higher confidence, higher sexual interest, and higher tension reduction expectancies than Asians. Conversely, Asians significantly expected cognitive enhancement and negative consequences more than Caucasians. Relative to Caucasians, the Asian sample also reported that they would be more able to refuse alcohol when under social pressure. Results from regression analyses showed that for the Caucasian sample, AE, DRSE and their interactions were significant predictors of alcohol consumption. For the Asian group, the only significant effect to emerge was that DRSE was negatively related to alcohol consumption. The clinical implications of the differential pattern of results between the samples are discussed in terms of self-efficacy and negative consequences of alcohol consumption, especially when dealing with university aged individuals.

  15. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L


    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population.

  16. Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors.

    Auslander, Beth A; Perfect, Michelle M; Succop, Paul A; Rosenthal, Susan L


    We describe adolescent girls' perceptions of sexual assertiveness and examine the relationship of these perceptions with developmental and interpersonal variables. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were recruited from a school-based health clinic and local colleges, and through snowballing to participate in a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. 106 sexually experienced girls (ages 14 through 21 years). Girls described their demographics, sexual history, and romantic relationships and completed the Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women (SAS-W), which assesses perceptions of sexual assertiveness: Initiation of Sex, Refusal of Unwanted Sex, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. Girls perceived themselves as asserting themselves between 50% and 75% of the time with their current or most recent partner. The Initiation subscale was not related to the other two subscales. In final models, girls with a prior pregnancy perceived themselves as initiating sex more than girls without a prior pregnancy. Having a greater number of lifetime partners was related to perceptions of less refusal, whereas greater number of partners, being sexually experienced longer, and engaging in more unprotected sex were related to perceptions of less implementation of preventive methods. None of the relationship variables were related to scores on any subscale. Most of these girls perceived themselves as sexually assertive. Given that sexual experience, not relationship factors, were related to perceptions of sexual assertiveness, the design of counseling messages should incorporate sexual experience. These messages should find effective ways to help girls both to communicate their sexual desires and to enhance their ability to protect themselves.

  17. Pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) 21 years on: a re-conceptualisation and a renaming.

    Nunn, Kenneth P; Lask, Bryan; Owen, Isabel


    Twenty-one years ago, Lask and colleagues first described pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) as a child's "dramatic social withdrawal and determined refusal to walk, talk, eat, drink, or care for themselves in any way for several months" in the absence of an organic explanation. PRS has been conceptualised in a variety of ways since then. These have included a form of post-traumatic stress disorder, learnt helplessness, 'lethal mothering', loss of the internal parent, apathy or the 'giving-up' syndrome, depressive devitalisation, primitive 'freeze', severe loss of activities of daily living and 'manipulative' illness, meaning the possibility that the children have been drugged to increase chances of asylum in asylum-seeking families. Others have insisted that PRS is simply depression, conversion disorder, catatonia or a factitious condition. This paper reviews these conceptualisations, explores some of the central complexities around PRS and proposes a neurobiological explanatory model, based upon autonomic system hyper-arousal. It touches upon the clinical implications and suggests a new name for the condition reflecting what we believe to be a more sophisticated understanding of the disorder than was available when it was first described.

  18. Comparative economics, of advanced fine-coal cleaning in refuse pond recovery and active mine applications

    Patwardhan, A.; Chugh, Y.P; Mohanty, M.K.; Sevim, H. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining & Mineral Resources


    The economics of 'conventional' and 'advanced fine-coal cleaning' (AFCC) circuits for refuse pond reclamation as well as active mine applications were evaluated. The benefit of an innovative tailings-management scheme on the profitability of mining enterprises was also evaluated. Analyses were conducted for two scenarios involving the generation of 5.81% product ash, a quality obtained during AFCC circuit operation at SIU, and a more typical 8% product ash. The inability of the conventional circuits to achieve profitability while producing the lower-ash product is revealed from this approach. On the other hand, the AFCC circuits achieve a return on investment in excess of 50% in the water-only mode as well as the dense-medium mode, both with and without tailings management. The comparison of water-only and dense-medium applications of the AFCC circuit indicates a better suitability for the dense-medium circuit for producing premium-quality products. As a result of reduced overhead costs and the use of existing material-handling facilities, the application of AFCC circuits in active mines provides for better economics when compared to applications in refuse pond recovery operations. Sensitivity analysis reveals the significance of capacity utilization on project economics.

  19. Contingency contacting. Combining positive reinforcement and escape extinction procedures to treat persistent food refusal.

    Hoch, T; Babbitt, R L; Coe, D A; Krell, D M; Hackbert, L


    Chronic food refusal has traditionally been treated with forced feeding and other physical prompting-based procedures when positive reinforcement procedures prove inadequate. Potential problems with such procedures, however, include exacerbation of feeding difficulties and health risks, as well as low parental approval and probability of implementation. Contingency contacting maximizes contact between oral acceptance and positive reinforcement, prevents escape functions of inappropriate behaviors, and requires minimal physical contact between feeder and child. Performances of two children exhibiting chronic food refusal were observed under baseline, positive reinforcement, and contingency contacting conditions. Positive reinforcement increased acceptance only slightly and did not change negative vocalization or interruption for one child. Contingency contacting rapidly increased acceptance and grams of food consumed, and decreased negative vocalization and interruption for both children. Withdrawal to positive reinforcement decreased acceptance for both children and grams consumed for one. Reinstituting contingency contacting rapidly increased acceptance and recovery of grams consumed for one child. Parental approval ratings and treatment and research implications are discussed.

  20. Effects from different types of construction refuse in the soil on electrodialytic remediation

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Eriksson, Thomas; Hansen, Henrik K.


    at the surface of the screw causing pH changes in the soil. Two types of refuse with ionic conducting properties were placed within the test cell, a piece of brick and concrete. The brick did not influence the Cu removal from the soil to a high extent, but it was seen that during the remediation the Cu...... of different sorts of construction refuse on electrodialytic soil remediation was investigated in laboratory cells. An insulator, a stone, resulted in an uneven Cu removal in the close vicinity of the stone itself. An electric conductive screw disturbed the Cu removal due to the redox reactions occurring...... concentration in the brick itself increased. In the case of concrete the Cu mobilized from the soil was simply found to adsorb very strongly to the concrete and thus the Cu could not be removed from the soil and the concrete as a whole. Furthermore, the removal of Cu in the soil next to the concrete was quite...

  1. Overcoming healthcare workers vaccine refusal--competition between egoism and altruism.

    Betsch, C


    Vaccination reduces the risk of becoming infected with and transmitting pathogens. The role of healthcare workers (HCWs) in controlling and limiting nosocomial infections has been stressed repeatedly. This has also been recognised at a political level, leading the European Council of Ministers in 2009 to encourage coverage of 75% seasonal influenza vaccine in HCWs. Although there are policies, recommendations and well-tolerated vaccines, still many HCWs refuse to get vaccinated. This article uses literature from psychology and behavioural economics to understand vaccination decisions and the specific situation of HCWs. HCWs are expected to be highly motivated to protect others. However, their individual vaccination decisions follow the same principles (of weighting individual risks) as everyone else’s vaccination decisions. This will lead to decisional conflict in a typical social dilemma situation, in which individual interests are at odds with collective interests. Failure to get vaccinated may be the result. If we understand the motivations and mechanisms of HCWs’ vaccine refusal, interventions and campaigns may be designed more effectively. Strategies to increase HCWs’ vaccine uptake should be directed towards correcting skewed risk perceptions and activating pro-social motivation in HCWs.

  2. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N


    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA.

  3. Ethnic identity, neighborhood risk, and adolescent drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy: the urban African American girls' experience.

    Corneille, Maya A; Belgrave, Faye Z


    This study examined the impact of ethnic identity and neighborhood risk on drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy among early adolescent urban African American females (n = 175). The model also predicted a moderating relationship of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for drug and sex attitudes and refusal efficacy. Data were collected as part of a larger drug education program and analyzed via hierarchical multiple regression. The analyses controlled for household structure and menarche. Results indicated a direct relationship of higher ethnic identity and higher sexual refusal efficacy, higher disapproval of drug use, and lowered intentions to use drugs. Neighborhood risk was directly related to lower disapproval of drug use. There was a small moderating effect of ethnic identity on neighborhood risk for intention to use drugs. Findings provide support for prevention programs for African American youth that seek to reduce risk behaviors by increasing ethnic identity, particularly in low resource communities.

  4. Methane production in anaerobic digestion of organic waste from Recife (Brazil landfill: evaluation in refuse of diferent ages

    W. N. Schirmer


    Full Text Available This work focuses on monitoring the generation of biogas by biochemical methane potential (BMP assays, commonly used to assess anaerobic biodegradability of solid and liquid wastes under controlled conditions. The experiment employed 5 g of substrate of both refuses (fresh and one-year-old wastes, digested with 250 mL of inoculum in 1 L flasks as bioreactors (all of them in triplicate, operating under batch conditions at ± 35 ºC. Despite the difference of age of both refuses evaluated, there was no significant differences in volume (near 1800 mL and composition (55% methane of biogas generated in 80 days of incubation under mesophilic conditions. The important parameters of both refuses (such as moisture content, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand also showed very similar initial values.

  5. The use of coal refuse as construction aggregates; Utilizacion de los Esteriles de Carbon como Aridos en Construccion



    The objective of this project was to carry out a study which would allow us to determine the nature and properties of coal refuse for its possible use as construction aggregates: roadbeds concrete, bituminous meagres, etc. and to establish criteria of acceptability, placing, and quality control. Two types of refuse, considered to be representative, were chosen (one black and one red) and various trials were performed at a grinding and classifying plant for the obtention of granular materials. The results of these trials determined the most appropriate plant treatment for each type of refuse and established the margin of acceptability, criteria of acceptability, and quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal refuse for use as construction aggregates. Laboratory testing with both types of refuse mixed with binders (cement, emulsions) were carried out. At the same time, real scale tests, through the construction of concrete slabs in local roads and in trial areas, using the proportions of aggregates and cement that are customary in the area, and also by varying the cement content, substituting it for airborne ash from the thermal La Pereda power station were also performed. From the results obtained, it can be deduced that coal refuse can be used as granular material for roadbeds in different ways: stabilised as gravel-cement, in the form of gravel emulsion, as gravel slag, or by itself. As far as its use in concrete manufacture, it is limited to marginal works. With regard to its decorative use in gardening, it is being used in various town halls in Asturias and Cantabria. (Author)

  6. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of open lactic acid fermentation of kitchen refuse using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes.

    Sakai, Kenji; Mori, Masatsugu; Fujii, Akira; Iwami, Yuko; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Shirai, Yoshihito


    Reproducible amounts of lactic acid accumulate in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions with intermittent pH neutralization [Sakai et al., Food Sci. Technol. Res., 6, 140 (2000)]. Here, we showed that such pH-controlled open fermentation of kitchen refuse reproducibly resulted a selective proliferation of a major lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species. In one experiment, the predominant microorganisms isolated during the early phase (6 h) were Gammaproteobacteria. In contrast, those that predominated during the late phase (48 h) were always Lactobacillus plantarum in three independent experiments. To further quantify the microbial community within open lactic acid fermentation, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis targeting 16S (23S) rRNA. We designed two new group-specific DNA probes: LAC722(L) was active for most LAB including the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc and Weisella, whereas Lplan477 was specific for L. plantarum and its related species. We then optimized sample preparation using lysozyme and hybridization conditions including temperature, as well as the formamide concentration and the salt concentration in the washing buffer. We succeeded in quantification of microorganisms in semi-solid, complex biological materials such as minced kitchen refuse by taking color microphotographs in modified RGB balance on pre-coated slides. FISH analysis of the fermentation of kitchen refuse indicated that control of the pH swing leads to domination by the LAB population in minced kitchen refuse under open conditions. We also confirmed that L. plantarum, which generates lactic acid in high quantities but with low optical activity, became the dominant microorganism in kitchen refuse during the late phase of open fermentation.

  7. Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review

    Brandy Maynard


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND School refusal is a psychosocial problem characterized by a student’s difficulty attending school and, in many cases, substantial absence from school (Heyne & Sauter, 2013. It is often distinguished from truancy, in part because of the severe emotional distress associated with having to attend school and the absence of severe antisocial behavior. Truancy, on the other hand, is not typically associated with emotional distress and is commonly associated with severe externalizing behavior. The emotional distress associated with school refusal is often in the form of fear or anxiety, and sometimes in the form of depression. School refusal occurs for about 1-2% of young people, and estimates among clinically referred youth are considerably higher. There is substantial heterogeneity in both the presentation of school refusal and its associated risk factors. Significant adverse consequences may occur in the short- and long-term, including school dropout and problems with social adjustment. Family members and school staff are also affected by school refusal. The most commonly studied interventions for school refusal are behavioral approaches and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. The overarching aim of these interventions is the reduction of the young person’s emotional distress and an increase in school attendance to help the young person follow a normal developmental pathway (Heyne & Sauter, 2013. Behavioral interventions include exposure-based interventions, relaxation training, and/or social skills training with the student, and contingency management procedures with the parents and school staff. CBT manuals additionally focus attention on the identification and modification of maladaptive cognition that may maintain the young person’s emotional distress and absenteeism. In some instances parent cognition is also targeted. Other interventions have been used to treat school refusal (e.g., psychodynamic treatment, family therapy

  8. Refusal of recommended travel-related vaccines among U.S. international travellers in Global TravEpiNet

    Lammert, Sara M.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Jentes, Emily S.; Fairley, Jessica K.; Erskine, Stefanie; Walker, Allison T.; Hagmann, Stefan H.; Sotir, Mark J.; Ryan, Edward T.


    Background: International travellers are at risk of travel-related, vaccine-preventable diseases. More data are needed on the proportion of travellers who refuse vaccines during a pre-travel health consultation and their reasons for refusing vaccines. Methods: We analyzed data on travellers seen for a pre-travel health consultation from July 2012 through June 2014 in the Global TravEpiNet (GTEN) consortium. Providers were required to indicate one of three reasons for a traveller refusing a recommended vaccine: (1) cost concerns, (2) safety concerns or (3) not concerned with the illness. We calculated refusal rates among travellers eligible for each vaccine based on CDC recommendations current at the time of travel. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the effect of individual variables on the likelihood of accepting all recommended vaccines. Results: Of 24 478 travellers, 23 768 (97%) were eligible for at least one vaccine. Travellers were most frequently eligible for typhoid (N = 20 092), hepatitis A (N = 12 990) and influenza vaccines (N = 10 539). Of 23 768 eligible travellers, 6573 (25%) refused one or more recommended vaccine(s). Of those eligible, more than one-third refused the following vaccines: meningococcal: 2232 (44%) of 5029; rabies: 1155 (44%) of 2650; Japanese encephalitis: 761 (41%) of 1846; and influenza: 3527 (33%) of 10 539. The most common reason for declining vaccines was that the traveller was not concerned about the illness. In multivariable analysis, travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in low or medium human development countries were less likely to accept all recommended vaccines, compared with non-VFR travellers (OR = 0.74 (0.59–0.95)). Conclusions: Travellers who sought pre-travel health care refused recommended vaccines at varying rates. A lack of concern about the associated illness was the most commonly cited reason for all refused vaccines. Our data suggest more effective


    Yu Jifeng; Han Zuozhen; Wang Xiuying


    The physical,chemical and mineral facies properties of the flyash from Xiezhuang Coal Refuse-Fired Power Plant have been studied by means of naked eyes,microscope,chemical composition analysis and XRD analysis,and compared with that of the flyash from Tai'an Coal-Fired Power Plant.The result shows that the flyash from coal refuse-fired power plant is of better quality in making construction items,for being brighter in color,fine and high activity.Some ways of comprehensive utilization of the ash have been suggested in this paper.

  10. HIV/AIDS Stigma and Refusal of HIV Testing Among Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya: Results from the MAMAS Study

    Turan, Janet M.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Holzemer, William L.; Miller, Suellen; Cohen, Craig R.


    HIV/AIDS stigma is a common thread in the narratives of pregnant women affected by HIV/AIDS globally and may be associated with refusal of HIV testing. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending antenatal clinics in Kenya (N = 1525). Women completed an interview with measures of HIV/AIDS stigma and subsequently information on their acceptance of HIV testing was obtained from medical records. Associations of stigma measures with HIV testing refusal were examined using multivariate...

  11. 47 CFR 3.53 - FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications service to U.S. registered vessel(s).


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC notification of refusal to provide...-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.53 FCC notification of refusal to provide telecommunications service to U.S. registered vessel(s). An accounting authority must inform the FCC...

  12. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...


    ... a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? (a) If the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based on... penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? 286.150 Section...

  13. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  14. Graduated Exposure and Compliance Training Intervention for Blood Draw Avoidance and Refusal in a Woman with Intellectual Disability and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Cromartie, R. Samuel; Flood, William A.; Luiselli, James K.


    This case report concerns a woman with intellectual disability, schizoaffective disorder, and avoidance and refusal of having her blood drawn. She required but refused blood draws to properly monitor the therapeutic dose of a necessary psychotropic medication. During intervention at a community-based habilitation setting and under simulated…

  15. Preliminary assessment of the prospects for use of refuse-derived fuel in Maryland

    Metz, W.C.; Shyer, J.; Edgecomb, K.


    The deployment problems of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production in Maryland are examined. Problems experienced by the pyrolysis plant in Baltimore City and the resource recovery plant in Baltimore County are cited. Maryland's municipal solid waste problems are discussed with emphasis on the major components of the municipal solid waste stream, e.g., volume, composition, and location; collection methods used; present and long-range disposal methods; and regulations and ordinances. The generic social and legal constraints to RDF production are described. The problems of RDF technology deployment in Maryland, i.e., county and state RDF energy potential, institutional barriers to RDF production and use, remitting requirements for new RDF production and use facilities, water quality issues of RDF production and use, air quality issues of RDF production and use, and recommendations for initiating RDF production and use are discussed.

  16. Conflicts between religious or spiritual beliefs and pediatric care: informed refusal, exemptions, and public funding.


    Although respect for parents' decision-making authority is an important principle, pediatricians should report suspected cases of medical neglect, and the state should, at times, intervene to require medical treatment of children. Some parents' reasons for refusing medical treatment are based on their religious or spiritual beliefs. In cases in which treatment is likely to prevent death or serious disability or relieve severe pain, children's health and future autonomy should be protected. Because religious exemptions to child abuse and neglect laws do not equally protect all children and may harm some children by causing confusion about the duty to provide medical treatment, these exemptions should be repealed. Furthermore, public health care funds should not cover alternative unproven religious or spiritual healing practices. Such payments may inappropriately legitimize these practices as appropriate medical treatment.

  17. Sample preparation for thermo-gravimetric determination and thermo-gravimetric characterization of refuse derived fuel.

    Robinson, T; Bronson, B; Gogolek, P; Mehrani, P


    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a useful method for characterizing fuels. In the past it has been applied to the study of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and related materials. However, the heterogeneity of RDF makes the preparation of small representative samples very difficult and this difficulty has limited the effectiveness of TGA for characterization of RDF. A TGA method was applied to a variety of materials prepared from a commercially available RDF using a variety of procedures. Applicability of TGA method to the determination of the renewable content of RDF was considered. Cryogenic ball milling was found to be an effective means of preparing RDF samples for TGA. When combined with an effective sample preparation, TGA could be used as an alternative method for assessing the renewable content of RDF.

  18. Torsion of undescended testis in a 14-month-old child refusing to bear weight.

    Knight, Ryan M; Cuenca, Peter J


    In this report, we discuss a case of a 14-month-old male presenting in the emergency department with refusal to bear weight on his left leg. Plain radiographic studies revealed no evidence of effusion, fracture, or dislocation. Laboratory studies were significant for an elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. Further studies included unremarkable ultrasound of the left hip and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both hips. An incidental finding on MRI was a left inguinal mass concerning an incarcerated hernia. Ultrasound of this mass demonstrated a left undescended testis within the inguinal canal and possible incarcerated paratesticular inguinal hernia. The final pathologic diagnosis of a torsed gangrenous left testicle within the inguinal canal was confirmed during surgery.

  19. Around Refuse The Hour, Kentridge and his Space-Time of Creation

    Fanny Le Borgne


    Full Text Available This article deals with a creative process born in the intersection of stage, cinema and visual arts: the one of William Kentridge. In the polymorphic work of the South African artist, his movement between different forms of expression holds a key-role in his way of working. Taken between an installation and an exhibition, the progress around his show Refuse The Hour (2012 gives a relevant ground for the analysis of the stakes in a process of creation in movement between various artistic fields. From the studio to rehearsals, and through a rhythm of collective work, this text investigates the genetics of the show crossed by different space-times of creation.

  20. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.

    Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S


    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  1. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Kluska Jacek


    Full Text Available The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  2. Use of lance-type water blowers in refuse incineration plants; Einsatz von Wasserlanzenblaesern in Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Schaefers, W.; Fey, W. [Babcock-Steinmueller GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Simon, S.; Kahle, F.D. [Clyde Bergemann GmbH, Wesel (Germany)


    In order to achieve the desired boiler campaign lengths in refuse incineration plants, cleaning devices are an absolute necessity. Whereas the cleaning of convective heating surfaces in vertical-pass and horizontal-pass boilers presents no great difficulty, the possibilities for effective cleaning of the radiant passes were up to now limited. The use of lance-type water blowers has considerably improved this situation. (orig.) [German] Um die gewuenschten Reisezeiten bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen einhalten zu koennen, ist der Einsatz von Reinigungseinrichtungen notwendig. Waehrend die Reinigung der Konvektivheizflaechen bei Vertikal- und Horizontalzugkesseln keine Probleme bereitet, waren bisher die Moeglichkeiten zur Reinhaltung der Strahlungszuege begrenzt. Durch den Einsatz von Wasserlanzenblaesern ergibt sich hier eine deutlich verbesserte Situation. (orig.)

  3. Refuse-derived fuels: Provision and processing; Schnittstelle und Aufbereitungstiefe von Ersatzbrennstoffen fuer die energetische Verwertung

    Beckmann, M.; Horeni, M. [Bauhaus Univ. Weimar (Germany). Professur Verfahren und Umwelt; Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik


    Refuse-derived fuels are produced by mechanical or mechanical and biological treatment of waste materials with the intention of providing substitute fuels for the chemical and power plant industry. To do this, the properties of refues-derived fuels must be known as well as the process modifications that may be required. Further, energy and pollutant balances (including CO2) must be established in order to find out about the economic efficiency of the substitute fuels. There is still need for research concerning the methodology of characterisation and the classification of substitute fuels. The contribution starts by presenting a classification of substitute fuels, their applications and potentials. This is followed by a description of the characteristics of substitute fuels and the process optimisations required. Using simplified model assumptions, the results are then discussed with regard to the influence of the depth of processing. Finally, development tasks still required are summarized. (orig.)

  4. Decliners of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: Characteristics of participants who refused HIV testing in a population survey in Zambia

    Pascalina; Chanda-Kapata; William; Ngosa; Albertina; Ngomah; Moraes; Nicole; Maddox; Nathan; Kapata


    Objective: To assess the prevalence of HIV infection, to highlight HIV-testing refusal rates among participants in a population-based tuberculosis survey and to assess the implication for programme implementation.Methods: This cross-sectional study on the characteristics of participants who refused HIV testing was conducted in a national survey in Zambia. All eligible participants were aged above 15 years and included in the analysis.Results: Out of the 44 791 tuberculosis survey participants, 14 164(31.6%) refused to participate in HIV testing. The unemployed, rural dwellers, married, and those aged 15-24 years were associated with higher refusal rates.Conclusions: Strategies to improve HIV testing acceptance are necessary. Qualitative research is recommended to understand the reasons for testing refusals so that remedial interventions can be implemented.

  5. Prevalence of depression in granted and refused requests for euthanasia and assisted suicide: a systematic review.

    Levene, Ilana; Parker, Michael


    There is an established link between depression and interest in hastened death in patients who are seriously ill. Concern exists over the extent of depression in patients who actively request euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and those who have their requests granted. To estimate the prevalence of depression in refused and granted requests for euthanasia/PAS and discuss these findings. Methods A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in July 2010, identifying studies reporting rates of depression in requests for and cases of euthanasia/PAS. One author critically appraised the strength of the data using published criteria. 21 studies were included covering four countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methods of assessing depression and selecting patients. In the highest quality studies, in the Netherlands and Oregon, 8-47% of patients requesting euthanasia/PAS had depressive symptoms and 2-17% of completed euthanasia/PAS cases had depressive symptoms. In the Netherlands, depression was significantly higher in refused than granted requests, and there was no significant difference in the rate of depression between euthanasia cases and similar patients who had not made a request for euthanasia. It is unclear whether depression increases the probability of making a request for euthanasia/PAS, but in the Netherlands most requests in depressed patients are rejected, leaving a depression rate in cases that is similar to the surrounding population. Less evidence is available elsewhere, but some level of depression has been identified in patients undergoing euthanasia/PAS in all the countries studied. Whether the presence of depression is ever compatible with an ethical decision on euthanasia/PAS is discussed.

  6. A Study of Refusal Speech Act in Chinese Dating Programs--Take "If You Are the One" as an Example

    Wang, Yiwen


    Looking at the development of China dating programs, "If You Are The One" in Jiang Su satellite TV is the heated program drawing much attention from the public. There are some papers focusing on the dialogue in the program from the perspective of linguistic features or pragmatic function, but there are few papers on the refusal speech…

  7. Free to become martyrs? The right to refuse medical treatment on religious grounds in a comparative perspective

    Vincenzo Pacillo


     ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the right of patients to refuse medical treatments on religious grounds and on the (supposed right to the parents to refuse medical treatments on behalf of their children, emphasizing the links and connections between the freedom of religion, the right to self-determination and the right to refuse medical treatment based on religious motivations. After a comparison between the norms devoted to rule the exercise of these rights in the English (and Welsh and Italian legal systems, the article suggests that the approach of medical staff towards a Refusal of Medical Treatment on Religious Grounds ought to start an intercultural process. This process ought to be a cross-cultural dialogue devoted not only to translate medical language in a language which can be fully understood by the patient, but also to create a reciprocal comprehension between the (mainstream ethnocultural communication codes and instances of the staff and the (nondominant ethnocultural (and religious communication codes and instances of the patient (or of his/her parents.

  8. 77 FR 48159 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for...


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of...

  9. Patient refusal for regional anesthesia in elderly orthopedic population: A cross-sectional survey at a tertiary care hospital

    Asma Abdus Salam


    Conclusion: This survey showed that the main reasons among elderly female population were the fear of remaining awake and backache. However, overall it was the surgeon′s choice which made patients refuse RA, and the anesthesiologists were the main source of information.

  10. Observations of parent-child co-shoppers in supermarkets: children's involvement in food selections, parental yielding, and refusal strategies.

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Story, Mary; Stang, Jamie


    The study aimed to collect descriptive information on the decision-making processes of adult shoppers around food purchases when young children are present. Anthropological field observations were conducted on adult-child grocery shoppers. Eleven supermarkets in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan region. A convenience sample (n = 142) of adult-child shoppers at 8 budget and 3 deluxe supermarkets located in diverse urban and suburban areas. Observations registered adult-child interactions over food selections, including parental yielding or refusal strategies and child engagement in shopping. Means and frequencies were calculated for food items considered. In 67 (50.4%) of the total 133 observations, a child initiated a request. Half (55.2%) of the requests were for sweets or snacks. Nearly half (47.8%) of adults yielded to the child's request. Brands and marketing techniques appeared to be a factor in 28.6% of selections. The most frequent adult refusals either provided an explanation or ignored the request. Adults yield to children's requests for sweets and snacks nearly as often as they refuse them. However, effective refusal strategies are used by many adults. Opportunities exist in the grocery store for adults to reinforce young children's interest in food and nutrition.

  11. 37 CFR 10.62 - Refusing employment when the interest of the practitioner may impair the practitioner's...


    ... financial, business, property, or personal interests. (b) A practitioner shall not accept employment in a... will relate solely to the nature and value of legal services rendered in the case by the practitioner or the practitioner's firm to the client. (4) As to any matter, if refusal would work a substantial...

  12. Challenged by cognition : toward optimal measurement and greater understanding of youth cognition in school refusal and cognitive behavioural therapy outcome

    Maric, Marija


    The main purpose of this dissertation was to highlight and address seven challenges related to the measurement of youth cognition, understanding the role of cognitive constructs in anxiety and school refusal, and the examination of cognitive mediators of cognitive-behavioural treatment outcomes. The

  13. 78 FR 60292 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Application Submissions-Refuse-to-Receive...


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abbreviated New Drug Application Submissions--Refuse-to-Receive Standards; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a...

  14. Refusal Strategies in L1 and L2: A Study of Persian-Speaking Learners of English

    Babai Shishavan, Homa; Sharifian, Farzad


    The aim of this study was to explore pragmalinguistic strategies employed by a group of Iranian English language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers and suggestions in their first (Persian) and second (English) languages. Data were collected from 86 participants through a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). The social…

  15. 21 CFR 515.25 - Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending...


    ... medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking a license. 515.25 Section 515.25 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.25 Revocation of order refusing to approve a medicated feed mill license application or suspending or revoking...

  16. Religious law versus secular law The example of the get refusal in Dutch, English and Israeli law

    Blois, M. de


    The tension between religious law and secular law in modern democracies is illustrated in this article by a discussion of the different approaches to the get (a bill of divorce) refusal (based on Jewish law) under Dutch, English and Israeli law. These legal orders share many characteristics, but

  17. [Granted, undecided, withdrawn and refused requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands; 2000-2002].

    Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Jansen-Van der Weide, M C; Van der Wal, G


    To determine the characteristics of patients who request euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and whether these characteristics differ among those whose request is granted, those who die before the procedure, those who die before completion of the approval process, those who withdraw their request, and lastly, those whose request is refused by the physician. Questionnaire study. All general practitioners in 18 of the 23 Dutch general practitioner districts received a written questionnaire in which they were asked to describe the most recent request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide that they had received (response 60%, n=3614). Of all explicit requests, 44% resulted in euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. Thirteen percent of patients died before the procedure, 13% died before completion of the approval process, 13% withdrew their request and 12% were refused by the physician. The most prominent symptoms were 'feeling bad', 'tiredness', and 'lack of appetite'. The most frequently mentioned reasons for requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide were 'pointless suffering', 'loss of dignity', and 'general weakness'. The patients' situation met the official requirements for accepted practice best in the group of requests that resulted in euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and least in the group of refused requests. A lesser degree of competence and less unbearable and hopeless suffering had the strongest associations with the refusal of a request. The complexity of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide decision-making is reflected in the fact that, besides granting and refusing a request, 3 other situations could be distinguished. The decisions physicians made, the reasons for their decisions and the way they arrived at their decisions appeared to be based on patient evaluations and on the official requirements for accepted practice.

  18. The use of coal refuse bike substratoun in cultivate techniques without soils; Utilizacion de los Esteriles de Carbon como Sustratos en Cultivos sin Suelo 2 Fase



    Coal refuse poses several problems as regards both their storage and environmental impact: landscape alteration, pollution, high costs, an increasing difficulty in finding appropriate places for storage, etc. Therefore, the companies HUMOSA, HORPLASA and the C. S. I. C. Centre for Environmental Sciences carried out a joint study financed by OCICARBON. This study, completing other ones carried out previously, was aimed at determining the use as both a soilless medium for growing other vegetables than tomatoes and a basic component for container gardening. Then, based on previous experiments, two types of coal refuse were selected: coal refuse from dumps and burnt coal refuse. The characterization of the coal refuse was carried out and the investigation-line was established: (I) the adaption of techniques and know-how obtained up to that moment to the production of kidney beans faba de la granja, green beans and pepper; (II) to study the possibilities of coal refuse as basic components of substrates for container gardening of decorative outdoor plants different from the already investigated conifers in order examine thoroughly the cultivation techniques and, in particular, the methods of fertilization by irrigation. Exhaustive controls were carried out with both types of cultivation using as reference other cultivations with conventional substrates. The results obtained proved that coal refuse can be used as soilles growing medium for vegetables and for container gardening of decorative plants.

  19. Plant for incineration and gasification of refuse with integrated heat recovery. Vorrichtung zur Vergasung und Verbrennung von Muell und zur Nutzung der freigesetzten Waerme

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.


    A system for refuse incineration and gasification with integrated heat recovery is claimed, comprising a refuse degassing reactor in which the refuse is continuously degassed, producing low-temperature carbonisation gas and coke, and a downstream fluidized-bed combustion furnace for combustion of the low-temperature carbonisation coke. The fluidized-bed combustion system is charged with coke only in peak load operation; downstream of it, there is a combustion chamber system for continous combustion of the low-temperature carbonisation gas with a secondary boiler with heat exchanger surfaces.

  20. Anything but the eyes: culture, identity, and the selective refusal of corneal donation.

    Lawlor, Mitchell; Kerridge, Ian


    At the time that a patient is diagnosed as brain dead, a substantial proportion of families who give consent to heart and kidney donation specifically refuse eye donation. This in part may relate to the failure of those involved in transplantation medicine and public education to fully appreciate the different meanings attached to the body of a recently deceased person. Medicine and science have long understood the body as a "machine." This view has fitted with medical notions of transplantation, with donors being a source of biologic "goods." However, even a cursory glance at the rituals surrounding death makes it apparent that there is more to a dead body than simply its biologic parts; in death, bodies continue as the physical substrate of relationships. Of all the organs, it is the eyes that are identified as the site of sentience, and there is a long tradition of visual primacy and visual symbolism in virtually all aspects of culture. It therefore seems likely that of all the body parts, it is the eyes that are most central to social relationships. A request to donate the eyes therefore is unlikely to be heard simply in medical terms as a request to donate a "superfluous" body part for the benefit of another. That the eyes are not simply biologic provides one explanation for both the lower rates of corneal donation, compared with that of other organs, and the lack of adequate corneal donation to meet demand.

  1. Childhood Vaccine Acceptance and Refusal among Warao Amerindian Caregivers in Venezuela; A Qualitative Approach

    Burghouts, Jochem; Del Nogal, Berenice; Uriepero, Angimar; Hermans, Peter W. M.; de Waard, Jacobus H.; Verhagen, Lilly M.


    Objectives Acceptance of childhood vaccination varies between societies, affecting worldwide vaccination coverage. Low coverage rates are common in indigenous populations where parents often choose not to vaccinate their children. We aimed to gain insight into reasons for vaccine acceptance or rejection among Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. Methods Based on records of vaccine acceptance or refusal, in-depth interviews with 20 vaccine-accepting and 11 vaccine-declining caregivers were performed. Parents’ attitudes were explored using a qualitative approach. Results Although Warao caregivers were generally in favor of vaccination, fear of side effects and the idea that young and sick children are too vulnerable to be vaccinated negatively affected vaccine acceptance. The importance assigned to side effects was related to the perception that these resembled symptoms/diseases of another origin and could thus harm the child. Religious beliefs or traditional healers did not influence the decision-making process. Conclusions Parental vaccine acceptance requires educational programs on the preventive nature of vaccines in relation to local beliefs about health and disease. Attention needs to be directed at population-specific concerns, including explanation on the nature of and therapeutic options for side effects. PMID:28107501

  2. Superheater corrosion in a boiler fired with refuse-derived fuel

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bakker, W.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Steinbeck, T. [United Power Association, Elk River, MN (United States)


    The environment in the superheater of a boiler firing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is very aggressive. The high wastage rate for the standard T-22 material necessitated a materials testing program. Simples of Types 304H, HR3C, T-22 chromized, 825 and 625 were assembled into tubular test sections and welded into the superheater tubing. After 1,180 hours the test sections were evaluated and the wastage rates calculated for each material. The chlorides contained in the RDF are believed to be the primary corrodent. The chlorine may be interacting with the metal samples as HCl, a low-melting-point eutectic or a combination of these. Of the six materials tested, Alloy 625 exhibited the best resistance--substantially better than the next-best Type 304. Alloy 825 and HR3C corroded approximately 1.5 times the rate of Type 304. The chromized layer on T-22 showed no resistance to the environment and was consumed in large areas.

  3. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T


    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate.

  4. Childhood Vaccine Acceptance and Refusal among Warao Amerindian Caregivers in Venezuela; A Qualitative Approach.

    Burghouts, Jochem; Del Nogal, Berenice; Uriepero, Angimar; Hermans, Peter W M; de Waard, Jacobus H; Verhagen, Lilly M


    Acceptance of childhood vaccination varies between societies, affecting worldwide vaccination coverage. Low coverage rates are common in indigenous populations where parents often choose not to vaccinate their children. We aimed to gain insight into reasons for vaccine acceptance or rejection among Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. Based on records of vaccine acceptance or refusal, in-depth interviews with 20 vaccine-accepting and 11 vaccine-declining caregivers were performed. Parents' attitudes were explored using a qualitative approach. Although Warao caregivers were generally in favor of vaccination, fear of side effects and the idea that young and sick children are too vulnerable to be vaccinated negatively affected vaccine acceptance. The importance assigned to side effects was related to the perception that these resembled symptoms/diseases of another origin and could thus harm the child. Religious beliefs or traditional healers did not influence the decision-making process. Parental vaccine acceptance requires educational programs on the preventive nature of vaccines in relation to local beliefs about health and disease. Attention needs to be directed at population-specific concerns, including explanation on the nature of and therapeutic options for side effects.

  5. Nitrogen removal pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in on-site aged refuse bioreactor.

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Youcai; Xie, Bing; Peng, Qing; Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan


    The nitrogen removal pathways and nitrogen-related functional genes in on-site three-stage aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) treating landfill leachate were investigated. It was found that on average 90.0% of CODCr, 97.6% of BOD5, 99.3% of NH4(+)-N, and 81.0% of TN were removed with initial CODCr, BOD5, NH4(+)-N, and TN concentrations ranging from 2323 to 2754, 277 to 362, 1237 to 1506, and 1251 to 1580 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the functional genes amoA, nirS and anammox 16S rRNA gene were found to coexist in every bioreactor, and their relative proportions in each bioreactor were closely related to the pollutant removal performance of the corresponding bioreactor, which indicated the coexistence of multiple nitrogen removal pathways in the ARB. Detection of anammox expression proved the presence of the anammox nitrogen removal pathway during the process of recirculating mature leachate to the on-site ARB, which provides important information for nitrogen management in landfills.

  6. Strategies Low-Income Parents Use to Overcome Their Children's Food Refusal.

    Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Antono, Amanda C; Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O


    Introduction Parents play a key role in the development of eating habits in preschool children, as they are the food "gatekeepers." Repeated exposure to new foods can improve child food preferences and consumption. The objective of this study was to determine parent feeding strategies used to influence child acceptance of previously rejected foods (PRF). Methods We conducted eighteen focus groups (total participants = 111) with low-income African American and Hispanic parents of preschool children (3- to 5-year-olds) in Texas, Colorado, and Washington. Through thematic analysis, we coded transcripts and analyzed coded quotes to develop dominant emergent themes related to strategies used to overcome children's food refusal. Results We found three major themes in the data: parents most often do not serve PRF; parents value their child eating over liking a food; and parents rarely use the same feeding strategy more than once for a PRF. Desiring to reduce waste and save time, parents said they most often intentionally decided not to purchase or serve PRF to their children. Discussion Because parents' primary goal in child feeding is getting children to eat (over acceptance of a variety of foods), strategies to help parents promote consumption of less easily accepted foods could help parents with child feeding struggles and improve children's dietary quality.

  7. Performance Appraisal of Controlled Low-strength Material Using Sewage Sludge and Refuse Incineration Bottom Ash

    甄广印; 周海燕; 赵天涛; 赵由才


    This research evaluated the use of sewage sludge and refuse incineration bottom ash to replace calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) in making controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Various properties of CLSM mixtures were characterized in terms of unconfined compressive strength, microstructure and leachability. It was found that the strength of tested CLSM mixtures ranged from 3.6 to 9.0 MPa, over the upper excavatable limit of 2.1 MPa. The micro-structural analysis revealed that sewage sludge and bottom ash were crystallochemically in- corporated within CLSM system_s by forming the needle-like ettringite (C3A'3CS'_H32) with exiguous tu.bers via the typical Pozzolanic Reaction, leading to a dense and low-porosity microst;'ucture. Furthermore,-the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure evidenced that the cumulative leachable metals in the leachate were much below the regulatory thresholds. The potential for us!ng sewage sludge and bottom ash!n CLSM makin.g was thus confirmed.

  8. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark: social and environmental quality jeopardized.

    Busck, Ole


    Refuse collection has been the main public service to be outsourced in Denmark since the E.U. guidelines on public procurement came into force in 1993. The contracting activities of the municipalities are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, in addition to regulations. At both EU level and at national level, the demands for marketization of the public sector are counterbalanced by demands for social and environmental considerations. The procurement directive reflects the balance legalizing the inclusion of such requirements by contracting. The Danish experiences, however, tell a grim tale of subordination of social requirements in municipal contracting practices with implications for the quality of the service. The results of a recent study of developments in the working conditions at commercial collection companies show deterioration in respect of health and safety, competence building and job security concurrent with the increase in outsourcing and competition in the sector. In the analysis of the results, a combination of municipal cost-saving strategies, harsh market forces and cultural influences are identified as causal factors. Drawing on a brief institutional analysis, it is concluded that the existing normative and regulative framework of municipal contracting needs reinforcement if societal intentions of qualified public services and acceptable working conditions are to be effective. Initiatives to simultaneously improve working conditions and environmental results of collection are called for.

  9. Odour Pollution Measurement from Refuse Derive Fuel Operations Using Odour Concentration Meter (OCM XP-329

    Zaini Sakawi


    Full Text Available Odour perception is subjective and difficult to be accurately measured between individuals. Hence many studies on odour issues are more commonly pertain to its intensity, concentration, types, standards, measurement methods, law and impacts on physical and human environments. Nevertheless, odour analysis can be conducted empirically or based on human sensorial. Among major sources of odour pollution are animal rearing, oil palm and rubber mills, dumpsites, industries and sewage treatments. This study attempted to measure odour pollution generated by Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF operation. The analysis was conducted at different times of day (morning, evening and night and weather conditions (normal days and after rains. 10 sampling stations were selected for observations using the Odour Concentration Meter Siri XP-329 III.The results indicated that there existed different level of odour concentrations on normal days and after rains due to the influence of meteorological environment. Distance factors also influenced the odour concentrations, whereby gradually, the stations further from RDF operation recorded higher odour concentrations

  10. Narrative as re-fusion: Making sense and value from sickle cell and thalassaemia trait.

    Dyson, Simon M; Ahmad, Waqar Iu; Atkin, Karl


    The moral turn within sociology suggests that we need to be attentive to values and have a rapprochement with philosophy. The study of illness narratives is one area of sociology that has consistently addressed itself to moral domains but has tended to focus on stories of living with genetic or chronic illness per se rather than liminal states such as genetic traits. This article takes the case of genetic carriers within racialized minority groups, namely, those with sickle cell or thalassaemia trait, and takes seriously the notion that their narratives are ethical practices In line with the work of Paul Ricoeur, such storied practices are found to link embodiment, social relationships with significant others and wider socio-cultural and socio-political relations. At the same time, such practices are about embodying values. These narratives may be considered as practices that re-fuse what genetic counselling has de-fused, in order to make sense of a life in its entirety and to strive ethically and collectively towards preferred social realities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. U.S. Supreme Court refuses to review decision invalidating provisions in Louisiana parental consent law.


    On October 20, 1997, the US Supreme Court refused to review an April decision of the US Court of Appeals finding that parental consent provisions in Louisiana's abortion law posed an unconstitutional "undue burden" on minors seeking abortions. Louisiana has required consent of one parent with a court bypass procedure since the early 1980s, but the legislature amended this legislation in 1995 to give judges wide latitude to deny young women abortions, breach their confidentiality, and permit unspecified time parameters in making a decision. A District Court found the amendments in conflict with established federal court precedent, and the Appeals Courts agreed and also found that the lack of guarantee for a specified time for resolution of a petition was inconsistent with court rulings against such open-ended bypass procedures. The Court also rejected a provision that gave a judge authority to order a young woman to attend evaluation and counseling sessions (again with no time limit) before authorization for abortion would be granted. The panel also struck down a provision that permitted a court to contact the parents of a minor if the court determined that the minor was not mature and that such notification would be in her best interests. It was found that this mandate would unacceptably compromise a petitioner's anonymity.

  12. Duty of care or a matter of conduct -- can a doctor refuse a person in need of urgent medical attention?

    Dean, Jessica; Mahar, Patrick; Loh, Erwin; Ludlow, Karinne


    Medical practitioners may have their particular skills called upon outside a direct professional context. The responsibilities of medical practitioners outside their defined scope of clinical practice may not be clear to all clinicians. To consider the possible legal consequences of a doctor refusing to assist a person in need of urgent medical attention both in terms of medical negligence and professional misconduct. Where an established clinical relationship does not exist, and a doctor does not wish to render aid, three particular scenarios may arise. A doctor may actively deny being a doctor, passively avoid identifying themselves as a doctor or acknowledge being a doctor, but refuse to render assistance. Aside from any ethical issues, how a doctor chooses to act and represent themselves may lead to different legal ramifications. There exists significant variation in state provisions relating to legal obligations to render aid, which may benefit from review and revision at a national level.

  13. Determinants of refusal of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach.

    Eugenie d'Alessandro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine- and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flu's potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. (1 it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. (2 it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. (3 this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

  14. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples According to the New Criminal Code

    Minodora-Ioana BALAN-RUSU


    The purpose and the objectives of the research consist of examining the constitutive content of the crime of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples according to the New Criminal Code, thus presenting some recent examples of judicial practice that may be applied in terms of new regulations imposed by the entry into force of the New Romanian Criminal Code. The research results consist of examining the constitutive content referring to judicial practice, and highlig...

  15. Incomplete cytokinesis and re-fusion of small mononucleated Hodgkin cells lead to giant multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells.

    Rengstl, Benjamin; Newrzela, Sebastian; Heinrich, Tim; Weiser, Christian; Thalheimer, Frederic B; Schmid, Frederike; Warner, Kathrin; Hartmann, Sylvia; Schroeder, Timm; Küppers, Ralf; Rieger, Michael A; Hansmann, Martin-Leo


    Multinucleated Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are pathognomonic for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and their presence is essential for diagnosis. How these giant tumor cells develop is controversial, however. It has been postulated that RS cells arise from mononucleated Hodgkin cells via endomitosis. Conversely, continuous single-cell tracking of HL cell lines by long-term time-lapse microscopy has identified cell fusion as the main route of RS cell formation. In contrast to growth-induced formation of giant Hodgkin cells, fusion of small mononuclear cells followed by a size increase gives rise to giant RS cells. Of note, fusion of cells originating from the same ancestor, termed re-fusion, is seen nearly exclusively. In the majority of cases, re-fusion of daughter cells is preceded by incomplete cytokinesis, as demonstrated by microtubule bonds among the cells. We confirm at the level of individual tracked cells that giant Hodgkin and RS cells have little proliferative capacity, further supporting small mononuclear Hodgkin cells as the proliferative compartment of the HL tumor clone. In addition, sister cells show a shared propensity for re-fusion, providing evidence of early RS cell fate commitment. Thus, RS cell generation is related neither to cell fusion of unrelated Hodgkin cells nor to endomitosis, but rather is mediated by re-fusion of daughter cells that underwent mitosis. This surprising finding supports the existence of a unique mechanism for the generation of multinuclear RS cells that may have implications beyond HL, given that RS-like cells are frequently observed in several other lymphoproliferative diseases as well.

  16. Social-Context Factors, Refusal Self-Efficacy, and Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in China


    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in a social or individual context can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social-context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSW...

  17. Refuses and delays in the transportation by ship of radioactive material; Recusas e demoras no transporte maritimo de material radioativo

    Xavier, Clarice; Sobreira, Ana Celia [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Some Class 7 materials can only be transported by ship, making that load and unload activities can be done in a port. In the Brazil, the port of Santos posses the most volume of cargo manipulation, and cargoes which contain radioactive material are always present with all manipulation requisites according to applicable regulations. The transport and manipulation operations of radioactive material are performed in accordance with national and international requisites but, some individuals posses yet a high risk perception according to our experience, involving members of Brazilian port authorities, the Navy and cargoes handlers at the ports. So, exist yet a high quantity of refuses and delays during the transport by ship. Therefore, a communication strategy was developed and applied, to inform the risk perception, supplying information on the very principles of ionizing radiation, legislation and uses of radiation, and so, diminishing the quantity of refuses and delays. From that initial communication strategy on, it becomes evident the necessity of training and conscience making a movement for the problem of refuses and delays be diminished

  18. Parental refusal of life-saving treatments for adolescents: Chinese familism in medical decision-making re-visited.

    Hui, Edwin


    This paper reports two cases in Hong Kong involving two native Chinese adolescent cancer patients (APs) who were denied their rights to consent to necessary treatments refused by their parents, resulting in serious harm. We argue that the dynamics of the 'AP-physician-family-relationship' and the dominant role Chinese families play in medical decision-making (MDM) are best understood in terms of the tendency to hierarchy and parental authoritarianism in traditional Confucianism. This ethic has been confirmed and endorsed by various Chinese writers from Mainland China and Hong Kong. Rather than giving an unqualified endorsement to this ethic, based more on cultural sentimentalism than rational moral reasoning, we warn that a strong familism in MDM, which deprives 'weak' family members of rights, represents the less desirable elements of this tradition, against which healthcare professionals working in this cultural milieu need to safeguard. Specifically for APs, we suggest that parental authority and family integrity should be re-interpreted in terms of parental responsibility and the enhancement of children's interests respectively, as done in the West. This implies that when parents refuse to consent to necessary treatment and deny their adolescent children's right to consent, doctors, as the only remaining advocates of the APs' interest, have the duty to inform the state, which can override parental refusal to enable the doctors to fulfill their professional and moral obligations. In so doing the state exercises its 'parens patriae' power to defend the defenseless in society and the integrity of the medical profession.

  19. Bioaugmentation of tar-contaminated soils under field conditions using Pleurotus ostreatus refuse from commercial mushroom production

    Hestbjerg, H.; Willumsen, P.A.; Christensen, M.; Andersen, O.; Jacobsen, C.S. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The influence of the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of selected poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) in soil was investigated under field conditions representing the Northern temperate zone. Pleurotus ostreatus was added to two contaminated soils in the form of homogenized refuse from the commercial production of fungus. The soils were collected from a former shipyard (the B&W soil) and underneath a former coal tar storage at an old asphalt factory in Denmark (the Ringe soil). Treatments (control, soil mixed with autoclaved sawdust medium, and soil mixed with P. ostreatus refuse) were set up in triplicate in concrete cylinders (height, 50 cm; diameter, 60 cm). The activity of P. ostreatus was measured as laccase activity and phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-degrading bacteria were enumerated. Twenty-one different PAHs were quantified. After nine weeks the concentrations of the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAHs in the Ringe soil were reduced by 78, 41, and 4%, respectively. These reductions corresponded with high initial laccase activity, a decrease in pH caused by the fungus, and an increase in the number of PHE- and PYR-degrading bacteria. No significant PAH degradation was observed in the B&W soil. Reasons for the difference in performance of P. ostreatus in the two soils are discussed in terms of soil histories and bioavailability. The use of P. ostreatus refuse holds promising potential for bioremediation purposes.

  20. Bioaugmentation of tar-contaminated soils under field conditions using Pleurotus ostreatus refuse from commercial mushroom production.

    Hestbjerg, Helle; Willumsen, Pia Arentsen; Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Ole; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr


    The influence of the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus on the degradation of selected poly- and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) in soil was investigated under field conditions representing the Northern temperate zone. Pleurotus ostreatus was added to two contaminated soils in the form of homogenized refuse from the commercial production of fungus. The soils were collected from a former shipyard (the B&W soil) and underneath a former coal tar storage at an old asphalt factory in Denmark (the Ringe soil). Treatments (control, soil mixed with autoclaved sawdust medium, and soil mixed with P. ostreatus refuse) were set up in triplicate in concrete cylinders (height, 50 cm; diameter, 60 cm). The activity of P. ostreatus was measured as laccase activity and phenanthrene (PHE)- and pyrene (PYR)-degrading bacteria were enumerated. Twenty-one different PAHs were quantified. After nine weeks the concentrations of the 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-ring PAHs in the Ringe soil were reduced by 78, 41, and 4%, respectively. These reductions corresponded with high initial laccase activity, a decrease in pH caused by the fungus, and an increase in the number of PHE- and PYR-degrading bacteria. No significant PAH degradation was observed in the B&W soil. Reasons for the difference in performance of P. ostreatus in the two soils are discussed in terms of soil histories and bioavailability. The use of P. ostreatus refuse holds promising potential for bioremediation purposes.

  1. Consent, Refusal, and Waivers in Patient-Centered Dysphagia Care: Using Law, Ethics, and Evidence to Guide Clinical Practice.

    Horner, Jennifer; Modayil, Maria; Chapman, Laura Roche; Dinh, An


    When patients refuse medical or rehabilitation procedures, waivers of liability have been used to bar future lawsuits. The purpose of this tutorial is to review the myriad issues surrounding consent, refusal, and waivers. The larger goal is to invigorate clinical practice by providing clinicians with knowledge of ethics and law. This tutorial is for educational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. The authors use a hypothetical case of a "noncompliant" individual under the care of an interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation team to illuminate the ethical and legal features of the patient-practitioner relationship; the elements of clinical decision-making capacity; the duty of disclosure and the right of informed consent or informed refusal; and the relationship among noncompliance, defensive practices, and iatrogenic harm. We explore the legal question of whether waivers of liability in the medical context are enforceable or unenforceable as a matter of public policy. Speech-language pathologists, among other health care providers, have fiduciary and other ethical and legal obligations to patients. Because waivers try to shift liability for substandard care from health care providers to patients, courts usually find waivers of liability in the medical context unenforceable as a matter of public policy.

  2. Copper leaching of MSWI bottom ash co-disposed with refuse: effect of short-term accelerated weathering.

    Su, Lianghu; Guo, Guangzhai; Shi, Xinlong; Zuo, Minyu; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Aihua; Zhao, Youcai


    Co-disposal of refuse with municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (IBA) either multi-layered as landfill cover or mixed with refuse could pose additional risk to the environment because of enhanced leaching of heavy metals, especially Cu. This study applied short-term accelerated weathering to IBA, and monitored the mineralogical and chemical properties of IBA during the weathering process. Cu extractability of the weathered IBA was then evaluated using standard leaching protocols (i.e. SPLP and TCLP) and co-disposal leaching procedure. The results showed that weathering had little or no beneficial effect on Cu leaching in SPLP and TCLP, which can be explained by the adsorption and complexation of Cu with DOM. However, the Cu leaching of weathered IBA was reduced significantly when situated in fresh simulated landfill leachate. This was attributed to weakening Cu complexation with fulvic acid or hydrophilic fractions and/or intensifying Cu absorption to neoformed hydr(oxide) minerals in weathered IBA. The amount of total leaching Cu and Cu in free or labile complex fraction (the fraction with the highest mobility and bio-toxicity) of the 408-h weathered IBA were remarkably decreased by 86.3% and 97.6% in the 15-day co-disposal leaching test. Accelerated weathering of IBA may be an effective pretreatment method to decrease Cu leaching prior to its co-disposal with refuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 拒绝言语行为的礼貌问题研究%Speech Acts pf Refusal in Light of Politeness



    Speech acts of refusal are inherently threatening to face,which can divided into direct and indirect refusals.The indirectness of speech acts refusal is related directly with politeness.Social power and distance exert influences on speech acts of refusal.%由于拒绝言语行为具有潜在的面子威胁性。拒绝言语行为有直接拒绝和间接拒绝。拒绝言语行为的间接性与礼貌之间存在正态关联。社会权力和社会距离也影响对拒绝言语行为的实施。

  4. Refusal Strategies of Iranian University English as a Foreign Language and Non-English Learners in Native Language: A Comparative Study

    Seyyed Hatam Tamimi Sa’d


    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to examine the possible effect that exposure to English has had on the use of refusal strategies in English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners compared with those of non-English learners when refusing in their native language, Persian. The sample included 12 EFL learners and 12 learners of other academic majors including electronics, psychology, management, etc., who responded to a Persian Discourse Completion Task (DCT, adopted from Allami and Naeimi (2011, who has engaged in the speech act of refusal. The responses were coded according to the classification of refusal strategies as outlined by Beebe, Tahakashi and Uliss-Weltz (1990. The results indicated that non-English learners used the refusal strategies considerably more frequently than the EFL learners did, while the EFL learners utilized more adjuncts to refusals than the non-English learners did. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the first four most frequently used refusal strategies by both EFL and non-English groups were found to be “Non-performative statement” (in the case of direct strategies and in the form of “I can’t”, “Statement of regret”, “Excuse, reason or explanation” and “Attempt to dissuade interlocutor” (in the case of indirect strategies, and the most frequently used adjuncts to refusal strategies by both EFL and non-English groups were “Statement of positive opinions, feelings or agreement” and "Gratitude/Appreciation”. Furthermore, gender differences were not statistically significant either. The results can be evidence that the effect of the second language (L2 on the native language (L1 might not be at work in the pragmatic aspects of language learning.

  5. Women's motivation for boardroom work : factors that led women to refuse or accept actual requests to serve on a board of directors

    Skjønnhaug, Ida Muri


    This paper concerns the motivation of women in management for boardroom work, and the purpose was to explore factors that led women to refuse or accept actual requests to serve on a board of directors. Eleven women participated in this study: five who had refused an invitation to serve on a board; and six, who had accepted such invitations. All Participants had previously attended the Female Future Program conducted by the Norwegian Confederation of Business and Industry. Individual semi- str...

  6. Point of care experience with pneumococcal and influenza vaccine documentation among persons aged ≥65 years: high refusal rates and missing information.

    Brownfield, Elisha; Marsden, Justin E; Iverson, Patty J; Zhao, Yumin; Mauldin, Patrick D; Moran, William P


    Missed opportunities to vaccinate and refusal of vaccine by patients have hindered the achievement of national health care goals. The meaningful use of electronic medical records should improve vaccination rates, but few studies have examined the content of these records. In our vaccine intervention program using an electronic record with physician prompts, paper prompts, and nursing standing orders, we were unable to achieve national vaccine goals, due in large part to missing information and patient refusal.

  7. Effects of health facilitator performance and attendance at training sessions on the acquisition of tobacco refusal skills among multi-ethnic, high-risk adolescents.

    Elder, J P; Woodruff, S I; Sallis, J F; de Moor, C; Edwards, C; Wildey, M B


    The study examined the effectiveness of a psycho-social tobacco use prevention intervention with a refusal skills training component on the refusal skills of high-risk adolescents, and investigated skill acquisition as related to subject demographics, performance of health facilitators and attendance at skills training sessions. Tobacco refusal skills were assessed for a group (n = 389) of high-risk, seventh-grade students participating as intervention and control subjects in Project SHOUT, a large tobacco use prevention program in the San Diego area. In addition, subject demographics, ratings of health facilitator performance and information about subjects' attendance at skills training sessions were collected. Subjects' responses to audiotaped peer offers of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco were coded for content and quality. Greater tobacco refusal skills among intervention subjects was hypothesized. Further health facilitator performance, attendance at training sessions and subject demographics were thought to be related to skill acquisition. High-risk intervention subjects gave significantly higher quality tobacco-refusal responses than did controls, although the differences between means were small. Results suggested that Hispanic adolescents were particularly receptive to the refusal skills training. The association between health facilitator performance and skill acquisition varied by subject ethnicity, as did the relationship between attendance at training sessions and skill acquisition.

  8. A Study of Refusal Speech Act in Chinese Dating Programs ——Take "If You Are The One" As an Example

    Yiwen Wang


    Full Text Available Looking at the development of China dating programs, "If You Are The One" in Jiang Su satellite TV is the heated program drawing much attention from the public. There are some papers focusing on the dialogue in the program from the perspective of linguistic features or pragmatic function, but there are few papers on the refusal speech act in such programs. Based on the classified oral language data in the program, this paper studies the refusal speech act when male or female guest was asked to build a love relationship with someone. Under the guidance of the face theory (Brown & Levinson, Politeness principle (Leech, we analysize the pragmatical difference of different refusal speech act. In addition, from the perspective of gender difference the study analyzes different refusal speech act patterns conducted by male and female guests in dating program and we find that men behave generally more direct while women are more euphemistic and polite in refusal speech act.Keywords: Refusal Speech Act, Direct and indirect, Politeness principle, Gender differences, "If You Are The One"

  9. The role of positive/negative outcome expectancy and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use on Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan.

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei


    Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, this study was designed to examine positive and negative outcome expectancy and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use and their contribution to Internet addiction among college students by using hierarchical multiple regression analyses in a cross-sectional study design. Schools were first stratified into technical or nontechnical colleges and then into seven majors. A cluster random sampling by department was further applied to randomly choose participants from each major. A representative sample of 4,456 college students participated in this study. The Outcome Expectancy and Refusal Self-Efficacy of Internet Use Questionnaire and the Chen Internet Addiction Scale were used to assess the cognitive factors and the levels of Internet addiction. Results showed that both positive outcome expectancy and negative outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with Internet addiction, and refusal self-efficacy of Internet use was significantly and negatively related to Internet addiction. Further analyses revealed that refusal self-efficacy of Internet use directly and negatively predicted Internet addiction. Moreover, we discovered that positive outcome expectancy positively predicted Internet addiction via refusal self-efficacy of Internet use; however, surprisingly, negative outcome expectancy had both a direct and indirect positive relationship in predicting Internet addiction via the refusal self-efficacy of Internet use. These results give empirical evidence to verify the theoretical effectiveness of the three cognitive factors to Internet addiction and should be incorporated when designing prevention programs and strategies for Internet addicted college students.

  10. Factores relacionados con rehusar el tratamiento antirretroviral en prisión Factors related to refuse antiretroviral therapy in prison

    Luis Sordo del Castillo


    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de los beneficios sobre la morbilidad y la mortalidad que tiene el tratamiento antirretroviral de gran actividad, hay pacientes seropositivos que rehúsan tomarlo. Las prisiones nos permiten acceder con más facilidad a esta población. Objetivo: Determinar las características psicosociales de los reclusos que rehúsan el tratamiento antirretroviral. Metodología: Estudio transversal realizado a 580 reclusos seropositivos de 3 cárceles andaluzas. Como variable dependiente se estableció estar en tratamiento o rehusarlo. Las variables independientes fueron: sociodemográficas, psicosociales, relacionadas con el medio penitenciario, clínicas, y relacionadas con el estado de salud y con las drogodependencias. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para determinar qué factores se relacionaban con rehusar el tratamiento antirretroviral. Resultados: Al 73,1% de los reclusos seropositivos se les recomendaba el tratamiento con antirretrovirales. De éstos, el 23,1% rechazaba tomarlo, mientras el 76,9% lo tomaba. Los factores relacionados con los reclusos que rehusaban el tratamiento antirretroviral fueron una carga viral elevada, una peor salud autopercibida, un mayor número de entradas en la cárcel y ser visitados por personas diferentes a los familiares. Conclusiones: Hay un grupo de reclusos con características propias que rechazan el tratamiento antirretroviral, sobre el que deben realizarse intervenciones específicas encaminadas a que conozcan las consecuencias de su decisión sobre la evolución de su enfermedad.Introduction: Despite the benefits of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on morbidity and mortality, some seropositive patients refuse to accept this treatment. Prisons provide easier access to this population. Objective: To determine the psychosocial characteristics of prisoners who refuse HAART. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in 580 seropositive prisoners in 3 hospitals in

  11. Combustion products of plastics as indicators for refuse burning in the atmosphere.

    Simoneit, Bernd R T; Medeiros, Patricia M; Didyk, Borys M


    Despite all of the economic problems and environmental discussions on the dangers and hazards of plastic materials, plastic production worldwide is growing at a rate of about 5% per year. Increasing techniques for recycling polymeric materials have been developed during the last few years; however, a large fraction of plastics are still being discarded in landfills or subjected to intentional or incidental open-fire burning. To identify specific tracer compounds generated during such open-fire combustion, both smoke particles from burning and plastic materials from shopping bags, roadside trash, and landfill garbage were extracted for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Samples were collected in Concón, Chile, an area frequently affected by wildfire incidents and garbage burning, and the United States for comparison. Atmospheric samples from various aerosol sampling programs are also presented as supportive data. The major components of plastic extracts were even-carbon-chain n-alkanes (C16-C40), the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and the antioxidants and lubricants/antiadhesives Irganox 1076, Irgafos 168, and its oxidation product tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl) phosphate. Major compounds in smoke from burning plastics include the non-source-specific n-alkanes (mainly even predominance), terephthalic acid, phthalates, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, with minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including triphenylbenzenes) and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate. 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene and tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)- phosphate were found in detectable amounts in atmospheric samples where plastics and refuse were burned in open fires, and thus we propose these two compounds as specific tracers for the open-burning of plastics.

  12. Feed dilution-based design of a thickener for refuse slurry of a coal preparation plant

    S. Banisi; M. Yahyaei [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran). Mining Engineering Group


    Thickening is the most widely applied dewatering technique in mineral processing. Thickeners are used to increase the concentration of suspensions by sedimentation, accompanied by the release of a clear liquid. As the particles get finer the thickening process encounters difficulty due to a significant change in the particles settling behavior. The batch settling tests of coal refuse of a coal washing plant that contained 91% particles smaller than 38 {mu}m and 0.6% coarser than 75 {mu}m showed that the optimum feed percent solids that provided highest flux (solids handling capacity) was 4%. The flux of the pulp with the plant solids concentration (i.e., 10% by weight) was 60% lower than that of the pulp with 4% solids. A thickener with a diameter of 22 m based on the dilution of feed from solids concentration of 10% to 4% was designed. Monitoring of the thickener performance for a period of one month in the plant indicated that an average feed rate of 25t/h (dry solids) with solids concentration of 10% could be thickened to an underflow concentration of 26.5% with a clear water overflow. It was found that the key component of the successful operation of the thickener is the dilution of the feed, without dilution the overflow loses its clarity and the system ceases to operate under predetermined conditions. Based on the results of established CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) studies, a feeding system that efficiently dissipated the energy of the incoming flow and a staged flocculant addition regime were utilized in the design and operation of the thickener. 23 refs.

  13. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki


    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion.

  14. Surface Soil Pollution By Heavy Metals A Case Study Of Two Refuse Dumpsites In Akure Metropolis

    Anietie Olayemi Victoria


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy metals can be harmful to the biota and human beings when present above certain tolerable levels in the ecosystem. This lead to the study of the accumulation contamination and pollution of these metals in soils of two refuse dumpsites within and outskirts of Akure Township capital city of Ondo State Nigeria. The dumpsites are where wastes such as industrial wastes automobile wastes municipal wastes agricultural wastes etc were dumped. At each site soil samples were collected randomly from nine different points of about 1m part at depth of about 0-30cm and analyzed for heavy metals and pH. The metals analyzed include Zn Fe Co Cu Ni As Ba Pb Cr and Cd using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AAS with HFAqua regia wet digestion method. The pH of the soils ranged between 7.49 and 8.66. The results revealed heavy metal presence and implicated wastes as the major sources of the heavy metals in the soils of the dumpsites. All the metals were detected in all the soil samples except Arsenic that was not detected in three points at site A. Fe had the highest concentrations while Ni had the least concentration in both sites. The trend in concentration was Fe Zn Pb Cu Cd Co Cr AsBaNi in site A While the trend in concentration was Fe Cr Zn Cu PbCd Co As Ba Ni in site B. The mean metal concentrations were compared with Department of Petroleum Resources DPR Standard values for soils in Nigeria all the metals except Cr and Cu are below the DPR target values while Cd and Arsenic are above the DPR intervention values for the two sites and this calls for immediate remediation.

  15. Self-reporting and measurement of body mass index in adolescents: refusals and validity, and the possible role of socioeconomic and health-related factors.

    Chau, Nearkasen; Chau, Kénora; Mayet, Aurélie; Baumann, Michèle; Legleye, Stéphane; Falissard, Bruno


    Body mass index assessment using self-reported height and weight (BMIsr) can encounter refusals and under/over-reporting while for assessment with measured data (BMIm) refusals can be more frequent. This could relate to socioeconomic and health-related factors. We explored these issues by investigating numerous potential factors: gender, age, family structure, father's occupation, income, physical/sports activity, subjective weight perception, school performance, unhealthy behaviours, physical/psychological health, social relationships, living environment, having sustained violence, sexual abuse, and involvement in violence. The sample included 1559 adolescents from middle schools in north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic and health-related data, self-reported height/weight, measured height/weight, and weight perception (participation rate 94%). Data were analysed using logistic regression models. BMIsr encountered under-reporting (with change in BMI category, 11.8%), over-reporting (6.0%), and reporting refusals (3.6%). BMIm encountered more numerous refusals (7.9%). Reporting refusal was related to living with a single parent, low school performance, lack of physical/sports activity, sustained violence, poor psychological health, and poor social relationships (gender/age-adjusted odds ratios 1.95 to 2.91). Further to these factors, measurement refusal was related to older age, having divorced/separated parents, a father being a manual worker/inactive, insufficient family income, tobacco/cannabis use, involvement in violence, poor physical health, and poor living environment (1.30 to 3.68). Under-reporting was related to male gender, involvement in violence, poor psychological health, and overweight/obesity (as assessed with BMIm) (1.52 to 11). Over-reporting was related to male gender, younger age, alcohol consumption, and underweight (1.30 to 5.35). Weight perception was linked to reporting refusals and under

  16. Efficacy, compliance and reasons for refusal of postoperative chemotherapy for elderly patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective chart review and telephone patient questionnaire.

    Pan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC can benefit from chemotherapy, yet compliance in real-world practice is low. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy, compliance and reasons for refusal of postoperative chemotherapy for elderly patients with CRC and to provide corresponding strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinico-pathological and biochemical data of the chemotherapy group and chemo-refusing group were compared among 386 elderly patients (>70 years old with CRC who underwent surgery. 226 patients received chemotherapy and 160 patients refused. Follow-up of the subjective reasons for refusal was investigated using the elderly caner patients' chemo-refusal reason questionnaire (ECPCRRQ prepared by the authors and a group of psychologists. The questionnaire is administrated by telephone. A predictive model for 5-year disease-free survival (DFS and 5-year overall survival (OS was constructed by using Kaplan-Meier analysis, logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS: Among stage III patients, receiving chemotherapy was associated with a significantly higher OS (68% compared to those who refused ( OS 50% (HR: 2.05, 95%CI: 1.12-3.77, P = 0.02. The Chemo-refusal group had more female and elderly patients, significantly higher rate of severe complications, and lower body mass index (BMI. Follow-up phone questionnaire analysis showed the doctors' uncertainty of chemotherapy benefit, economic difficulties, uncomfortable feeling, superstition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, concealing information and lack of social support were the main factors for elderly CRC patients to decline chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The receipt of post-operative chemotherapy in elderly patients with resected stage III CRC was associated with a more favorable survival. The low compliance rate (160/386 of postoperative chemotherapy was influenced by various subjective and objective factors.

  17. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel


    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted.

  18. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J


    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up.

  19. Supreme Court refuses to review clinic access law; Second Appeals Court upholds statute.


    On June 19, the US Supreme Court refused to review "Woodall v. Reno," a challenge to the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) filed in Virginia by an anti-choice individual. FACE prohibits the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing or obtaining reproductive health services. By denying the petition for "certiorari," the High Court let stand the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in February. In that ruling, the midlevel federal court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of two of the eight anti-choice lawsuits challenging FACE, "Woodall v. Reno" and "American Life League v. Reno," which were consolidated by the appeals panel. Although plaintiffs in the first case filed a request for review by the High Court within days of the appellate court ruling, plaintiffs in the latter case waited until May to do so. The Department of Justice, which is defending the federal statute, and CRLP and the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund, who are intervening on behalf of women and health care providers, will file their opposition to the review by July 26. The Justices will then decide to hear the case. On June 23, a three-judge panel for the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed a lower court's decision to dismiss "Cheffer v. Reno," a facial challenge by Florida anti-choice activists seeking to invalidate FACE. The appeals court had ruled the law did not infringe on First Amendment rights, and the panel rejected the argument that Congress had exceeded its authority under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution by finding that the measure "protects and regulates commercial enterprises." The appeals court accepted an "amicus" brief filed by CRLP and NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund on behalf of the National Abortion Federation, the National Organization of Women, physicians, and women's health clinics, but denied their request to intervene in the

  20. Parents' refusal of medical treatment based on religious and/or cultural beliefs: the law, ethical principles, and clinical implications.

    Linnard-Palmer, Luanne; Kools, Susan


    When parents apply religious or cultural beliefs concerning spiritual healing, faith healing, or preference for prayer over traditional health care for children, concerns develop. Medical care is considered one of the most basic of all human needs, and yet parents may elect to apply religious or cultural beliefs in place of traditional Western medical care for their children. Because memberships in religious groups that have beliefs concerning prayer and health care for children are increasing, the topic is of great importance for pediatric health professionals. This article describes parental refusal of medical care, and it discusses the legal, ethical, and clinical implications.

  1. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan


    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  2. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples According to the New Criminal Code

    Minodora-Ioana BALAN-RUSU


    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the research consist of examining the constitutive content of the crime of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples according to the New Criminal Code, thus presenting some recent examples of judicial practice that may be applied in terms of new regulations imposed by the entry into force of the New Romanian Criminal Code. The research results consist of examining the constitutive content referring to judicial practice, and highlighting the elements of distinction between the two regulations. The study can be useful for both theorists and practitioners of criminal law, and to any physical entity.

  3. Application of washery refuse in the building and civil engineering industries. Report on ECSC contract 7220-ED/102

    Schieder, T.; Erdmann, W.; Leninger, D.


    The application of increasingly stringent heat insulation requirements has led to energy-saving building methods being introduced in recent years. This report discusses the attempts which have been made to manufacture light sand from crushed fine washery refine and pelletized flotation tailings by thermal treatment in a fluidised bed oven. An improvement in thermal resistance was achieved by injecting plastic foam into the chambers of lightweight-concrete cavity building blocks. The compressive strength of the refuse material was tested by the construction of a sound-proof wall. 20 references.

  4. [An adolescent with autism and a somatic high-risk profile receiving treatment with antipsychotics refuses blood tests].

    Harlaar, J; Gelderblom, I L; van der Sijde, A; Bastiaansen, D


    An 18-year-old adolescent with an autism spectrum disorder was on antipsychotic medication for anxiety and aggressive behaviour. From a physical examination and the patient’s family medical history there emerged a high-risk profile for the metabolic syndrome. Because the patient refused blood tests the doctors were faced with the dilemma of whether to continue the patient’s medication with the risk of severe side effects or whether to stop medication, which could lead to the recurrence of severe behavioural problems and aggressive behaviour. The dilemma is discussed and some recommendations are given.

  5. Rapid technique for characterization and proximate analysis of refuse-derived fuels and its implications for thermal conversion

    Agrawal, R.K.


    A thermogravimetric procedure is described for obtaining information on the proximate analysis of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). In order to estimate the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW), the concept of characterizing the combustible portion of MSW into low-calorific fuel (LCF) and high-calorific fuel (HCF) fractions is suggested. Based on the evolution of volatiles at low temperatures (LTV) and high temperatures (HTV), a technique to estimate the amounts of LCF and HCF fraction in RDF is proposed. The usefulness of LTV and HTV in designing and optimizing the operation of thermal conversion systems is also discussed briefly.

  6. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao


    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  7. 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的环境防护%Environmental Protection in Incineration and Power Plant of Urban Domestic Refuse



      近年来,随着城市生活垃圾焚烧处理技术的快速发展,垃圾焚烧减量化、资源化效果显著,但伴随垃圾焚烧处理过程中产生的恶臭、烟气、废水、废渣、噪声污染,使得社会越来越广泛关注城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂对周边环境及居民生活的影响。文章根据垃圾焚烧污染物的产生根源及其无害化处理方法,探讨了垃圾焚烧发电厂的环境保护措施。%In recent years, with the fast development of incineration treatment technology of urban domestic refuse, it is obvious in minimization of refuse incineration and resource result, but malodor, flue gas, waste water, waste residue, noise pol-lutions caused in the course of incineration treatment inspire the society to pay more attention to the impact of incineration and power plant of urban domestic refuse on the environment and resident living. The paper probes into environmental protection of the refuse incineration and power plant in accordance with occurring source of refuse incineration pol utants and harmless disposal methods.

  8. Wastes disposal on board a ship. Apparatus to decompose and annihilate wet refuses bionically; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. Namagomi no bio bunkai shometsuki

    Takenaka, S.


    A bionic refuse disposing and annihilating apparatus for wet refuses produced on board a ship was developed, and introduced in this paper. This apparatus uses a system that biomass as a decomposing medium is maintained dry in a disposal tank, and wet refuses are decomposed and annihilated by the biomass working only with water contained in the wet refuses themselves. The system uses a decomposing medium composed of a mixture of different kinds of organic matters mixed with various nutrients, and automatically controls absorption and exhalation of decomposing water without using a heater. Almost all of wet refuses decomposes and annihilates in twelve hours after having been charged in their original forms. The decomposing medium can be used continuously for six months to a year. Because of complete annihilation by the bionic effect, no residue is created. This system uses a normal-temperature decomposing and annihilating bionic technology, whose minimum temperature required for decomposition and annihilation is 10{degree}C or higher, and the highest permissible temperature is 75{degree}C. Dry and cool environment at about 20{degree}C is most suitable. Deodorizing function of the biomass itself as the decomposing medium suppresses odor generation. 3 figs.

  9. Parents' refusal of medical treatment for cultural or religious beliefs: an ethnographic study of health care professionals' experiences.

    Linnard-Palmer, Luanne; Kools, Susan


    Pediatric nurses working in acute care settings serving religious and culturally diverse families may encounter parents whose beliefs influence treatment decisions. Previous literature describes how these complex situations lead to emotional distress and strained relationships between health care provider and family members. An ethnographic study was conducted to investigate the impact of parental treatment refusal on the bedside interactions between pediatric nurses and parents. Twenty in-depth interviews with nurses were conducted, and extensive field notes were taken during data collection. Emotional feelings associated with possible loss of guardianship and subsequent mandated treatment, the impact of the situation on the nurses' health and stress levels, and functional status were all explored. Three themes were identified following interpretive narrative analysis of transcriptions and field notes: weathering the storm of moral conflict, closeness and involvement versus distance and retreat, and battles between the supportive and oppositional groups. The findings of the study lead to a deeper understanding of the complexities of the ethical dilemma surrounding treatment refusal in pediatrics.

  10. Co-firing of refuse derived fuels with coals in cement kilns: combustion conditions for stable sintering

    Haas, J.; Weber, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal Zellerfeld (Germany)


    Usage of refuse derived fuels (RDFs) in cement clinker processes has grown considerably in the last decade. It has been demonstrated that RDFs can partially substitute fossil fuels without compromising clinker quality. The paper considers RDF properties which are essential for stabilisation of the sintering zone in the clinker burning process. An energy replacement indicator, defined as the RDF thermal input to the fossil fuel thermal input ratio, is used. Comminution of RDF to particle scales of pulverised fuel is economically not yet feasible and RDF is burnt at particle sizes in the order of several millimetres. Therefore, RDF combustion rates are orders of magnitudes smaller if compared to pulverised coal combustion rates. This shifts the flame zone downstream the rotary kiln and flame temperatures are reduced. A simple kiln combustion model has been used to examine the effects of RDF properties on sintering zone temperatures. Refuse derived fuels with calorific values below 20 MJ kg{sup -1} and coarse particle sizes burn at adiabatic temperatures below 2000{sup o}C. To compensate for this, the energy replacement ratio has to be increased to 114%. Calculations have shown several options to increase gas temperatures in sintering zones. The most effective would be the comminution of RDFs to pulverised fuel sizes. In this case, a further reduction of the RDF calorific value would be acceptable.

  11. Detection of chromium in wastewater from refuse incineration power plant near Poyang Lake by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Yao, Mingyin; Lin, Jinlong; Liu, Muhua; Xu, Yuan


    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was developed for determination of toxic metals Cr in wastewater collected from a refuse incineration power plant near Poyang Lake. The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on the surface of liquid. Experimental conditions were optimized for improving the sensitivity and repeatability of the LIBS system through a parametric dependence study in potassium bichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) aqueous solutions. Calibration curves for Cr I 425.43 and 357.87 nm lines are compared and the limit of detection is found to be 39 and 86 ppm, respectively. This calibration curve of Cr I 425.43 nm has been used for quantification of Cr in wastewater collected from a refuse incineration power plant near Poyang Lake where the concentration of Cr is found to be 97 ppm. The results between LIBS and standard analytical technique such as atomic absorption spectroscopy were compared, and the relative standard deviation was 8.5%.

  12. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Factorial Invariance and Latent Means Differences across Gender and Age in Spanish Children

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Inglés, Cándido J.; Kearney, Christopher A.; Vicent, María; Sanmartín, Ricardo; García-Fernández, José M.


    The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial invariance and latent means differences of the Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) in a sample of 1,078 students (50.8% boys) aged 8–11 years (M = 9.63, SD = 1.12). The results revealed that the proposed model in this study, with a structure of 18 items divided into four factors (Negative Affective, Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, To Pursue Attention and Tangible Reinforcements), was the best-fit model with a tetra-factorial structure, remaining invariant across gender and age. Analysis of latent means differences indicated that boys and 11-year-old students scored highest on the Tangible Reinforcements subscale compared with their 8- and 9-year-old peers. On the contrary, for the subscales of Social Aversion and/or Evaluation and to Pursue Attention, the differences were significant and higher in younger age groups compared to 11-year-olds. Appropriate indexes of reliability were obtained for SRAS-R-C subscales (0.70, 0.79, 0.87, and 0.72). Finally, the founded correlation coefficients of scores of the SRAS-R-C revealed a predictable pattern between school refusal and positive/negative affect and optimism/pessimism. PMID:28082938

  13. Main Reasons for Registration Application Refusal of Generic and Similar Pharmaceutical Drug Products by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA)

    do Carmo, Ana Cerúlia Moraes; Piras, Stefânia Schimaneski; Rocha, Nayrton Flávio Moura


    Objective. The marketing authorization of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products involves the analysis of proposing company's administrative aspects as well as drug product technical description and scientific evaluations. This study evaluated the main reasons for registration refusal of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products in Brazil. The aim is to help future applicants to better organize the proposal. Methods. A retrospective search of drug products registration processes was performed on the Brazilian Government Official Gazette from January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015. Results. Drug product quality control, drug product stability study, deadline accomplishment, API quality control made by drug manufacturer, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and production report were the main reasons for marketing authorization application refusal of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products in 2015. Conclusion. Disclosure of the reasons behind failed applications is a step forward on regulatory transparency. Sharing of experiences is essential to international regulatory authorities and organizations to improve legislation requirements for the marketing authorization of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products. PMID:28280742

  14. Pragmatic comprehension of apology, request and refusal: An investigation on the effect of consciousness-raising video-driven prompts

    Ali Derakhshan


    Full Text Available Recent research in interlanguage pragmatics (ILP has substantiated that some aspects of pragmatics are amenable to instruction in the second or foreign language classroom. However, there are still controversies over the most conducive teaching approaches and the required materials. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relative effectiveness of consciousness-raising video-driven prompts on the comprehension of the three speech acts of apology, request, and refusal on seventy eight (36 male and 42 female upper-intermediate Persian learners of English who were randomly assigned to four groups (metapragmatic, form-search, role play, and control. The four groups were exposed to 45 video vignettes (15 for each speech act extracted from different episodes of Flash Forward, Stargate TV Series and Annie Hall Film for nine 60-minute sessions of instruction twice a week. Results of the multiple choice discourse completion test (MDCT indicated that learners’ awareness of apologies, requests and refusals benefit from all three types of instruction, but the results of the Post hoc test of Tukey (HSD illustrated that the metapragmatic group outperformed the other treatment groups, and that form-search group had a better performance than role-play and control groups.

  15. Main Reasons for Registration Application Refusal of Generic and Similar Pharmaceutical Drug Products by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA).

    do Carmo, Ana Cerúlia Moraes; Piras, Stefânia Schimaneski; Rocha, Nayrton Flávio Moura; Gratieri, Tais


    Objective. The marketing authorization of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products involves the analysis of proposing company's administrative aspects as well as drug product technical description and scientific evaluations. This study evaluated the main reasons for registration refusal of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products in Brazil. The aim is to help future applicants to better organize the proposal. Methods. A retrospective search of drug products registration processes was performed on the Brazilian Government Official Gazette from January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015. Results. Drug product quality control, drug product stability study, deadline accomplishment, API quality control made by drug manufacturer, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and production report were the main reasons for marketing authorization application refusal of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products in 2015. Conclusion. Disclosure of the reasons behind failed applications is a step forward on regulatory transparency. Sharing of experiences is essential to international regulatory authorities and organizations to improve legislation requirements for the marketing authorization of generic and similar pharmaceutical drug products.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of blackwater from vacuum toilets and kitchen refuse in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

    Wendland, C; Deegener, S; Behrendt, J; Toshev, P; Otterpohl, R


    The objective of this research was mesophilic anaerobic digestion of blackwater from vacuum toilets (BW) and kitchen refuse (KR) in a CSTR within an ecological sanitation system. A detailed investigation of the BW characteristics was carried out. Research on anaerobic digestion was performed with CSTR of 101 volume at HRT of 10, 15 and 20 days. The digestion of BW at 20 days HRT showed stable performance without inhibition effects, in spite of relatively high ammonium concentrations. The removal of total and particulate COD was 61% and 53%, respectively, and the methane yield 10/CH4/cap/day. The addition of kitchen refuse (KR) improved the performance of the CSTR in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane yield. At 20 days HRT the removal of total and particulate COD increased up to 71% and 67%, respectively, and the methane yield to 27/CH4/cap/day. The results at 15 days HRT showed similar performance. At HRT of 10 days, the anaerobic treatment was limited but reached steady state conditions at higher VFA concentrations in the effluent, with a decrease of COD removal of 30 to 33% and of methane yields of 19 to 21%.

  17. Pacientes que rehúsan el tratamiento antirretroviral en el medio penitenciario Patients who refuse antiretroviral treatment in prison

    L. Sordo-del Castillo


    Full Text Available Introducción: En los estudios existentes sobre pacientes VIH+ la población a estudio ha sido tomada de manera homogénea, sin diferenciar aquella que cumple los requerimientos terapéuticos de la que no lo hace. Quizás por la dificultad en el acceso al grupo de pacientes que rehúsan el tratamiento antirretroviral. El medio penitenciario nos permite acceder a esta población, hasta hoy no estudiada. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el estado clínico y psicosocial de los reclusos seropositivos que rehúsan el TARV, comparándolo con el de aquellos que sí están en TARV o no se les indica tomarlo. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 585 reclusos VIH positivos ingresados en tres prisiones andaluzas entre mayo-julio de 2004. Como variable de agrupación se empleó rehusar el TARV, tomarlo o no hacerlo por no estar indicado. Como independientes se incluyeron sociodemográficas, psicosociales, clínicas y relacionadas con el medio penitenciario. Resultados: El 16,8% de los reclusos rehusaban el TARV, mientras el 56,3% estaban en tratamiento y al 26,8% no le estaba indicado. Entre los reclusos que rehusaban el TARV aparece una mayor prevalencia de coinfección por VHC, mayor consumo intrapenitenciario de opiáceos y tratamiento con metadona, más juicios pendientes y más entradas en prisión. Conclusiones: Estos resultados ponen de relieve la existencia de un grupo poblacional, accesible gracias al medio penitenciario, con características propias que no sigue las indicaciones terapéuticas y que representa un riesgo no sólo para su salud, sino para la de la comunidad.Introduction: Current studies of HIV+ patients in the prison population have been carried out without considering differences that might exist between patients who accept retroviral treatment and those who do not. One possible reason for this may be the difficulty in gaining access to patients who refuse antiretroviral treatment. However, the prison environment makes it

  18. Locating Purity within Corruption Rumors: Narratives of HPV Vaccination Refusal in a Peri-urban Community of Southern Romania.

    Pop, Cristina A


    This article locates the symbolic construction of "corrupted purity"-as a key assertion in Romanian parents' HPV vaccination refusal narratives-within a multiplicity of entangled rumors concerning reproduction and the state. Romania's unsuccessful HPV vaccination campaign is not unique. However, the shifting discourses around purity and corruption-through which some parents conveyed anxieties about their daughters being targeted for the vaccine-place a particular twist on the Romanian case of resisting the HPV vaccination. Parental discourses took the form of clusters of rumors about state medicine's failure to provide adequate reproductive health care, additive-laden foods, and exposure to radioactive contamination. In these rumors, corruption becomes literally embodied, through ingestion, consumption, contact, or inoculation. Parental discourses about what is being injected into their daughters' pristine bodies express their uncertainty around navigating the unsettled post-socialist medical landscape. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.


    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  20. The Constitutive Content of the Crime of Refusal or Evasion from Collecting Biological Samples in the Romanian Criminal Law

    Minodora-Ioana BĂLAN-RUSU


    Full Text Available In the paper we have examined the constitutive content of the offense of refusal or evasion from collecting biological samples, with elements of similarity and differences between the current and the old law. The comparative examination is useful as it allows the identification and application of a more favorable criminal law, in the case where such an offense is committed under the influence of the old law and it is to be finally judged after the entry into force of the new law. This work continues and completes the monograph “Offenses against traffic safety on public roads in the Romanian criminal law”, published in 2014 (Universul Juridic. The work can be useful to judicial bodies responsible for law enforcement, and academics from law schools (teachers, students and master students. The innovations consist in examining the constitutive content and the elements of similarity and differences between the two regulations.

  1. [Views of the Spanish Paediatric Association Bioethics Committee on the refusal of essential and non-essential treatment in minors].

    Sánchez Jacob, Marta; Tasso Cereceda, María; Martínez González, Carmen; de Montalvo Jááskeläinem, Federico; Riaño Galán, Isolina


    The conflicts that arise when minors or their legal representatives refuse to receive medical treatment considered necessary by the paediatrician pose a serious ethical dilemma and also have a considerable emotional impact. In order to adequately tackle this rejection of medical treatment, there is to identify and attempt to understand the arguments of the people involved, to consider the context in each individual case and be conversant with the procedure to follow in life-threatening scenarios, taking into account bioethical considerations and the legal framework. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Distance and Atmospheric Elements on the Concentration of Odour from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF Operations

    Zaini Sakawi


    Full Text Available Odour is an environmental element that occurs as varieties of aroma, either pleasant or otherwise to its immediate community. The various sources of odour pollution may come from either natural or of human activities. Odour concentration may change due to environmental factors such as atmosphere, topography, distance and mitigation efforts. This study describes a study on the influence of distance and athmospheric elements on concentration of odour generated by the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF operations. The distribution of odour concentration was measured using Odour concentration meter XP-329 III series per its distance from the RDF operations. The results indicated that distance factors did influence the odour concentration. Results at test stations of distances farther from the RDF showed incrementally higher distribution of odour concentration compared to those nearer to the RDF. In addition, athmosperic elements like temperatures, humidity, wind speed and directions also evidenlty linked to the distribution of odour concentration.

  3. Refusal of Medical Blood Transfusions Among Jehovah's Witnesses: Emotion Regulation of the Dissonance of Saving and Sacrificing Life.

    Ringnes, Hege Kristin; Hegstad, Harald


    This study focuses on the requirement of JWs to refuse medical blood transfusions. We identified a life-death cognitive dissonance among JWs, with the opposing cognitions of being willing to sacrifice life by religious standards, while being unwilling to do so. Using a theory that connects cognitive dissonance with the need to regulate difficult emotions to analyze our qualitative data material, we identified two sets of dissonance reduction strategies among the JWs. Set 1 was tied to the individual-group: selective focus on eternal life, a non-blood support and control system, and increased individualization of treatment choices. Set 2 was in the religion versus medicine intersection: denial of risk combined with optimism, perception of blood as dangerous, and use of medical language to underscore religious doctrine.

  4. Characterisation of refuse-derived fuels regarding to their fuel-technical properties; Charakterisierung von Ersatzbrennstoffen hinsichtlich brennstofftechnischer Eigenschaften

    Beckmann, M.; Pohl, M.; Ncube, S. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verfahren und Umwelt


    Fossil fuels were examined extensively regarding to their employment in plants for energy production as well as raw material industry. During the evaluation of the fossil fuels, chemical, mechanical, caloric and reaction-technical characteristics are of great interest. The composition of fossil fuels in connection with the heat value plays a large role for the balance of plants. With acceptance of a certain C/H relationship, statements can be met to the composition of the fuel. The authors of the contribution under consideration examine the question, to what extent dependences of the heat value and minimum air requirement from the C/H and C/O relations result in the case of refuse-derived wastes.

  5. Evaluation of the Motivation to Consent to and to Refuse Organ Donation Among Participants of Educational Meetings Concerning Organ Transplantation.

    Milaniak, I; Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J; Kapelak, B; Przybyłowski, P


    Improvement of the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies applied in many countries aiming to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Research shows that the outlook on organ donation and the degree of the willingness to become an organ donor are associated with a wide range of variables. The main objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the willingness to donate organs and the reasons for refusing consent. The study included 191 participants (135 female and 56 male) aged 16 to 61 years (mean age 26.86 ± 12.88). A cross-sectional study was conducted during educational meetings concerning organ donation that was addressed to students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of attitudes toward transplantation, consisting of 26 closed questions (with the consent of the Statistical Office in Krakow). In all, 97.4% of the respondents accepted transplantation from living donors, and 95.8% accepted deceased donations. Of the respondents, 78.5% agreed to posthumous life-saving organ donation. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex, age, social group, place of living, and the reasons for their willingness to donate organs both posthumously and during their lifetime, as well as reasons for refusal. Our findings showed that the study group in general had favorable views on treatment involving transplantation and declared willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These views vary depending on demographic variables. The education on the subject of organ and tissue donation has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Do older patients who refuse to participate in a self-management intervention in the Netherlands differ from older patients who agree to participate?

    Elzen, Henrike; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steverink, Nardi

    Background and aims: Refusal of patients to participate in intervention programs is an important problem in clinical trials but, in general, researchers devote relatively little attention to it. In this article, a comparison is made between patients who, after having been invited, agreed to

  7. Treatment refusal/attrition among adults randomly assigned to programs at a drug treatment campus: The New Jersey Substance Abuse Treatment Campus, Seacaucus, NJ.

    Condelli, W S; Koch, M A; Fletcher, B


    The New Jersey Substance Abuse Treatment Campus was funded to assess the feasibility of establishing a new model for delivering substance abuse treatment services and to serve as a research laboratory for conducting comparative evaluations of those services. The 350-bed campus was designed to improve treatment effectiveness by providing special services needed by underserved populations, and reduce treatment costs by serving large numbers of clients, centralizing services, and sharing facilities. First-time clients who met preliminary eligibility requirements during phone screening were randomly assigned to therapeutic community and chemical dependency programs. We used data collected on 1,573 adults who were ultimately accepted for admission to analyze treatment refusals and attrition during the 25 days after admission. Only 6.4% of the clients refused admission when informed of their treatment assignment. Planned duration of the residential phase of treatment, gender, and language spoken (English/Spanish) interacted with one another and differentially predicted treatment refusal/attrition. These findings may be useful for understanding treatment refusal and attrition in substance abuse treatment programs.

  8. Hysteroscopic fetoscopy: A role as virtuopsy for parents who refuse full autopsy? A case of facial clefting, proboscis, and limb deformities

    Gabriele Tonni


    Conclusion: Hysteroscopic fetoscopy (virtuopsy proved to be a valuable complementary diagnostic investigation and enhanced the parental bonding process concerning the fetal phenotype. Notwithstanding, the woman declared an acceptable compliance during the procedure. In selected cases, virtuopsy may be a valid option in confirming early prenatal ultrasound diagnosis in parents refusing conventional autopsy or when full postmortem examination may not be clinically indicated or warranted.

  9. Requester's Acceptance and Non-Acceptance of the Refusal of the Initial Request: How to Improve the Door-in-the-Face Effects?

    Terrier, Lohyd; Joule, Robert-Vincent; Marfaing, Benedicte


    The door-in-the-face technique (Cialdini, Vincent, Lewis, Catalan, Wheeler & Darby, 1975) increases the likelihood that subjects will comply with a target request after they have been submitted first to a request too costly to for agreement. This study tests the effects of the requester's acceptance versus non-acceptance of the refusal of the…

  10. Evidence for endocrine disruption in perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) in a remote Swedish lake in the vicinity of a public refuse dump

    Noaksson, E.; Tjärnlund, U.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Balk, L.


    A two-year study on perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Lake Molnbyggen, Sweden, located in a pristine area but with a public refuse dump in the vicinity, has been conducted. The mechanistic approach through a set of biomarkers during the first year included age, condition, somatic growth, liver, gonad, an

  11. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate


    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response.

  12. [Refusal of food and fluids of a psychiatric patient in order to hasten death: obstacles for patient, family and care-team].

    Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Dekkers, W.J.M.


    In this case-report we present a patient with a psychiatric history of a chronic depressive disorder. After a period of several years of ambivalence, he decided to refuse nutrition and hydration because he--in the words of the Royal Dutch Medical Association--was "suffering from life". There was no

  13. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis


    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  14. 78 FR 100 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s...


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Refuse To Accept Policy for 510(k)s; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  15. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept

    Kujawa, K.; Elmitwally, T.A.; Gaillard, A.; Leeuwen, van M.; Zeeman, G.


    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20degreesC for a perio

  16. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability.

    Gina R Lewin

    Full Text Available Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs across samples were classified within genera containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. A representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.


    Baibusinova, A J; Musakhanova, A K; Shalgumbaeva, G M; Dauletiarova, M A; Tokanova, Sh E; Nurtasina, S K


    The number of cases of refusal from vaccination increases all over the world. In the Republic of Kazakhstan many studies are devoted to epidemiology of propagation of vaccine-controllable infections, medical aspects ofimmunization, analysis of immunological status and complications of immunization. The issues of awareness of population of the Republic of Kazakhstan about vaccination and refusal of it are investigated insufficiently. This occurrence became a cause of studying the given problem. The study was carried out to investigate attitude ofpopulation to vaccination and main factors of risk of refusal from vaccination of children residing in the city of Semeii and rural districts of the Eastern Kazakhstan oblast. The single-stage longitudinal study was carried out in the Centers of primary medical social care ofpopulation ofcity of Semeii and in polyclinic of the Abaiiskii district of the Eastern Kazakhstan oblast. The period of study continued from April 7 2015 to May 31 2015. The criteria of inclusion were conditionally healthy children. The questionnaire survey included 1184 respondents (mothers) with average age of 27.2 years. The sampling predominantly consisted ofKazakhs (805), Russians (307), representatives ofother nationalities (72). Among mothers, most of them had specialized secondary education (43.7%), the higher education had 30.5%, undergraduate higher education - 1.4%, secondary education - 21.6% and basic school education --2.8%. The results of study demonstrated that families refused from vaccination have negative attitude to vaccination in general though they are satisfied with functioning of vaccination room. The refusal of vaccination is more characterized to urban full families with satisfied income and having girls as children. The respondents consider that information about vaccination received by themfrom medical personnel contains surplus data concerning complications. They are not enouzh for activities in case of deterioration of

  18. Factors associated with lung cancer patients refusing treatment and their survival: a national cohort study under a universal health insurance in Taiwan.

    Hsiu-Ling Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause mortality among all cancers in Taiwan. Although Taiwan offers National Health Insurance (NHI, occasionally, patients refuse treatment. This study examined the patient characteristics and factors associated with lung cancer patients refusing cancer treatment in four months after cancer diagnosed and compared the survival differences between treated and non-treated patients. METHODS: The study included 38584 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients between 2004 and 2008, collected from the Taiwan Cancer Registry, which was linked with NHI research database and Cause of Death data set. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze factors associated with treatment refusal. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of treatment and non-treatment on patient survival and the factors affecting non-treatment patient survival. RESULTS: Among the newly diagnosed cancer patients, older adults, or those who had been diagnosed with other catastrophic illnesses, an increased pre-cancer Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI score, and advanced stage cancer exhibited an increased likelihood of refusing treatment. Compared with treated patients, non-treated patients showed an increased mortality risk of 2.09 folds. The 1-year survival rate of treated patients (53.32% was greater than that of non-treated patients (21.44%. Among the non-treated patients, those who were older, resided in lowly urbanized areas, had other catastrophic illnesses, a CCI score of ≥4, advanced cancer, or had received a diagnosis from a private hospital exhibited an increased mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Despite Taiwan's NHI system, some lung cancer patients choose not to receive cancer treatment and the mortality rate for non-treated patients is significantly higher than that of patients who undergo treatment. Therefore, to increase the survival rate of cancer patients, treatment refusal should be addressed.

  19. Estimates and determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal in girls 12 to 14 y of age in Canada: Results from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2013.

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Gilmour, Heather; Dubé, Ève; Wilson, Sarah E; Laroche, Julie


    Since the introduction of HPV vaccination programs in Canada in 2007, coverage has been below public health goals in many provinces and territories. This analysis investigated the determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal. Data from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) 2013 were used to estimate the prevalence of HPV non-vaccination and parental vaccine refusal in girls aged 12-14 years, for Canada and the provinces and territories. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-vaccination and vaccine refusal, after adjusting for potential confounders. An estimated 27.7% of 12-14 y old girls had not been vaccinated against HPV, and 14.4% of parents reported refusing the vaccine. The magnitude of non-vaccination and vaccine refusal varied by province or territory and also by responding parent's country of birth. In addition, higher education was associated with a higher risk of refusal of the HPV vaccine. Rates of HPV non-vaccination and of refusal of the HPV vaccine differ and are influenced by different variables. These findings warrant further investigation.

  20. Analysis of Mr.Collins Based on His Proposal and His Reaction to Refus⁃al in Pride and Prejudice%Analysis of Mr. Collins Based on His Proposal and His Reaction to Refus?al in Pride and Prejudice



    Mr. Collins is an important character in pride and prejudice. His personality is clearly reflected in his proposal and his reaction to Elizabeth's refusal. By analyzing this chapter, readers can have a clear idea why he is a career-oriented person and why this feature is closely related to his social background. Few available articles have analyzed Mr. Collins based on a single chap?ter, so by doing what other authors haven't done, readers can gain detailed knowledge and a more complete image of Mr. Col?lins. The methods of text analysis is applied;special attention is paid to all the details and the original text is analyzed in terms of content, wording voice, attitude and focus. These can help people to understand his marital values that marriage is not necessarily based on love, but based on the consideration of the future. At present, marriage still has some similarities with that era. Being practical and realistic is a favorable choice for a lot of brides and bridegrooms. Financial condition is still a important part, so his choice can also contribute to current notion of love and marriage.

  1. In-use NOx emissions from diesel and liquefied natural gas refuse trucks equipped with SCR and TWC respectively.

    Misra, Chandan; Ruehl, Chris; Collins, John Francis; Chernich, Don; Herner, Jorn


    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results showed that the brake-specific NOx emissions for the LNG trucks equipped with the TWC catalyst were lowest of all the technologies tested. Results also showed that the brake specific NOx emissions from the conventional diesel engines were significantly higher despite the exhaust temperature being high enough for proper SCR function. Like diesel engines, the brake specific NOx emissions from the hydraulic hybrid diesel also exceeded certification although this can be explained on the basis of the temperature profile. Future studies are warranted to establish whether the below average SCR performance observed in this study is a systemic issue or is it a problem specifically observed during this work.

  2. What are the harms of refusing to allow living kidney donation? An expanded view of risks and benefits.

    Allen, M B; Abt, P L; Reese, P P


    Recent Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network policies relating to living kidney donation (LKD)warrant renewed attention to the ethics of transplantation from living donors. These policies focus on risks related to potential donor evaluation, informed consent and follow-up. The ethical basis of living donation is a favorable risk/benefit ratio for the donor, but regulations and research have given less attention to the benefits of donation. Relatedly, the transplant field has also failed to consider potential harms from denying patients the opportunity to donate. These harms may be substantial in the setting of directed kidney donation to a spouse/partner, sibling or child.We argue that complete assessment of donor risks and benefits demands consideration of not only the risks and benefits of donation, but also those of refusing a donor. In contrast to the ever-expanding literature on risks of donation, there are no data describing outcomes for individuals who were turned down as kidney donors. We consider factors contributing to this omission in the transplant literature, argue that current regulations may perpetuate a narrow understanding of relevant risks and benefits in LKD, and identify areas for improvement in research and clinical practice.

  3. Time series analysis of the effects of refuse collection on recycling: Taiwan's "Keep Trash Off the Ground" measure.

    Chao, Yu-Long


    The state of recycling in Taiwan has seen significant achievements due to various recycling policies implemented by environmental agencies in recent years. These policies include the "Keep Trash Off the Ground" (KTOG) measure, the "Four-in-One Recycling Plan", the per-bag trash collection fee and mandatory garbage sorting. An important question worthy of study is which of these policies has had a more pervasive and critical impact on the outcome of recycling. For example, there is evidence that the KTOG measure made it more convenient for people to begin recycling. This study therefore first analyzed the monthly data over the past decade on the amounts of recyclables in Taiwan's three major cities. By examining time series plots and employing an analysis of the time series intervention model, we can better understand the extent of the effects of the KTOG measure on these cities' amounts of recyclables. The same effects were also analyzed for the mandatory garbage sorting policy and the per-bag trash collection fee. Results show that the KTOG measure, essentially a change in refuse collection practice, presented consistent and significant effects on these cities' amounts of recyclables. It is suggested that the key to improving participation in a recycling program in waste management is for techniques to be tailored to actual settings in a way that facilitates citizen cooperation.

  4. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan


    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Refuse Derived Fuel for Pyrolysis and Gasification by Bindless High Pressure Briquetting Technology

    张宪生; 解强; 厉伟; 沈吉敏


    A new type of refuse derived fuel (RDF) for pyrolysis and gasification was prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the presence of a small quantity of coal by bindless high pressure technology at room temperature. The physicochemical property of RDF was tested. Orthogonal experiment method was used to optimize the process parameters using dropping strength (mechanical strength) and thermal stability of the RDF as indices for quality of RDF. The result shows that the mixture of MSW and coal with a total moisture ranging from 5% to 17% can be easily compressed into RDF briquettes at a pressure above 70 MPa. When the briquetting pressure is higher than 100 kN and moisture content is about 10%, the qualified RDF can be obtained. The orthogonal experiment shows that the moisture can greatly affect the mechanical strength of RDF, while all the technique parameters have no obvious influence on thermal stability of RDF. The optimal parameters are a shaping pressure of 106 MPa, a moisture content of 10%, and a coal content of 20%.

  6. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Wagland, S T; Kilgallon, P; Coveney, R; Garg, A; Smith, R; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N


    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidized bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal+10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal+10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  7. Management of small digital collections with Omeka: the MoRE experience (A Museum of REfused and unrealised art projects

    Alberto Salarelli


    Full Text Available This article examines the main features of Omeka, a free and open source CMS (Content Management System for online digital collections developed by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. Omeka presents very interesting features: first, a remarkable ease of use that, however, does not affect its multiple functions; secondly, it provides tools to create, in an innovative way, virtual exhibitions for archives, libraries and museums in order to promote their collections on the web; thirdly, its extreme adaptability to collection size: in fact Omeka is used by large and celebrated institutions such as the New York Public Library and Europeana, but also by many small initiatives including MoRE (A Museum of REfused and unrealized art projects. Specifically, the second part of the article describes, in brief, the objectives and characteristics of this virtual museum dedicated to contemporary unrealized artworks; it is an experimental project, still under development, devised by a working group of the University of Parma (Italy, who found in Omeka the most suitable IT solution to collect and expose these unique museum materials.

  8. "If a woman has even one daughter, I refuse to perform the abortion": Sex determination and safe abortion in India.

    Potdar, Pritam; Barua, Alka; Dalvie, Suchitra; Pawar, Anand


    In India, safe abortion services are sought mainly in the private sector for reasons of privacy, confidentiality, and the absence of delays and coercion to use contraception. In recent years, the declining sex ratio has received much attention, and implementation of the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act (2003) has become stringent. However, rather than targeting sex determination, many inspection visits target abortion services. This has led to many private medical practitioners facing negative media publicity, defamation and criminal charges. As a result, they have started turning women away not only in the second trimester but also in the first. Samyak, a Pune-based, non-governmental organization, came across a number of cases of refusal of abortion services during its work and decided to explore the experiences of private medical practitioners with the regulatory mechanisms and what happened to the women. The study showed that as a fallout from the manner of implementation of the PCPNDT Act, safe abortion services were either difficult for women to access or outright denied to them. There is an urgent need to recognize this impact of the current regulatory environment, which is forcing women towards illegal and unsafe abortions.

  9. Study of the feasibility of mixing Refuse Derived Fuels with wood pellets through the grey and Fuzzy theory

    Moran, J.C.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.; Patino, D.; Granada, E.; Collazo, J. [Universidad de Vigo E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n. Dpto. Ing. Mecanica Maquinas y Motores Termicos, 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)


    This paper presents a combined grey relational and fuzzy analysis for the evaluation of the environmental feasibility of burning mixtures of pellet and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) in a small pellet boiler-stove. RDF is obtained from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and contains a biomass fraction and a non-organic fraction (plastic). As a first step, both fuels are characterized to define their properties. A special feeding system is also used to improve the stove plant and to facilitate pellet distribution, which maintains a constant rate between the two fuels. Small scale energy converters, such as chimneys, boilers, stoves, etc., which produce heat and/or hot water by burning biomass (wood, pellets, briquettes, etc.), are especially suited to domestic purposes. However, in common commercial combustion conditions, this kind of use still has some disadvantages: some emissions (volatile organic carbons, carbon monoxide or NO{sub x}) may still be high, and it is difficult to compare the quality and performance of equipment working in very different combustion conditions. The grey relational analysis of different energy and emission variables leads to the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade (GRG). Thus, evaluation and optimisation of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimisation of a standardised single variable. The aim of the work is to research the most feasible mixture of pellets according to a grey relational analysis, taking into consideration energy-related, financial and environmental aspects. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of flow field of the three-product heavy medium cyclone with refuse disposal first

    Liu Feng; Wang Jin-sheng [China Coal Research Institute, Tangshan (China). Tangshan Branch


    Numerical simulation and experiments were made on the flow field of a three-product heavy medium cyclone with refuse disposal first, using three turbulent flow models. The results obtained from the numerical simulation of the flow field made with the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) show that, in the density field of the cyclone, there exists a complete air column in the first stage of the cyclone and the air column in the second stage of the cyclone is a central low-density area of gas mixed with water. Meanwhile, in the pressure field of the cyclone, a negative pressure zone forms in the middle of the cyclone and then this negative pressure improves gradually to the zero point of the pressure along radial direction and later reaches positive pressure values. In the velocity field of the cyclone, the axial velocity increases in the centre and goes to zero along the radius of the cyclone; thus all the points where velocities are zero form a zero-axial velocity envelope plane. The tangential velocity in the first-stage of the cyclone is close to that of the DynaWhirlpool (DWP) cyclone and the tangential velocity in the second-stage is higher than that of the DWP cyclone. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Minors' decision-making capacity to refuse life-saving and life-sustaining treatment: legal and psychiatric perspectives.

    Mendelson, Danuta; Haywood, Ian


    Laws in Belgium and The Netherlands permit euthanasia and assisted suicide for seriously ill children who experience "constant and unbearable suffering"--they have the capacity to request death by lethal injection if they convey a "reasonable understanding of the consequences" of that request. The child's capacity to understand death is therefore a prerequisite to the implementation of the request. However, modern neuro-psychological and fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies of the relationship between the neuro-anatomical development of the brain in human beings and their emotional and experiential capacity demonstrates that both are not fully developed until the early 20s for girls and mid-20s for boys. Unlike Belgium and The Netherlands, the clinical and legal implications of the immaturity of the brain on medical decision-making of minors, in particular life and death decisions, have been implicit in the Australian courts' approach to the refusal of life-saving and life-sustaining treatment by minors. This approach is exemplified by X v Sydney Children's Hospitals Network [2013] NSWCA 320 (and a series of earlier cases).

  12. Study of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacterial community in the aged refuse bioreactor with 16S rRNA gene library technique.

    Wang, Chao; Xie, Bing; Han, Lu; Xu, Xiaofan


    In order to investigate the anaerobic ammonium-oxidation (Anammox) nitrogen removal pathway of the aged refuse bioreactor treating landfill leachate, a lab-scale bioreactor was established and run for 35 weeks, the performance of the bioreactor and its bacterial community structure of Planctomycetes were analyzed. The results showed that the average TN removal rate of landfill leachate could be reached to 89%. 16S rRNA gene library of Planctomycetes revealed that Anammox sequences accounted for 28.3% of the total Planctomycetes sequences in the bioreactor, and previously recognized Anammox bacterium Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was the only detected Anammox species in the reactor. It was also found that Anammox bacteria distributed at different sites of the bioreactor while mostly concentrated in the middle and low-middle part. Results above confirmed that Anammox process could happen in aged refuse bioreactor treating landfill leachate and provided an alternative nitrogen removal pathway in practical landfills.

  13. Perceived friend and peer smoking and direct and indirect refusal skills as predictors of cigarette smoking in U.S. and Japanese middle school students.

    Gibbon, Lindsay; Griffin, Kenneth W; Tanno, Sakurako; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Botvin, Gilbert J


    Adolescents (aged 12-14 years) from the United States (n = 539) and Japan (n = 644) completed surveys regarding tobacco use, perceptions of friend and peer smoking, and their own likelihood of using smoking refusal skills. U.S. youth were more likely to report lifetime or monthly tobacco use, whereas Japanese youth were more likely to smoke ≥20 cigarettes per week. High perceived friend and peer smoking prevalence predicted lifetime smoking, whereas direct refusal skill use (e.g., "saying no") predicted less lifetime tobacco use. Results are discussed in terms of cultural influences that may mediate the effect of risk factors on U.S. and Japanese youth.

  14. Ecofriendly in-line process monitoring: a case study. Anthracene photodegradation in the presence of refuse-derived soluble bio-organics.

    Bianco Prevot, A; Avetta, P; Fabbri, D; Montoneri, E; Morales-Rubio, A; de la Guardia, M


    Photodegradation of anthracene has been studied in aqueous solutions containing soluble bio-organic substances isolated from urban refuse. To perform a preliminary rapid feasibility study of this process while reducing the amount of analytical effort and reagents, an experimental set-up was developed comprising a Teflon coil surrounding a UV-lamp and coupled with an in-line spectrofluorimeter. In this fashion only few millilitres of solution are needed to study the degradation process. Furthermore, the in-line spectroscopic approach enables monitoring of the process without consumption of reagents. Additional studies by liquid chromatography and use of toxicity tests clearly indicated that the apparent inhibition effect of bio-organic compounds on anthracene degradation is not relevant. The results imply that urban refuse may be used as an auxiliary in the recovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil by washing, without deleterious effects on the photodegradation of anthracene and other aromatic pollutants.

  15. Cueing, demand fading, and positive reinforcement to establish self-feeding and oral consumption in a child with chronic food refusal.

    Luiselli, J K


    A 3-year-old child with multiple medical disorders and chronic food refusal was treated successfully using a program that incorporated antecedent control procedures combined with positive reinforcement. The antecedent manipulations included visual cueing of a criterion number of self-feeding responses that were required during meals to receive reinforcement and a gradual increase in the imposed criterion (demand fading) that was based on improved frequency of oral consumption. As evaluated in a changing criterion design, the child learned to feed himself as an outcome of treatment. One year following intervention, he was consuming a variety of foods and had gained weight. Advantages of antecedent control methods for the treatment of chronic food refusal are discussed.

  16. Is there room for stereotactic radiosurgery as an option for third ventricular colloid cysts in patients refusing surgery? A case report and some therapeutic considerations

    Leonardo Lustgarten


    Full Text Available Background : Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are epithelium-lined mucus-filled cysts usually occurring in the anterosuperior third ventricle. They are benign, slow-growing lesions but with the risk of sudden death. Treatment alternatives for symptomatic cysts include stereotactic aspiration, microsurgical or endoscopic approaches, and shunts for hydrocephalus. Case Description: The current case describes a patient presenting with hydrocephalus and a colloid cyst. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed as the patient refused a definitive surgical procedure for the removal of the cyst, and stereotactic radiosurgery was then performed. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery may be a reasonable alternative with minimal risks in those patients harboring a third ventricle colloid cyst refusing a definitive surgical procedure for resection of the cyst.

  17. Accept or refuse? Factors influencing the decision-making of transplant surgeons who are offered a pancreas: results of a qualitative study

    Loss, Julika; Drewitz, Karl; Schlitt, Hans J; Loss, Martin


    Background Most offered pancreases are not transplanted. This study investigates the factors that inform and influence the transplant surgeon’s decision to select an offered pancreas. Methods Semi-standardized interviews were conducted with 14 highly qualified transplant surgeons from all 14 German transplant centers performing > 5 pancreas transplantations per year. The interviews focused on medical and non-medical criteria on which the individual accept/refuse decision depends. I...

  18. Control Countermeasures of Municipal Refuse in Beijing%北京市生活垃圾发生特性及管理对策研究

    汝宜红; 施阳; 吕伟; 徐勃


    With the development of urban economy and growth ofpopulation,the volume of municipal refuse is rising,the composition is varying and the disposal cost is going up.These factors aggradate the difficulty of solving these problems.In this paper,waste source management theory and sampling investigation are used to analyze the waste column and characteristics of compositions on the basis of spot investigation.Some conclusions are drawn as follows:municipal residents are the most important producers of refuses,emphasis should be put on educational industry,the volume of municipal refuse varied little among seasons,Chaoyang District and Haidian District are the main districts that should strengthen the management,garbage is the main component of municipal refuse.At last,source management countermeasures in Beijing are put forward.%在对北京市生活垃圾发生源进行现场调查的基础上,运用环境工程学等原理,分析了北京市生活垃圾的发生主体特性、发生时间特性和发生空间特性,得出了居民是发生主体的主要管理对象,教育业是第三产业的管理重点,朝阳区和海淀区是北京市生活垃圾管理的重点城区,食物残渣是管理重点成分等结论。根据分析结果提出了北京市生活垃圾发生源的管理对策建议。

  19. Mixed Burning Study on Domestic Refuse and Medical Wastes%生活垃圾和医疗垃圾混烧研究



    The paper explicates the market status of the domestic refuse and medical waste incineration;makes research on physical composition, composite elements, toxicity, implementing standards and incinerating furnaces etc.; analyzes the problems caused in mixed burning of domestic refuse and medical waste incineration. From the view point of investment calcu-lation and technical economy, the paper makes comparison on investment beneifts of mixed burning and separated treatment type and concludes that mixed burning of domestic refuse and medical waste incineration can not be introduced.%阐述了生活垃圾焚烧和医疗垃圾焚烧市场的现状;研究了垃圾的物理成分、组成元素、毒理性,以及执行标准、焚烧炉炉型等,分析了生活垃圾与医疗垃圾混烧会出现的问题;从投资估算和技术经济角度对混烧及分别处理方式的投资收益进行对比,最终得出不推荐生活垃圾和医疗垃圾混烧的结论。

  20. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G


    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent.

  1. Change in microbial community in landfill refuse contaminated with antibiotics facilitates denitrification more than the increase in ARG over long-term

    Wu, Dong; Chen, Guanzhou; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yang, Kai; Xie, Bing


    In this study, the addition of sulfamethazine (SMT) to landfill refuse decreased nitrogen intermediates (e.g. N2O and NO) and dinitrogen (N2) gas fluxes to antibiotic resistance gene) levels in the refuse increased tenfold after long-term exposure to antibiotics, followed by a fourfold increase in the N2 flux, but SMT-amended samples with the largest resistome facilitated the denitrification (the nitrogen accumulated as NO gas at ~6 μg-N/kg-refuse·h‑1) to a lesser extent than OTC-amended samples. Further, deep sequencing results show that long-term OTC exposure partially substituted Hyphomicrobium, Fulvivirga, and Caldilinea (>5%) for the dominant bacterial hosts (Rhodothermus, ~20%) harboring nosZ and norB genes that significantly correlated with nitrogen emission pattern, while sulfamethazine amendment completely reduced the relative abundance of the “original inhabitants” functioning to produce NOx gas reduction. The main ARG carriers (Pseudomonas) that were substantially enriched in the SMT group had lower levels of denitrifying functional genes, which could imply that denitrification is influenced more by bacterial dynamics than by abundance of ARGs under antibiotic pressures.

  2. On-site removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from leachate by aged refuse bioreactor: Effects of microbial community and operational parameters.

    Su, Yinglong; Wang, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhiting; Xie, Bing


    The abuse of antibiotics has raised the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, which will pose potential risk to human health. Leachate, generated during the landfill treatment of municipal solid waste, is the important hotspot of the antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and no effective on-site treatment has been put forward for preventing ARGs dissemination. Herein, the aged refuse bioreactor was employed to remove antibiotics and ARGs from leachate, and the great removal performance was observed. For the detected antibiotics, the total removal efficiency was about 76.75%, and sulfanilamide and macrolide were removed with high efficiencies (>80%). Among the target ARGs, tetracycline and macrolide resistance genes (tetM, tetQ and ermB) were eliminated with 1.2-2.0 orders of magnitude. The occurrences of ARGs did not correlated with water quality parameters such as COD, total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite, but closely linked to the variations of the bacterial community structure. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated the significant correlations between four genera and the distribution of ARGs, which implied that these key genera (including potential pathogens) drove the ARGs removal. Furthermore, the hydraulic loading test confirmed that the aged refuse bioreactor was capable of achieving high removal efficiencies even under shock loading for the higher loading was negative for the proliferations of potential ARGs hosts. This study suggested that aged refuse bioreactor could be a promising way for antibiotics and ARGs on-site removal from leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 公民不服从与良知拒绝之关系探析%An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Civil Disobedience and Conscientious Refusal



    作为宪政的一个特例,公民不服从在稳定宪政制度方面的作用不容忽视。缘于公民不服从概念本身的模糊性,人们常或将公民不服从和与之有密切关系的良知拒绝相等同,或将二者完全割裂开来。从二者的思想源泉与概念解析出发,我们可得出二者之间的关系并非是非此即彼,而是同一概念的两个不同侧面。%As a special case of the constitutional government, the great role of Civil Disobedience in maintaining the stability of the Constitutional government system should not be neglected. Because of its illegibility, people either equate Civil Disobedience with Conscientious Refusal or break Civil Disobedience away from Conscientious Refusal. Actually, it is not an either - or question, instead, on their source of idea and the analysis of concept, Civil Disobedience and Conscientious Refusal represent different aspects of one and the same concept.

  4. The Effect of Pragmalinguistic Focus on Form on Iranian EFL Learners’ Production of Refusal Forms: with a Focus on Marked Recasts and Elicitation

    Nasrin Hadidi Tamjid


    Full Text Available The role of instruction to develop learners’ pragmatic competence in both second and foreign language contexts has recently motivated a great deal of research. However, most of this research has adopted an explicit instructional approach with only a few studies attempting to operationalize a more implicit condition for pragmatic learning. This study was set up to reexamine the effects of pragmalinguistic focus on form on Iranian EFL learners’ pragmatic development and to compare the effects of two feedback types (marked recasts and elicitations in raising the learners’ awareness in producing appropriate English refusals. Adopting a pretest-posttest design, the study included 21 participants with two experimental groups (marked recast group versus elicitation group but no control group, adopting a pretest-posttest design. Both of the groups performed role plays. In marked recast group, the researcher provided the learners with marked recasts while in elicitation group, he used elicitation strategies to deal with erroneous utterances. The results from a written Discourse Completion Test (DCT showed the effectiveness of pragmalinguistic focus on form on the participants’ pragmatic development and revealed that although both of the techniques were effective, there were no significant differences between them in raising the learners’ pragmatic ability to produce appropriate refusal forms. The findings of the study suggest that pragmatic instruction, which seems necessary, can be operationalized through both recast and elicitation, as two techniques of Focus on Form. Keywords: Pragmatics, Pragmatic Learning, Speech Act of Refusal, Focus on Form (FonF, Recast, Elicitation

  5. Polite Refusal: Disobeying the Cooperative Principle but Obeying the Politeness Principle%礼貌拒绝语:礼貌原则的遵从与合作原则的违反



    文章从语用学礼貌原则和合作原则出发,分析拒绝语生成动因及表现手法的规律性.通过分析各种类别的拒绝方式,归纳出礼貌拒绝语的生成公式,即礼貌拒绝语=礼貌原则的遵从+合作原则的违反,并试图以此来阐释各种类别的拒绝策略。直接拒绝语因其不考虑策略性,不在文章讨论之列。%This article is to explore the generating motives and models of refusal expressions from the perspective of Politeness Principle and Cooperative Principle.By analyzing the different classes of refusing ways,this article intends to reach a generating formula that Refusal Expressions is generated from Disobeying the Cooperative Principle meanwhile obeying the Politeness Principle.That is,it intends to explain the various kinds of refusal expressions by using such a formula.Direct refusal is excluded in my discussion as politeness is not concerned in direct refusal.

  6. Design And Case Study Of Combustion Of Muncipal Solid Waste And Refuse-Derived (Msw And Rdf With Conventional Fuels



    Full Text Available Energy Production for used materials can be performed as mixed municipal solid waste (MSW incineration or as fuel for combustion. Recovered fuels are refuse-derived fuel (RDF, which is mechanically separated and processed from MSW.which is the source-separated, processed, dry combustable part of MSW. A one-year combustion of RDF with peat and coal was carried out in a 25 MW garbage boiler gratepower plant. The efficiency of the combustion temperature, boiler efficiency and the corrosion behaviour of the boiler were particular focuses of attention in this study. The combustion calculations and the MSW boiler design is carried out for three different cases in which combustion temperature is varied from 850°C to 950°C and fuel HHV varying from 1500 to 2500 Kcal/kg in the same power plant.. All RDF performed technically well and the emissions were low. Small particle size and stable feeding of RDF were important for effective combustion. Low CO emissions showed clean and efficient combustion. SO2emissions decreased, because part of the coal was replaced by RDF. HCl emissions increased when the chlorine content of the fuel mixture increased, because limestone injection was not used. Heavy metals concentrated to the fly ash in unreachable form.. Long-term co-combustion of 10% RDF with peat and coal did not cause any high temperature chlorine-induced corrosion of the super heater materials (420°C. The results showed that it is useful and technically possible to combustion temperature and boiler efficiency varies in the form of energy production in the normal power plants

  7. [Impact of Salinity on Leachate Treatment and N2O Releases from Semi-aerobic Aged-refuse Bioreactor].

    Li, Wei-hua; Sun, Ying-jie; Liu, Zi-liang; Ma, Qiang; Yang, Qiang


    Semi-aerobic Aged-refuse Bioreactor (SAARB) has a good effect on nitrogen removal in leachate, but a strong greenhouse gas (N2O) was generated during the nitrification and denitrification process. The effect of salinity (7-30 g x L(-1)) on the leachate treatment and the N2O production from SAARB system was investigated. Experimental results showed that salinity ranging from 7 to 30 g x L(-1) had no significant effect on COD removal, and the removal efficiency was always more than 85%. On the contrary, it had a strong influence on the removal of nitrogen. The removal efficiencies of NH4+ -N and TN decreased from 98. 23% and 91.48% at 7 g x L(-1) salt to 31.75% and 34.24% at 30 g x L(-1) salt, respectively. Moreover, there was significant nitrite (NO2- -N) accumulation in the presence of 30 g x L(-1) salt. Meanwhile, salinity had different inhibition strength on nitrification and denitrification bacteria, and the order of inhibition strength was as follows: nitrification bacteria > denitrification bacteria. In addition, the N2O production increased with salinity concentration, and the highest N2O accumulation (1397 microg +/- 369.88 microg) was observed with addition of 30 g x L(-1) salt, which accounted for 8.87%o of the total nitrogen removal. Meanwhile, it was 6-117 times higher in the presence of 30 g x L(-1) salt than that in low salinity conditions (7-20 g x L(-1)). And the peak time of the N2O production showed a delayed trend. These results indicated that salinity recirculation in leachate had a negative effect on the nitrogen removal and N2O production. Overall, salinity seemed to be a key parameter during leachate recirculation.

  8. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.


    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  9. In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth


    Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901 km) and 47 h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25 mph, 40.2 kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50 mph, 40.2 to 80.4 kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50 mph, 80.4 kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2 mpg (0.98-1.4 kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.

  10. 生活垃圾破碎机的开发%Development of a Household Refuse Crusher Machine

    王振海; 傅磊; 艾洪超; 何佩珍; 孙希财


    破碎机作为生活垃圾处理线的一个重要装备,其作用是将大件垃圾破碎成所需尺寸,便于运输、焚烧、制肥、造粒等后续工艺。以往公司的固废处理线上的破碎机都采用进口产品,不仅费用高,供货周期长,且受制于人。经过充分的市场调研和全面的技术论证,成功开发出了具有独立知识产权的旋转剪切式双轴破碎机,产品获多项中国实用新型专利。%Crusher machine,as an important equipment in domestic refuse treatment line,is to break large pieces of gar-bages into required sizes for transport,incineration,fertilizer,granulation and other follow-up processes.Formersolid waste treatment line crushers are imported equipment,which feauture high cost,long delivery cycle,and controlled by others. Therefore,after adequate market research and comprehensive technical demonstration,researchers finally suc-ceeded in developing a Tianjin Baili Sun Environmental Protection Equipment Co.,Ltd.rotary shear type biaxial crusher with independent intellectual property rights,which have been granted a number of utility model patents in China.

  11. Characterization of Crew Refuse Returned from Shuttle Missions with Permanent Gas, Volatile Organic Compound, and Microbial Analyses

    Peterson, B.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M.; Krummins, V.; Kish, A.; Garland, J.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    In addition to the mass and energy costs associated with bioregenerative systems for advanced life support, the storage and processing of waste on spacecraft requires both atmospheric and biological management. Risks to crew health may arise from the presence of potential human pathogens in waste or from decay processes during waste storage and/or processing. This study reports on the permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses of crew refuse returned from shuttle missions STS-105, 109 and 110. The research objective is to characterize the biological stability of the waste stream, to assess the risks associated with its storage, and to provide baseline measures for the evaluation of waste processing technologies. Microbiological samples were collected from packaging material, food waste, bathroom waste, and bulk liquid collected from the volume F waste container. The number of culturable bacteria and total bacteria were determined by plating on R2A media and by Acridine Orange direct count, respectively. Samples of the trash were analyzed for the presence of fecal and total coliforms and other human-associated bacteria. Dry and ash weights were determined to estimate both water and organic content of the materials. The aerobic and anaerobic bio-stability of stored waste was determined by on-line monitoring of CO2 and by laboratory analysis of off-gas samples for hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA method TO15 with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors . This study establishes a baseline measure of waste composition, labile organics, and microbial load for this material.

  12. Socio-cultural factors, gender roles and religious ideologies contributing to Caesarian-section refusal in Nigeria.

    Ugwu, Nnanna U; de Kok, Bregje


    The death of women from pregnancy-related causes is a serious challenge that international development initiatives, including the Millennium Development Goals, have been trying to redress for decades. The majority of these pregnancy-related deaths occur in developing countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), including Caesarean section (CS) has been identified as one of the key ingredients necessary for the reduction of high maternal mortality ratios. However, it appears that creating access to EmOC facilities is not all that is required to reduce maternal mortality: socio-cultural issues in Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria seem to deter women from accepting CS. This study seeks to explore some of the socio-cultural concerns that reinforce delays and non-acceptance of CS in a Nigerian community. This is a mixed method study that combined both qualitative and quantitative strategies of enquiry. The hospital's delivery records from 2006-2010 provided data for quantitative analysis. This quantitative data was supplemented with prospective data collected during one month. Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD) and informal observations served as the sources of data on the qualitative end. In total, 22% of maternity clients refused CS and more than 90% of the CSs in the focal hospital were emergencies which may indicate late arrival at the hospital after seeking assistance elsewhere. The qualitative analysis reveals that socio-cultural meanings informed by gender and religious ideologies, the relational consequences of having a C-section, and the role of alternative providers are some key factors which influence when, where and whether women will accept C-section or not. There is need to find means of facilitating necessary CS by addressing the prevailing socio-cultural norms and expectations that hinder its acceptance. Engaging and guiding alternative providers (traditional birth attendants

  13. Measured by the oxygen uptake in the field, the work of refuse collectors is particularly hard work: Are the limit values for physical endurance workload too low?

    Preisser, Alexandra M; Zhou, Linfei; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Harth, Volker


    Collecting waste is regarded as a benchmark for "particularly heavy" work. This study aims to determine and compare the workload of refuse workers in the field. We examined heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake as parameters of workload during their daily work. Sixty-five refuse collectors from three task-specific groups (residual and organic waste collection, and street sweeping) of the municipal sanitation department in Hamburg, Germany, were included. Performance was determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR under field conditions (1-h morning shift) were recorded with a portable spiroergometry system and a pulse belt. There was a substantial correlation of both absolute HR and VO2 during CPX [HR/VO2 R 0.89 (SD 0.07)] as well as during field measurement [R 0.78 (0.19)]. Compared to reference limits for heavy work, 44% of the total sample had shift values above 30% heart rate reserve (HRR); 34% of the individuals had mean HR during work (HRsh) values that were above the HR corresponding to 30% of individual maximum oxygen uptake (VO2,max). All individuals had a mean oxygen uptake (VO2,1h) above 30% of VO2,max. HR as well as the measurement of VO2 can be valuable tools for investigating physiological workload, not only under laboratory conditions but also under normal working conditions in the field. Both in terms of absolute and relative HR and oxygen consumption, employment as a refuse collector should be classified in the upper range of defined heavy work. The limit of heavy work at about 33% of the individual maximum load at continuous work should be reviewed.

  14. Risk management for the emergency physician: competency and decision-making capacity, informed consent, and refusal of care against medical advice.

    Magauran, Brendan G


    This article focuses on those times that the emergency physician (EP) and patient do not agree on a treatment option. Attention is placed on the risk management issues relevant to the patient's unexpected choice. Emphasis is placed on determining a patient's competency or capability of making clinical decisions, with particular focus on the EP deciding that patient competency requires a formal evaluation. The EP should have a strategy for assessing clinical decision-making capability and an understanding of what circumstances should act as a trigger for considering such an assessment. Attention to documentation issues around informed consent, common barriers to consent, refusal of care, and ED discharge against medical advice are examined.

  15. The influence of leachates on the extraction of biogas in solid refuse tips; Lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos, su incidencia en la extraccion de biogas



    The presence of leachates not far below the surface in solid refuse tips interferes with biogas generation irrespective of the recovery system employed (vertical or horizontal collectors). Biogas management can be optimised by monitoring the level of leachates, which tem have to be eliminated. The results are given of analytical tests on leachates in urban, urban/industrial and industrial waste dumps. Finally, the system used at the Can Mata dump, in which the leachate is pumped out, is described, Controlling the amount extracted has made it possible to optimise the biogas recovery facility and obtain the best energy performance. (Author)

  16. 废弃物衍生燃料(RDF-5)技术发展概述%The summarization on development of fifth Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF-5)technique

    刘竞; 荀方飞; 葛亚军; 马婧一; 何占飞


    The Fifth Refuse Derived Fuel technique for municipal solid waste treatment were introduced in this paper. And the characteristics of the Fifth Refuse Derived Fuel were analyzed.The comparison has been carried out between waste incineration and power generation form Fifth Refuse Derived Fuel in the views of energy utilization, environment pollution and so on. Researches and applications on Fifth Refuse Derived Fuel technique in some countries were introduced. On the basis of analyzing Beijing's municipal solid waste's components and caloric value, the development of the Fifth Refuse Derived Fuel technique in the field of municipal solid waste treatment in our country was discussed.%介绍了城市生活垃圾处理RMJ型垃圾衍生燃料(RDF-5)技术工艺,分析了RDF-5燃料的特性.并从能源利用,环境污染等角度.将RDF-5燃料发电与生活垃圾焚烧发电对比,简述了RDF-5技术在各国研究及应用现状.基于对北京市生活垃圾组分、热值的分析,探讨了垃圾衍生燃料(RDF-5)技术在我国城市生活垃圾处理领域的发展前景.

  17. Reaction mechanism of active carbon manufactured by chemicals activation method using potassium carbonate from a raw material of tofu refuse; Okara wo genryo toshi tansankariumu wo mochiita yakuhinfukatsuho niyoru kasseitan seizo niokeru hannokiko

    Hayashi, Jun' ichi; Muroyama, Katsuhiko; Furukawa, Akira; Takemoto, Shin [Kasai University, Osaka (Japan)


    The authors attempted to manufacture active carbon using potassium carbonate as an activator from a raw material of tofu refuse. As the results, the active carbon having a large specific surface area of 2,656 m{sup 2}/g at a carbide and an activation temperature of 800 degrees C could be manufactured. It was clarified as follows after investigating the activation mechanism: potassium carbonate changed to potassium peroxide and potassium sulfate in the reaction of tofu refuse and potassium carbonate in the impregnation and dry process. The tofu refuse was changed into a low molecular weight component and a water soluble organic constituent increased. As the results, the weight loss behavior of he tofu refuse changed up to the carbonization - activation temperature of 500 degrees C and then the carbide having a large specific surface area which had a different pore structure of carbide made independently from the tofu refuse was generated. With further increasing the temperature up to 700 degrees C, it was considered that carbon consumed due to a reduction of potassium carbonate by carbon of carbide, the specific surface area was greatly increased, and active carbon having a high specific surface area was manufactured. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Accept or refuse? Factors influencing the decision-making of transplant surgeons who are offered a pancreas: results of a qualitative study.

    Loss, Julika; Drewitz, Karl P; Schlitt, Hans J; Loss, Martin


    Most offered pancreases are not transplanted. This study investigates the factors that inform and influence the transplant surgeon's decision to select an offered pancreas. Semi-standardized interviews were conducted with 14 highly qualified transplant surgeons from all 14 German transplant centers performing > 5 pancreas transplantations per year. The interviews focused on medical and non-medical criteria on which the individual accept/refuse decision depends. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and underwent content analysis. The interviewees agreed upon certain main selection criteria, e.g. donor age, lab results, ICU stay. However, there was no consistency in judging these parameters, and clear cut-offs did not exist. The pancreas macroscopy is a pivotal factor, as well as knowing (and trusting) the donor surgeon. 3/14 surgeons reported that they had occasionally refused a pancreas because of staff shortage. Some interviewees followed a restrictive acceptance policy, whereas others preferred to accept almost any pancreas and inspect it personally before deciding. The assessment of medical donor characteristics is highly inconsistent. Both very cautious as well as very permissive acceptance policies may render the allocation process less efficient. A more standardized policy should be discussed. Finally, better training for donor surgeons seems advisable, in order to increase trust and thus pancreas utilization.

  19. Report: New reliable method for the measurement of chlorine in refuse-derived fuels through combustion experiments in a pilot plant.

    Schröer, Ramona; Urban, A I


    The calorific values and the chlorine contents of refuse-derived fuels were measured in the pilot combustion plant (PCP) by means of combustion experiments followed by mass and energy balancing. This plant reaches an increased precision by measuring the integrated values throughout the whole experimental period of three hours, based on a fuel capacity of 10 kg per test, allowing a more reliable measurement of pollutants than for experimental analysis of only a few grams of the sample. The combustion experiments are shown for the verification of the quality of the chlorine balancing in the PCP. The test evaluation was carried out by balancing the inputs and outputs of chlorine in the mass streams, and the recovery rates for chlorine were determined. An emission pattern for the chlorine is described by the transfer coefficients and via the temporal fluctuation of the hydrogen chloride concentration in the flue gas. The results of the combustion experiments prove that the balancing via combustion experiments in the PCP provides reliable data on the chlorine concentrations in the fuels, and is a new and reliable method for measuring polluting chlorine in refuse-derived fuels.

  20. The establishment of refuse fields of parameter hypothesis testing in statistics%统计学中参数假设检验拒绝域的确定



    许多统计学教材关于假设检验中拒绝域和接受域的确定过程过于简洁而导致相关知识抽象、难懂,故对这个过程的深入研究很有必要。首先展示了假设检验的基本思想,接着给出了关于一个总体参数的单侧检验、双侧检验过程中拒绝域和接受域确定的推理、推导过程,并展示了应用实例。最后,对当前统计学教材中假设检验内容的组织提出了一点建议。%The descriptions of establishment process ,and refuse and acceptance fields of parameter hypothesis testing in many statistics teaching materials are so compact that the knowledge is abstract and deep. Therefore,it is necessary to make a detailed study on this process. In this paper, firstly, the author shows the essential concept of hypothesis testing. Then, he gives reasoning process of refuse and acceptance fields in one-sided and two-sided testing of one collectivity parameter, and gives application examples. Lastly, he offers some proposals for organization of parameter hypothesis testing in current statistics teaching materials.

  1. 城市社区生活垃圾的处理及实施规划%Treatment and Implementing Planning for Urban Community Domestic Refuse

    王新军; 苏海龙; 许博涵; 张凤娥; 勇应辉


    From the view point of community planning and reference of the international advanced cases, the article probes into how to set up the effective waste management mechanism in community design and operation planning;through the target of population scale, determines the technical program and implementing tactics of community refuse management;puts forward prevention of“city diseases”from the program lay and solves the dififcult problems of urban domestic refuse treatment.%从社区规划的角度出发,参考国际先进案例,探讨了如何在社区的设计和运营规划中建立有效的废弃物管理机制;通过人口规模等指标合理确定社区垃圾管理技术方案和实施策略;提出从规划层面预防“城市病”,解决城市生活垃圾处理的难题。

  2. Case report of comorbid schizophrenia and obsessive compulsive disorder in a patient who was tube-fed for four years by family members because of his refusal to eat.

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina; Saxena, Ankit; Beniwal, R P; Kandpal, Manish; Kumar, Arvind


    Refusal to eat is a common presentation in many psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. In the acute situation it may be a medical emergency; when it becomes chronic it can become an ingrained behavior that is difficult to change. The diagnosis of individuals who refuse to eat may be difficult, particularly in persons with comorbid medical problems, impaired intelligence, or lack of insight into their condition. Tube-feeding is an effective short-term intervention that can be discontinued when the patient re-starts oral intake. However, in some situations patients may become dependent on the use of tube-feeding. We present a case report of a patient with schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, borderline intelligence, and seizure disorder who was tube-fed by his family members for more than three years because he refused to eat orally.

  3. Informed consent for the administration of an intravenous contrast agent: importance and determinants of patient refusal; Consentimiento informado para la administracion de contraste intravenoso. Importancia y factores determinantes del rechazo por los pacientes

    Martel, J. [Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Diaz, J. D. [Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias. Alcala de Henares. Madrid (Spain)


    We proposed to determine the proportion of patients who refuse to undergo intravenous contrast administration and the factors that influence their refusal. Our series consisted of 442 patients who were supposed to undergo imaging studies involving the intravenous injection of an iodine contrast. In a personal interview, the patients were issued a questionnaire specifically designed for this study. The following parameters were recorded: sex, age, inpatient or outpatient status, medical history available, person who informed them about the procedure, person signing the informed consent (patient or other) , highest academic degree, attitude toward receiving the information and degree of concern after reading and signing the consent form. In our series 8.6% of the patients (95% confidence interval: 6-11.2) refused to sign the informed consent form. In addition, there were a number of patients who delayed the procedure or hindered the daily work schedule by some other means. When the relationship between each of the variables studied and refusal to sign the consent form was assessed, significant associations were observed between the latter and the academic level of the patient, his or her degree of concern and having received the information from a trained person. There was also a nearly significant trend toward the association between refusal and the patient's background. Relatively few patients refuse to sign the informed consent to receive intravenous contrast administration but this negative decision interferes with the health care practice. It is possible to identify certain correctable factors that influence the patient in this respect. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. A Study of Making Refusals by Chinese and Americans%中美拒绝言语行为差异调查



    The study was carried out in order to find the differences between Americans and Chinese when they make refusals in di-versified social distances and social power. The major findings from this study are as follows:There are both similarities and differ-ences in the performance of refusal speech acts between Chinese and Americans. The similarities lie in the selection of refusal strate-gies. Chinese and Americans opt to use more indirect strategies than direct ones; among the indirect ones, the use of the “reason and excuse” is the highest. The preference of the strategy choices seems to be the same. In terms of differences, the use of direct strategies by the Americans is higher than that by the Chinese. There are differences in the use of direct strategies between Chinese people in four different social distances, but it is not the case with the Americans. In the context of low power, there is a marked difference in the use of direct strategies between Americans and Chinese.%对中美在不同社会距离和社会权势下使用拒绝语用策略进行调查,研究发现:中国人和美国人在拒绝语用策略使用上有共性也有差异。共性表现在两者使用间接拒绝策略的比例都比较高,其中找借口、原因解释的策略的使用率都是最高的,策略偏好选择上呈现大体的一致性。但是,总体上美国人使用直接拒绝策略的比例要远远高于中国人,在个别辅助语策略使用偏好上也呈现出一定的差异。中国人在四种社会距离下使用直接策略有差异,而美国组没有,在低权势语境下美国人和中国人使用直接策略差异显著。

  5. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation-denitrification synergistic interaction of mature landfill leachate in aged refuse bioreactor: Variations and effects of microbial community structures.

    Wei, Huawei; Wang, Jie; Hassan, Muhammad; Han, Lu; Xie, Bing


    In this work, anammox-denitrification process was verified by (15)N stable isotopic tracing methods and variations and effects of microbial community structures were studied using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The results showed that higher nitrogen removal efficiency and richer microbial consortia was observed at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 15L/m(3)·d, BOD5/TN ratio of 0.4:1, respectively. Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in the anamox-denitrification biomass. The number of amx gene changed significantly during the HLR downshift and BOD5/TN ratio upshift period. The obtained results enhance understanding regarding the microbial community structures of anammox-denitrification bacteria in aged refuse, leading to a more effective controlling of anammox-denitrification process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Motivos de rejeição aos métodos contraceptivos reversíveis em mulheres esterilizadas Reasons why sterilized women refused reversive contraceptive methods

    Marta Lucia de Oliveira Carvalho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as representações sobre os métodos contraceptivos que poderiam ser alternativas à esterilização, para um grupo de mulheres esterilizadas, visando a entender os motivos de rejeição a esses métodos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de trabalho descritivo, qualitativo, cuja população estudada foi constituída por 31 mulheres esterilizadas, aleatoriamente selecionadas da listagem de pacientes atendidas pelo Programa de Planejamento Familiar de um ambulatório de um hospital universitário. As informações foram obtidas das mulheres estudadas por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. As transcrições foram analisadas segundo o método de Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADOS: A rejeição aos métodos contraceptivos esteve baseada em representações resultantes de informações técnicas recebidas em serviços de saúde, de vivências anteriores com esses métodos ou de informações recebidas do meio social. A rejeição aos métodos hormonais e DIU baseou-se principalmente em representações de baixa inocuidade; os métodos comportamentais (Tabela, Billings foram rejeitados por representações de baixa eficácia; os métodos de barreira (diafragma e camisinha, por dificuldades no uso desses métodos relacionados a padrões culturais de exercício da sexualidade e representações de baixa eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: A opção pela esterilização feminina pode ser indicativa de rejeição às alternativas contraceptivas oferecidas pelos serviços de saúde. Os profissionais da área de saúde reprodutiva devem aprofundar seu conhecimento sobre os fatores pessoais, socioeconômicos e culturais que podem influenciar as mulheres na procura por um método contraceptivo que assegure maior controle de sua própria fecundidade.OBJECTIVE: To identify the representations of contraceptive methods within a group of sterilized women, aiming at understanding the reasons why they refused those methods. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study

  7. Thinking of Judicial Review on Refusing to Execute Arbitration Award%关于不予执行仲裁裁决司法审查的思考



    高度自治的仲裁权同样存在着侵害当事人合法权益的可能和风险,对其进行监督就成为必要,司法监督是最好的监督方式。不予执行仲裁裁决的司法审查是对仲裁进行监督的重要方式之一。%There is still possibility and risk of infringing clients' legitimate interests in autonomous arbitral power. It is necessary to supervise it. Judicial supervision is the best way. Judicial review on refusing to execute arbitration award is one of the important ways of it.

  8. Food content of refuse piles of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE)%红火蚁弃尸堆的食物结构

    许益镌; 曾玲; 陆永跃; 梁广文


    Refuse piles of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invcta Buren, were collected from four typical habitats in South China: litchi orchard, nursery, wasteland and roadside, and analyzed to learn seasonal food content fluctuation of this ant. The result showed that the refuse piles had a wide variety of solid particles including 41 species of insect fragments and seeds from 8 orders in total. Coleopterans were the dominant components in all of the habitats accounting 69.05%, 41.7%, 51.8% and 66.67% in litchi orchard, nursery, wasteland and roadside respectively. Homoptera was the least common preys which was only found in the wasteland composing 1.20%. The Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, seeds, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Isoptera and Odonata preys comprised 14.92, 11.96, 11.66, 2.08, 0.60, 0.60 and 0.60%, respectively. Adult fragments were the main parts in refuse piles with few insect larval or pupal fragments found. The numbers of prey species discovered in refuse piles were similar among habitats, but the composition of the species and their quantity were different. It showed obvious seasonal fluctuations of the forage items with two foraging active periods occurring from April to May and from September to October.%通过对红火蚁弃尸堆进行收集、整理、鉴定和分析,研究了自然条件下华南地区典型生境中红火蚁食物结构的季节性变化.结果表明:红火蚁弃尸堆中主要包括了8个目的昆虫和种子共41个种类.其中鞘翅目Coleoptera昆虫的出现频率最高,在4个生境荔枝园、苗圃、荒地、公路路边中分别为69.05%、41.7%、51.8%和66.67%;同翅目Homoptera昆虫出现频率最低,只在荒地中发现占1.20%.其余依次为膜翅目Hymenoptera(14.92%)、半翅目Hemiptera(11.96%)、种子(11.66%)、直翅目Orthoptera(2.08%)、鳞翅目Lepidoptera(0.60%)、等翅目Isoptera(0.60%)和蜻蜓目Odonata(0.60%).弃尸堆中的昆虫碎片以成虫为主,蛹和幼虫较少.不同生境弃尸堆内红火

  9. Change in microbial community in landfill refuse contaminated with antibiotics facilitates denitrification more than the increase in ARG over long-term

    Wu, Dong; Chen, Guanzhou; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yang, Kai; Xie, Bing


    In this study, the addition of sulfamethazine (SMT) to landfill refuse decreased nitrogen intermediates (e.g. N2O and NO) and dinitrogen (N2) gas fluxes to 5%) for the dominant bacterial hosts (Rhodothermus, ~20%) harboring nosZ and norB genes that significantly correlated with nitrogen emission pattern, while sulfamethazine amendment completely reduced the relative abundance of the “original inhabitants” functioning to produce NOx gas reduction. The main ARG carriers (Pseudomonas) that were substantially enriched in the SMT group had lower levels of denitrifying functional genes, which could imply that denitrification is influenced more by bacterial dynamics than by abundance of ARGs under antibiotic pressures. PMID:28120869

  10. A new technology of municipal refuse comprehensive treatment%一种新型垃圾处理工艺介绍



    This paper introduces a new technology of municipal refuse comprehensive treatment. It includes drying process, automatic sorting process and incineration power generation process. Drying process reduce the moisture content of native wastes. Automatic sorting process sorting out rotten organic matter and plastic. The rotten organic matter can be used as fertilizer and the plastic can be recycled. The rest of wastes can be used to incinerate powergeneration.Theelectricitycansatisfythepoweroffactoryandlife.Comparingwiththeconventionalwastesincinerationpowergenerationpro-cess,the process in this paper improve wastes calorific value and recycle the useful material.It improves the utilization of municipal refuse and achieve the municipalrefusereduction,recyclingandharmlessofthemunicipalrefuse.%本文以日处理能力300t/d为例,介绍了一种新型垃圾综合处理工艺,即垃圾“干燥+自动分选+焚烧发电”工艺,通过干燥工艺降低原生垃圾的含水率,自动分选工艺分选出有机物作为肥料,分选出塑料可以回收利用,剩余垃圾进入焚烧炉焚烧,利用余热发电,满足全厂和生活用电。与常规垃圾焚烧发电工艺相比,此工艺提高了入炉垃圾热值,回收了生活垃圾中的有用物质,从整体上提高了生活垃圾的利用率,最大限度实现了生活垃圾的减量化、资源化和无害化。

  11. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M


    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE. © 2013.


    Debdas Mukherjee


    Full Text Available AIM To study the epidemiological characteristics, predisposing factors and treatment outcome of corneal ulcer in consecutive 150 patients who refused corneal scraping for microbacteriological examination in eastern part of rural India. METHOD It was a prospective study, which was conducted on 150 patients presenting with corneal ulcer. These patients refused corneal scraping for their apprehension for the further damage to eye. The study was conducted from March 2014 to March 2015. Demographic factors such as age, sex, occupation and predisposing factors were also recorded. RESULTS A total of 150 patients with corneal ulcer were enrolled in the study. Majority of patients were in the age group of 41-50 (22% years followed by patients in the age group 31-40 (21% years. 77.33% patients were males and 22.67% were females. 63 (42% were farmers, 14 (9% were labourers. Most common traumatic agent was paddy leaf 62 (41%. Most patients presented with mild corneal ulcer 90 (61%, followed by severe corneal ulcer with hypopyon 38 (25%. Maximum patients already had taken treatment earlier before their first visit to our hospital, out of which maximum patients received unknown treatment from quacks (42% followed by steroid use (14%. As s per month wise distribution, maximum cases were found in December 28 (19% followed by month of January 20 (13%. Maximum patients recovered with our treatment 84 (56%. CONCLUSION Corneal ulcer is a serious eye problem in rural areas, which may cause severe visual morbidity if not blindness. It must be treated very energetically to reduce ocular morbidity. In rural India, most cases are mixed infection and standard book/teaching managements of corneal ulcer are often scary to the illiterate village people, so the patients should be started on simple empirical therapy in order to prevent ocular morbidity and complication. A community-based awareness should be done to prevent corneal ulcer.

  13. Soil water deficit and vegetation restoration in the refuse dumps of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China

    Lei Huang; Peng Zhang; YiGang Hu; Yang Zhao


    The sustainability of ecosystem restoration of refuse dumps in open-pit coal mines depends on plant species selection, their configuration, and the optimal usage of water resources. This study is based on field experiments in the northern refuse dump of the Heidaigou open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia of China established in 1995. Eight plant configurations, including trees, shrubs, grasses, and their combinations, as well as the adjacent community of natural vegetation, were selected. The succession of the revegetated plants, soil water storage, the spatiotemporal distribution of plant water deficits degree and its compensation degree were also studied. Results indicated that the vegetation cover (shrubs and herbaceous cover), richness, abundance, soil nutrients (soil organic matter, N and P), and biological soil crust coverage on the soil surface are significantly influenced by the vegetation configurations. The average soil water storage values in the shrub + grass and grass communities throughout the growing season are 208.69 mm and 206.55 mm, which are the closest to that of in the natural vegetation community (215.87 mm). Plant water deficits degree in the grass and shrub + grass communities were the lowest, but the degrees of water deficit compensation in these configuration were larger than those of the other vegetation configurations. Differences in plant water deficit degree and water compensation among the different config-urations were significant (P <0.05). Plant water deficit degrees were predominantly minimal on the surface, increased with increasing soil depth, and remained stable at 80 cm soil depth. The soil moisture compensation in the natural vegetation, shrub + grass, and grass communities changed at 10%, while that in other vegetation communities changed between 20% and 40%. Overall, we conclude that the shrub + grass and grass configuration modes are the optimal vegetation restoration models in terms of ecohydrology for future ecological

  14. N2O emissions from an intermittently aerated semi-aerobic aged refuse bioreactor: Combined effect of COD and NH4(+)-N in influent leachate.

    Li, Weihua; Sun, Yingjie; Bian, Rongxing; Wang, Huawei; Zhang, Dalei


    The carbon-nitrogen ratio (COD/NH4(+)-N) is an important factor affecting nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment; this factor also influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This study investigated two simulated intermittently aerated semi-aerobic aged refuse bioreactors (SAARB) filled with 8-year old aged refuse (AR). The research analyzed how differences in and the combination of influent COD and NH4(+)-N impact N2O emissions in leachate treatment. Experimental results showed that N2O emissions increased as the influent COD/NH4(+)-N decreased. The influent COD had a greater effect on N2O emissions than NH4(+)-N at the same influent ratios of COD/NH4(+)-N (2.7 and 8.0, respectively). The maximum N2O emission accounted for 8.82±2.65% of the total nitrogen removed from the influent leachate; the maximum level occurred when the COD was 2000mg/L. An analysis of differences in influent carbon sources at the same COD/NH4(+)-N ratios concluded that the availability of biodegradable carbon substrates (i.e. glucose) is an important factor affecting N2O emissions. At a low influent COD/NH4(+)-N ratio (2.7), the N2O conversion rate was greater when there were more biodegradable carbon substrates. Although the SAARB included the N2O generation and reduction processes, N2O reduction mainly occurred later in the process, after leachate recirculation. The maximum N2O emission rate occurred in the first hour of single-period (24h) experiments, as leachate contacted the surface AR. In practical SAARB applications, N2O emissions may be reduced by measures such as reducing the initial recirculation loading of NH4(+)-N substrates, adding a later supplement of biodegradable carbon substrates, and/or prolonging hydraulic retention time (HRT) of influent leachate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 城市生活垃圾燃烧特性研究%Study on Combustion Characteristic of Urban Domestic Refuse

    陈国艳; 曾纪进; 段翠九


    By using the electricity and heat stove of fixed bed, the paper makes a study of combustion characteristic on urban domestic refuse. The study covers the paper, textile, kitchen surplus, tree branch, plastic and rubber etc. When the composed refuse pro rata are combusted, the flue gas characteristic changes with the change of temperature and excessive air coefficient. The result shows that the content of NOx increases fast, basical y moving up in line;the content of SO2 shows increasing trend gradual y. The increasing speed of NOx content sees slowness with the increase of excessive air coefficient, basical y moving up in line;and the content of SO2 shows decreasing trend gradual y.%  利用固定床电加热炉,对城市生活垃圾进行燃烧特性研究。研究由纸张、织物、厨余、树枝、塑料、橡胶等典型组分按比例组成的垃圾燃烧时,烟气特性随温度、过量空气系数的变化规律。结果表明:随着温度的升高,NOx的含量增加速度较快,基本上成直线上升;SO2的含量基本上也是呈逐步增加的趋势。随着过量空气系数的增加,NOx的含量增加速度较缓慢,基本上成直线上升;SO2的含量基本上呈逐步减少的趋势。

  16. Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation between the Students with School Refusal Behavior (SRB) and the Students without (SRB), and the Relationships of These Variables to Academic Performance

    Khanehkeshi, Ali; Ahmedi, Farahnaz Azizi Tas


    The purpose of this study was to compare self-efficacy and self-regulation between the students with SRB and students with NSRB, and the relationship of these variables to academic performance. Using a random stratified sampling technique 60 girl students who had school refusal behavior (SRB) and 60 of students without SRB were selected from 8…

  17. Refusing intergroup help from the morally superior: How one group's moral superiority leads to another group's reluctance to seek their help. : How one group's moral superiority leads to another group's reluctance to seek their help

    Täuber, Susanne; van Zomeren, Martijn


    We examine how group members paradoxically refuse intergroup help where they might need it most: in the moral status domain. Based on the Sacred Value Protection Model (Tetlock, 2002), we predicted and found that group members felt stronger group-based anger and a stronger motivation to reaffirm the

  18. When "no" might not quite mean "no"; the importance of informed and meaningful non-consent: results from a survey of individuals refusing participation in a health-related research project

    McMurdo Marion ET


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation rates can lead to sampling bias, delays in completion and increased costs. Strategies to improve participation rates should address reasons for non-participation. However, most empirical research has focused on participants' motives rather than the reasons why non-participants refuse to take part. In this study we investigated the reasons why older people choose not to participate in a research project. Methods Follow-up study of people living in Tayside, Scotland who had opted-out of a cross-sectional survey on activities in retirement. Eight hundred and eighty seven people aged 65–84 years were invited to take part in a home-based cross-sectional survey. Of these, 471 refused to take part. Permission was obtained to follow-up 417 of the refusers. Demographic characteristics of people who refused to take part and the reasons they gave for not taking part were collected. Results 54% of those invited to take part in the original cross-sectional survey refused to do so. However, 61% of these individuals went on to participate in the follow-up study and provided reasons for their original refusal. For the vast majority of people initial non-participation did not reflect an objection to participating in research in principle but frequently stemmed from barriers or misunderstandings about the nature or process of the project itself. Only 28% indicated that they were "not interested in research". The meaningfulness of expressions of non-consent may therefore be called into question. Hierarchical log-linear modelling showed that refusal was independently influenced by age, gender and social class. However, this response pattern was different for the follow-up study in which reasons for non-participation in the first survey were sought. This difference in pattern and response rates supports the likely importance of recruitment issues that are research and context specific. Conclusion An expression of non

  19. Composting equipment design and technology for rural refuse disposal%处理农村生活垃圾装置的研制及工艺

    文国来; 王德汉; 李俊飞; 邹璇; 孙艳军


    为了探索农村生活垃圾的处理途径,该文研究了一种新型一体化处理生活垃圾的装置及工艺,以广州市番禺区猛涌村生活垃圾为研究对象,进行了2个月的中试试验.研制的堆肥装置分4个小仓,每个小仓容纳垃圾1.56 m3,总容积6.24 m3,抽风机功率为1.1 kW/h,抽风频率为1 d 10次,每次30 min,总时间为5 h,每天总耗电量5.5 kW,能耗低.通过12 d高温发酵,24 d编织袋二次发酵的处理方式,温度能达到60℃的天数在5 d以上,出仓时减容约为40%,堆肥产品质量符合要求,且整个处理过程无二次污染,结果表明该装置及工艺可以用来处理农村生活垃圾,可充分做到垃圾减量化、无害化和资源化.%The environmental risk caused by the rural refuse increasingly is proved to be a big issue because there is not enough place for landfill. A new kind of composting equipment and technology was studied for dealing with such a problem in this paper. The composting equipment, which is composed of 4 bins with 1.56 m3 volume of each bin, was tested for 2 months at the municipal solid waste transfer station at Mengyong village, Panyu district in Guangzhou. The power of exhaust fan was 1.1 kW/h, the operation frequency was 10 times per day, 30 minutes per time, so the total operation time was 5 hours a day, the energy cost of the whole compost was 5.5kW. Through 12 days of high temperature fermentation followed by 24 days of bag fermentation, the temperature could be up to 60 °C for at least 5 days, the volume reduction rate of the rural refuse could reach up to 40% after 12 days, and there was no secondary pollution in the whole compost. The results showed that the composting equipment and technology was a feasible way to realize quantitative reduction, harmlessness and resources recovery of the rural refuse.

  20. The geoarchaeology of urban wastes: from refuses to activities and towns organisation (France, 6th c. BC - 10th c. aD)

    Borderie, Q.; Cammas, C.; Petit, C.


    In an urban context, geoarchaeological study of man-environment interaction is often neglected, although recent studies of urbic anthrosols and human induced processes show that it can provide a great amount of data. The sedimentary matrix of the archaeological layers, especially its organic and heavy metal contents (phosphore, organic carbon, lead…) and the pedo-sedimentary processes (such as bioturbation, percolation, decay of organic matter…), are evidence of ancient lifestyle and waste disposal habits. This data are even more useful when archaeological evidence is rare or inefficient, such as in the early medieval Dark Earth. This paper is based on several geoarchaeological studies undertaken since the 1990 in French towns ranging from the Iron Age to the early Middle Ages (Paris, Beauvais, Bayeux, Noyon, Macon, Metz, Lattara…), mainly from rescue excavations. Multi-scale, 3D and fine scale analyses of archaeological stratigraphy are combined with micromorphological studies of undisturbed samples and grain size as well as geochemical analysis of bulk samples (CaCO3, C/N, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu…). Spatial sampling reveals complex pattern of activities in finely stratified and well defined architectural context like Lattara (Iron Age). Organic refuses were found mainly in specific urban spaces like courtyards or squares and animal housing areas could be delineate. In more undifferentiated stratigraphy (early medieval Dark Earth), bioturbation is one of the main formation process and seems to have obliterated others. Thus, we analysed the 3D pattern of macro-artefacts on field, combined with micromorphology, geochemical and semi quantitative counting of micro-artefacts on thin sections. It allowed us to characterise Dark Earth by the type of activity refuses, in relation with the pedo-sedimentary context and the uses of the areas. It also allowed us to assess the characters induced by in situ activities and those due to the local background. Moreover, in Metz

  1. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P


    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower-finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.

  2. AR-AODV routing algorithm based on acknowledgement refused tactic%一种基于拒绝应答的路由协议算法AR-AODV

    田杰; 戴晨铖; 周胶; 王钰


    针对AODV协议进行了研究,并在此基础上进行改进.通过更改路由请求包和路由回复包的结构,增加负载因子项,给出了一种拒绝应答策略的AR-AODV算法以适应重负载网络,并平衡节点能量消耗.通过NS2环境进行仿真实验,结果表明AR-AODV协议比AODV协议拥有更低的端到端时延和路由开销,可缓解网络中心节点的负载并提高网络的性能.%This paper proposed an AR-AODV routing algorithm by changing the structure of route request and reply packet,and increasing a loadfactor term,which accommodated the heavy load network and balanced the node energy consumption by acknowledgement refused tactic.The results of simulation show that the AR-AODV protocol has a lower end-to-end delay and routing spengding than AODV protocol,and it can alleviate the load of the network center nodes and effectively improve the network performance.

  3. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A


    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach.

  4. Efficiency project. Modernisation of the Bremen refuse-fuelled heating power station: Three times as much electric power; Effizienzprojekt. Umbau Muellheizkraftwerk Bremen. Stromversorgung verdreifachen

    Hoelscher, Werner [swb Entsorgung GmbH und Co. KG, Bremen (Germany)


    Against the background of fossil resources depletion, worldwide climate protection efforts, and an ambitious sustainability strategy, swb developed a new business segment with a high growth potential, i.e. energy recovery from waste materials. The focus is on two projects. First, there is the new medium-calorific power plant (MKK) at Bremen harbour, which was commissioned in 2009; secondly, the modernisation of the MHKW Bremen near the A 27 motorway, whose power generation capacity was to be increased to three times the original capacity. Investments for this amounted to a double-digit million Euro sum. Protection of the environment and of natural resources and the utilisation of refuse materials are central elements of the business strategy of the Bremen public utility swb. (orig.) [German] Vor dem Hintergrund endlicher fossiler Energieressourcen, weltweiter Klimaschutzziele und der eigenen ambitionierten Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie hat swb ein neues Geschaeftsfeld mit starkem Wachstumspotenzial entwickelt: die Energiegewinnung aus Abfaellen. Zwei Projekte stehen dabei im Fokus. Zum einen der Neubau des 2009 in Betrieb genommenen Mittelkalorik-Kraftwerks (MKK) im Bremer Industriehafen, zum anderen die Modernisierung des an der Autobahn A 27 gelegenen MHKW Bremen. Um dort das ehrgeizige Ziel der Verdreifachung des Stromoutputs zu erreichen, investiert swb einen hohen zweistelligen Millionenbetrag. Beim Bremer Energieversorger sind der Schutz von Oekologie und natuerlichen Ressourcen sowie die Nutzung von Abfall als Rohstoff zentraler Bestandteil der Unternehmensstrategie. (orig.)

  5. Can a woman refuse sex if her husband has a sexually transmitted infection? Attitudes toward safer-sex negotiation among married women in Bangladesh.

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M


    In developing countries, HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy take an enormous toll on women's reproductive health, yet preventive programmes are lacking as married women's risks are frequently underestimated. We examined predictors of married Bangladeshi women's attitudes towards safer-sex negotiation using data on 15,178 currently married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. Approximately 92% of women believed that a wife's refusal to have sex with her husband is justified if he has an STI. Multilevel logistic regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of a woman holding this belief increased with her autonomy, as measured by the ability to go to a health centre/hospital without another adult, participation in household decision making and rejection of wife beating (p < 0.001). Other significant predictors were knowledge/awareness of STIs (p < 0.05), living in Dhaka division (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that sexual health education programmes may be more effective if they include strategies to address social norms and cultural practices that limit women's autonomy in society.

  6. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert


    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm(3). RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kWel. The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kWel with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Refusing to Report the Medication Errors and It\\'s Effects on Patient\\'s Safety in Razi Teaching Hospital during 2014-2015

    Sahar Geravandi


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: one of the most important health aspects health care systems is patient safety and medication errors can threaten this safety. The purpose of this research was evaluation of refusing to report the medication errors and effect on Patent safety in Razi teaching hospital after healthcare reform during 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: This study is cross-sectional study that has been accomplished in way of descriptive-analytical. The environment of research is Razi teaching hospital of Ahwaz. The population studied consisted of nurses working in different wards of selected hospital. The data collection tool was a questionnaire. The results were analyzed by Excel and SPSS 16.0. Results: The results showed 60% of medication errors report by nurses. The results showed that the most important reasons for not reporting medication errors were related to the managerial factors (3.85 ± 1.512. This factor can be very important on patent safety. Factors related to the fear of the consequences of reporting 3.80 ± 1.301 and process of reporting were 3.21 ± 1.231, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the management factors was important reason not reporting medication errors. Encourage nursing, good drug administration, Training of appropriate, using instruments suitable and decrease direct contact with patient can increase causes report errors. Increase the report of medication errors can help to management these errors and reduction of injures to patients.

  8. Novel pH control strategy for efficient production of optically active l-lactic acid from kitchen refuse using a mixed culture system.

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Inokuchi, Shota; Poudel, Pramod; Okugawa, Yuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Miayamoto, Hisashi; Sakai, Kenji


    Uninvestigated control factors of meta-fermentation, the fermentative production of pure chemicals and fuels in a mixed culture system, were examined for production of optically pure l-lactic acid (LA) from food waste. In meta-fermentations by pH swing control, l-LA production with 100% optical purity (OPl-LA) was achieved even using unsterilized model kitchen refuse medium with preferential proliferation of l-LA-producing Bacillus coagulans, a minor member in the seed, whereas agitation decreased OPl-LA drastically. pH constant control shortened the fermentation time but decreased OPl-LA and LA selectivity (SLA) by stimulating growth of heterofermentative Bacillus thermoamylovorans. Deliberately switching from pH swing control to constant control exhibited the best performance for l-LA production: maximum accumulation, 39.2gL(-1); OPl-LA, 100%; SLA, 96.6%; productivity, 1.09gL(-1)h(-1). These results present a novel pH control strategy for efficient l-LA production in meta-fermentation based on a concept different from that of pure culture systems.

  9. Religious law versus secular law
    The example of the get refusal in Dutch, English and Israeli law

    Matthijs de Blois


    Full Text Available The tension between religious law and secular law in modern democracies is illustrated in this article by a discussion of the different approaches to the get (a bill of divorce refusal (based on Jewish law under Dutch, English and Israeli law. These legal orders share many characteristics, but also display important differences as to the role of religion and religious law in the public realm. The Dutch system is the most secular of the three; it does not recognize a role for religious law within the secular system as such. The English legislation provides for means that to a certain extent facilitate the effectuation of a religious divorce. In Israel, finally, the law of marriage and divorce is as such governed by the religious law of the parties concerned; for the majority of the population that is Jewish law. An evaluation of the different approaches in the framework of human rights law reveals the complexities of the collision of the underlying values in terms of equality, religious freedom and minority rights, also having regard to the diversity of opinions within religious communities.

  10. Usage de la refusion par bombardement électronique pour la purification et le recyclage des alliages Application of the electron beam remelting for the purification and the recycling of alloys

    Bellot Jean-Pierre


    Full Text Available Parmi les techniques de purification ultime de métaux à hauts points de fusion, le procédé de refusion par bombardement électronique associe une puissance thermique garantissant la fusion du métal, et une refusion sous vide permettant l'élimination d'impuretés par distillation. Ce papier présente la technique et le potentiel d'élimination par distillation. Among the ultimate purification techniques applied to the high melting point metallic materials, the electron beam remelting process, combining a high thermal power and vacuum, is particularly conducive to volatilization. This paper describes the technique and its efficiency to remove impurities by distillation.


    李爱民; 李晓东; 李水清; 严建华; 岑可法


    Manufacturing fuel gases by pyrolyzing municipal refuse is an attractive technology. A laboratory-scale externally heated rotary kiln was designed and developed, and a series of the pyrolysis experiments were done with paper,paper board,waste plastic(including PVC plastic and PE plastic),rubber,vegetable,wood cloth and orange husk were selected as the sample species of the main organic groups of municipal refuse.The yield and the heating value of the fuel gas were measured;The effects of moisture and size of raw materials on pyrolysis were studied by taking wood chips as an example and the effects of the heating methods on pyrolysis gas yield and the variations of gas composition and heating value during pyrolysis were discussed.At last,the efficiency of pyrolysis,the conversion fraction of fuel gas and gas yield were defined and the results of the experiments were analyzed in terms of such definitions.

  12. Effect of Inoculation with Effective Microorganisms and Leachate Recycle on Degradation of Municipal Refuse%有效微生物接种和渗滤液循环回流对垃圾降解的影响

    沈东升; 何若; 朱荫湄


    Biodegradation of waste in landfill is a slow process requiring decades for completion. Accelerated degradation of municipal refuse in modulated landfill environments may alleviate or eliminate pollution to the land, water and air. In this work, nineteen effective microorganisms (Ems) were isolated from old landfill refuse by enrichment culturing techniques and used for the inoculum of municipal refuse. The preliminary experiments demonstrate that a combination of Ems inoculation in landfill with leachate recycle resulted in increased rates of decomposition and faster process stability. The concentrations of COD, VFA and SO2-4 in digester with Ems inoculation and leachate recycle decreased more rapidly than others. Gas production from digester with Ems inoculation and leachate recycle commenced around 32 days, which is a week shorter than with leachate recycle only. And peak cumulative gas production was obtained much earlier in digester with Ems inoculation and leachate recycle (150 days) compared to 180 days with leachate recycle only. Moreover, in the first two months, the rate of settlement in digester with Ems inoculation and leachate recycle was more rapid than others.

  13. Production of activated carbon with high specific surface area from bean-curd refuse by chemical activation; Okara wo genryo toshita yakuhin fukatsuho ni yoru kohihyomenseki kasseitan no seizo

    Muroyama, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sato, A.; Takemoto, S. [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A large amount of bean-curd refuse is exhausted as-product of tofu in Japan. On the other hand, activated carbon is used widely from old times in chemicals, medicines and food industry. Recently, since environmental contamination has come to head, the demand of activated carbon is more increased. The authors tried to produce activated carbons with high specific surface area from bean-curd refuse by chemical activation using several alkali metal compounds. The effects of carbonization temperature, holding time and impregnation ratio of reagent to dried bean-curd refuse on pore structure of activated carbons produced were investigated. Among the chemicals tested K2CO3 is found to be the most effective as the impregnation reagent. In a range of carbonization temperature above 700{degree}C, the specific surface area of the activated carbon produced increases rapidly, takes a maximum at a carbonization temperature of about 800{degree}C and decreases with further increase in temperature above 800{degree}C. The specific surface area attains a maximum at a holding time of about 60 min. The specific surface area increases with increasing impregnation ratio up to an impregnation ratio of 1.00. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Déterminants psychologiques de l'acceptation et du refus de participer à un essai clinique destiné à prévenir la maladie d'Alzheimer en population âgée fragilisée


    Our research deals with frail elderly persons participation in a dementia preventive study. 812 elderly persons: 527 which accepted and 285 which refused participation in an Alzheimer disease preventive program, completed a questionnaire which evaluated sociodemographic variables and psychological variables: social support, health locus of control, anxiety facet of Neuroticism, perceived threat about Alzheimer disease, motives to accept or to refuse to take part in an Alzheimer disease preven...

  15. Treatment of landfill leachates by waste iron-scraps coupling with aged-refuse-based reactor%废铁屑耦合矿化垃圾反应床处理填埋场渗滤液研究

    安晓英; 何岩; 陶锐锋; 李真; 郭翠香; 王力刚


    为了构建合理的废铁屑耦合矿化垃圾反应床工艺,分别进行了停留时间对铁屑处理填埋场渗滤液和矿化垃圾反应床出水的影响对比分析.并据此研究了前置铁屑固定床耦合矿化垃圾反应床处理填埋场渗滤液的效能.结果表明,在不进行pH调节的条件下,前置铁屑固定床和间歇曝气沉淀具有明显强化反应床体系去除COD和氨氮的能力,出水COD和氨氮分别小于150 mg/L和5 mg/L.随着铁屑内电解反应器的不断完善,前置铁屑固定床和间歇曝气沉淀可作为强化矿化垃圾反应床处理填埋场渗滤液的有效途径,为经济有效地处理填埋场渗滤液提供了一条新思路.%In order to build the optimal process of waste iron scraps coupling with aged-refuse-based reactor, the influences of retention time on the iron-scraps-based treatment of landfill leachate and the effluent from the aged-refuse-based reactor have been contrasted and analyzed, respectively. Subsequently, the treatment effect of the preceding waste-iron-scraps coupling with the aged-refuse-based reactor on the landfill leachate is investigated. The results show that without pH adjustment,the preceding iron-scraps-fixed reactor and the intermittent aeration-sedimentation have apparent capacity for strengthening the removal performance of the aged-refuse-based reactor in terms of COD and ammonium-nitrogen. The COD and ammonium-nitrogen concentrations in the effluent are less than 150 mg/L and 5 mg/L. With the continuous improvement in the iron-scrap-fixed reactor,the preceding iron-scraps-fixed reactor and the intermittent aeration-sedimentation could be considered as a promising way in strengthening the removal performance of the aged-refuse-based reactor,which is of great significance for the economic and effective treatment of landfill leachates.

  16. Research on the relationship between family members’ right of refusing to testify and the ethical structure in kinship%亲属拒证权制度与亲属伦理结构关系研究



    亲属拒证权制度因有助于维护良好的亲属伦理秩序而得到世界各国的普遍认可,这一制度与社会亲属伦理结构之间存在紧密联系。亲属拒证权制度是社会主流亲属伦理观在刑事证人制度中的体现;亲属拒证权制度的制度设计对社会伦理结构具有引导作用,二者之间是一种决定与引导的互动关系。应当根据我国当前亲属伦理结构现状完善亲属拒证权制度,亦应当利用亲属拒证权制度确立的契机引导良好亲属伦理结构的巩固与完善。%The right of refusing to testify among family members is recognized all over the world because it contributes to maintain good ethical order among family members. Such right has a close relationship with social ethical structure of family members. The right of refusing to testify among family members is a reflection of the society’s mainstream ethical notion in the system of criminal witnesses;the design of the right of refusing to testify among family members functions as a guide in social ethical structure, and they have an interactive relation of decision and guidance. We should improve the right of refusing to testify among family members according to the ethical structure of family members in our country nowadays. We should also make the establishment of the right of refusing to testify among family members as a guide to consolidate and develop the ethical structure of family members.

  17. Joutes dharmiques. Note sur la volonté de donner, le refus de recevoir et la force contraignante de la vérité

    Charles Malamoud


    Full Text Available Joutes dharmiques. Note sur la volonté de donner, le refus de recevoir et la force contraignante de la vérité. Les chapitres 199 et 200 du Çântiparvan font partie du Mokshadharma. Ils nous font connaître une controverse (vivâda entre un brahmane jâpaka et le roi Îkshvâku. L’intérêt de ce passage, qui n’a guère attiré l’attention des indianistes, semble-t-il, est que la discussion intellectuelle y déclenche des événements et se transforme en une sorte de drame : d’autres personnages se présentent dans l’ermitage du Jâpaka, interviennent avec leurs propres débats ; les échanges d’arguments ont des conséquences sur les destinées des protagonistes ; il y a une véritable intrigue, avec des surprises, des rebondissements, des reconnaissances, un dénouement. C’est cette dramaturgie que je me propose d’étudier. Mais je voudrais aussi mettre en lumière le contenu et les enjeux de cette joute dharmique. Elle porte sur le don : Qui est apte à donner ? Qui est apte à recevoir ? Que peut-on donner ? Y a-t-il des dons gratuits ? Et aussi : Existe-t-il dans l’Inde brahmanique quelque chose qui serait comparable au « point d’honneur » occidental et qui doublerait en quelque sorte la volonté de ne pas s’écarter de son dharma ?Dharmic jousting. A note on the desire to give, the refusal to receive and the constraining power of the truth. Chapters 199 and 200 of the Santiparvan are part of the Mokshadharma. They recount a controversy (vivâda between a jâpaka Brahmana and the king Ikshvaku. The interest of this passage, which does not appear to have attracted much attention from Indianists, lies in its description of an intellectual discussion triggering events and turning into a sort of drama: other characters arrive in the Jâpaka hermitage, intervening with their own debates; the exchange of arguments has an impact on the fate of the protagonists; there is a genuine intrigue, with surprises, new

  18. 重庆市垃圾处理场的邻避效应分析%NIMBY analysis of refuse disposal sites in Chongqing

    张向和; 彭绪亚; 刘峰; 彭莉


    In order to analyze the effecting factors about NIMBY (not in my backyard) and compare with the residents' NIMBY reactions for different refuse disposal site (RDS) , ten RDSs and their surrounding residents have been investigated and then the indices for the NIMBY effect are established. The results show that there exist five leading factors which can effect the NIMBY, involving the relative location of RDS, public consciousness, satisfaction degree of the government's behavior, trust of RDS management and satisfaction of compensation. In those factors, the last three ones play an important role in residents' supporting refuse disposal who expect to have monetary compensation with 73 000 RMB per person. What's more, the residents hope to be compensated by settlement buildings or other ways which follow the national policy. According to the study, there would be much strong NIMBY effects in the RDSs of Jiangjin District, Changshou District and Tongxin than that of Dazu County, Changshengqiao and Wanzhou District. Based on analyzing the factors, ten RDSs could be classified into three types of NIMBY, such as public-depended, RDS-depended and government-depended types,and some avoidance measures for different types also be proposed.%为了分析垃圾处理场的主导邻避因子,比较不同垃圾处理场的邻避程度,采用分层抽样法和结构式访谈,调查了重庆市10个垃圾处理场及其周围农户,并构建了邻避指数.结果表明:邻避效应的主要影响因子是垃圾场的相对位置、政府处理满意度、公众"NIMBY(not in my backyard)"意识、垃圾场信任度和赔付满意度.公众对垃圾处理支持度的主要影响因子为补偿满意度、垃圾场信任度和政府处理方式满意度,且期望货币补偿为7.3万元/人,期望补偿方式主要为安置房补偿及按国家政策补偿.江津区、主城同兴、长寿区垃圾处理场邻避效应较大,而大足县、主城长生桥、万州区垃圾处理场

  19. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station


    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  20. Théories du théâtre autochtone au Canada depuis 1990. Refus de la posthistoire et réparation du corps social

    François Paré


    Full Text Available Les compagnies théâtrales autochtones ont cherché à occuper tous les espaces de parole en produisant, au cours des années, non seulement un théâtre joué et très souvent publié, mais aussi un abondant discours d’accompagnement sur le sens à conférer aux œuvres produites sur scène et dans divers espaces publics. Ces textes de Qwo-Li Driskill, Candace Brunette, Daniel Heath Justice, Yves Sioui-Durand et Jo-Ann Episkenew, entre autres, nous permettent de saisir de l’intérieur le rôle privilégié assigné au théâtre et aux pratiques de la performance par toute une génération de chercheurs et d’activistes autochtones des trente dernières années. Nous en retenons que deux courants animent cette production théorique et méthodologique axée sur la décolonisation : le refus des esthétiques liées à la posthistoire (postmodernisme et postcolonialisme et le recours à un imaginaire et un lexique empruntés aux études contemporaines du traumatisme individuel et collectif. Indigenous theatre collectives have been active on all fronts in recent years, not only by staging and publishing a large number of plays written by Native writers, but also through the production and circulation of a significant number of theoretical texts on Indigenous theatre methodologies. Writings by Qwo-Li Driskill, Candace Brunette, Daniel Heath Justice, Yves Sioui-Durand and Jo-Ann Episkenew, among others, allow us to understand from within the role assigned to the theatre by a generation of Indigenous activists and scholars. The performance space is seen as a decolonizing agency, rejecting concepts related to both postmodernism and postcolonialism in favour of traditional healing processes rooted in contemporary studies on collective and personal trauma.

  1. A vermicompostagem do lodo de lagoas de tratamento de efluentes industriais consorciada com composto de lixo urbano The vermicomposting of an industrial sludge combined with a compost of municipal solid refuse

    Luciana Rodrigues Valadares Veras


    Full Text Available A destinação dos resíduos sólidos constitui um sério problema ambiental para a humanidade, principalmente em regiões de grande concentração urbana, onde a disponibilidade de áreas para disposição dos rejeitos é quase sempre restrita. Com a intenção de fornecer mais uma alternativa para solução do problema, desenvolveu-se um estudo para avaliar a vermicompostagem de um lodo industrial, resultante do processamento de frutas, consorciado com composto de lixo urbano. Através desse processo, pode-se obter a reciclagem dos resíduos, produzindo-se um composto denominado húmus ou vermicomposto. Dentre os resultados obtidos pode-se destacar bons indicadores do nível de maturidade dos resíduos, representados pela relação carbono/nitrogênio, a influência da minhoca na elevação do pH e sua contribuição para uma estabilização mais acelerada da matéria orgânica.The final disposal of solid wastes is a serious environmental problem, mainly in big towns, where the areas to put the refuses on are not much available. To provide one more alternative to solve this problem, a research was developed to analyse the vermicomposting of industrial sludge combined with a compost of municipal solid refuse. By this process, it was possible to obtain the recycling of the wastes, producing a material called humus or vermicompost. The results showed good maturity levels of the refuses, presented by the carbon/nitrogen relations, the worms influence in the pH elevation and their possible acceleration of the organic material stabilization.


    Yao Kouadio Jean


    Full Text Available L’adjectif qualificatif et l’adverbe ont permis à Jean-Marie ADIAFFI d’asseoir l’écriture du refus qui vise l’affranchissement de la rigidité de la littérature française. En retour, le bossonnisme (le goût du sacré, le dadaïsme, le symbolisme sont les tremplins de l’affirmation de la raison et du sens de créativité du Négro-Africain. L’auteur met au cœur de esthétique littéraire négro-africaine qu’il projette le sacré, générateur de la créativité et du génie du négro-Africain. Alors, la liberté d’écriture est le leitmotiv de l’écrivain noir. Dès lors, il met en œuvre son esprit de créativité et sa spontanéité.

  3. 试论城市生活垃圾处理的利益博弈与决策方法%Analysis on Interest Game Theory and Related Decision Making of Urban Domestic Refuses



    可从利益相关者对组织权力的大小、从组织获利绝对值的大小和对组织关注度的高低三个维度进行利益相关者分类.城市生活垃圾生成环节的博弈主要在政府和厂商之间展开;城市生活垃圾收集运输环节的博弈,主要在政府与居民之间展开;围绕城市生活垃圾处理方式决策的博弈,主要在政府与居民或政府、居民与企业之间展开;围绕城市生活垃圾处理设施选址决策的博弈,主要在政府、企业与备选地及其周边居民之间展开.为了增强城市生活垃圾处理设施选址决策的科学性、合理性,有必要用层次评估法取代多属性评估法.%Stakeholders can be classified according to three dimensions on the degree of organization, the benefits they gain and their concerns about the organization. During the process of urban domestic refuses generation, the game is played between the government and the manufacturers; during the process of urban domestic refuses collection, the game is played between the government and the residents; focused on urban domestic refuses methods decision making issues, the game is played mainly between the government and the residents, or between the government, the manufacturers and the nearby residents; focused on urban domestic refuses facility location decision making issues, the game is played between the government, the manufacturers and the nearby residents. In order to make the decision - making more scientific and reasonable, it is necessary to substitute multi - level evaluation method for multi - attribute evaluation method.

  4. Study on the Problem of the Prevention and Control of Municipal Refuse Pollution to Enviroment and Legal Contermeasure%我国城市生活垃圾治理中存在的问题及法律对策



    The paper analyzed the problem of the prevention and control of municipal refuse pollution to enviroment in our country now ,and in order to attach legislative importance to the problem ,put forward the legal countermeasure.%我国城市生活垃圾的治理不仅在立法上而且在执法中都存在有诸多问题。借鉴海外经验,修改并完善立法,同时强化对垃圾处理,并实现管理的法制化,是需采取的必要措施。

  5. Características químicas do lixo de formigueiros de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae mantidos com diferentes substratos Chemical characteristics of nest refuse of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae reared with different substrates

    Marcelo Braga Bueno Guerra


    ecossistema. O lixo pode ser uma das principais razões para o aumento da concentração de nutrientes em solos de formigueiros.Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. are widely distributed in South America, and are considered to be important components of the neotropical ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated the effect of ant-nesting in soil enrichment, thus facilitating vegetation succession. Possibly, this enrichment is due to decomposed organic matter concentration after disposal of nest refuse in the deep soil by the colonies. However, little is known about the chemical composition of refuse material produced by leaf-cutting ants. The present work aimed to compare the macronutrient concentration in nest refuse and leaves of two different harvested plants (Acalypha sp. or Bauhinia sp. in colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae maintained in laboratory. Eight colonies were divided into two groups (n = 4, and each one was maintained with only one feed type. After 30 days of experiment, samples of leaves and refuse were oven-dried at 70 ºC and subjected to acid digestion for chemical determination of total N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg. Differences in concentrations of macronutrients in both leaves and refuse were compared using ANOVA and T test. Nutrient concentration in the refuse material was consistently higher than in leaves, for both plants. Acalypha sp. leaves showed greater nutrient concentration than those of Bauhinia sp., while the concentration of all refuses were very similar. This indicates an additional enrichment of nutrients in the refuse material by either ant carcasses, fungus cycling or excretions. Results suggest that nests of leaf-cutting ant are important loci of nutrient recycling of the ecosystem. Moreover, the refuse may represent an important factor for chemical enrichment in soils influenced by leaf-cutting ants.

  6. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    Hao, Y. L. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Dick, W. A. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States)


    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  7. Influence of family and friend smoking on intentions to smoke and smoking-related attitudes and refusal self-efficacy among 9-10 year old children from deprived neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    McGee, Ciara E; Trigwell, Joanne; Fairclough, Stuart J; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna; Ussher, Michael; Foweather, Lawrence


    Smoking often starts in early adolescence and addiction can occur rapidly. For effective smoking prevention there is a need to identify at risk groups of preadolescent children and whether gender-specific intervention components are necessary. This study aimed to examine associations between mother, father, sibling and friend smoking and cognitive vulnerability to smoking among preadolescent children living in deprived neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 9-10 year old children (n =1143; 50.7% girls; 85.6% White British) from 43 primary schools in Merseyside, England. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related behaviour, intentions, attitudes, and refusal self-efficacy, as well as parent, sibling and friend smoking. Data for boys and girls were analysed separately using multilevel linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for individual cognitions and school and deprivation level. Compared to girls, boys had lower non-smoking intentions (P = 0.02), refusal self-efficacy (P = 0.04) and were less likely to agree that smoking is 'definitely' bad for health (P influences on 9-10 year old children's cognitive vulnerability toward smoking. Whilst some differential findings by gender were observed, these may not be sufficient to warrant separate prevention interventions. However, further research is needed.

  8. Technical and economic investigation of the combined transport of district heat and refuse by rail. Final report; Technische und wirtschaftliche Untersuchung des kombinierten Transportes von Fernwaerme und Muell mit der Bahn (KTFM). Schlussbericht

    Schleyer, A. [GEF Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Energietechnik und Fernwaerme mbH, Leimen (Germany); Krebs, A.W. [Regional- und Energieplanung Andreas W. Krebs, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goeddeke, H. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Rationellen Energieeinsatz und Technologietransfer, Boppard (Germany)


    In past years a number of preliminary studies have been done on ``District Heat Transport by Rail``: they have not, however, answered the question of economic viability. The main task of this study is to see if district heat transport by rail (possibily in combination with refuse transport) can be done economically. The aim of the investigation was to assess the chances of realisation of a combination of different technologies which appeared economically and environmentally sound. With this in mind, the technical, economical and ecological aspects of the ``Combined Transport of District Heat and Refuse`` by rail were investigated. The main findings are as follows: The sum of emissions in built-up areas can thus be reuced. Within the present price structure of the German rail system, the combined transport of district offers no price advantage over separate transport. Cheaper transport could be achieved if private rail companies were allowed to transport district heat and refuse on DB and DR track and pay toll. Although the concept is ecologically desirable, we sadly must conclude that heating costs for this concept would greatly exceed acceptable limits. On the other hand, politicak changes, e.g. the compulsion for heat generation from incinerators, mith lead to increased costs for district heat supply. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zum Thema ``Fernwaermetransport mit der Eisenbahn`` sind in den vergangenen Jahren bereits verschiedene Voruntersuchungen durchgefuehrt worden, wobei aber bisher die Frage der Wirtschafftlichkeit unbeantwortet blieb. Vordringliche Aufgabe dieser Studie ist es daher, zu erklaeren, ob der Fernwaermetransport mit der Eisenbahn (evtl. in Verbindung mit Muelltransporten) wirtschaftlich durchgefuehrt werden kann. Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens war es, die Realisierungschancen einer gesamtwirtschaftlich sinnvoll und umweltfreundlich erscheinenden Verbindung verschiedener Techniken zu ermitteln. Dazu sollte der ``Kombinierte Transport von Fernwaerme und

  9. 健康教育路径在拒绝母乳喂养产妇中的应用效果%Effect of health education pathway in puerperants refusing breastfeeding



    Objective To discuss the effect of health education pathway in puerperants refusing breastfeeding.Methods Health education pathway tale was formulated to systematically educate thirty-eight cases of puerperants who refused breastfeeding without breastfeeding contraindications by nurses.Results On discharge,thirty out of thirty-eight cases accepted exclusive breastfeeding and eight cases planned on mixed feeding due to lack of milk,with no case refusing breastfeeding.One week after discharge,thirty-six cases still insisted on exclusive breastfeeding and only two cases changed to mixed feeding due to too little milk,with the breastfeeding rate as 94.7%.Conclusions Health education pathway can change puerperants' cognition and attitude toward breastfeeding,which is helpful to enhance their initiative until they master the knowledge and skill of breastfeeding,so as to improve the successful rate of breastfeeding.%目的 探讨健康教育路径在拒绝母乳喂养产妇中的应用效果.方法 制定母乳喂养健康教育路径表,对38例无母乳喂养禁忌证而拒绝母乳喂养产妇,由责任护士实施系统的母乳喂养健康教育.结果 38例产妇出院时有30例接受纯母乳喂养,8例因母乳不足混合喂养,无一例拒绝母乳喂养.出院后1周电话随访36例产妇均坚持母乳喂养,仅2例混合喂养产妇因乳汁过少放弃母乳喂养,母乳喂养率达94.7%.结论 路径化母乳喂养健康教育能改变产妇对母乳喂养的认知和态度,有利于增强产妇及家属主动参与意识,直至最终掌握母乳喂养知识和技巧,从而提高母乳喂养成功率.

  10. 唐氏综合征高风险孕妇拒绝羊膜腔穿刺术原因调查%Investigation on Reasons of Refusing Amniocentesis by High- risk Pregnant Women With Down's Syndrome

    梁红; 高岚; 陈颖


    目的 提高唐氏综合征高风险孕妇的羊膜腔穿刺率,降低出生缺陷儿的发生.方法对来产前咨询门诊就诊具有羊膜腔穿刺指征而拒绝行羊膜腔穿刺者进行原因调查.结果2年产前咨询预约羊膜腔穿刺3845人,其中有1614例如约行羊膜腔穿刺术,羊膜腔穿刺率为41.98%,2231例拒绝羊膜腔穿刺的孕妇中孕妇自身心理因素占了绝大部分,包括担心流产(57.15%)、怕痛苦(8.74%)、心存侥幸(11.52%)、对医院的错误认识(3.68%)等.<35岁组和≥35岁拒绝穿刺的主要原因不同.结论某妇幼保健院拒绝羊膜腔穿刺比例较高,原因以心理因素为主,不同年龄段所担心的原因不同,应分别对待给予相应的心理干预.%Objective To improve the amniocentesis rate of high - risk pregnant women with Down's syndrome, and reduce the occurrence of birth defects of children. Methods The reasons of the Down's syndrome high - risk pregnant women who refused to amniocentes in prenatal counseling out - patient clinic were investigated. Result Totally 3 845 pregnants visited prenetal counseling reserved amniocentesis within 2 years; in which 1 614 cases were conducted amniocentesis as reservetion, with the amniocentesis rate was 41.98%. Those 2 231 cases refused amniocentesis were mainly caused by self psychological factors, including afraid of a-bortion (57. 15% ) , afraid of pain (8. 74% ), leaving things to chance (11. 52% ) and wrong cognition of the hospital (3. 68% ), etc. The main reasons of patients aged < 35 years and 3≥35 years were different. Conclusion The refusing rate of amniocentesis in this maternity and child healthcare hospital is high, the main reason is psychological factors, and varies in different age groups. Therefore, appropriate psychological interventions should be given separately.

  11. Adolescent New Media Dependence Behavior: the Roles of Parental Factors and Refusal Self-efficacy%父母因素、抵制效能感与青少年新媒介依赖行为的关系

    许颖; 苏少冰; 林丹华


    A sample of 500 students who claimed cell phone ownership were recruited to explore the characteristics of new media dependence (including internet addiction and cell-phone dependence) and its association with parental factors and refusal self-efficacy. Results showed: ( 1 ) There were 40% and 19. 8% of adolescents respectively found to be marginal internet addicts and cell-phone dependents. In addition, 46.4% of adolescent reported at least one kind of dependent behaviors. Significant association was found between the two kinds of new media dependence behaviors. (2) New media dependence behaviors were significantly associated with refusal self- efficacy, parental attitudes towards dependence behaviors and parental monitoring. Refusal self-efficacy completely mediated the effect of parental behaviors and attitudes on adolescent new media dependence behavior. In addition, refusal self-efficacy partially mediated the effect of parental monitoring on adolescent new media dependence behaviors. The implications of designing effective adolescent new media dependercce behaviors prevention intervention program were also addressed in the present study.%以500名青少年手机拥有者为被试,采用问卷调查法考察青少年新媒介依赖(包括网络和手机依赖)的特点,并探讨父母因素和抵制效能感对青少年新媒介依赖的预测作用。结果发现:(1)40%的肯少年至少存在边缘网络成瘾行为,19.8%的青少年为手机依赖者。青少年网络成瘾和手机依赖这两种新媒介依赖行为间具有显著的关联性,46.4%的青少年存在至少一种新媒介依赖行为。(2)青少年新媒介依赖行为与其抵制效能感、父母行为/态度及父母行为监控显著相关。青少年抵制效能感在父母行为/态度与青少年新媒介依赖行为之间起到完全中介的作用。在父母行为监控与青少年新媒介依赖行为间起到部分中介的作

  12. 城市生活垃圾压缩中转站压滤污水的现状调查%Investigation on Existing Circumstances of Leachate of Pressed Urban Domestic Solid Waste in Refuse Transfer Stations



    In order to investigate the current situation and change law of pressed solid wastewater leachate of the urban domestic solid waste in refuse transfer stations in Shanghai,samples from three refuse transfer stations were monitored and analyzed during a year.The results showed the average amount of leachate produced accounted for 5.1% of the urban domestic solid waste in refuse transfer stations,the pH ranged from 5.2 to 6.5,and were found to be mildly acidic.The concentration range of SS and TP were 630~218 210 mg/L and 8~260 mg/L respectively,which were higher in summer and autumn,but lower in winter and spring.The concentration of BOD5,CODC and NH3-N were 2 250~35 200 mg/L,141~80 000 mg/L,68.5~1 034 mg/L respectively,these pollutant concentration all reached maximum in September.The concentration of heavy metal of leachate could meet the allowable concentration of Shanghai discharge standard for municipal wastewater (DB 31/445-2009),but oil was found far beyond allowable concentration.The results provided scientific basis on leachate control produced from urban domestic solid waste in refuse transfer stations.%为了解上海市垃圾中转站产生的压滤污水的基本特性和变化规律,该文对上海市三个典型生活垃圾中转压缩站的污水进行了为期一年的跟踪监测和调查.调查研究结果表明,中转站污水的平均产生量约为垃圾量的5.1%,垃圾中转站的污水呈弱酸性,pH变化范围为3.0~6.5; SS和TP的变化范围分为630~21 8210 mg/L和8~260 mg/L,呈现夏、秋季节高而冬、春季节低的特征;BOD5、CODcr、NH3-N分别在2 250~35 200 mg/L、141~80000mg/L、68.5~1 034 mg/L的范围内变化,这些水质指标均在9月份达到最大浓度;污水中重金属物质含量基本没有超出上海市《污水排入城镇下水道水质标准》(DB 31/445-2009)所规定的最高允许浓度,但动植物油含量指标则远远超出纳管标准.研究结果对加强城市生

  13. 垃圾填埋场天然土壤衬垫改性的对比研究%Comparative study on modification of natural soil liner in refuse landfill

    邓寅生; 黄研; 李武斐


    In order to improve the impermeability of natural soil in refuse landfill, and not to cause pollution to underground water, some materials with a certain adsorption, such as bentonite, zeolite, and ganister sand, are selected to add into the soil.Bentonite, zeolite,and ganister sand were added into the natural soil of refuse landfill in different proportions respectively and variable head permeability tests were carried out after compacting.Following conclusions were obtained:The optimum mix ratio of bentonite-modified soil sample is 8% ( mass fraction) and its osmotic coefficient is 5.85 × 10 -8 cm/s at standard temperature;the optimum mix ratio of zeolite-modified soil sample is 2% ( mass fraction) and its osmotic coefficient is 8.97 × 10-9 cm/s at standard temperature;and the optimum mix ratio of ganister sand-modified soil sample is 2%( mass fraction) and its osmotic coefficient is 1.52 × 10 -7cm/s at standard temperature.According to the stipulation of related national standard, compacted ganister sand-modified soil sample can be used as a protective layer of refuse landfill, and compacted bentonite-modified and zeolite-modified soil samples can be used as impermeable lining of refuse landfill.%为了提高垃圾填埋场天然土壤的抗渗性,同时不对地下水造成污染,选择往土壤中添加具有一定吸附性的膨润土、沸石和硅粉.在垃圾填埋场天然土壤中分别添加不同比例的膨润土、沸石和硅粉,击实后进行变水头渗透试验,得出如下结论:膨润土改性土样的最佳配比为8%(质量分数),其在标准温度下的渗透系数为5.85×10-8cm/s;沸石改性土样的最佳配比为2%(质量分数),其在标准温度下的渗透系数为8.97×10-9cm/s;硅粉改性土样的最佳配比为2%(质量分数),其在标准温度下的渗透系数为1.52×10-7cm/s.根据国家规定的标准,压实的硅粉改性土样可以作为垃圾填埋场的保护层,压实的膨润土和沸石改性土样可以

  14. Simple Coal Refuse Storage and Stage Loading System Applied to Fully Mechanized Mine Gateway Driving Construction%简易储矸转载系统在综掘施工中的应用

    贾剑; 王丽敏


    母杜柴登煤矿二期工程施工初期,在不具备后配套连续运输的条件下,布置简易储矸转载系统,解决了悬臂式掘进机快速掘进与电机车牵引矿车间断运输不匹配的技术难题,提高了巷道施工进度,取得了月进尺达180~235 m的好成绩。简易储矸转载系统除可与悬臂式掘进机配套使用外,还可与连采机、掘锚机等机掘设备配套使用,具有推广应用价值。%At an initial construction period of the second phase engineering of Mudu Chaideng Coal Mine ,under a condition with no back supporting continuous transportation ,a simple coal refuse stor‐age and stage loading system was arranged to solve a mismatching technical problem between the rapid driving of the mine boom type roadheader and the discontinuous transportation of the mine cars hauled by the mine electric locomotive. The mine gateway construction schedule was improved and a month driving rate reached an excellent achievement of 180~235m. T he simple coal refuse storage and stage loading system could not only be matched with boom type roadheader ,but also could be matched with the continuous miner ,driving an bolting machine and other mechanized equipment. The simple coal re‐fuse storage and stage loading system could have the promoted and application value.




    对适合焚烧处理的3种垃圾筛上物的RDF制备工艺进行了探讨。结果表明:垃圾筛上物在制备RDF前必须要经过破碎处理,破碎粒度越小,越有利于RDF成型和抗压强度的增加。堆肥垃圾筛上物成型率在80%以上,其次为原生垃圾筛上物,矿化垃圾筛上物单独制备RDF的成型率仅为5%,添加30%以上的餐厨垃圾利于RDF成型率和抗压强度的增加。利于RDF成型的最佳垃圾含水率为25%,其次为30%,成型率分别达到75.3%和70.4%。%The preparation process of refuse derived fuel (RDF) from three screening residues was discussed. The results showed the screening residues must be crushed before handling and the smaller the particle size, the better granulating and compressive strength of RDF products. Granulating rate of screening residues from composting plant was 80% , followed by products screened from transfer station. As for products screened from aged-refuse landfill, the granulating rate was only 5% of organic matter. The granulating rate and compressive strength could be increased if more than 30% of food waste were added. The optimized moisture content of RDF is 25% , followed by 30% , with granulating rate of 75.3% and 70.4% respectively.

  16. Methane oxidation with in situ enhanced facultative bacteria from aged-refuse%矿化垃圾中兼性营养菌原位强化甲烷氧化

    赵天涛; 张云茹; 张丽杰; 全学军; 彭绪亚


    引言好氧甲烷氧化菌在新陈代谢上具有独一无二的特性:它们能够利用甲烷和其他一碳化合物作为唯一碳源和能源.这类微生物最典型的特点是利用甲烷单加氧酶( MMO,methane monooxygenase)催化甲烷氧化为甲醇[1].长时间来,所有的甲烷氧化菌都被认为是专一营养的,即它们无法利用含有碳碳键的化合物生长.%Facultative methanotrophs can utilize methane as well as multi-carbon compounds, including organic acids and carbohydrates. Facultative methanotrophs from aged-refuse were enhanced in situ to overcome the limitations of methane oxidation by existing landfill covers. Methanotrophs from oligotrophic aged-refuse had a better environmental tolerance by analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM). These bacteria could enrich quickly in the presence of carbon source. However, the methane-oxidation capability could not be improved if only adding carbohydrates or nitrate mineral salts (NMS) medium alone. Compound acclimation of facultative methanotrophs were carried out by NMS medium and glucose/ starch. After a delay period of 7-9 d, methane consumption came into a logarithmic growth period, which indicated that facultative methanotrophs had strong biological activity and high substrate competitive advantage. Metabolic pathways of facultative methanotrophs were modified by adding NMS medium, and methane could be utilized despite the presence of other carbon sources. The activity of facultative methanotrophs was enhanced by low concentration of chloroform. Oxidation rate of methane reached 0. 114 ml·d-1·g-1 as the concentration of chloroform was 50 mg·L-1. The problems about the engineering application of obligate methanotrophs were overcome due to the discovery of the new method, and the results would have important implication for understanding the methane-oxidizing bacteria and the factors controlling methane fluxes in the environment.

  17. Quando a morte é um ato de cuidado: obstinação terapêutica em crianças When death is an act of care: refusing life support for children

    Debora Diniz


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute um caso específico de recusa de obstinação terapêutica para um bebê de oito meses, portador de Amiotrofia Espinhal Progressiva Tipo I, uma doen��a genética incurável, degenerativa e com curto prognóstico médico de sobrevida. Os pais buscaram suporte judicial para garantir que o bebê não fosse compulsoriamente submetido a mecanismos de respiração artificial, caso apresentasse paradas cardiorrespiratórias durante atendimento hospitalar. O bebê foi a óbito por parada cardíaca uma semana após a decisão favorável da Justiça. A solicitação dos pais à Justiça foi pela garantia do direito de recusar procedimentos médicos que não modificariam o quadro clínico do bebê, em especial a ventilação artificial. O caso chegou à Justiça recentemente, ocasião em que participei do processo fornecendo assessoria bioética. Este artigo é uma versão modificada do relatório ético apresentado à Justiça.This paper analyzes a court case involving parents' refusal of life support measures for an 8-month-old infant with spinal muscular atrophy type I, a fatal degenerative genetic disease. The parents filed for a court injunction to ensure that the infant would not be submitted to mechanical ventilation in case of respiratory distress. The Brazilian courts recognized the parents' right to refuse life support measures, and the infant died a week after the ruling. The parents' request was to guarantee their right to avoid medical procedures that would not alter the infant's clinical prognosis. The author of this paper was called on to provide expert ethical counsel in this case, and the article is a modified and condensed version of the author's report to the presiding judge.

  18. Refused derived fuels. Technical rules of new law 5 February 1998 concerning its production and utilization; Combustibile derivato dai rifiuti. Le nuove norme tecniche (DM 5 febbraio 98) riguardanti la sua produzione ed utilizzazione

    Maldifassi, C.; Tenti, R. [Consorzio Quadrifoglio, Florence (Italy)


    Characteristics of Refused Derived Fuels, inferred from samples which represent significantly the production of some recent plants, are compared with requisites of the new law dated 5 February 1998 and those mentioned of the previous law of 16 January 1995 and with technical norm UNI 9903 rule. The results is that the 'non conformities' are very numerous, only 4% os samples is in accordance with the low 5 February 1998. Impositions of norms exceedingly strict and onerous as are those of the law 5 February 1998, highly obstructs this form of remake use of wastes, with adverse environment consequences to what the legislator is determined with the framework law in fact of wastes (5 February 1998). [Italian] Le caratteristiche del combustibile derivato dai rifiuti desunte dai campioni provenienti da alcuni impianti recenti, sono confrontate con i requisiti di cui al nuovo DM del 5 febbraio 98 con queli del precedente DM 16 gennaio 95 e con la norma UNI 9903. Le 'non conformita'' sono molto numerose, verso il DM 5 febbraio 98 e' conforme solo il 5% dei campioni. L'imposizione di norme eccessivamente severe ed onerose, come sono quelle del DM 5 febbraio 98, ostacola fortemente questa fora di riutilizzo dei rifiuti, con effetti ambientali contrari a quelli che il legislatore si prefigge con la norma 'quadro' in materia di rifiuti (D.Lgs. 5 febbraio 97, n.22).

  19. 儿童青少年拒绝上学原因问卷的编制及信效度检验%School refusal reason inventory for children and adolescents: development, reliability and validity

    王旭梅; 张莹; 何强; 韩继阳; 夏静; 邵云; 王晓雪; 苏荣坤; 马颂


    目的 编制一个适合我国儿童青少年拒绝上学原因的问卷,并检验其信度和效度.方法 依据临床访谈以及查阅文献资料编制拒绝上学原因问卷初测版.在门诊进行小样本预测验,经定性分析与项目分析结果形成正式版问卷.采用整群抽样的方法,在沈阳市及其周边农村选取7所学校的在校学生完成拒绝上学原因问卷(School Refusal Reason Inventory,SRRI)、儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查表(SCARED)和儿童抑郁量表(CDI).间隔1个月随机选取部分学生进行重测.对所得数据进行描述性统计、探索性因子分析以检验SRRI的信度和效度.结果 项目分析显示所有题项与总分的相关系数均>0.3,且均达到显著性水平;题项的决断值(CR值)均>3.探索性因子分析得到教养方式、教师因素、同学关系、分离焦虑、学习态度和学习环境6个因子,因子负荷值为0.372~0.848.各个因子的内部一致性信度分别为0.827,0.831,0.759,0.623,0.821,0.808,重测信度为0.644(P<0.01),与SCARED的相关系数为0.273~0.434,与CDI的相关系数为0.353~0.497.结论 在我国文化背景下,本研究所编制的拒绝上学原因问卷符合心理测量学的测量指标,具有良好的信度和效度,可以用于了解儿童青少年拒绝上学的原因.%Objective To develop school refusal reason inventory (SRRI)for children and adolescents in China and assess its reliability and validity.Methods The primary SSRI was made based on clinical interviews and literatures.Pretest was carried out in a small sample from a clinic.Then the final SSRI was developed after qualitative analysis and item analysis.SRRI,the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders(SCARED) and Child Depression Inventory(CDI) were administered to school refusers from 7 schools in Shenyang.All the schools were selected from Shenyang City and its countryside by cluster sampling.Some of the students were retested after one month

  20. Simulation design and research of actuating mechanism for refuse-removal vessel%水面垃圾清理船执行机构的仿真设计与研究

    张玉新; 王帅


    The actuating mechanism for refuse-remaval vessel is designed for the decontamination work on lakes,urban rivers and other sites.It introduces in detail the design process of this mechanism,mainly including operating principle, theoretical foundation of simulation design,prototype modeling based on CATIA,determining the key parameters based on ADAMS.Finally,the reasonableness of this actuating mechanism was tested by producing the physical prototypes.%该水面垃圾清理船执行机构是专门为湖泊、城市河道等场所的清污工作设计的.详细介绍了此机构的设计过程,主要包括工作原理,仿真设计理论基础,利用CATIA建立样机模型,利用ADAMS确定各关键参数等.最后生产出实物样机进行了测试,验证了该机构的合理性.

  1. Formation of PCDD/PCDF - Effect of fuel and fly ash composition on the formation of PCDD/PCDF in the co-combustion of refuse-derived and packaging-derived fuels

    Manninen, H. [Neste Oy, Corporate Technology, Porvoo (Finland); Perkioe, A. [Neste Oy, Corporate Technology, Porvoo (Finland); Vartiainen, T. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health]|[Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Envitonmental Sciences; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Envitonmental Sciences


    One option of recycling used contaminated packaging is to recover its high energy content. This can be performed in a normal multifuel power plant by co-combustion of packaging-derived fuel (PDF) or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with fossil fuels, such as coal or peat. This work includes the results of 17 co-combustion tests and an evaluation of the results by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Partial Least Squares Projections to Latent Structures (PLS). PCA and PLS calculations showed that especially Pb, but also Cr, and Cu correlated with lower chlorinated furans (PCDFs) in the fly ash. Correlation between Sn and lower chlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) in the fly ash was also noticed. CO and PAH emission in the flue gas correlated with total PCDD/Fs in the flue gas. In a real full-scale combustion process, a single parameter in fuel, flue gas or a combustion parameter did not provide a guide to PCDD/F formation or to a level of the total PCDD/F emission, but correlations between different parameters and PCDD/Fs could be found. Although PDFs and RDF had catalytic heavy metals and chlorine, the co-combustion results showed that they can be co-combusted with peat and coal in a fluidzed-bed boiler at least up to 26% with very low total PCDD and PCDF emissions. (orig.)

  2. 认知行为治疗联合氟西汀治疗拒绝上学的临床研究%A Research on the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for School Refusal

    刘芳; 吴歆; 朱澜; 施穗琴


    目的:探讨认知行为治疗(cognitive behavioral therapy,CBT)及氟西汀治疗拒绝上学(school refusal,SR)的疗效.方法:选择2005年7月~2007年3月符合SR诊断标准者75例,随机分为CBT组(n=36)、CBT+氟西汀组(n=39),疗程24周,治疗前后采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、临床全面印象量表(CGI-S)和返校率进行评估.结果:CBT组治疗前后SAS、SDS、CGI-S评分比较有统计学差异(P<0.01),返校率72.22%;CBT+氟西汀组治疗前后SAS、SDS、CGI-S评分比较有统计学差异(P<0.01),返校率82.05%.两组间返校率比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:CBT和CBT联合氟西汀均可以有效治疗SR,以联合治疗效果可能最佳.

  3. 生活垃圾填埋场甲烷自然减排的新途径:厌氧与好氧的共氧化作用%A new way of natural mitigation of methane in a refuse landfill: Anaerobic and aerobic co-oxidation

    韩丹; 石峰; 柴晓利; 陈浩泉; 赵由才


    The surface soil at 30 ~60 cm, refuse at 1.5 m depth and the aged refuse at the bottom of the refuse landfill were selected for experiments on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). It was found that SRB existed in nearly all layers of the solid waste landfill, with aged refuse at the bottom containing the most and the surface soil the least SRB. Garbage samples with a 50%: 50% coarse:fine particle size proportion showed the best aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation effect, and anaerobic oxidation accounted for above 20%. Microbial activity in aged refuse and co-oxidation rate of methane reached a maximum value with a 25% moisture content. Anaerobic oxidation rate could reach more than 30% as the moisture content approached 70%. Supplementation of exogenous methane could shorten the time of aerobic oxidation by 50%. However, both aerobic and anaerobic oxidation were weakened if the amount of exogenous methane was beyond 2 mL for the 20 g aged refuse. Therefore, a new way for natural mitigation of methane in a refuse landfill is put forward based on anaerobic and aerobic co-oxidation of methane.%采用暴雨过后垃圾填埋表层30~60 cm的覆土、表层1.5 m以下的垃圾,以及刚刚开挖出来的9年矿化垃圾进行硫酸盐还原菌阳性反应试验,结果表明生活垃圾填埋体不同填埋层都存在不同数量级的硫酸盐还原菌,且底层矿化垃圾中的硫酸盐还原菌的数量最多,表层覆土中最少.颗粒大小比例为50%:50%的垃圾样品表现出最佳的甲烷好氧与厌氧氧化效果,且厌氧氧化在共氧化作用中的比例达到20%以上.含水率为25%时,矿化垃圾中微生物活性最大,好氧与厌氧氧化甲烷速率均达到最大.当含水率接近70%时,甲烷厌氧氧化的贡献率可达30%以上.外源甲烷的补充可以驯化甲烷氧化微生物,其中甲烷好氧氧化时间最大可缩短50%;而初始甲烷一次通人量超过2 mL(20g矿化垃圾)后,甲烷好氧与厌氧氧化

  4. Qualitative research on refusing to give up treatment of family members for ICU end-of-life patients%ICU生命末期患者家属拒绝放弃治疗的质性研究

    刘梦婕; 朱京慈


    目的:了解ICU生命末期患者家属拒绝放弃治疗的原因。方法采用现象学方法,对3家三级甲等医院10名ICU生命末期患者家属进行深入访谈,分析主题。结果通过访谈,共提炼出经济条件、临终场所、死亡认知、家属意见4个主题因素。结论生命末期患者的放弃治疗应尽快合法化和规范化,以减少患者临终前痛苦,为临终关怀在ICU的发展提供理论依据。%Objective To understand the reasons that relatives refused to give up treatment for ICU end-of-life patients. Methods A depth interview was conducted to analyze themes with 10 relatives of end-of-life patients from level three classes A hospitals by using phenomenological method. Results Four themes were abstracted including economic conditions, death place, cognition of death, opinions of family members. Conclusions Giving-up treatment for end-of-life patients in ICU should be legalized and standardized as soon as possible in order to reduce the patients′dying suffering and provide a theoretical basis for the development of hospice care in ICU.


    Iván Hunter Ampuero


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto indagar acerca del contenido y alcance de la potestad contenida en el Art. 18 N°l del Proyecto de Código Procesal Civil, esto es, la posibilidad de que el juez rechace in limine una demanda cuando aparece manifiestamente infundada. El autor se hace cargo de dos problemas: en primer lugar, concretar el presupuesto que hace legítima la utilización del poder, esto es, precisar qué debe entenderse por una demanda que carece de fundamento, o que es lo mismo, cuándo una pretensión está manifiestamente infundada y; en segundo lugar, intentar resolver posibles cuestionamientos que puedan formularse a la legitimidad constitucional de la potestad, en especial, perfilar su compatibilidad (o falta de ella con el derecho a la tutela judicial efectiva y el debido proceso.This paper aims to investigate the content and scope of the legal authority contained in Article 18 Number 1 of the Civil Procedural Code project. This paper deals with the possibility that judges may refuse a complaint in limine when it is unfounded. The author addresses two issues: on the one hand, it defines the necessary elements that allow the use or invocation of this power, that is, to define what is necessary for a complaint to be considered unfounded; on the other hand, it addresses questions pertaining to the constitutional legitimacy of the power, specifically, its compatibility (or lack of with respect to the effective protection of the law and due process.

  6. Thor (Total-house waste recycling). A new technology for recovery of urban wastes in refuse derived fuel (RDF); Thor (Total-house waste recycling). Una tecnologia alternativa per la conversione di rifiuti solidi urbani in combustibile da rifiuto (CDR)

    Plescia, P.; Mauro, E.; Benedetti, S.; Gizi, D. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Trattamento Minerali, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)


    This work presents the new THOR technology (Total-House waste recycling) for the treatment of municipal solid wastes (RSU) and their conversion in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). THOR technology is based on the use of a mechanochemical reactor, which is high speed mill with an elevate milling mass/milled material ratio, applied to the wet and dry organic component of refuse. Transformations induced from mechanochemical reactor on refuse are: an almost complete drying process; a dimensional reduction with a final product with a D80 lower than 30 mm; an homogenizing and elimination of halogens combining themselves in saline form and a transfer of metallic ions. These ions can be binded to specific reagents during treatment in order to remove definitely them from the RDF produced. After treatment the output product is constituted by a dry material with a content of minimum total carbon upper than 65% and a content of total hydrogen equal to 12%, with a calorific power equal or upper than 4600 kcal/kg. Fuel so produced results to be without halogens and it has a sulphur content less than values indicated in the European standards. Ashes resulting from the burning of this product are poor in metals, because they are removed by mechanochemical treatment during the transformation process. Another positive element of this technology is the absence of emissions such as greenhouse gasses, NOX, powders and dioxin in atmosphere. Proofs carried out in lab-scale plant showed the practicability of the technology. The experimental plant realised with this technology will have a productivity of 3-5 ton/hour, and it will be suitable for the RSU treatment of a community of about 30.000-50.000 inhabitants. The system can be turned on or turned off in every moment by this particular technology, so that it becomes useful in all those cases in which wastes production is seasonal, as it happens in tourist areas. Another important feature is the possibility of carrying this plant directly near

  7. Current status of research on school refusal

    Cándido J. Inglés


    Full Text Available El comportamiento de rechazo a la escuela se refiere a la negativa de un niño a asistir al centro educativo y/o la dificultad persistente para permanecer en el aula durante toda la jornada escolar. A partir de la revisión de la literatura científica, es objeto de este trabajo describir el estado actual de la investigación sobre el rechazo escolar, diferenciando los hallazgos y avances alcanzados en España de aquellos conseguidos en el ámbito internacional. Para ello, se revisará la trascendencia de este fenómeno en población infanto-juvenil y los factores de riesgo y variables asociadas. A su vez, se discutirán los métodos de evaluación generalmente utilizados y las propuestas de tratamiento más recomendadas, basadas, principalmente, en la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Los resultados obtenidos revelan diversas lagunas y debates en algunos campos de conocimiento sobre el rechazo escolar, con diferencias en la investigación española respecto a la internacional. A modo de conclusión, se proponen futuras líneas de investigación y desafíos en este campo

  8. Current status of research on school refusal

    Cándido J. Inglés; Carolina Gonzálvez-Maciá; José M. García-Fernández; María Vicent; M. Carmen Martínez-Monteagudo


    El comportamiento de rechazo a la escuela se refiere a la negativa de un niño a asistir al centro educativo y/o la dificultad persistente para permanecer en el aula durante toda la jornada escolar...

  9. Refuse and solar; Tonne und Sonne

    Heup, Juergen


    What motivates an industrial organization to rely on 100 percent renewable energy sources, marketing strategies or idealism? The example of a medium-sized waste management company shows that the decision is made on an economic basis.

  10. An offer you can’t refuse

    Fletcher, Roland


    The general requirements of a valid contract must contain an offer, acceptance, consideration, intention, capacity and if necessary the correct formation, eg, does the contract have to be in writing. The focus of this article will be on offer, acceptance, consideration and an invitation to treat when dealing with contracts concluded during an auction.

  11. Parental refusal: legal and ethical considerations

    the discussion.5-7 A competent individual, having received the necessary information ... assisted by their parent or legal guardian (Form 34, or Form. 35, if the child's parents .... on the death of a parent or on the adoption of a child. Withholding ...

  12. Another Offer They Couldn't Refuse

    Barlow, Dudley


    Everyone knows that plagiarism among high school and college students is so pervasive that combating it has become cottage industry. One solution to this problem is for teachers to purchase or subscribe to plagiarism detection computer programs. Many students and adults seem to have little awareness of or little regard for intellectual property.…

  13. Refuse Operation Fault Analysis of 110kV Lines and Its Disposal Measures%110kV线路拒动故障分析及解决措施

    程钢; 宋汉蓉; 叶涛; 陈曦


    四川省德阳地区110kV电网是以一个220kV变电站为电源中心呈辐射状向各负荷变电站供电的运行方式,通过对220kV变电站110kV出线采用双回线并列运行且分别运行在两段母线上,当110kV单回线路发生故障时线路开关或线路保护拒动的分析,得出了220kV变电站110kV母线将发生电网大面积停电事故的结论,提出了采用改变电网运行方式消除外挂母联和调整保护方案(采用事故发生后以一较短时限先跳开220kV变电站110kV母联开关,再跳双回线路负荷侧开关的保护时限配合原则,保证故障母线与非故障母线隔离)两种解决措施,均可避免发生220kV变电站110kV母线全停的电网大面积停电事故.%110 kV power grid of Deyang area in Sichuan Province is a power supply center of 220 kV transformer substations, whose operation mode is radial power supply to the load transformer substation. This paper deeply analyzes the power grid structure and operation mode when 110 kV single loop line of 220 kV substation aborts. If the fault lines take place line switch or protection refuse operating, it will lead to 110 kV bus of 220 kV substation full cut-off and trigger large area blackout accident. So, it puts forward treatment measures including change the power grid operation mode to remove the cladding bar coupler or adjustment protection plan (when the accident happened, in a short time tripping off 110 kV bar coupler of 220 kV substations, then tripping off switch of double loop line load to ensure the fault bus bar isolation). These two measures can avoid 110 kV bus of 220 kV substations full cut-off and large area blackout accident.

  14. 垃圾衍生燃料富氧燃烧污染物排放特性%Pollutants emission characteristics of refuse derived fuel in oxygen-enriched combustion

    李延吉; 姜璐; 赵宁; 李玉龙; 李润东; 池涌


    Combustion and emission characteristics of refuse derived fuel ( RDF ) were experimental studied in a tubular high temperature furnace. The results showed that; 1 The increase of plastic proportion in RDF and oxygen concentration in combustion air lead the increase of NOX emission; but under the pure oxygen environment of RDF combustion, NOx emission is greatly reduced; 2 SO2 concentration increases with increasing plastic proportion in RDF and oxygen concentration in combustion air,; 3 Oxygen concentration in combustion air does not have significance effect on CO emission when it is less than 80% in oxygen-enriched combustion,. In pure oxygen combustion, increasing the plastic ratio can reduce the CO emissions; CO emissions tended to decrease with increasing oxygen concentration, CO emissions is minimum in pure oxygen condition; 4 The emissions of NOx, SO2 and CO are lower than national standard, which indicated that the RDF combustion with oxygen enrichment is beneficial for the c pollutant emissions reduction.%为了解决城市生活垃圾直接焚烧产生的二次污染问题,将城市生活垃圾制成垃圾衍生燃料(RDF),在高温管式炉内进行富氧燃烧污染物排放特性研究.结果表明:塑料比例增加,燃烧过程中NOx浓度增大;氧浓度增加,NOx浓度增大;但纯氧条件下RDF燃烧,NOx浓度大大降低.塑料比例增加,燃烧过程中SO2浓度增大;氧浓度增加,SO2浓度降低.当氧浓度为80%时,CO浓度相差不大,纯氧时,塑料比例增大,CO浓度减小;氧浓度增大,CO浓度呈减小趋势,纯氧时CO浓度最小.NOx、SO2、CO的浓度均低于国家标准,说明RDF富氧燃烧有利于降低污染物排放浓度.

  15. 凯氏定氮仪在固废全氮测定中的应用研究%Application of Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analyzer in Total Nitrogen Determination of Municipal Domestic Refuse

    李贵芝; 席英伟; 万俐; 何东阳


    固体废物中全氮的测定一般采用半微量开式法( CJ/T 103-1999),此方法存在效率低下、操作困难等问题。对半微量开氏法测定城市生活垃圾中全氮方法进行了研究和改进。一是以数控消解炉替代调温电炉进行样品消解,大大缩短了消解时间;二是以自动凯氏定氮仪替代开氏蒸馏器进行自动蒸馏,方便清洗和样品加入,并和数控消解炉配合使用,提高实验效率。经过实际样品的测定,并与国标测定方法进行对比,证明改进后的测定方法准确可行、实验操作方便,实验效率得到提高,效果良好。%Semi-micro Kjeldahl method is commonly utilized in determination of total nitrogen in solid waste , but there is in-efficiency, operating difficulties and other problems of this method.Therefore, this paper discussed and improved the process by using semi-micro Kjeldahl method to determine total nitrogen in municipal domestic refuse .First, NC digestion oven instead of thermostat electric furnace is used to digest the samples, greatly reducing the digestion time.Secondly, automatic Kjeldahl analy-zer rather than Kelvin distillation automatic distillation is adopted, which simplified the cleaning and sample addition process.The experimental efficiency is improved.After the actual samples determination and comparison with GB determination method , the results show that the improved determination method is accurate, feasible, and easy to operate.

  16. Anaerobic Co-digestion of Refuse Leachate and Kitchen Waste%垃圾渗滤液与厨余垃圾混合厌氧消化研究

    王涛; 张文阳


    This experiment presents anaerobic co-digestion of refuse leachate and kitchen waste in a batch model under mesotherm condition.The values of pH, biogas yield, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and methane concentration in the digestion process were investigated with the organic load of 3 g/L and 30 g/L (accounted by VS).The results indicated that the digestion process with the organic load of 30 g/L was more stabilize than that of 3 g/L, and its cumulative biogas yield was improved.The digestion system of both organic loads can transit to methanogenic stage.The highest methane concentration of the biogas at the reaction end was 77.14% and 74.47%, and the VFA concentration was 300 mg/L and 336 mg/L,respectively.%对垃圾渗滤液与厨余垃圾进行混合厌氧消化研究,采用中温批式厌氧消化工艺,考察3g/L和30g/L有机负荷(以VS计)条件下厌氧消化过程中pH值、产气量、VFA以及甲烷含量的变化,旨在探索有机负荷对厌氧消化产甲烷效果的影响.结果表明,在30g/L负荷下比3g/L负荷反应过程更为稳定,且累计生物气产量有大幅提高.2种负荷下系统均能进入产甲烷阶段,最高甲烷体积分数分别达到77.14%和74.47%,VFA质量浓度在反应结束时分别为300mg/L和336 mg/L.

  17. Description of different techniques and their potentials of development for the reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption; Beschreibung unterschiedlicher Techniken und deren Entwicklungspotentiale zur Minderung von Stickstoffoxiden im Abgas von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen und Ersatzbrennstoff-Kraftwerken hinsichtlich Leistungsfaehigkeit, Kosten und Energieverbrauch

    Beckmann, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)


    On 22nd July, 2002 the European Parliament passes the sixth Environmental Action Programme of the European Community. According to this Programme, the environmental pollution can be reduced to a level at which adverse effects on human health have to be reduced. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration describes various techniques and their development potential for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption. Primary measures (air staging, flue gas recirculation) and secondary measures (SNCR, SCR process, combined procedure) were used as techniques.

  18. Recusa de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciais doadores Negación de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciales donadores Reasons for the family members' refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção de familiares de potenciais doadores sobre os motivos de recusa para doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, na vertente fenomenológica, modalidade "estrutura do fenômeno situado". Participaram do estudo oito familiares que recusaram a doação dos órgãos e tecidos. RESULTADOS: Após análise das entrevistas, foram revelados dez motivos de recusa, considerados pelos familiares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As proposições que emergiram revelaram que os motivos de recusa familiar para doação de órgãos e tecidos estão relacionados à crença, valores e inadequações no processo de doação e transplante.OBJETIVO: Conocer la percepción de familiares de potenciales donadores sobre los motivos de su negación para la donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, en la vertiente fenomenológica, modalidad "estructura del fenómeno situado". Participaron del estudio ocho familiares que se negaron a la donación de órganos y tejidos. RESULTADOS: Después del análisis de las entrevistas se revelaron diez motivos de negación expuestos por los familiares. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que los motivos de la negativa familiar para la donación de órganos y tejidos están relacionados a la creencia, valores e inadecuaciones en el proceso de donación y transplante.OBJECTIVE: To understand the perception of family members of potential donors in regard to their reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to conduct this study. A sample of eight family members who refused to donate organ and tissue for transplant participated in the study. RESULTS: Participants reported ten reasons for refusal to donate organ and tissue for transplant. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Reasons for the family members

  19. The Cause Analysis on 6kV Motor Low Voltage Protection Refusing to Stop Caused by Compensation Condensers%试析补偿电容器引起的6KV电动机低电压保护的拒动



    对在供电系统短时停电的情况下由补偿电容器引起的不允许自起动的6kV电动机低电压保护拒动的原因进行了分析,提出了解决这一问题的方法和建议。%This paper analyses the cause on the low voltage protecition of 6kV motors refusing to stop caused by compensation condensers as the power supply pauses instantaneous, and it puts forword the way of solving the problem.

  20. Decreased radiation doses to tongue with “stick-out” tongue position over neutral tongue position in head and neck cancer patients who refused or could not tolerate an intraoral device (bite-block, tongue blade, or mouthpiece) due to trismus, gag reflex, or discomfort during intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Kil, Whoon Jong; Kulasekere, Christina; Derrwaldt, Ronald; Bugno, Jacob; Hatch, Craig


    Purpose To assess changes in oral cavity (OC) shapes and radiation doses to tongue with different tongue positions during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) but who refused or did not tolerate an intraoral device (IOD), such as bite block, tongue blade, or mouthpiece. Results Tongue volume outside of OC was 7.1 ± 3.8 cm3 (5.4 ± 2.6% of entire OC and 7.8 ± 3.1% of oral tongue) in IMRT-S. Dmean of OC was 34.9 ± 8.0 Gy and ...

  1. Causes Analysis, Treatment and Prevention of Remote Switch Refused Action and Tripping Coil Burnout in 110kV Circuit Breaker%110 kV断路器远控分闸开关拒动跳闸线圈烧毁故障原因分析及处理防范



    Through introducing the refused action in breaking the 110kV 161QF remote switch in Dahua hydropower station as well as theoretically analyzing and investigating the reasons of the refused action and the tripping coil burnout, it is found that there is tripping coil burnout risk in the control circuit due to the design defect of switch op-erating mechanism. To eliminate it, some correction measures are presented and brought into operation after passed through on-site inspection.%通过介绍大化水电厂一起远控分闸110 kV 161QF开关过程中出现分闸失灵、开关拒动故障,综合排查故障原因,对跳闸线圈烧毁原因进行详细分析,并通过理论分析, 最后发现开关操作机构设计上存在的缺陷,因操作机构存在的缺陷导致控制回路存在严重隐患,提出整改防范措施,并通过现场检验后投入运行无问题,排除了跳闸线圈烧毁隐患.

  2. 大学生网络成瘾与拒网自我效能及网络自我效能的关系探讨%The relationship among internet addiction, refusal internet self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy of college students

    侯其锋; 杨锆; 陈岚岚


    By using questionnaire,this study investigated internet addiction,refusal internet self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy in 420 college students from Zhejiang University and Xi'an University of Science and Technology.The purpose of the study is to discuss the relationship among internet addiction,refusal internet self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy and provide a theoretical basis for internet addiction intervention.Chi-square test is used to analyze the difference in internet addiction statement between different refusal internet self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy groups.Correlation test is used to analyze the relationship among internet addiction,refusal internet self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy.Multiple linear regression analysis is used to discuss the main factors that affect internet addiction.After detailed analysis and discussion,the study gets the following conclusions:the proportion of internet addiction and internet addiction intent were 12.3% and 19.1% respectively.There is no difference between the two schools.Internet addiction scale score and refusal internet self-efficacy score show a significant negative correlation,and there is no significant correlation between internet addiction scale score and internet self-efficacy.Besides,student with lower refusing internet self-efficacy score have higher internet addiction ratio than that of student with higher refusal internet self-efficacy score.Internet source of stimulation and habitual response dimension are major factors of internet addiction.The results of this study suggest that enhanced refusal internet self-efficacy can play a positive role in internet addiction prevention and improving students' resistance to negative internet stimulus and good habits are the key to prevent internet addiction.%采用问卷调查方法,对浙江大学和西安电子科技大学的420名大学生网络成瘾状态和拒网自我效能进行了研究,探讨大学生网络成瘾与拒网自

  3. Study on the pyrolysis characteristics of refuse derived fuel from village solid waste%城郊乡村生活垃圾衍生燃料热解特性研究

    陈江; 章旭明


    将城郊乡村生活垃圾加工成粒径6.0 mm左右的垃圾衍生燃料(RDF),采用热重(TG)分析和红外光谱等研究其热解特性.结果表明:(1)在RDF挥发分阶段和生物质挥发分阶段,助燃添加剂处于活泼分解阶段,加入了30%(质量分数)秸秆、玉米芯等生物质作助燃添加剂后的RDF(以下简写为混合RDF)分子碎片正发生内部氢重排,总体挥发分产物较多,并且有明显的二次裂解,失重提高到4.85 mg,失重率约提高12%.在RDF与生物质重叠的碳固定阶段,助燃添加剂失重率有一定提高,热重微分(DTG)峰值速率增加,为RDF碳固定阶段的进一步热解提供了良好的支持.(2)快加热产气速率均大于慢加热.(3)热解终温越高,越有利气体析出.(4)RDF的热解固体产率随着热解终温的升高而降低,在850℃时为31.9%;热解气体产率随着热解终温升高而迅速升高,在850℃时可达49.8%.(5)根据红外光谱图,城郊乡村生活垃圾加工成的RDF中所含的氯元素基本上以HCl形式释放.(6)一级动力学反应可以准确地描述物料热解过程.%The village solid waste was processing into the refuse derived fuel (RDF) granules of diameter 6. 0 mm. The pyrolysis characteristics of RDF were studied with the help of thermal gravity analyzer and Fourier trans form infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the devolatilization period of RDF and biomass.the combustion-supporting a gent was in the rapid decomposition period; adding 30% (mass ratio) of straw in RDF,the obtained compound RDF presented better pyrolysis characteristics than original RDF, the velocity product was greatly increased because of the internal rearrangement of hydrogen in molecular fragments; there was a significant secondary cracking found in com pound RDF,the weightless rised to 4. 85 mg and the weightless rate increased by about 12%. In the overlapping car bon fixation stage of RDF and biomass,the weightless rate of combustion-supporting agent was

  4. A Study on Distribution Patterns of Soil Microorganisms in Refuse Dumps on Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine%黑岱沟煤矿排土场土壤微生物分布特征研究

    常英; 包俊江


    By use of dilution plate counting method,a study has been made on the quantities, distribution patterns and compositions of soil microorganisms in different restored vegetation of refuse dumps on Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine. Results show that; (1) the total quantity of soil microorganisms in the resumed field is lower than that in the original undisturbed soil, and the maximum quantity reaches only 52.9% of that in the o-riginal soil; (2) within the depth of 0 ~30 cm,the total quantity of microorganisms in original soil decreases by order of 10 - 20 cm > 0 - 10 cm > 20 ~ 30 cm, while, with the increase of vertical depth of the resumed field, the total quantity decreases accordingly; (3) among different soil microorganism groups, the numbers of microorganisms all display the order that the number of bacteria > the number of actinomycetes > the number of fungi; (4) in resumed fields with different vegetation, the change pattern of the number of bacteria in the soil is generally similar to that of the total number of microorganisms, namely:that in original soil > in sea -buckthorn + armeniaca ansu + elaeagnus resumed field > in fruit tree resumed field > in torch tree resumed field > in sea - buckthorn resumed field, while the change pattern of the number of actinomycetes and fungi in different depth of different vegetation doesnt show the same trend; (5) the distribution of soil microorganism quantity in different vertical depth is associated with types of plant community.%利用稀释平板法对黑岱沟煤矿排土场不同恢复植被下的土壤微生物群落的数量、组成和分布进行了研究.结果表明:(Ⅰ)各恢复地土壤中微生物总数均低于未破坏土壤(原土),最高仅为原土的52.9%.(2)在0~30 cm范围内,原土微生物总数变化为:10~20 cm>0~10 cm >20 ~30cm,而各恢复地中微生物总数在0~30 cm范围内,随土壤垂直深度的加深而降低.(3)各样地土壤微生物数均

  5. Case report of comorbid schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a paitent who was tube-fed for four years by family members because of his refusal to eat%因拒食而由家庭成员对其鼻饲四年的精神分裂症和强迫症共病患者一例

    Sachdeva A; Chandra M; Saxena A; Beniwal R; Kandpal M; Kumar A


    Summary: Refusal to eat is a common presentation in many psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. In the acute situation it may be a medical emergency; when it becomes chronic it can become an ingrained behavior that is diffcult to change. The diagnosis of individuals who refuse to eat may be difficult, particularly in persons with comorbid medical problems, impaired intelligence, or lack of insight into their condition. Tube-feeding is an effective short-term intervention that can be disconitnued when the paitent re-starts oral intake. However, in some situaitons paitents may become dependent on the use of tube-feeding. We present a case report of a paitent with schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, borderline intelligence, and seizure disorder who was tube-fed by his family members for more than three years because he refused to eat orally.%概述:在许多精神障碍中(包括强迫症和精神分裂症),拒食是常见的表现。当突然出现拒食时,这可能需要急诊处理;一旦变成慢性,它就成为一种难以改变的根深蒂固的行为。对拒食患者的诊断可能有难度,尤其是对有共病问题、智力受损或对自身状况缺乏自知力的患者。鼻饲是一种有效的短期干预方法,当患者重新进食时即可中止这一干预。然而,在某些情况下,患者可能变得依赖于鼻饲。我们介绍一个病例,报告一名患有精神分裂症、强迫症、边缘智力以及癫痫的患者由于拒绝进食而由其家庭成员用鼻饲管喂食超过三年。

  6. 利用生命周期评价方法分析上海市某区生活垃圾处理的温室气体排放%Using Life Cycle Assessment to Analyze Greenhouse Gas Emission from Household Refuse TreatmentCase study of a district in Shanghai

    高斌; 江霜英


    通过生命周期评价(LCA)的方法,对上海市某区生活垃圾处理现状及4个不同可选处理方案的温室气体(GHG)排放量进行了分析。结果表明,当前该区生活垃圾处理系统的GHG排放总量为776.42 t CO2eq.,其中填埋、焚烧和堆肥分别占33%、39%和20%,其他处理单元仅占8%。通过4个可选方案的对比表明,采取垃圾分类收集、资源回收、厌氧消化和堆肥残渣焚烧处置等措施可有效降低该区生活垃圾处理系统的GHG排放,其中综合了上述4类措施的优化方案四的GHG减排量最高,达44%。此外,敏感性分析数据表明,生活垃圾的厌氧消化比例对GHG减排影响比较显著,因此厌氧消化可作为可生化垃圾的优先处理技术。%Life cycle assessment(LCA) is applied to study the current situation and four different alternative scenarios of greenhouse gas(GHG) emission from household refuse treatment in a district of Shanghai.The results show that the present total GHG emission is 776.42 t CO2 eq.,of which landfill,incineration and composting contribute 33%,39% and 20% respectively,and other processes only contribute 8%.Compared with four alternative scenarios,we find that the measures such as separate refuse collection,resources recovery,anaerobic digestion and incineration of composting residues can effectively reduce GHG emission from household waste treatment.Among the programs obtained by optimizing all four scenarios,the fourth one has the highest GHG mitigation up to 44%.In addition,sensitivity analyses show that proportion of anaerobic digestion has a significant effect on GHG mitigation,so it could be considered as the preferential technology in treating biodegradable refuse.

  7. 后装压缩式垃圾车专用装置液压系统反馈控制仿真研究%Simulation Study on Feedback Control of Special Device Hydraulic System for Back-loaded and Compressed Refuse Collector



    应用AMESim对后装压缩式垃圾车专用装置反馈控制系统进行建模与仿真,对比分析了开环、闭环专用装置的运动特性.仿真结果表明:反馈控制系统可明显改善专用装置的运动状况,为提高专用装置的设计水平提供了参考.%Modeling and simulation of feedback control of special device hydraulic system for back-loaded and compressed refuse collector were carried out by AMEsim. Kinematic characteristics for opening loop and closed loop control system were compared and analyzed. The simulation results show that the feedback control system has good kinematic quality. It provides references for advancing the special device design level.

  8. The Problems that the Public Security Department Should Pay Attention to When Dealing with the Case of Refusing to Pay the Remunerations%公安机关办理拒不支付劳动报酬案件应注意的问题



    《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(八)》增设了拒不支付劳动报酬罪,为保护劳动者的合法薪酬权益和打击拒不支付劳动者报酬的行为提供了明确的刑事法律依据。作为新设罪名,公安机关应重点关注其中的新内容。在审查拒不支付劳动报酬案件的立案材料时,应当重点审查是否具有劳动行政部门要求用人单位支付劳动报酬的《劳动保障监察行政处理决定书》或者行政复议机关要求用人单位支付劳动报酬的《行政复议决定书》。对"经政府有关部门责令支付仍不支付"不能仅按字面意思简单理解,而是应当参照劳动保障行政部门或行政复议机关申请人民法院强制执行的条件对其作出认定;应以我国劳动法律法规为基础理解"劳动者"的范围。%The crime of refusing to pay the remunerations is added in Amendment to Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China(Edition 8),which provides definite criminal law basis for protecting the laborer's legal remunerations and striking against the activities of refusing to pay the remunerations.As a new crime,the public security department should pay more attention to its new contents.When examining the case-filing materials of the case of refusing to pay the remunerations,the public security department should focus on examining the Administrative Dealing Decision of Labor Security Supervision,in which the labor administrative department requires the employer to pay the remunerations,and the Administrative Reconsideration Decision,in which the reconsideration department requires the employer to pay the remunerations.The public security department could not understand the meaning of "after the concerned government departments order,but the employer still refused to pay" from words,but according to the executing conditions of the people's court that applied by labor security departments or reconsideration departments.And the

  9. Family considerations about the decision to refuse organ donation Ponderaciones de familiares sobre la decisión de rechazar la donación de órganos Ponderações de familiares sobre a decisão de recusar a doação de órgãos

    Gerlene Grudka Lira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the social representations that guided family decision to refuse organ donation for transplant and to identify the actions of the social environment that influenced this refusal. METHODS: Qualitative study using a descriptive exploratory design. Nine family members were interviewed between February and August 2009, whose family member death had been reported regularly by the Transplantation Center of Pernambuco. The statements underwent content analysis in semantic categories. RESULTS: Three semantic categories emerged which supported this study: The care and management model of health services is critical in refusing the donation; the body is inviolable; and belief in the possibility of returning to life-heart as the source of life and faith strengthening hope. CONCLUSION: The participants' refusal to organ donation has been supported in the context of service provided and hospital care received, as well as cultural and religious values.OBJETIVOS: Comprender las representaciones sociales que orientaron la decisión familiar de rechazar la donación de órganos para transplante e identificar las acciones del entorno social que influenciaron para esta recusación. MÉTODOS: Estudio de naturaleza cualitativa, en el que se utilizó un dibujo descriptivo exploratorio. Fueron entrevistados nueve familiares, entre febrero y agosto del 2009, cuya muerte del pariente había sido notificada regularmente por la Central de Transplantes de Pernambuco. Las declaraciones obtenidas fueron sometidas a análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática. RESULTADOS: Emergieron tres temas que fundamentaron este estudio: el modelo de atención y gestión de los servicios de salud es decisivo en la recusación de la donación; el cuerpo es inviolable y la creencia en la posibilidad de retorno a la vida - corazón como sede de la vida y fe que reforzó la esperanza. CONCLUSIÓN: El rechazo de los participantes a la donación de órganos estuvo

  10. 违约责任还是缔约过失责任——中标通知书发出后一方拒绝签订合同的法律责任%Liabilities for Breach of Contract or Culpa-in Contrahendo——the Legal Liabilities of Refusing to Sign Contract after the Award Notice was Sent



    关于发出中标通知书后,招标人或者中标人一方拒绝签订书面合同应该承担怎样的法律责任,有违约责任和缔约过失责任两种观点.本文通过对和相关规定的分析,论证缔约过失责任观点这一主流观点的逻辑错误,得出中标后拒绝订立合同的一方应当承担违约责任的结论.%There are two viewpoints about the responsibility of tenderee or tenderer who refuse to sign contract with the counterpart after the award notice was sent, one viewpoint supports liabilities for breach of contract, the other stands by culpa-in contrahendo. This paper analyses the article of Contract Law and Law on Bidding, finds the logical mistakes of the viewpoint of culpa-in contrahendo which is the mainstream thinking, the conclusion is that the viewpoint of liabilities for breach of contract is right.

  11. Environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community development project. Feasibility study for industrialization of high efficiency waste-fired power generation system (industrial refuse derived fuel and gas turbine combined type); Kankyo chowagata energy community keisei sokushin. Kokoritsu haikibutsu hatsuden (sangyo RDF GT fukugogata) jigyoka FS chosa



    High efficiency power generation, which is useful for promoting the environment-friendly type energy and coordinated community, is investigated by combining a steam turbine power generation system using the PS-RDF (paper sludge-refuse derived fuel) and a gas turbine (GT) combined cycle. Industrialization plan for processing PS in low cost has been made to ensure the profitability by participating the wholesale power supply under the law of electric power industry. This combined system is similar to the so-called super power generation using municipal garbage, but the lower temperature of steam from GT waste heat boilers (WHB) is super-heated by the flue gas from RDF boiler, which is called advanced power generation system (A.S.S.). The total power generation capacity is 149,000 kW, which consists of three 35,000 kW units of GT and one 44,000 kW unit of steam turbine. When comparing the combined system (A.S.S.) and usual one with the independent installation of the RDF steam power generation system and a GT combined cycle, the A.S.S. provides the repowering efficiency of 7,600 kW output with exactly the same quantity of fuel input as usual one. 71 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Family refusal to donate organs and tissue for transplantation El rechazo familiar al pedido de donación de órganos y tejidos para transplante A recusa familiar para a doaçao de órgãos e tecidos para transplante

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes


    Full Text Available This study aimed to discover how potential eligible donor families perceive the decision-making process to refuse organ and tissue donation for transplantation. A qualitative research was performed in order to understand the families' perception, based on the situated-phenomenon structure. Eight family members were interviewed, with four themes and fourteen subthemes emerging from the analysis of the statements. The propositions that emerged from the study indicated that the essence of the phenomenon was manifested as a shocking or despairing situation, experienced through the hospitalization of the family member; distrust regarding organ donation; denial of brain death; grief and weariness due to the loss of the loved one, family conflicts for making the decision and the multiple causes for refusing donation. Therefore, the knowledge of this phenomenon can provide information to guide professional action involving the families of potential donors.La investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción que tienen los familiares de potenciales donadores sobre el proceso de toma de decisión para rechazar la donación de los órganos y tejidos para transplantes. Para comprender la percepción de los familiares fue utilizada la investigación cualitativa, según la modalidad estructura del fenómeno situado. Fueron entrevistados ocho familiares, de los que después de analizar los discursos, se obtuvieron cuatro temas y catorce subtemas. Las proposiciones que emergieron revelaron que la esencia del fenómeno fue revelada como vivenciar una situación de choque y desesperación con la internación del familiar, de desconfianza con la solicitud de la donación de los órganos, de negación de la muerte encefálica, de sufrimiento y desgaste ante la pérdida del ser querido, de conflictos familiares para la toma de decisión y de múltiples causas para rechazar la donación. Sendo así, el conocimiento de este fenómeno puede ofrecer elementos que

  13. Making vaccine refusal less of a free ride.

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Asch, David A


    Herd immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is a public good because it is both non-excludable (meaning that there is no way to exclude people from using it) and non-rivalrous (meaning that one person's use does not limit or restrict others' use). Like other public goods, such as lighthouses, street lights and national defense, herd immunity is vulnerable to the "free rider" problem. We discuss four conventional responses to the free rider problem (participation mandates, exclusion, incentives, and social norms) and highlight how a public good perspective can inform the design of interventions to increase vaccine acceptance.

  14. Russians refuse cooperation, Lithuanians face dead-end / Milda Seputyte

    Seputyte, Milda


    Leedu uurijad ei leidnud endise majandusministri Viktor Uspaskihhi kõrgharidust tõendava diplomi kohta informatsiooni, kuna Venemaal paikneva Plehhanovi Akadeemia töötajad keeldusid nendega koostööd tegemast

  15. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuels; Foerbraenning av utsorterade avfallsfraktioner

    Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin [AaF-Energi och Miljoe, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Myringer, Aase; Helgesson, Anna [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eskilsson, David; Ekvall, Annika [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry


    The aim of this project was to increase the understanding of opportunities and problems connected with combustion of sorted waste fractions containing paper, wood and plastics (PWP-fuel) in fluidized bed boilers. An evaluation of the effect of sulphur containing additives in a PWP-fuel fired boiler was also performed within the project since this is not previously reported in open literature. The experience from two boilers at different plants, Johannes (BFB) and Hoegdalen P6 (CFB) during the firing season 2003/2004 was documented. In the Johannes boiler the main fuel is bark while Hoegdalen P6 combusts 100 % PWP-fuel. Analysis of the fuels shows that there are large differences between the two boilers. At Johannes the PWP-fuel contained low amounts of elements (chlorine, alkali and other metals) that are expected to result in increased operational problems or emissions. A large proportion of these unwanted elements came from the wood and paper fractions. The plastic fraction in Johannes had very low levels of unwanted elements. The fuel at Hoegdalen contained large amounts of elements such as chlorine, alkali and other metals that can cause operational problems. First of all the plastic fraction contained large amounts of chlorine, most likely from PVC, which results in a more corrosive atmosphere in the boiler. The fraction of fines in the Hoegdalen fuel contained larger concentrations of potassium and sodium compared with the other fuel fractions, substances that also are related to the formation of deposits. The fraction of fines in the fuel probably also results in combustion taking place high up in the boiler and to some extent continuing in the cyclones. The characterisation of the combustion behaviour performed in Johannes identified a maldistribution in O{sub 2}, CO and gas temperature over a cross-section of the furnace. This was not depending on the fuel mixture but is more likely depending on uneven fuel feeding or air distribution. A comparison between the different fuel mixtures shows that addition of PWP-fuel results in locally lower O{sub 2}-levels and higher CO-levels close to the front wall. This results in an increased risk for local corrosion on the furnace walls. The measurements in Johannes showed that co-combustion with PWP increased the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas but an increase in the amount of deposits could not be measured. However, the deposits contained more chlorine during co-combustion of PWP, which should yield increased risk for corrosion. The increase can be correlated with the wood and paper fractions of the fuel. Injection of sulphate in the furnace resulted in increased SO{sub 2} concentration and reduced alkali chloride concentration, which resulted in reduced deposit formation. Addition of sulphate also reduced the chlorine concentration in the deposits thereby reducing the corrosion risk. The sub micron particles in the flue gas before gas cleaning mainly contain KCl and K2SO{sub 4} but with sulphate addition KCl to a large extent is converted to K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Altogether, this shows that this kind of fuel yields an increased risk for corrosion and deposits on superheaters and furnace walls. However, these problems can to a large extent be avoided by the addition of sulphur (concerning superheater corrosion) and adjustment of the air and fuel feed equipment (concerning furnace wall corrosion). Also in the tests in Hoegdalen the SO{sub 2} concentration increased and the alkali chloride concentration decreased in the flue gas when sulphur was added, resulting in decreased deposit formation. At the same time the chlorine concentration decreased and the sulphur concentration increased in the deposits. However, the chlorine concentration of the deposits was still high and did not decrease as much as in Johannes. Using elementary sulphur or sulphate as an additive had no noticeable influence on deposit growth or on the chemical composition of the deposits. Neither did the measurements show that sulphur containing additives decrease the corrosion rate during combust

  16. Conscientious refusal and health professionals: does religion make a difference?

    Weinstock, Daniel


    Freedom of Conscience and Freedom of Religion should be taken to protect two distinct sets of moral considerations. The former protects the ability of the agent to reflect critically upon the moral and political issues that arise in her society generally, and in her professional life more specifically. The latter protects the individual's ability to achieve secure membership in a set of practices and rituals that have as a moral function to inscribe her life in a temporally extended narrative. Once these grounds are distinguished, it becomes more difficult to grant healthcare professionals' claims to religious exemptions on the basis of the latter than it is on the basis of the former. While both sets of considerations generate 'internal reasons' for rights to accommodation, the relevant 'external' reasons present in the case of claims of moral conscience do not possess analogues in the case of claims of religious conscience. However, the argument applies only to 'irreducibly religious' claims, that is to claims that cannot be translated into moral vocabulary. What's more, there may be reasons to grant the claims of religious persons to exemptions that have to do not with the nature of the claims, but with the beneficial effects that the presence of religious persons may have in the context of the healthcare institutions of multi-faith societies.

  17. Making vaccine refusal less of a free ride

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Asch, David A


    Herd immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases is a public good because it is both non-excludable (meaning that there is no way to exclude people from using it) and non-rivalrous (meaning that one person's use does not limit or restrict others' use). Like other public goods, such as lighthouses, street lights and national defense, herd immunity is vulnerable to the “free rider” problem. We discuss four conventional responses to the free rider problem (participation mandates, exclusion, incentives, and social norms) and highlight how a public good perspective can inform the design of interventions to increase vaccine acceptance. PMID:24088616

  18. 21 CFR 314.125 - Refusal to approve an application.


    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications... study that is described in the application and that is essential to show that the drug is safe for use... adequately protected. (17) The applicant or contract research organization that conducted a...

  19. Transoperative refusion: a simple and safe method in emergency surgery

    Luiz Carlos Buarque Gusmão


    Full Text Available The objective is to reinforce the importance of blood reinfusion as a cheap, safe and simple method, which can be used in small hospitals, especially those in which there is no blood bank. Moreover, even with the use of devices that perform the collection and filtration of blood, more recent studies show that the cost-benefit ratio is much better when autologous transfusion is compared with blood transfusions, even when there is injury to hollow viscera and blood contamination. It is known that the allogeneic blood transfusion carries a number of risks to patients, among them are the coagulation disorders mediated by excess enzymes in the conserved blood, and deficiency in clotting factors, mainly the Factor V, the proacelerin. Another factor would be the risk of contamination with still unknown pathogens or that are not investigated during screening for selection of donors, such as the West Nile Fever and Creutzfeldt-Jacob, better known as "Mad Cow" disease. Comparing both methods, we conclude that blood autotransfusion has numerous advantages over heterologous transfusion, even in large hospitals. We are not against blood transfusions, just do not agree that the patient's own blood is discarded without making sure there will be enough blood in stock to get him out of the hemorrhagic shock.

  20. 9 CFR 500.7 - Refusal to grant inspection.


    ... REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT RULES... Federal inspection because an applicant: (1) Does not have a HACCP plan as required by part 417 of...