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Sample records for refuse incineration plant

  1. Electric equipment for Koto Refuse Incineration Plant; Tokyoto Koto seiso kojo muke denki setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Meidensha Corporation, intending to enter into refuse disposal business, delivered electric equipment to a Koto Refuse Incineration Plant, Koto Ward, Tokyo, and the facilities came into operation in October, 1998. The plant is the largest in Japan in terms of refuse processing capacity (1800t/day), and efforts are exerted to harmonize the plant with the surroundings, which involve pollution measures and a building that images a cruising yacht. The power receiving facility consists of a 66kV nominal two-circuit gas insulated switch and gas insulated transformer arranged in a space saving design. Heat from refuse incineration is fed to a steam turbine generator (yielding 50MW, the largest in Japan, with the surplus offered for sale after 15MW fed to loads in the site) and to neighboring facilities. For the suppression of fluctuations in voltage at the power receiving point, reactive power is subjected to control which is done by controlling the generator magnetic field system. An 11kV distribution system is provided to match the steam turbine generator voltage, and the voltage is stepped down to 6.6kV with the intermediary of a 23MVA gas insulated transformer. The power is fed to high voltage motors such as the one used for the induced draft fan, electric equipment in the buildings, power facilities in the plant, etc. A power monitoring board is provided in the central control room for general supervision over the power related facilities. (NEDO)

  2. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. An evaluation of corrosion resistant alloys by field corrosion test in Japanese refuse incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Yuuzou; Nakamura, Masanori; Shibuya, Eiichi; Yukawa, Kenichi

    1995-01-01

    As the first step for development of the corrosion resistant superheater tube materials of 500 C, 100 ata used in high efficient waste-to-energy plants, field corrosion tests of six conventional alloys were carried out at metal temperatures of 450 C and 550 C for 700 and 3,000 hours in four typical Japanese waste incineration plants. The test results indicate that austenitic alloys containing approximately 80 wt% [Cr+Ni] show excellent corrosion resistance. When the corrosive environment is severe, intergranular corrosion of 40∼200 microm depth occurs in stainless steel and high alloyed materials. It is confirmed quantitatively that corrosion behavior is influenced by environmental corrosion factors such as Cl concentration and thickness of deposits on tube surface, metal temperature, and flue gas temperature. The excellent corrosion resistance of high [Cr+Ni+Mo] alloys such as Alloy 625 is explained by the stability of its protective oxide, such that the time dependence of corrosion nearly obeys the parabolic rate law

  4. Analysis of fouling in refuse waste incinerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van M.C.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Wijers, J.G.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gas-side fouling of waste-heat-recovery boilers, caused mainly by the deposition of particulate matter, reduces the heat transfer in the boiler. The fouling as observed on the tube bundles in the boiler of a Dutch refuse waste incinerator varied from thin and powdery for the economizer to thick and

  5. Computer simulation of flow ratios in a washing tower at Duesseldorf-Flingern refuse incineration plant; Computersimulation der Stroemungsverhaeltnisse in einem Waschturm der Muellverbrennungsanlage Duesseldorf-Flingern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juengling, K [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany); Koelle, P [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Numeric investigations of flow ratios have been undertaken in order to optimise the operating performance of the washing towers of a refuse incineration plant during various modes of operation. On the basis of the kowledge gained from flow simulations, proposals have been developed, which have led to a significant prolongation of trouble-free operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Optimierung des Betriebsverhaltens der Waschtuerme einer Muellverbrennungsanlage bei unterschiedlichen Fahrweisen wurden numerische Untersuchungen der Stroemungsverhaeltnisse durchgefuehrt. Aufgrund der Erkenntnisse aus den Stroemungssimulationen wurden Vorschlaege entwickelt, die zu einer deutlichen Verlaengerung des stoerungsfreien Betriebs fuehrten. (orig.)

  6. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  7. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  8. Refuse derived fuel incineration: Fuel gas monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaldi, E.; Coronidi, M.; De Stefanis, P.; Di Palo, C.; Zagaroli, M.

    1993-11-01

    Experience and results on refuse derived fuel (selected from municipal solid wastes) incineration are reported. The study involved the investigation of inorganic compounds (heavy metals, acids and toxic gases) emissions, and included feeding materials and incineration residues characterization and mass balance

  9. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from town refuse, there are wastes from agriculturally based industries especially ... depends on careful control of the 3T's (time, temperature and turbulence). ... These activities cause serious public health risks ... The modifications to the old bottle incinerators were developed by carefully assessing the failure modes.

  10. Reconstruction of the Leudelange refuse incineration plant with integration of existing plant parts; Erneuerung der MVA Leudelange unter Integration vorhandener Anlagenteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechner, Harm-Peter; Jolas, Uwe [EEW Energy from Waste GmbH, Helmstedt (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    SIDOR, a special purpose association for waste management in Luxembourg, manages the waste disposal of around two-thirds of Luxembourg's entire population. E.ON Energy from Waste (EEW) participated in SIDOR's tender process for both constructing as well as operating a new incineration line with an overall capacity of 150,000 t/a, which was accepted by SIDOR in October 2006. The new incineration line with an overall gross heat output of 67 MWth replaced the existing lines after completion. (orig.)

  11. Waste incinerating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-12-01

    This plant is provided with a NKK-Ferunst type reciprocating stage fire lattice which has a good ventilating effect and a proper stirring and loosening effect, achieving a high combustion rate, and has also a gas flow system by which gas can flow in the reverse direction to adjust its flow for seasonal variations in the quality of waste. Also, a room in which the exhaust gas is mixed is provided in this plant as a help for the complete neutralization and combustion of acid gas such as hydrogen chloride and imperfect combustion gas from plastic waste contained in wastes. In this system, waste can accept a sufficient radiant heat from the combustion gas, the furnace wall, and the ceiling; even on the post combustion fire lattice the ashes are given heat enough to complete the post combustion, so that it can be completely reduced to ashes. For these reasons, this type of incinerator is suitable for the combustion of low-calorie wastes such as city wastes. The harmful gases resulting from the combustion of wastes are treated completely by desulfurization equipment which can remove the oxides of sulfur. This type of plant also can dispose of a wide variety of wastes, and is available in several capacities from 30 tons per 8 hr to 1,200 tons per 24 hr.

  12. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  13. [Public health risk caused by emissions from refuse incinerators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, O; Kruse, H

    1995-01-01

    An irresponsible "approval on request" in favour of waste incineration written by a consulting committee of the German Federal Board of Physicians has meanwhile been widely distributed both nationally and internationally. The aim of this politically motivated paper is to dramatically increase the present number of 49 waste incinerators in Germany. It is our duty to warn of this intention. Health problems are known to exist both in workers at waste incinerators and in humans living in their vicinity. Furthermore, in the long run negative impact also to ecosystems should be expected from the emissions. Health problems in patients living downwind of waste incinerators repeatedly have been reported on by physicians. "Lack of statistical significance", often used as counter-argument, is only due to absence of funding of comprehensive epidemiological studies in Germany. Analyses of soil samples reveal the pollution from waste incineration. Considering the pre-load of the region, additional emissions caused by waste incineration and other sources have to be assessed. The application of preventive limit values is imperative. The presently used "limit values", being about 100 times too high, bear an unacceptable risk. Therefore, reliable regional registers of emissions have to be established immediately. Limit values continuously have to be adjusted to the progress of scientific knowledge. In this respect it is imperative to consider that the actual composition of emissions is unknown; isolated risk assessment of single compounds underestimates the total risk; the negative impact, e.g. of dioxins, on both the immune and hormone systems occurs at concentrations 100 times lower than those causing carcinogenic effects; the assumption of "threshold values" is obsolete; a considerable lack of knowledge exists about accumulation in food webs and in ecosystems; the demand of preservation of natural, geogenic situations is indispensable in assessments of soil and water pollution

  14. Description of different techniques and their potentials of development for the reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption; Beschreibung unterschiedlicher Techniken und deren Entwicklungspotentiale zur Minderung von Stickstoffoxiden im Abgas von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen und Ersatzbrennstoff-Kraftwerken hinsichtlich Leistungsfaehigkeit, Kosten und Energieverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    On 22nd July, 2002 the European Parliament passes the sixth Environmental Action Programme of the European Community. According to this Programme, the environmental pollution can be reduced to a level at which adverse effects on human health have to be reduced. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration describes various techniques and their development potential for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption. Primary measures (air staging, flue gas recirculation) and secondary measures (SNCR, SCR process, combined procedure) were used as techniques.

  15. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  16. Contamination of incinerator at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mutsuo

    1994-01-01

    Originally, at Tokai Reprocessing Plant an incinerator was provided in the auxiliary active facility(waste treatment building). This incinerator had treated low level solid wastes generated every facilities in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant since 1974 and stopped the operation in March 1992 because of degeneration. The radioactivity inventory and distribution was evaluated to break up incinerator, auxiliary apparatuses(bag filter, air scrubbing tower, etc.), connecting pipes and off-gas ducts. This report deals with the results of contamination survey of incinerator and auxiliary apparatuses. (author)

  17. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  18. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  19. Incineration plant for thermal destruction of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Lisbonne, P.

    1988-01-01

    Incineration was selected to destroy organic liquids contaminated by radioelements. This treatment offers the advantage of reducing the volume of wastes considerably. Therefore an incineration plant has been built within the nuclear research center of Cadarache. After an experimental work with inactive organic liquids from June 1980 to March 1981, the incineration plant was approved by safety authorities for the incineration of contaminated organic liquids. The capacity ranges from 20l/hr to 50l/hr. On the basis of 6 years of operation and a volume of 200 m3 the incineration plant has shown reliable operating conditions in the destruction of various contaminated organic liquids

  20. Alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate: Full-scale experimental findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjer, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    in waste cause relatively high super heater corrosion rates. The Cl-content in waste is one of the key-factors for volatilisation of alkali and heavy metals in WtE plants. Little is known about the release of Cl, Na, K, Zn, Pb, and S along grate of waste incineration plants. The 26 t h(-1) WtE plant......Waste to energy (WtE) plants are utilised for the production of heat and electricity. However, due to corrosion at super heater surfaces a relatively low 25% of the waste lower heating value can with the present technology be converted to electricity. High contents of Cl, Na, K, Zn, Pb and S...... of the grate near port 3 with a high temperature, that contains relatively low amounts of corrosive elements, and lead to a separate high temperature super heater and thus increase the electrical efficiency....

  1. Incineration of dry burnable waste from reprocessing plants with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Gomoll, H.; Lins, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Juelich incineration process is a two stage controlled air incineration process which has been developed for efficient volume reduction of dry burnable waste of various kinds arising at nuclear facilities. It has also been applied to non nuclear industrial and hospital waste incineration and has recently been selected for the new German Fuel Reprocessing Plant under construction in Wackersdorf, Bavaria, in a modified design

  2. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  3. The Savannah River Plant Consolidated Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A full scale incinerator is proposed for construction at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) beginning in August 1989 for detoxifiction and volume reduction of liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous waste. Wastes to be burned include drummed liquids, sludges and solids, liquid process wastes, and low-level boxed job control waste. The facility will consist of a rotary kiln primary combustion chamber followed by a tangentially fired cylindrical secondary combustion chamber (SCC) and be designed to process up to 12 tons per day of solid and liquid waste. Solid waste packaged in combustible containers will be fed to the rotary kiln incinerator using a ram feed system and liquid wastes will be introduced to the rotary kiln through a burner nozzle. Liquid waste will also be fed through a high intensity vortex burner in the SCC. Combustion gases will exit the SCC and be cooled to saturation in a spray quench. Particulate and acid gas are removed in a free jet scrubber. The off-gas will then pass through a cyclone separator, mist eliminator, reheater high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and induced draft blowers before release to the atmosphere. Incinerator ash and scrubber blowdown will be immobilized in a cement matrix and disposed of in an onsite RCRA permitted facility. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) will provide detoxification and volume reduction for up to 560,000 CUFT/yr of solid waste and up to 35,700 CUFT/yr of liquid waste. Up to 50,500 CUFT/yr of cement stabilized ash and blowdown will beproduced for an average overall volume reduction fator of 22:1. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Namiecińska, Olga; Czerwińska, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140), stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers) or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  5. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140, stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  6. Experimental investigation in separating the heavy metal elements of refuse incineration fly ashes by using molten iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China)]|[CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Liu, Q.; Dong, L. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Du, Y. [CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main waste treatment methods in the world for municipal solid waste (MSW) is incineration. It is effective in toxic substance destruction, waste volume reduction, and energy recovery. Some chemical substances are accumulated during incineration, most notably lead, zinc, chromium and cadmium, as well as other heavy metals. Untreated fly ash disposed in landfills can pollute the soil, surface water and groundwater because of the high levels of hazardous heavy metals and high salt concentration that can be leached out. This paper presented an experiment that melt-separated the heavy metal elements from fly ash generated during refuse incineration. Molted iron, was used as resolvent to dissolve the heavy metal elements in it. The paper described the materials and methods as well as the results of the study. It was concluded that using molted iron to separate the heavy metal elements from MSW incineration fly ash was feasible. The removal ratio of the main heavy metal elements was above 80 per cent, and some of it was above 99 per cent. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Environmental study for optimal sites selection for incineration plant of refuse derived fuel in Lucca Province, Tuscany (Italy); Metodologie e tecniche di analisi ambientale per l`ubicazione `sostenibile` di impianti di smaltimento rifiuti: l`esperienza della Provincia di Lucca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E; Cautilli, F; Polizzano, C; Andriola, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-04-01

    The present report describes the methodology and the main results of an environmental study aimed at the selection of the optimal sites for incineration plant of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and the associated waste disposal landfill, in a defined territory. The study was commissioned by a local administrative Authority (Province of Lucca, northern Tuscany, Italy), and was carried out according to the indications of the `EEC Political Program of Action in favour of the environment and of a sustainable development`. In essence, the methodology takes into account both the major and extant descriptive elements of the environment under scrutiny, and the project main elements of the proposed plant. Additionally, considerations were included regarding the location of all the segments of the entire disposal plant, particularly the disposal landfill which is usually responsible for the greatest environmental impact. Finally, the results were compared with the limits indicated by the present regulations. Similar methods, were previously applied to different territories, and are still in progress. In order to estimate the fate of the air bone discharges from the incinerator into the selected potential area, a meteorological and diffusive study was undertaken to calculate the average annual levels by depositions on ground through dry and wet mechanisms. By comparison with the regulatory limits imposed to the stack emissions by the EEC Directives, the calculated ground level depositions were considerably lower. By taking into account a number of environmental features (such as the subjection of water-bearing layers, low risk of modification of ecological processes, low impact on the agricultural activities), of logistic reasons (large average extension to allow the location of all plants), and socio-economic elements (presence of large industrial plants, lower density of housing distribution), 14 sub-areas were identified and selected, mainly concentrated in the central

  8. Incineration plant for low active waste at Inshass, LAWI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, W.; Thoene, L.; Schmitz, H.J.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1993-10-01

    The LAWI (Low Active Waste Incinerator) prototype incinerating plant was devised and constructed according to the principle of the Juelich thermoprocess and installed at the Egyptian research centre Inshass. In parallel, AEA Cairo devised and constructed their own operations building for this plant with all the features, infrastructural installations and rooms required for operating the plant and handling and treating low-level radioactive wastes. The dimensions of this incinerator were selected so as to be sufficient for the disposal of solid, weakly radioactive combustible wastes from the Inshass Research Centre and the environment (e.g. Cairo hospitals). (orig./DG) [de

  9. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  10. Control system for high-temperature slagging incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuji

    1986-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated in the nuclear generating plants are increasing year by year and to dispose them safely constitutes a big problem for the society. A few years ago, as the means of reducing them to as little volume as possible by incinerating and fusing the wastes, a high-temperature slagging incinerating method was developed, and this method is highly assessed. JGC Corp. has introduced that system technology and in order to prove the capacity of disposal and salubrity of the plant, and have constructed a full-sized pilot plant, then obtained the operational record and performance as they had planned. This report introduces the general processing of the wastes from their incineration and fusion as well as process control technology characteristic to high-temperature slagging incinerator furnaces and sensor technology. (author)

  11. Process for producing a fuel suitable for degassing from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzberger, J

    1975-11-20

    Utilization of the heat energy of refuse in waste incineration plants is time-consuming and expensive due to high investment and operation costs. The inventor recommends to process the refuse to a sterile, handy and storable fuel. For this propose the refuse should be crushed, kneaded and pressed. The briquettes produced in this way should be dried.

  12. Operating experience and data on revolving type fluidized bed incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, J.

    1990-01-01

    In refuse incinerators operating by revolving fluidization (Revolving Type Fluidized Bed Incinerator) a broad range of wastes, from low caloric refuse of high moisture content to high caloric value material including a wide variety of plastics, can be incinerated at high efficiency because the unit is outstanding in terms of distribution of waste in the incinerator bed and uniformity of heat. In addition, its vigorous revolving fluidization action is very effective in pulverizing refuse, so even relatively strict emission standards can be met without fine pre-shredding. Residues are discharged in a clean, dry form free of putrescible material. Data on practical operation of the revolving fluidized bed incinerator are presented in this paper

  13. Improvement of incineration efficiency of spent ion exchange resins on the incinerator at nuclear power plants. Manufacturing the solids of the resins mixed with paraffin wax and their incinerating test results on actual incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Takashi; Inagawa, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Takashi; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Ino, Takao; Ishiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, ion exchange resins are used at water purification systems such as condensate demineralizers. After usage, used ion exchange resins are stored at plants as low level radioactive wastes. Ion exchange resins contain water and so, those are flame resistant materials. At present, ion exchange resins are incinerated with other inflammable materials at incinerators. Furthermore, ion exchange resins are fine particle beads and are easy to be scattered in all directions, so operators must pay attentions for treatment. Then, we have developed the new solidification system of ion exchange resins with paraffin wax. Ion exchange resins are mixed and extruded with paraffin wax and these solids are enabled to incinerate at existing incinerators. In order to demonstrate this new method, we made the large amount of solids and incinerated them at actual incinerator. From these results, we have estimated to be able to incinerate the solids only at actual incinerator. (author)

  14. Chernobyl: the plant that refuses to die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, Chris.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the cracking of the Sarcophagus enclosing Reactor 4 and recent observations of increased radiation inside, no decision on the future of the Chernobyl plant has been made. There is pressure from the G7 countries to close it down, but reluctance in Ukraine for a variety of reasons. Closure of the remaining functioning reactors at the plant would require new capacity to be substituted in order to meet the Ukraine's power demand and support its already ailing economy. Controversially, the Ukraine would like the new capacity to come from the completion of two VVER plants at Rovno and Khmelnitsky but it would embarrass the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development to be seen to be financing the replacement of Chernobyl by more nuclear reactors. Opposition to plant closure also comes from those concerned for the future of the town of Slavutich which houses the Chernobyl workforce of 6,000 and their families. The fear is that closure would mean a sudden slide into poverty for the 24,000 inhabitants. Moreover, should the workforce disappear, who would look after the Sarcophagus? It is the future of the Sarcophagus which should be the priority of all parties to the debate. Opinions differ on the consequences of the collapse of the present structure but they could constitute another disaster. (UK)

  15. Emissions from waste combustion. An application of statistical experimental design in a laboratory-scale boiler and an investigation from large-scale incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojing, Zhang

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is a study of the emissions from the combustion of household refuse. The experiments were both on a laboratory-scale boiler and on full-scale incineration plants. In the laboratory, an artificial household refuse with known composition was fed into a pilot boiler with a stationary grate. Combustion was under non-optimum conditions. Direct sampling with a Tenax adsorbent was used to measure a range of VOCs. Measurements were also made of incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously by a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The full-scale tests were on seven Swedish incineration plants. The data were used to evaluate the emissions from large-scale incineration plants with various type of fuels and incinerators, and were also compared with the laboratory results. The response surface model developed from the laboratory experiments was also validated. This thesis also includes studies on the gasification of household refuse pellets, estimations of particulate and soot emissions, and a thermodynamic analysis of PAHs from combustion flue gas. For pellet gasification, experiments were performed on single, well characterised refuse pellets under carefully controlled conditions. The aim was to see if the effects of pellets were different from those of untreated household refuse. The results from both laboratory and full-scale tests showed that the main contributions to emissions from household refuse are plastics and moisture. 142 refs, 82 figs, 51 tabs

  16. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  18. Selection of criterions of fuels incineration on heat power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnov, V.P.; Minchenko, E.M.; Zelenukho, E.V.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel and energy complex takes first place in industry field of cities and defines in many respects environmental situation of cities. The products of combustion of fuel bring the greatest contribution in environmental contamination. This factor is ignored during calculation of technical and economics indexes. Ecological impact of heat power plants on the environment is determined separately from assessment of ecological damage. Determination of optimal conditions of functioning of heat power plants incineration with respect to technical, economics and ecological indexes with use of multicriterion mathematics model is proposed. (authors)

  19. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  20. Development of low level radioactive waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharum bin Ramli; Azmir bin Hanafiah

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory scale liquid waste incineration plant has been constructed. Preliminary tests were conducted by burning kerosene as the waste. The temperature reached 1200 deg.C. The exhaust gas was analysed for CO and CO sub 2 content. The hydrocarbon content was not measured without the proper analyser. Thus, parameters such as the optimum air:kerosene ratio and the maximum kerosene injection rate could not be determined. Complete tests will be carried out with the newly received hydrocarbon, NO sub x, CO, CO sub 2 and O sub 2 gas analyser

  1. Characterization of deposits and their influence on corrosion in waste incineration plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    A program has been initiated in Denmark to investigate the aggressive environment in various waste incineration plants. The results described are the preliminary results from one waste incineration plant. Deposits and corrosion products have been removed from various locations in the boiler...

  2. New alloys for high temperature applications in incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinz, H.P.; Koeck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The hot components of incineration plants exposed to temperatures between 800 and 1,200 C like boilers, grates, thermocouple sheaths and nozzles suffer from severe joint slag and hot gas attack. Considering corrosion resistance only, ceramic materials show excellent performance under these conditions. But because of the ceramics' brittleness metallic materials exhibit an overall advantage although being corroded faster. Within the class of suitable metals PM-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened)-superalloys based on iron or nickel and PM-Cr-base-alloys are among the most promising ones. This can be derived from various laboratory and field tests which were performed up to now. Laboratory oxidation tests indicate that these new alloys can be used at temperatures up to 1,300 C in hot air. High temperature erosion tests with quartz particles show that PM 2,000 (Fe 19,5Cr5,5Al0,5Ti0,5Y 2 O 3 ) and Ducropur (99.7% Cr) have almost the same resistance against particle impact as alumina or zirconia at 900 C. The corresponding laboratory and field tests under typical joint slag and hot gas conditions at temperatures up to 1,200 C show good results for PM 2,000 and already lead to the actual application of boiler components. Extensive testing has been performed in the field of municipal waste incineration. Depending on temperature, slag and hot gas composition selected grades of the PM-ODS and Cr-base-alloy-group give satisfactory results in the field tests. In the pulp industry black liquor, an alkaline solution with high concentrations of organic waste, is incinerated for the recovery of caustic soda. Flame sprayed coatings of Ducrolloy Cr50Ni give a sixfold increase of the lifetime of the burner nozzles compared to unprotected stainless steel

  3. UTYLIZATION METHODS OF SLAGS AND ASH FROM WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mikuła

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modern management methods, solidification and immobilization of ash and slag from waste incineration plants. The innovative technologies for solving this kind of problem were described. Results focused on the most promising technologies of solidification, among others geopolymerization processes. The paper presents examples of the results of solidified ash and slag in the geopolymer matrix. The studies showed that the leachable of heavy metals from the geopolymer matrix containing ashes from the incineration of municipal waste qualifies them for storage in landfills for non-hazardous and inert. Moreover, these studies demonstrated practically 100% effectiveness for immobilization of the elements: bar (Ba, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb. In the case of chromium III (Cr+3 97% level of effectiveness of the immobilization was achieved. In order to immobilize chromium VI (Cr+6 introduced additions of sulfur compounds. The study confirmed the low efficiency of the immobilization of: arsenic (As, selenium (Se and molybdenum (Mo.

  4. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  5. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density situation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Pilot incineration plant for solid, combustible, and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioni, W.M.

    Radioactively contaminated wastes are formed in the handling of radioactive materials at the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (FIRR) and in other facilities, hospitals, sanitoria, industry, and nuclear power plants. A large part of the wastes are combustible and only very slightly radioactive. Incineration of these wastes is obvious. A pilot incineration plant, henceforth called the PIP, for radioactive combustible wastes of the FIRR is surveyed. The plant and its individual components are described. The production costs of the plant and experience gained in operation available at present are reviewed. Solid combustible radioactive waste can be incinerated in the PIP. The maximum possible reduction in volume of these wastes is achieved by incineration. Subsequently the chemically sterile ashes can be consolidated in a stable block suitable for long-term storage mixing with cement

  7. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  8. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YuTing; Ma, XiaoQian; Lai, ZhiYi; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The entire life cycle of a municipal solid waste (MSW) oxy-fuel incineration power plant was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impacts. The functional unit was 1000 kg (1 t) MSW. During the life cycle, the saving standard coal by electricity generation was more than diesel consumption, and the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The total weighted resource consumption and total weighted environment potential of MSW oxy-fuel incineration were −0.37 mPR 90 (milli person equivalent) and −0.27 PET 2010 (person equivalent), better than MSW incineration with CO 2 capture via monoethanolamine (MEA) absorption. The sensitivity analysis showed that the electric power consumption of air separation unit (ASU) was the primary influencing parameter, and the influence of electric power consumption of CO 2 compressor was secondary, while transport distance had small influence. Overall, MSW oxy-fuel incineration technology has certain development potential with the increment of MSW power supply efficiency and development of ASU in the future. - Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant is novel. • The MSW oxy-fuel incineration was better than the MSW incineration with MEA. • Among calculated impacts, the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest. • The electric power consumption of ASU was the primary influencing parameter

  9. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal.

  10. Development of uranium reduction system for incineration residue generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampei, T.; Sato, T.; Suzuki, N.; Kai, H.; Hirata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The major portion of combustible solid wastes generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan is incinerated and stored in a warehouse. The uranium content in the incineration residue is higher compared with other categories of wastes, although only a small amount of incineration residue is generated. Hence, in the future uranium should be removed from incineration residues before they are reduced to a level appropriate for the final disposal. A system for processing the incineration residue for uranium removal has been developed and tested based on the information obtained through laboratory experiments and engineering scale tests

  11. Recent research in incinerator radioactive smoke filtration and improvements in a TRU waste incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpernier, S.; de Tassigny, C.; Hashimoto, Y.; Inove, A.

    1989-01-01

    In the area concerned, when incineration is carried out, it is always accompanied by the production of combustion gases which entrain fly ash, which is generally hazardous and/or a carrier of radioactivity, and which must be collected before the gasses are releases to the atmosphere. The fly ash concerned consists of secondary solid effluents which, with the consumable filters designed to stop them, tend to lower and quality of the waste volume and weight reduction factors, sometimes significantly. Hence it is an excellent idea to burn the organic part of the fly ash and also to stop thoroughly the inorganic parts by prefilters and final filters, carefully designed and selected for their performance and their longest possible service life, in order to minimize the process waste built up with time. This paper discusses the testing of ceramic and fiber candles for their refractive qualities, thermal shock behavior, commercial cost and efficiency for a given grain size distribution

  12. St. Louis demonstration final report: refuse processing plant equipment, facilities, and environmental evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscus, D.E.; Gorman, P.G.; Schrag, M.P.; Shannon, L.J.

    1977-09-01

    The results are presented of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and the power plants. Data on plant material flows and operating parameters, plant operating costs, characteristics of plant material flows, and emissions from various processing operations were obtained during a testing program encompassing 53 calendar weeks. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is the major product (80.6% by weight) of the refuse processing plant, the other being ferrous metal scrap, a marketable by-product. Average operating costs for the entire evaluation period were $8.26/Mg ($7.49/ton). The average overall processing rate for the period was 168 Mg/8-h day (185.5 tons/8-h day) at 31.0 Mg/h (34.2 tons/h). Future plants using an air classification system of the type used at the St. Louis demonstration plant will need an emissions control device for particulates from the large de-entrainment cyclone. Also in the air exhaust from the cyclone were total counts of bacteria and viruses several times higher than those of suburban ambient air. No water effluent or noise exposure problems were encountered, although landfill leachate mixed with ground water could result in contamination, given low dilution rates.

  13. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  14. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  15. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  16. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  17. Health physics aspects of incineration of low level radioactive solvent at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the lecture notes and illustrations used in a presentation at the 1987 Health Physics Society Annual Meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah. Included is a description of the radioactive waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, and of the current use of this facility in incinerating thousands of gallons of radioactive waste. 12 figs

  18. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator: Operational results and technical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irujo, M.J.; Bucci, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Volume reduction of solid and liquid low-level waste has been demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in the Waste Management Beta-Gamma Incinerator facility (BGI). The BGI uses a two-stage, controlled-air incinerator capable of processing 180 kg/hr (400 lbs/hr) of solid waste or 150 liters/hr (40 gal/hr) of liquid waste. These wastes are pyrolyzed in a substoichiometric air environment at 900 to 1100 degrees Celsius in the primary chamber. Products of partial combustion from the primary chamber are oxidized at 950 to 1150 degrees Celsius in the secondary chamber. A spray dryer, baghouse,and HEPA filter unit cool and filter the incinerator offgases. 2 refs., 9 tabs

  19. Waste incineration on its way to the power plants; Muellverbrennung auf dem Weg zum Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Neukirchen, B. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Looking at the year 2005 and the end of disposal of untreated domestic waste the politic hopes that the prognosticated lack of waste treatment capacity is remedied by coal-fired power plants. The classical municipal waste incinerators by contrast want to get recognition as energetic recycler in comparison with power stations. The decision of the European Court of Justice concerning recycling and disposal of domestic waste by incineration has started the discussion and competition on fuel-rich commercial waste. Are municipal waste incineration plants power stations or must power plants be regarded as incinerators? These questions are still open. (orig.) [German] Mit Blick auf das Jahr 2005 und das Ende der Ablagerung von unbehandeltem Siedlungsabfall hofft die Politik, dass der prognostizierte Mangel an Vorbehandlungskapazitaeten von den Kohlekraftwerken behoben wird. Die klassischen Muellverbrennungsanlagen wollen dagegen mit dem Kraftwerksvergleich die Anerkennung als energetische Verwerter erreichen. Das EuGH-Urteil zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Siedlungsabfall durch Verbrennen hat in diesem Jahr die Diskussion und den Kampf um den heizwertreichen Gewerbeabfall angeheizt. Die Frage, wie weit in Zukunft die Muellverbrennungsanlagen als Kraftwerke, aber auch die Kraftwerke als Muellverbrennungsanlagen angesehen werden muessen, ist noch offen. (orig.)

  20. Incineration plant for radioactive waste at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Hempelmann, W.; Krause, H.

    1977-02-01

    In 1971 a large incineration plant started operation in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. This plant is serving for routine incineration of up to 100 kg of combustible radioactive solids or 40 l of contaminated organic liquids and oils per hour. A dry off-gas cleaning system has been developed for this installation in which the flue gases are cleaned by ceramic filter candles. After passing the filtering system and cooling the off-gas is discharged directly through a stack. The activity concentration in the off-gas is measured by a continuous monitoring system. The ashes arising from the incineration are mixed with cement grout and filled into 200 ldrums. By this way approximately one drum of fixed ashes results from 100 drums of combustible wastes. During the first four years of operation, more than 4,000 m 3 of combustible solids and about 60 m 3 organic solvents have been incinerated in the plant. The operating experiences are presented. (orig.) [de

  1. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes

  2. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  3. FY 1997 report on the study on development of corrosion-resistant ceramics for refuse incinerators; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (gomi shokyakuroyo taishoku ceramics zairyo no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes development of structural materials for municipal refuse incinerators, in particular, high- temperature corrosion-resistant ceramics for inner walls. Unlike boiler tubes of which inner walls are cooled by water or water vapor, refractory for inner walls is subjected to high-temperature flame over 1000degC, corrosive gases such as HCl and SO2. and low-melting point corrosive dust such as chloride, sulfate and oxide under strong corrosive environment. Experiment was made on 14 kinds of ceramics including commercially available oxide system, non-oxide system and refractory system ceramics. Except graphite system ones, every ceramics, in particular, Al2O3, ZrO2, B4C-doped SiC and CVD-SiO showed superior properties. Commercially available ceramics, in particular, non-oxide system ones are very expensive. Since inner wall materials for refuse incinerators are heat-/corrosion-resistant consumption articles, it is suggested that improvement of reasonable oxide system ceramics or conventional SiC system ones is better. 73 refs., 89 figs., 39 tabs.

  4. Characteristics and application potential of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes from two waste-to-energy plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash characteristics, its heterogeneity, environmental properties, and their stability in time. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ashes from two plants were determined over time; results show that their

  5. Predicting the emission from an incineration plant - a modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohyiza Baan

    2004-01-01

    The emissions from combustion process of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) have become an important issue in incineration technology. Resulting from unstable combustion conditions, the formation of undesirable compounds such as CO, SO 2 , NO x , PM 10 and dioxin become the source of pollution concentration in the atmosphere. The impact of emissions on criteria air pollutant concentrations could be obtained directly using ambient air monitoring equipment or predicted using dispersion modelling. Literature shows that the complicated atmospheric processes that occur in nature can be described using mathematical models. This paper will highlight the air dispersion model as a tool to relate and simulate the release and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere. The technique is based on a programming approach to develop the air dispersion ground level concentration model with the use of Gaussian and Pasquil equation. This model is useful to study the consequences of various sources of air pollutant and estimating the amount of pollutants released into the air from existing emission sources. From this model, it was found that the difference in percentage of data between actual conditions and the model's prediction is about 5%. (Author)

  6. In situ corrosion testing of various nickel alloys at Måbjerg waste incineration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hansson, A. N.; Jensen, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    overlay material currently being used to give improved corrosion resistance. In order to assess the use of alternative nickel alloys, test panels have been manufactured and inserted into Måbjerg waste incineration plant. Inconel 625 as a 50% weld overlay, two layered weld overlay and as a spiral weld......The majority of waste in Denmark is disposed via waste to energy (WTE) incineration plants which are fabricated from carbon steel. However, due to the increasing corrosiveness of waste over the years, more corrosion resistant alloys are required. In Denmark, Inconel 625 (UNSN06625) is the weld...... overlay was exposed. Other nickel materials exposed were weld overlay Alloy 686, Alloy 50 and Sumitomo Super 625 coextruded tube. Exposure has been undertaken from 2003 to 2009 in the first pass and 2005–2009 in the second pass, and sections have been removed and investigated during this period...

  7. Evaluation and monitoring of an household waste incineration plant in Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, A.; Le Moullec, Y.; Gilibert, E.

    1995-01-01

    Urban population is more and more concerned by air quality and waste disposal. In Paris Area, municipal waste are incinerated in three large plants all equipped with gas cleaning systems, except one that will be equipped in June 1995. It appeared interesting to characterize and evaluate the impact of this incinerator on ambient air quality in an area where other sources interfere. An sampling campaign was set up on six sites of AIRPARIF (ile de France Air Quality Monitoring Network). Nitrogen oxides. Sulphur dioxide and black smokes are measured in continuously. Other pollutants, considered more specific of waste incineration plants were analysed on a 24 h-sampling basis (heavy metals, hydrochloride acid, Chlorides). The first results seem to show some trends. Regarding usual pollutants, it appears downwind sites present higher average level that upwind sites. For hydrochloric acid, 24 h. averages are higher when the site was frequently downwind during the day. The size of the data set is small for heavy metals, however it seems that an impact can be detected for Cd and Zn. (author)

  8. Field Investigation of Various Weld Overlays in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, O. H.

    2005-01-01

    A test waterwall was fabricated so that alternatives to alloy 625 could be exposed in the first pass of the waste incineration plant Haderslev. The difference between application method was also a parameter, such that manual welding, machine welding and arc spraycoating of alloy 625 were compared...... which was present in every test panel. It was observed that all the weld overlay test sections behaved similar to machined alloy 625 in that there was general corrosion and pitting corrosion. In addition, alloy 622 also exhibited preferential corrosion with respect to its dendrite structure........ In addition to the test waterwall exposure, the chemical environment from the waste incineration was also monitored by analyzing deposits and corrosion products from various locations in the boiler. These were analyzed with respect to morphology and composition using electron microscopy with EDS analysis...

  9. Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.R.M.

    1983-01-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxiliary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10,000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts to 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveyed by doserate and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (author)

  10. Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.

    1982-05-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput ammounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (Author) [de

  11. Thermal treatment of high-caloric waste in fluidized bed incineration plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragossnig, A.M.

    2001-05-01

    The importance of thermal treatment of waste and residues in Austria is expected to rise due to the current changes of the legal situation in waste management. Assessing the rank order of different thermal treatment processes for waste management it has been shown that - especially caused by the rising importance of the mechanical treatment step in the mechanical-biological residual waste treatment and the subsequent necessity of the thermal treatment of a high-caloric preprocessed waste stream - the importance of the fluidized bed technology will increase. The main advantages are the high existing capacities as well as the flexibility of this technology in regard of fuel properties and further on the fact of the lacking influence of the ash towards the quality of a product. This is true although the thermal treatment in fluidized bed incinerators requires some processing of the waste. This doctoral thesis also contains a thorough physical and chemical characterization of various waste fuels - especially those which have been used during full scale incineration experiments. This characterization includes a comparison with fossil fuel. The practical part contains the documentation and balancing of full scale incineration experiments. A comparison of a reference experiment with experiments when waste fuel has been thermally utilized showed that a significant increase of emissions to the atmosphere has not been observed. Based on the incineration experiments conclusions in regard of waste fuels as well as different categories of thermal treatment plants are being stated. Finally, a recommendation of the assignation of various waste streams to different categories of thermal treatment plants is being made. (author)

  12. Conditioning of ashes from incineration plant in special furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report we describe the development of a melting process for radioactive ashes. After a literature survey about the state of the art and investigated ash compositions the in-can-melting was elected for further work. Based on literature data lab experiments with inactive simulates were performed to investigate different additives (net work formers and transformers) for melting point reduction. Na-Tetraborate was most effective. An addition of 50% by weight (concerning ash weight) was sufficient to melt all simulates at 1000 0 C. The products showed similar low leach rates like vitrified HAW. With two different melting furnaces (Naber, LINN) full scale experiments were performed. The results were not quite sufficient because of uncomplete melting (Naber) resp. unsufficient operation (LINN). Nevertheless the results of the lab experiments could be nearly verified (Compressive strength 60-160 N/mm 2 , Diffusion coefficient for Boron E-17 - E-19 m 2 /s). Based on the technical experiments a plant was designed for hot operation. A cost estimation for conditioning and final disposal amounted to 19 DM/kg ash. (orig.) [de

  13. Buyer's guide of sewage and refuse treatment plants. B + A. Vol. 2. 6. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemer, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The brochure gives an overview of appropriate forms and engineering offices concerned with construction and equipment of sewage and refuse treatment plants. Part one - an alphabetical listing of comparies giving information on their entry in the commercial registry; address; telephone; telefax and telex numbers and range of products. It includes references to their production programme or engineering offices on form representatives at home and abroad. Part Two is a ''product and service listing''. A list of product and service headings, under which the forms that provide that service or product are listed. Part Three is as ''Answer index'' which lists alphabetically the readings found in part two but listed in the German, English and French languages for easier use. Part Four is an overview of the present standards, regulations, codes of practice in the EC and a list of professional organisations. (orig./BBR) [de

  14. Application of CFD in Investigation of Ventilation Strategies for Improvement of Working Environment in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Kragh, Hans

    In this study CFD was applied to investigate the ability of different ventilation systems and strategies to improve working conditions in a waste incineration plant. The plant, VS Amagerforbn:ending, had expanded to supply both district heating and power. Because of that too high temperatures were...... generated in the working zones and measures to reduce these levels had to be taken ....

  15. A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China) Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Li, Xiang; Nguyen, Anh Dung; Kavan, Philip

    2015-07-08

    With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents' health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.

  16. A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.

  17. Relationship Between Distance of Schools from the Nearest Municipal Waste Incineration Plant and Child Health in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Y.; Yura, A.; Misaki, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Usui, T.; Iki, M.; Shimizu, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the main source of dioxins is incinerators. This study examined the relationship between the distance of schools from municipal waste incineration plants and the prevalence of allergic disorders and general symptoms in Japanese children. Study subjects were 450,807 elementary school children aged 6-12 years who attended 996 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. Parents of school children completed a questionnaire that included items about illnesses and symptoms in the study child. Distance of each of the public elementary schools from all of the 37 municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka Prefecture was measured using geographical information systems packages. Adjustment was made for grade, socioeconomic status and access to health care per municipality. Decreases in the distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant were independently associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for shortest vs. longest distance categories =1.08 [1.01-1.15], 1.05 [1.00-1.11], 1.06 [1.01-1.11], and 1.12 [1.08-1.17], respectively). A positive association with fatigue was pronounced in schools within 4 km of the second nearest municipal waste incineration plant. There was no evident relationship between the distance of schools from such a plant and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. The findings suggest that proximity of schools to municipal waste incineration plants may be associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue in Japanese children

  18. Mechanical Analysis of an upscaled version of the Vaporizer (pressure vessel and circulation tubes) of the incineration pilot power plant TEMO-IPP.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerdi, Banan El

    2016-01-01

    To be able to upscale the TEMO-IPP incineration plant to a commercial incineration plant in Tripoli (about40 MW) critical components shall be verified by Finite Element Analysis with the tool Abaqus. The main critical component is the pressure vessel with about 100 bar pressure difference.

  19. Fluidized-bed incineration plant equipped with waste heat boilers. Developed for mid-size municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hitoshi

    1988-01-20

    A fluidized bed incineration plant with a waste heat boiler was installed to dispose wastes in Sakura City on March, 1987 and has waste disposing capacity of 120tons/d. Sands are fluidized in the furnace at 700-800/sup 0/C and wastes are burned completely for a short time. The waste heat boiler is used to utilize waste heat to send steam to aquiculturing farms and hot water to the community plaza and further supplies steam to two 90kW back pressure turbines for driving forced draft fan used for the incineration plant. Harmful gases in waste gas are removed by the harmful gas eliminator to lower HCl to 120ppm or less and K value of SOx to 9.0 or less and then cleaned gas is exhausted through the electostatic precipitator and the chimney. Dust and fly ash are transferred to a reservior through a superior seal tight air transportation system, pelletized and disposed for land fill. Bulk waste disposing capacity is 50 tons/d and harmful wastes, magnetic materials, unburnable and burnable wastes are classified and separated. Separated iron purity is 95% or more. (4 figs, 2 photos)

  20. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  1. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end- of-stream points. Austria and many other countries have to import up to 90% of the material inputs of metals from abroad. These primary resources are becoming more expensive as they become more scarce and remaining deposits more difficult to mine, which is a serious concern for industrialized nations. Basic economic and strategic reasoning demands an increase in recycling activities and waste minimization. Technologies to recover metals in a reasonable and economically relevant manner from very diffuse sources are practically non-existent or require large amounts of energy and chemicals, which pose environmental risks. On the other hand agriculture uses large volumes of mineral fertilizers, which are often sourced from mines as well, and thus are also subject to the same principle of finiteness and potential shortage in supply. These converted biological nutrients are taken up by crops and through the food chain and human consumption end up in sewage systems and in wastewater treatment plants in great quantities. The metabolized nutrients mostly do not return to agriculture, but due to contamination with heavy metals are diverted to be used as construction aggregates or are thermally treated and end up rather uselessly in landfills. The project BIO-ORE aimed to explore new pathways to concentrate metals from diluted sources such as sewage sludge and wastewater by using highly efficient biological absorption and transport mechanisms. These enzymatic systems from plants work with very little energy input. The process is called bioaccumulation and can be most effectively

  3. Solid municipal waste processing plants: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper performs cost benefit analyses on three solid municipal waste processing alternatives with plants of diverse daily outputs. The different processing schemes include: selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels; selected wastes incineration with the production of refuse derived fuels and compost; pyrolysis with energy recovery in the form of electric power. The plant daily outputs range from 100 to 300 tonnes for the refuse derived fuel alternatives, and from 200 to 800 tonnes for the pyrolysis/power generation scheme. The cost analyses consider investment periods of fifteen years in duration and interest rates of 5%

  4. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  5. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  6. Multi-criteria GIS-based siting of an incineration plant for municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Gilberto; Zsigraiová, Zdena; Semiao, Viriato

    2011-01-01

    Siting a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant requires a comprehensive evaluation to identify the best available location(s) that can simultaneously meet the requirements of regulations and minimise economic, environmental, health, and social costs. A spatial multi-criteria evaluation methodology is presented to assess land suitability for a plant siting and applied to Santiago Island of Cape Verde. It combines the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to estimate the selected evaluation criteria weights with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for spatial data analysis that avoids the subjectivity of the judgements of decision makers in establishing the influences between some criteria or clusters of criteria. An innovative feature of the method lies in incorporating the environmental impact assessment of the plant operation as a criterion in the decision-making process itself rather than as an a posteriori assessment. Moreover, a two-scale approach is considered. At a global scale an initial screening identifies inter-municipal zones satisfying the decisive requirements (socio-economic, technical and environmental issues, with weights respectively, of 48%, 41% and 11%). A detailed suitability ranking inside the previously identified zones is then performed at a local scale in two phases and includes environmental assessment of the plant operation. Those zones are ranked by combining the non-environmental feasibility of Phase 1 (with a weight of 75%) with the environmental assessment of the plant operation impact of Phase 2 (with a weight of 25%). The reliability and robustness of the presented methodology as a decision supporting tool is assessed through a sensitivity analysis. The results proved the system effectiveness in the ranking process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P.F.; Schenk, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

  8. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Salleh, M.; Mutahharah, M.M.; Anwar Johari

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO 3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm 3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm 3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO 3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO 3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  9. The starting up of a pilot plant for radioactive incinerator ash conditioning - results of two embedding campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Naud, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A new pilot plant called 'PICC' designed for radioactive incinerator ash conditioning, by embedding in several matrices, was launched at the Nuclear Research Centre in Cadarache - France - in the middle of 1988. This polyvalent facility can work with the three following embedding products = cement, thermosetting epoxide resin and an epoxide-cement compound. The capacity per day of the plant is two 100 or 200 I drums of solidified ash form. Two embedding campaigns have been carried out on inactive ashes: the first is a cementation campaign, done on phosphated ash coming from incineration of spent tributylphosphate. The second is a polymer cement campaign done on simulated alpha ash coming from technological wastes. Description of the PICC and data on these two campaigns are given

  10. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  11. Characterisation of major component leaching and buffering capacity of RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash in relation to reuse or disposal scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, S.; Zomeren, van A.; Costa, G.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Lombardi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal treatment of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is considered a promising solution to reduce waste volumes for disposal, while improving material and energy recovery from waste. Incineration is commonly applied for the energetic valorisation of RDF, although RDF

  12. Energy from refuse by bioconversion, fermentation and residue disposal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, J T; Liebman, J C

    1976-01-01

    Bioconversion of organic refuse to CH/sub 4/ by anaerobic fermentation is 1 mechanism by which the energy in urban waste can be reclaimed. Laboratory studies were made to determine the rate and amount of gas production at various operating temperatures. The dewatering characteristics of the spent fermentation slurry were evaluated. The spent solids can be dewatered to a sufficiently low moisture content such that incineration is self-sustaining. The incineration system was evaluated to determine the possible energy recovery from the spent cake. A process for treating the liquid blowdown from the system was developed. A mathematical simulation of the total system was constructed to evaluate performance under various operating conditions. A plant processing 908 tons of refuse/day will produce 3905 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//hr. Recovery of just CH/sub 4/ provides a 32.6% efficiency of energy recovery. This efficiency can be increased to 63.4% if steam from the incinerator can be sold.

  13. Numerical analysis of the thermo-fluid-dynamic field in the combustion chamber of an incinerator plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.; Dell'Isola, M.; Massarotti, N.

    2009-01-01

    As the interest for energy recovery from waste incineration has increased over the years, concern for the impact such processes have on the environment has also grown. To reduce such an impact, the legislation enforced in Italy and Europe imposes important restrictions on the temperature of the exhausts in the combustion chamber, which must be kept above certain values depending on the type of waste that is being incinerated, for a given period of time. Such conditions can be rather difficult and certainly very expensive to monitor with acceptable accuracy. In this work, a numerical approach is presented for modelling waste combustion in a full scale incineration plant. Both solid and gas phase reactions are considered. Various modes of heat and mass transfer between the waste bed, the air and the combustion products are taken into account, as well as radiation from the combustion chamber walls and the combustion products. The temperature distribution in the combustion chamber is obtained considering either forced or mixed convection. It is therefore shown that neglecting buoyancy effects may lead to appreciable errors. Verification of the code performance is based on comparison with the results of an experimental campaign at a full scale plant in Italy.

  14. The European investment bank and financing the installation of urban refuse treatment plants with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty-Gauquie, H.

    1992-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (BEI), the world's leading international financing institution, with an annual loans total of 15.3 billion Ecus in 1991, every year finances a number of projects for the treatment of refuse, with energy recovery from waste and heat distribution. This article describes the missions of the BEI and the parameters taken into account for authorizing investment. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. CO-incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Rumplmayr, A.

    2001-01-01

    'Co-incineration plant means a stationary or mobile plant whose main purpose is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses wastes as a regular or additional fuel; or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal. This definition covers the site and the entire plant including all incineration lines, waste reception, storage, an site pre-treatment facilities; its waste-, fuel- and air-supply systems; the boiler; facilities for treatment or storage of the residues, exhaust gas and waste water; the stack; devices and systems for controlling incineration operations, recording and monitoring incineration conditions (proposal for a council directive an the incineration of waste - 98/C 372/07). Waste incinerators primarily aim at rendering waste inert, at reduction of its volume and at the generation of energy from waste. The main aim of co-incineration an the other hand is either the recovery of energy from waste, the recovery of its material properties or a combination of the latter in order to save costs for primary energy. Two main groups of interest have lately been pushing waste towards co-incineration: conventional fossil fuels are getting increasingly scarce and hence expensive and generate carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas). The use of high calorific waste fractions is considered as an alternative. In many countries land filling of waste is subject to increasingly strict regulations in order to reduce environmental risk and landfill volume. The Austrian Landfill Ordinance for instance prohibits the disposal of untreated waste from the year 2004. Incineration seems to be the most effective treatment option to destroy organic matter. However the capacities of waste incinerators are limited, giving rise to a search for additional incineration capacity. The obvious advantages of co-incineration, such as the saving of fossil fuels and raw materials, the thermal treatment of waste fractions and possible economic benefits by

  16. Evaluation of gaseous emissions produced in the tests on the demonstration plant for sludge drying and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Antonacci, R.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is a valid alternative to other more diffused disposal systems (agricultural use, landfill), when they cannot be applied due to high pollutants concentrations or other unforeseeable constraints. However, it can cause severe air pollution by inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs) pollutants, particulate, NO x , CO and acidic compounds; this fact has raised public concern about incineration and has hindered a wider application of this practice. Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council realised a demonstration plant mainly consisting of a fluidized bed furnace, a rotary kiln furnace, a dryer with heat recovery section, particulate and acidic compounds removal apparatuses, and set up a research programme to demonstrate that incineration is a safe operation and can comply the relevant legislation, as far as organic and inorganic micropollutants are concerned. A total of 40 tests were carried out (30 with the fluidized bed furnace and 10 with rotary kiln one) treating dewatered sludges (in many cases with the addition of high chlorinated compounds and Cu salts) or dried ones, under different operating conditions (furnace temperature, after-burner temperature, chlorine concentration). Particulate concentrations, and consequently heavy metals concentrations, at the stack resulted in any case under legal limits. As far as conventional pollutants are concerned, only HCl and CO overcame sometimes standards, mainly due to temporary operating up-sets. PAHs concentration resulted quite constant, thus demonstrating that tests were operated in steady-state and satisfactory conditions. Also dioxins and furans overcame sometimes standards, but no correlation was found with more severe tests conditions; it happened when plant up-set conditions occurred. Operation resulted quite satisfactory, but dryer operation required constant operators attention. In rotary kiln furnace a build up of solidified ashes occurred in counter

  17. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Very low emissions of airborne particulate pollutants measured from two municipal solid waste incineration plants in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, Ari; Patrick, Michael; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    A field campaign has been performed in two municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland, at Hinwil (ZH) and Giubiasco (TI). The aim was to measure airborne pollutants at different locations of the abatement systems (including those released from the stacks into the atmosphere) and at a near-field (∼1 km) downwind site, in order to assess the efficiency of the abatement systems and the environmental impact of these plants. During this study, we measured the particle number concentration with a condensation particle counter (CPC), and the size distribution with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). We also sampled particles on filters for subsequent analyses of the morphology, size and elemental composition with a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX), and of water soluble ions by ion chromatography (IC). Finally, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled on adsorbing cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), and a portable gas analyzer was used to monitor NO, SO2, CO, CO2, and O2. The particle concentration decreased significantly at two locations of the plants: at the electrostatic precipitator and the bag-house filter. The particle concentrations measured at the stacks were very low (incinerators. At Giubiasco, no significant differences were observed for the morphology and chemical composition of the particles collected in the ambient background and at the downwind site, suggesting that the incineration plant released very limited amounts of particles to the surrounding areas.

  19. Evaluating impact level of different factors in environmental impact assessment for incinerator plants using GM (1, N) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, T Y; Chiou, R J; Wen, H H

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the impact levels in environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports of 10 incinerator plants were quantified and discussed. The relationship between the quantified impact levels and the plant scale factors of BeiTou, LiZe, BaLi, LuTsao, RenWu, PingTung, SiJhou and HsinChu were constructed, and the impact levels of the GangShan (GS) and YongKong (YK) plants were predicted using grey model GM (1, N). Finally, the effects of plant scale factors on impact levels were evaluated using grey model GM (1, N) too. According to the predicted results of GM, the relative errors of topography/geology/soil, air quality, hydrology/water quality, solid waste, noise, terrestrial fauna/flora, aquatic fauna/flora and traffic in the GS plant were 17%, 14%, 15%, 17%, 75%, 16%, 13%, and 37%, respectively. The relative errors of the same environmental items in the YK plant were 1%, 18%, 10%, 40%, 37%, 3%, 25% and 33%, respectively. According to GM (1, N), design capacity (DC) and heat value (HV) were the plant scale factors that affected the impact levels significantly in each environmental item, and thus were the most significant plant scale factors. GM (1, N) was effective in predicting the environmental impact and analyzing the reasonableness of the impact. If there is an EIA for a new incinerator plant to be reviewed in the future, the official committee of the Taiwan EPA could review the reasonableness of impact levels in EIA reports quickly.

  20. CRNL active waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, D.W.

    1965-02-01

    At CRNL the daily collection of 1200 pounds of active combustible waste is burned in a refractory lined multi-chamber incinerator. Capacity is 500-550 pounds per hour; volume reduction 96%. Combustion gases are cooled by air dilution and decontaminated by filtration through glass bags in a baghouse dust collector. This report includes a description of the incinerator plant, its operation, construction and operating costs, and recommendations for future designs. (author)

  1. Expertise on the project for the decommissioning of the pilot incineration plant at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This expertise report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI takes a look at the proposed decommissioning of the pilot incineration plant at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland. Details concerning the operator PSI, the installation, the documentation and criteria used in the expertise are presented. Experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations is reviewed. Decommissioning variants and the concept proposed are described and details concerning radiation sources and problematical materials such as asbestos are reviewed. The views of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI are presented and proposals for the disposal of radioactive wastes are examined. Finally, the costs incurred are reviewed

  2. Combustion aerosols from municipal waste incineration - Effect of fuel feedstock and plant operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, J.H.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Hansen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    ( NaCl), batteries, and automotive shredder waste. Also, runs with different changes in the operational conditions of the incinerator were made. Mass- based particle size distributions were measured using a cascade impactor and the number- based size distributions were measured using a Scanning...

  3. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  4. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  5. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, J. K.; Henriksson, Dag; Laursen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources...... contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty...

  6. Municipal solid waste incineration plant: A multi-step approach to the evaluation of an energy-recovery configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, D; Zanetti, M C

    2018-03-01

    This study proposes a multi-step approach to evaluating the environmental and economic aspects of a thermal treatment plant with an energy-recovery configuration. In order to validate the proposed approach, the Turin incineration plant was analyzed, and the potential of the incinerator and several different possible connections to the district heating network were then considered. Both local and global environmental balances were defined. The global-scale results provided information on carbon dioxide emissions, while the local-scale results were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model that could evaluate the actual concentrations of pollutants released into the atmosphere. The economic aspects were then analyzed, and a correspondence between the environmental and economic advantages defined. The results showed a high energy efficiency for the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize environmental impacts by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. This scheme showed an environmental advantage, whereas the electricity-only configuration showed an economic advantage. A change in the thermal energy price (specifically, to 40 €/MWh), however, would make it possible to obtain both environmental and economic advantages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  8. Plant growth and trace-element uptake on acidic coal refuse amended with lime or fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, J.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Zimmerman, C.A.; Dvorak, A.J.; Hinchman, R.R.

    1981-04-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.), were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) amended with either lime or alkaline powerplant fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot/root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil; however, more vigorous growth occurred on lime-amended gob than on fly ash-amended gob. Significant differences (rho < 0.05) in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations which have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  9. Self-adapting metal-ceramic coating for biomass and waste incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, Martin [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Fehr, Karl Thomas; Ye, Ya-Ping [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Loeh, Ingrid; Mocker, Mario; Wolf, Gerhard [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings might become a reasonable alternative to cost-intensive cladding of heat exchangers in biomass and waste incineration. Shortcomings of these coatings might be overcome by a double-layer system, consisting of Alloy 625 covered with yttria-stabilized zirconia. Under appropriate conditions, re-crystallized zirconium oxide and chromium oxide form a dense, self-adapting and self-healing barrier against further infiltration of gaseous species. (orig.)

  10. Lessons learned from an installation perspective for chemical demilitarization plant start-up at four operating incineration sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motz, L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2011-02-21

    This study presents the lessons learned by chemical storage installations as they prepared for the start of chemical demilitarization plant operations at the four current chemical incinerator sites in Alabama, Arkansas, Oregon, and Utah. The study included interviews with persons associated with the process and collection of available documents prepared at each site. The goal was to provide useful information for the chemical weapons storage sites in Colorado and Kentucky that will be going through plant start-up in the next few years. The study is not a compendium of what to do and what not to do. The information has been categorized into ten lessons learned; each is discussed individually. Documents that may be useful to the Colorado and Kentucky sites are included in the appendices. This study should be used as a basis for planning and training.

  11. Seventy years of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbleton, Brian

    1995-06-08

    A third waste incineration plant, which will conform to new United Kingdom emission standards is currently under construction at Tyseley in Birmingham. The plant will generate 25MW of electricity for 25,000 households by burning 350,000 t of municipal wastes per year. The site has been used for such energy from waste schemes since 1926. The new plant includes the latest air pollution abatement equipment designed to absorb mercury vapour and dioxins together with fabric filters. Other improvements at the Tyseley site include a new purpose built public waste disposal facility, clinical waste and animal carcass incineration and the recovery of 16,000t of ferrous metals per year for recycling. Because these waste products are incinerated it also therefore reduce`s Birmingham`s need for landfill sites. (UK)

  12. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  13. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  14. On-line monitoring of trace compounds in the flue gas of an incineration pilot plant: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, H. J.; Zimmermann, R.; Dorfner, R.; Kettrup, A.; Boesl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is applied for on-line analysis of PAHs from a complex flue gas matrix in the combustion chamber of an incineration plant. Process monitoring of industrial processes can be performed. New insights into the formation of toxic combustion byproducts are possible

  15. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S.W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature ( D), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally

  16. Sewage sludge ash (SSA) from large and small incineration plants as a potential source of phosphorus - Polish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Marzena; Kulczycka, Joanna; Kowalski, Zygmunt

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this research is to present the possibility of using the sewage sludge ash (SSA) generated in incineration plants as a secondary source of phosphorus (P). The importance of issues related to P recovery from waste materials results from European Union (UE) legislation, which indicated phosphorus as a critical raw material (CRM). Due to the risks of a shortage of supply and its impact on the economy, which is greater than other raw materials, the proper management of phosphorus resources is required in order to achieve global P security. Based on available databases and literature, an analysis of the potential use of SSA for P-recovery in Poland was conducted. Currently, approx. 43,000 Mg/year of SSA is produced in large and small incineration plants and according to in the Polish National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP) further steady growth is predicted. This indicates a great potential to recycle phosphorus from SSA and to reintroduce it again into the value chain as a component of fertilisers which can be applied directly on fields. The amount of SSA generated in installations, both large and small, varies and this contributes to the fact that new and different P recovery technology solutions must be developed and put into use in the years to come (e.g. mobile/stationary P recovery installations). The creation of a database focused on the collection and sharing of data about the amount of P recovered in EU and Polish installations is identified as a helpful tool in the development of an efficient P management model for Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of incineration and incineration-melting system for radioactive incombustible wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Y.; Kanagawa, Y.; Teshima, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive combustible solid wastes produced by nuclear power plants are generally incinerated for the purpose of volume reduction and stabilization. However incombustible wastes, such as PVC and rubber wastes are not incinerated and are still being stored since the off-gas treatment problems of a large amount of soot and harmful HCl and SO x gas need to be resolved. The authors have developed a new types of incineration system which consists of a water-cooling jacket type incinerator, ceramic filter, HEPA and wet scrubber. And as an application of its incinerator, the hybrid incineration-melting furnace, which is a unification of the incinerator and induction melting furnace, is being tested. Furthermore, the new type of dry absorber for removing HCl and SO x is also being tested. This report mainly describes an outline and the test results of the above incineration system, and secondly, the possibility of the incineration-melting system and dry absorber. (author)

  18. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  19. Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ant nests reduce the intensity of above-ground competition among neighboring plants in a Patagonian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Lescano, María Natalia

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments, the high availability of sunlight due to the scarcity of trees suggests that plant competition take place mainly belowground for water and nutrients. However, the occurrence of soil disturbances that increase nutrient availability and thereby promote plant growth may enhance shoot competition between neighboring plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the influence of the enriched soil patches generated by the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, on the performance of the alien forb Carduus thoermeri (Asteraceae) under different intraspecific competition scenarios. Our results showed that substrate type and competition scenario affected mainly aboveground plant growth. As expected, plants growing without neighbors and in nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed more aboveground biomass than plants growing with neighbors and in nutrient-poor steppe soils. However, aboveground competition was more intense in nutrient-poor substrates: plants under shoot and full competition growing in the nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed higher biomass than those growing on steppe soils. Belowground biomass was similar among focal plants growing under different substrate type. Our results support the traditional view that increments in resource availability reduce competition intensity. Moreover, the fact that seedlings in this sunny habitat mainly compete aboveground illustrates how limiting factors may be scale-dependent and change in importance as plants grow.

  20. Analysis of trace elements in power plant and industrial incinerator fly ashes by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Amran Abdul Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2008-01-01

    An elemental analysis of fly ash samples from Selangor and Perak coal-fired power plants and an industrial incinerator from Negeri Sembilan were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). All samples were irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency laboratory PUSPATI Reactor for 6 hours and later counted at the Nuclear Science Program, UKM using an HPGe detector with a relative efficiency of 10% and resolution of 1.8 KeV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coal fly ash 1633a reference material (SRM) was used as a standard for quantitative analysis. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Th and U) were determined in all three types of fly ashes. The concentration range of environmentally concern elements, As and Cr in the Selangor coal-fired power plant samples are 11.17 - 23.24 and 160.28 - 867.97 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of radioactive elements U and Th are 4.79 - 10.29 and 14.6 - 61.29 μg.g -1 respectively, and the concentration range of Co, Hf, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce, Ca are 11.88-83.61, 3.24 - 10.48, 30338 - 53885, 16.62 - 28.48, 178.97 - 8491, 127.41 - 217.2 and 10447 -20647 μg.g -1 respectively. The concentration range of As, Cr, U, Th in the Perak samples were found to be 22.16 - 48.38, 44.37 - 74.78, 4.18 - 6.85, 8.71 - 11.43 μg.g -1 respectively, whereas the concentration range of Co, Fe, Sc, Ba, Ce and Ca are 23.21 -29.66, 54621 - 71099, 30.9 - 31.77, 100.34 - 116.61 and 11533 -16423 μg.g -1 respectively. Differences exist in the elemental concentrations of both power plant fly ash samples due to the different feed coal and combustion temperature used. The concentration of Cr, Th and Ce in the Selangor fly ash samples was generally higher compared to the samples obtained from the Perak power plant. This study also shows that only As and Ca were detected in the Negeri Sembilan samples with the concentration ranging from 36.66 - 98.67 and 31709.10 - 45606 μg.g -1

  1. Incineration experiences at the Tsuruga P.S. and outline of the advanced type incineration system at the Tokai No. 2 P.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Inoue, S.; Takamori, H.; Karita, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In 1978, the first radwaste incineration plant among Japanese nuclear power stations started its operation at Tsuruga P.S., and the first advanced radwaste incineration plant has been constructed and accomplished the test operation in September 1986. This paper describes the outline of Tsuruga incineration plant and its operation achievements, and the outline of advanced incineration technology, Tokai No. 2 incineration plant and its test operation results

  2. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sintering systems for recycling plant fly ash and bottom ash from incineration plant. Production of artificial aggregate and permeable block by sintering method. Toshi gomi shokyakubai hibai no saishigenka gijutsu. Nenshoho ni yoru jinko kotsuzai to tosuisei block no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, T.; Masuno, K.; Kaneko, M. (Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-20

    With the background that making the incineration residue of municipal waste nonpollutant or recycling the residue have been an urgent problem, Japan's first incineration ash recycle experiment pilot plant was built in the Nanbu Waste Incineration Plant of Funabashi City in 1993. In this paper, the outline of the one-year plant operation has been introduced. This plant consists of an artificial aggregate production line and a permeable block production line. In the former line, the incineration or fly ash is combined with plasticizer (clay) and then added by moisture. After the mixed material is extruded and pelletized, the pellets are sintered in a rotary kiln to be artificial aggregate. The sintering temperature is 1200[degree]C at a maximum and throughput of the raw materials is 130 kg/h. The evaporated and dispersed salt or low boiling point heavy metals are mixed in the flue gas and collected with bug filters. To produce the permeable block, the following processes are executed: the artificial aggregate is crushed and combined with powdered glass, a binder. The resulting material, after press-molded, is sintered at the temperature of up to 1050[degree]C. The test results showed that the products and plant waste represent satisfactorily acceptable level. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Incinerators and health. guide for the behavior to have during a local demand of sanitary investigations around a domestic refuse incinerator; Incinerateurs et sante. Guide pour la conduite a tenir lors d'une demande locale d'investigations sanitaires autour d'un incinerateur d'ordures menageres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    11,4 million tons of municipal solid and assimilated waste were incinerated in France in 2000. The 123 incinerators compliant with the Order in Council of January 25, 1991 have undergone significant modifications in the last years, and the incineration techniques used are of great concern to the public. The backfitting to new regulations and the many research works have answered some of the rightful questions of the population on health risks caused by waste incineration. However, many doubts remain and there has been many requests by the local population for epidemiological investigations to be conducted on this issue. The objectives of this document, requested by the Health General Directorate and presented as 'actions to be taken', are to inform the decentralized services of the government and regional epidemiology units of the health problems caused by waste incineration facilities and to help them grasp on a local level the situation met around these facilities. Therefore, this paper provides some scientific arguments to justify the need (or not) for setting up some specific studies as part of an informed public health management. This document is divided in three parts. The first part describes the actions to be taken at the local level. The methodological framework is based on: i) an analysis of the local situation; ii) finding a new definition in terms of public health to the one or more questions raised, and the usefulness to set up one or more health investigations; iii) the relevance of a specific type of study which would allow to answer these questions; and iv) the feasibility of this type of study. The second part briefly describes the various types of health studies and their use as a decision-making tool on waste-incineration facilities. These results stem mainly from the analysis of studies already put forward and carried out in past local situations. The third part points out what is currently found in today's literature on

  5. The incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-03-01

    In this study, made on contract for the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, different methods for incineration of radioactive wastes are reviewed. Operation experiences and methods under development are also discussed. The aim of incineration of radioactive wastes is to reduce the volume and weight of the wastes. Waste categories most commonly treated by incineration are burnable solid low level wastes like trash wastes consisting of plastic, paper, protective clothing, isolating material etc. Primarily, techniques for the incineration of this type of waste are described but incineration of other types of low level wastes like oil or solvents and medium level wastes like ion-exchange resins is also briefly discussed. The report contains tables with condensed data on incineration plants in different countries. Problems encountered, experiences and new developments are reviewed. The most important problems in incineration of radioactive wastes have been plugging and corrosion of offgas systems, due to incomplete combustion of combustion of materials like rubber and PVC giving rise to corrosive gases, combined with inadequate materials of construction in heat-exchangers, channels and filter housings. (author)

  6. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1993-03-01

    Many of the major chemical companies in the U.S. who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites in the last two decades. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest, and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  7. Thermal treatments available for destruction of industrial wastes. Application to the incineration of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Gerard.

    1981-08-01

    Both the collecting and processing circuits and the physicochemical laws of combustion and thermal degradation of industrial wastes are recalled. The various incineration processes are reviewed considering especially conversion of refuse to energy and recovery of raw materials either before or after treatment. Wastes are devided into three classes according to their physical state: solid, liquid or sludge, gas. Some processes based on pyrolysis in the absence of air or at sub-stoichiometric levels are presented. A similar study is carried out on radioactive wastes, taking into account the particular aspects raised by incineration. Operational devices are described and some lines of research about the application of new techniques are summarized. The results derived from laboratory or pilot plant experiments are presented [fr

  8. Optimised utilisation of existing incinerators by installation of upstream reactors for treatment of waste with high calorifica value - HYBRID waste treatment plants; Optimierte Nutzung bestehender Abfallverbrennungsanlagen durch Errichtung vorgeschalteter Reaktoren zur Behandlung heizwertreicher Abfaelle - HYBRID-Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Labani, M

    2000-07-01

    Waste incineration plants are based on the process of thermal waste treatment, i.e. the generation of power from the controlled conversion of organic reactive residue waste. Statutory requirements forced operators to install powerful flue gas cleaning systems into their existing waste incineration plants. This led to a tremendous increase in cost and treatment prices generating pressure to optimize the process. Currently, markets demand additional capacities for the treatment of waste of elevated heating value ({proportional_to}5,0 MWh/Mg). It is possible to treat this type of waste in a conventional waste incineration plant. However, the elevated heating value dictates a reduction in throughput with ever increasing pressure on costs. This is why current concepts consider the treatment of waste of elevated heating value in specific, so called de-centralized plants. These plants are usually of low throughput with accordingly high specific cost of developing the infrastructure. The capacity of existing waste incineration plants has been investigated in order to assess the potential for optimization. Extensive test runs at the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plant (MSW) Darmstadt revealed a capacity gap in the flue gas cleaning system even with the incineration unit running at full capacity. This gap could be filled with an additional incineration plant for waste of elevated heating value, whose capacity is matched accordingly. Such additional incineration plant defines in conjunction with the existing waste incineration plant a so called HYBRID Waste Treatment Plant. It is the aim of this treatise to develop an instrument to support the decision making process related to the planning of such plants. (orig.) [German] Abfallverbrennungsanlagen basieren auf dem Verfahren der thermischen Abfallbehandlung; das ist die Energieerzeugung aus der kontrollierten Umwandlung organischer, reaktionsfaehiger Restabfaelle. Aufgrund gesetzlicher Vorgaben mussten bestehende

  9. SRL incinerator components test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.

    1982-08-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator, the ICTF, is presently being tested with simulated waste as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible waste that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm, and 252 Cf. Automatic incinerator operation and control has been incorporated into the design, simulating the future plant design which minimizes operator radiation exposure. Over 3000 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr. Safety and reliability were the major design objectives. In addition to the incinerator tests, technical data were gathered on two different off-gas systems: a wet system composed of three scrubbers in series, and a dry system employing sintered metal filters

  10. High demands on maintenance and retrofit measures of waste incineration plants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland; Hoher Bedarf an Instandhaltungs- und ''Retrofit''-Massnahmen bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen in Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The waste incineration market is in a constant movement: Competitive pressure forces the plant operators to optimize their operation efficiency as competing treatment technologies jeopardize the access to the combustibles and legal requirements of the energy efficiency and emission limits increase the demand of technical improvements. These developments will influence the market of retrofit and maintenance of waste incineration plants. As the majority of the current waste incineration plants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was built before 1990 most of the plants or their components, despite of continuous maintenance, are outdated. Retrofit can improve the plant's efficiency und leads to a production of more energy without additional combustibles or emissions. (orig.)

  11. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 2: Leaching characteristics of bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Dorthe L; Christensen, Thomas H; Bergfeldt, Brita; Vehlow, Jürgen; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    With the perspective of generating only one solid residue from waste incineration, co-feeding of municipal solid waste and air pollution control residues stabilized by the Ferrox process was investigated in the TAMARA pilot plant incinerator as described in Bergfeldt et al. (Waste Management Research, 22, 49-57, 2004). This paper reports on leaching from the combined bottom ashes. Batch leaching test, pH-static leaching tests, availability tests and column leaching tests were used to characterize the leaching properties. The leaching properties are key information in the context of reuse in construction or in landfilling of the combined residue. In general, the combined bottom ashes had leaching characteristics similar to the reference bottom ash, which contained no APC residue. However, As and Pb showed slightly elevated leaching from the combined bottom ashes, while Cr showed less leaching. The investigated combined bottom ashes had contents of metals comparable to what is expected at steady state after continuous co-feeding of APC residues. Only Cd and Pb were partly volatilized (30-40%) during the incineration process and thus the combined bottom ashes had lower contents of Cd and Pb than expected at steady state. Furthermore, a major loss of Hg was, not surprisingly, seen and co-feeding of Ferrox-products together with municipal solid waste will require dedicated removal of Hg in the flue gas to prevent a build up of Hg in the system. In spite of this, a combined single solid residue from waste incineration seems to be a significant environmental improvement to current technology.

  13. Incineration ash conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m 3 ) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . 50% polyvinyl chloride (glove box sleeves), . 5% polyethylene (bags), . 35% rubber (equal amounts of latex and neoprene), . 10% cellulose (equal amounts of cotton and cleansing tissues). The work focused mainly on compaction by high-temperature isostatic pressing, is described in some detail with the results obtained. An engineering study was also carried out to compare this technology with two other ash containment processes: direct-induction (cold crucible) melting and cement-resin matrix embedding. Induction melting is considerably less costly than isostatic pressing; the operating costs are about 1.5 times higher than for cement-resin embedding, but the volume reduction is nearly 3 times greater

  14. Incineration process fire and explosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Two incinerators will be installed in the plutonium recovery facility under construction at the Rocky Flats Plant. The fire and explosion protection features designed into the incineration facility are discussed as well as the nuclear safety and radioactive material containment features. Even though the incinerator system will be tied into an emergency power generation system, a potential hazard is associated with a 60-second delay in obtaining emergency power from a gas turbine driven generator. This hazard is eliminated by the use of steam jet ejectors to provide normal gas flow through the incinerator system during the 60 s power interruption. (U.S.)

  15. Problems and prospects of refuse disposal in nigerian urban centres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing ... The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. ... Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping ... citizenry has roles to play in adopting more suitable solutions to this problem.

  16. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  17. Incineration of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussmann, H.; Klemann, D.; Mallek, H.

    1986-01-01

    At present, various incinerators for radioactive waste are operated with more or less good results worldwide. Both, plant manufacturers and plant owners have repeatedly brought about plant modifications and improvements over the last 10 years, and this is true for the combustion process and also for the waste gas treatment systems. This paper attempts to summarize requirements, in general, by owner/operators for the plants which are designed and erected today

  18. Significance of waste incineration in Germany; Stellenwert der Abfallverbrennung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The report on the relevance of waste incineration in Germany is covering the following issues: change of the issue waste incineration in the last century, the controversy on waste incineration in the 80ies; environmental relevance of waste incineration; utilization of incineration residues; contribution to environmental protection; possible hazards for human health due are waste incinerator plants; the central challenges of waste incineration today; potential restraints to energy utilization in thermal waste processing; optimization of the energetic utilization of municipal wastes; future of the waste management and the relevance of waste incineration.

  19. Pilot-plant for NOx, SO2, HCl removal from flue-gas of municipal waste incinerator by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takeshi; Suda, Shoichi; Morishige, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Aoki, Yasushi; Sato, Shoichi; Komiya, Mikihisa; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Nakajima, Michihiro.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-Plant for NO x , SO 2 and HCl removal from flue-gas of municipal waste incinerator by electron beam irradiation was designed and its construction at Matsudo City Waste Disposal Center was planned. The flue-gas of 1,000 Nm 3 /hr is guided from the waste incinerator flue-gas line of 30,000 Nm 3 /hr to the Pilot-Plant to be processed by spraying Ca(OH) 2 slurry (NKK-LIMAR Process) and irradiating high-energy electron beam of an accelerator. NO x , SO 2 and HCl are removed simultaneously from the flue-gas by the enhanced reaction with Ca(OH) 2 under irradiation. According to the basic research performed using a small size reactor at TRCRE of JAERI, the electron beam irradiation process was proved to be very effective for these harmful gases removal. Based on this result, the Pilot-Plant was designed for the demonstration of NO x , SO 2 and HCl removal performance using electron accelerator of maximum energy 0.95 MeV and maximum power 15 kW. The designing and planning were promoted by NKK in cooperation with JAERI and Matsudo City. (author)

  20. Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Song Chyang; Yu-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in ...

  1. WILCI: a LCA tool dedicated to MSW incineration in France

    OpenAIRE

    Beylot , Antoine; Muller , Stéphanie; Descat , Marie; Ménard , Yannick; Michel , Pascale; Villeneuve , Jacques

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the last decades to evaluate the global environmental performance of waste treatment options. This is in particular the case considering incineration that is the major treatment route for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in France (28% of French MSW are incinerated, in 126 MSW incineration plants; ADEME, 2015). In this context, this article describes a new Excel-tool, WILCI (for Waste Incineration Life Cycle Inventor...

  2. Mechanisms contributing to the thermal analysis of waste incineration bottom ash and quantification of different carbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The focus of this study was to identify the main compounds affecting the weight changes of bottom ash (BA) in conventional loss on ignition (LOI) tests and to obtain a better understanding of the individual processes in heterogeneous (waste) materials such as BA. Evaluations were performed on BA samples from a refuse derived fuel incineration (RDF-I) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HW-I) plant using thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products. Results of TG-MS analysis on RDF-I BA indicated that the LOI measured at 550°C was due to moisture evaporation and dehydration of Ca(OH)(2) and hydrocalumite. Results for the HW-I BA showed that LOI at 550°C was predominantly related to the elemental carbon (EC) content of the sample. Decomposition of CaCO(3) around 700°C was identified in both materials. In addition, we have identified reaction mechanisms that underestimate the EC and overestimate the CaCO(3) contents of the HW-I BA during TG-MS analyses. These types of artefacts are expected to occur also when conventional LOI methods are adopted, in particular for materials that contain CaO/Ca(OH)(2) in combination with EC and/or organic carbon, such as e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes. We suggest that the same mechanisms that we have found (i.e. in situ carbonation) can also occur during combustion of the waste in the incinerator (between 450 and 650°C) demonstrating that the presence of carbonate in bottom ash is not necessarily indicative for weathering. These results may also give direction to further optimization of waste incineration technologies with regard to stimulating in situ carbonation during incineration and subsequent potential improvement of the leaching behavior of bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1: Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants; Affaldsforbraendingsmodeller til driftsoptimering. Fase 1: Avanceret maeleudstyr til forbedret drift af affaldsfyrede anlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    This report describes results from the PSO projects ELTRA-5294 and ELTRA-5348: Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1, and Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants. Phase 1. The two projects form the first step in a project course build on a long-term vision of a fully automatic system using a wide range of advanced measurement data, advanced dynamic models for prediction of operation and advanced regulation methods for optimization of the operation of waste incinerator plants. (BA)

  4. Studies on the production of building material grade slag from hazardous-waste incineration plants; Untersuchungen zur Herstellung einer Schlacke mit Baustoffqualitaet aus Sondermuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J.; Herbel, J.D.; Pasel, C. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    In an attempt to restore the competitive power of hazardous-waste incineration within the present legal framework, plant operators have in some cases lowered disposal prices below the break-even point; in this respect there is no further room for improvement. One approach towards a new marketable solution could be to use rotary kilns not only for disposal but also as production plants. This could be achieved by means of input control and loading materials. If, for example, the slag remaining after combustion could be made to meet building material specifications, thus providing a marketable product, then rotary kilns would be able to serve as production plants for a secondary raw material. If it should prove possible in the course of manufacturing campaigns to develop slags from hazardous-waste incineration plants to a marketable product, then operators will thus have complied to the demand of the Law on Recycling and Waste Management for waste avoidance and that of the Emission Control Law for residue recycling. Targeted use of suitable loading materials for quality improvement could enable operators of hazardous-waste incineration plants to secure a new strategic position on the market as building material manufacturers and utilise existing plant capacities. [Deutsch] Um die Sonderabfallverbrennung im Rahmen der rechtlichen Vorgaben wieder konkurrenzfaehig zu machen, haben die Anlagenbetreiber die Entsorgungspreise teilweise unter die Grenze der Kostendeckung zurueckgenommen; hier besteht kein Spielraum mehr. Ein neuer, marktgerechter Ansatz koennte sich dann ergeben, wenn die Drehrohroefen statt als Beseitigungsaggregate durch Inputsteuerung und Zuschlaege eventuell auch als Produktionsanlagen einzusetzen waeren. Wenn z.B. die Schlacke, als Rueckstand aus der Verbrennung, als ein im Baustoffmarkt absetzbares Produkt nach Qualitaetskriterien gezielt hergestellt wuerde, koennte der Drehrohrofen als Produktionsanlage fuer einen Sekundaerrohstoff betrieben werden

  5. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  6. Fluidized bed incineration of transuranic contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A 9 kg/hr pilot scale fluidized bed incinerator is now being used for burning various types of radioactive waste at Rocky Flats Plant. General solid combustible waste containing halogenated materials is burned in a fluidized bed of sodium carbonate for in situ neutralization of thermally generated acidic gases. A variety of other production related materials has been burned in the incinerator, including ion exchange resin, tributyl phosphate solutions, and air filters. Successful operation of the pilot plant incinerator has led to the design and construction of a production site unit to burn 82 kg/hr of plant generated waste. Residues from incinerator operations will be processed into glass buttons utilizing a vitrification plant now under development

  7. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  8. Investigation of Dioxin formation- and destruction mechanisms in waste incineration plants in order to improve the quality of the residues. Phase 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Jan; Dahl, J.; Akoh Hove, E. (FORCE Technology, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Baun, D.L.; Hulgaard, T. (Ramboell, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Marklund, S. (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Lundtorp, K. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this project was to produce a theory and a model for the formation of dioxin suitable for prediction of dioxin formation in flue gas, based on experiments conducted at Umeaa University. Furthermore the model should be tested using data from another project, where measurements on the FASAN waste incineration plant has been carried out. A theory has been proposed and a model has been programmed and implemented into the FLUENT CFD software package. The predictions show qualitative and quantitative correlation between the model and the Umeaa test reactor. When the developed model was implemented on the full scale plant, it was however not possible to obtain a quantitative correlation between the model results and the measurements of dioxins in ash samples. There was however a reasonable qualitative correlation. The model needs further work to produce better quantitative results for full scale plants. This work must focus more on full scale measurements, in order to obtain good data for tuning and comparison. It is also recommended to do some work on a more basic level at the Umeaa test reactor to tune the more basic echanisms in the model. The model shows a very small region in the full scale boiler where the vast majority of the dioxin formation takes place. This knowledge is useful as it can point to uncontaminated ash fractions in waste incineration plants. The discovery of a small region where dioxin formation takes place is also an inspiration for potential future evelopments in boiler design for minimizing dioxin formation. Dioxin measurements in ash samples from the full scale test runs show dioxin levels in the same order of magnitude for all experiments with minor differences between the various experiments. This indicates that changes in waste input within the range of products tested is likely to have limited effect on dioxin formation in the boiler, and hence the dioxin content of fly ash and flue gas upstream the flue gas treatment system. (LN)

  9. Waste incineration plant Brno. Engineering and reconstruction to a modern technology standard; Muellverbrennungsanlage Bruenn. Planung und Umbau auf einen modernen Anlagenstandard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, P.; Boerner, R.; Metschke, J.; Eggenstein, U.; Dolezal, V.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The waste incineration plant in Brno, Czech Republic will be reconstructed in main parts according to the reference documents of best available technology (BAT). The site has a tradition of more than one hundred years in the field of thermal waste treatment. But the status of the incineration plant does not comply with current requirements. Therefore, it is planned to re-install two complete boiler lines (each with a nominal waste capacity of 14 t/h), including peripheral devices for pre-treatment and waste feed, flue gas cleaning and energy utilization. The challenge lies in the terms of the project. Existing buildings and installations will be in use during the project and continuous operation of the plant is required as far as possible. The ATZ Entwicklungszentrum has been involved in developing the call for tenders, the negotiation process with tenderers and the selection of tenders. Technical focus of the support laid on furnace and boiler with special emphasis in corrosion protection as well as on flue gas cleaning. ATZ has developed the following proposals for the technological design and configuration of these process components in accordance with the BAT document on waste incineration: For optimized corrosion protection in the boiler and combustion chamber, the side walls of the combustion chamber and the ignition ceiling should be lined with back-casting SiC-panels. In the burnout-zone, an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ramming material must be applied. Above the combustion chamber, in the temperature zone up to approximately 850 C, air ventilated SiC-panels are the best solution. The rest of the first draught, the boiler ceiling and the first half of the second draught should be weld-cladded with Inconel 625. Same treatment should be applied to membrane walls and those pipes of the first superheater bundle, which are particularly exposed to flue gas. A technological and economical comparison of different options for flue gas treatment showed that dry and semi

  10. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    material used amounting to 19,000–26,000tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000MWh. In terms of the environmental burden...... that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted.......Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...

  11. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Marti; Inza, Isabel; Figueras, Maria J.; Domingo, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and 3 for fungi at 25 deg. C, fungi at 37 deg. C, total bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively) and VOCs (ranging from 0.9 to 121.2 μg/m 3 ) are very low in comparison to reported levels in indoor and outdoor air in composting and MBT plants, as well in urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment.

  12. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    and slag are incorporated into the cement or concrete. Our goal was to assess with a Monte Carlo simulation model the bovine spongiform, encephalopathy (BSE) risk to cattle and humans posed by the ash and slag. The results will be used by decision makers to evaluate the need for disposal of the fly ash......It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...

  13. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stimulation of methanogenesis in anaerobic digesters treating leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant with carbon cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuqing; Sun, Dezhi; Dang, Yan; Chen, Huimin; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Holmes, Dawn E

    2016-12-01

    Bio-methanogenic digestion of incineration leachate is hindered by high OLRs, which can lead to build-up of VFAs, drops in pH and ultimately in reactor souring. It was hypothesized that incorporation of carbon cloth into reactors treating leachate would promote DIET and enhance reactor performance. To examine this possibility, carbon cloth was added to laboratory-scale UASB reactors that were fed incineration leachate. As expected, the carbon-cloth amended reactor could operate stably with a 34.2% higher OLR than the control (49.4 vs 36.8kgCOD/(m 3 d)). Microbial community analysis showed that bacteria capable of extracellular electron transfer and methanogens known to participate in DIET were enriched on the carbon cloth surface, and conductivity of sludge from the carbon cloth amended reactor was almost twofold higher than sludge from the control (9.77 vs 5.47μS/cm), suggesting that microorganisms in the experimental reactor may have been expressing electrically conductive filaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory effect of high NH4(+)-N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Dang, Yan; Li, Caihua; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-09-01

    Fresh leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants generally contains extremely high NH4(+)-N concentration which could inhibit the bioactivity of microorganisms. The inhibitory effect of high NH4(+)-N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a MSW incineration plant in China has been investigated in this study. The inhibition processes was studied by both static tests and a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the microorganisms in anaerobic granular sludge was inhibited with the NH4(+)-N concentration increasing to 1000mg/L in static tests. As well the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the methane yield decreased in the EGSB reactor, while the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the anaerobic granular sludge increased with NH4(+)-N concentration rising to 1000mg/L, without any rebounding during 30days of operation. Decreasing NH4(+)-N concentration to 500mg/L in influent, the COD removal efficiency recovered to about 85% after 26days. 1000mg/L of NH4(+)-N in leachate was suggested to be the inhibition threshold in EGSB reactor. High-throughput sequencing results showed little changes in microbial communities of the sludge for a high NH4(+)-N concentration, indicating that the survival of most microorganisms was not affected under such a condition. It inhibited the bioactivity of the microorganisms, resulting in decrease of the COD removal efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  17. Development and testing of a mobile incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggett, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The development and testing of a mobile incinerator for processing of combustible dry active waste (DAW) and contaminated oil generated at Nuclear Power Plants is presented. Topics of discussion include initial thoughts on incineration as applied to nuclear waste; DOE's Aerojet's, and CECo's role in the Project; design engineering concepts; site engineering support; licensability; generation of test data; required reports of the NRC and Illinois and California EPA's; present project schedule for incinerating DAW at Dresden and other CECo Stations; and lessons learned from the project

  18. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy, where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs. The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3, was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76 among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59 and for

  19. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Paola; Ricci, Paolo; Bovo, Emanuela; Casula, Alessandro; Gattolin, Massimo; Fiore, Anna Rita; Chiosi, Francesco; Guzzinati, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy), where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV) has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs). The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3), was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address) and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76) among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59) and for cancers of the connective

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from Swiss waste incineration plants and determination of the ash fraction in the nanometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buha, Jelena; Mueller, Nicole; Nowack, Bernd; Ulrich, Andrea; Losert, Sabrina; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-06

    Waste incineration had been identified as an important source of ultrafine air pollutants resulting in elaborated treatment systems for exhaust air. Nowadays, these systems are able to remove almost all ultrafine particles. However, the fate of ultrafine particles caught in the filters has received little attention so far. Based on the use of engineered nano-objects (ENO) and their transfer into the waste stream, it can be expected that not only combustion generated nanoparticles are found in fly ashes but that many ENO finally end up in this matrix. A more detailed characterization of the nanoparticulate fraction of fly ashes is therefore needed. Physical and chemical characterizations were performed for fly ashes from five selected waste incineration plants (WIPs) with different input materials such as municipal waste, wood and sewage sludge. The intrinsic densities of the fly ashes were in the range of 2.7-3.2 g/cm(3). When the fly ash particle became airborne, the effective density depended on the particle size, increasing from 0.7-0.8 g/cm(3) for 100-150 nm to 2 g/cm(3) for 350-500 nm. The fly ash samples were fractionated at 2 μm, yielding fine fractions (2 μm). The size distributions of the fine fractions in the airborne form were further characterized, which allowed calculation of the percentage of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. We found the highest mass-based percentage was about 0.07%; the number percentage in the fine fraction was in the range of 4.8% to 22%. Comparison with modeling results showed that ENO may constitute a considerable part of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. Chemical analyses showed that for the municipal waste samples Ca and Al were present in higher concentrations in the coarse fraction; for the mixed wood and sludge sample the P concentration was higher in the coarse fraction; for most other samples and elements they were enriched in the fine fraction. Electron microscopic images of fly ashes showed a wide range of

  1. ORGDP RCRA/PCB incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.

    1987-01-01

    A dual purpose solid/liquid incinerator is currently being constructed at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant [ORGDP (K-25)] to destroy uranium contaminated, hazardous organic wastes in compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These wastes are generated by the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, TN; Paducah, KY; and Portsmouth, OH. In addition, waste will also be received from the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). Destruction of PCBs and hazardous liquid organic wastes will be accomplished in a rotary kiln incinerator with an afterburner. This system was selected faster a study of various alternatives. Incineration was chosen because it is dependable, permanent, detoxifies organics, and reduces volume. The rotary kiln incinerator was selected because it can thermally destroy organic constituents of liquids, solids, and sludges to produce an organically inert ash. In addition to the incineration off-gas treatment system, the facility includes a tank farm, drum storage buildings, a solids preparation area, a control room, and a data management system. The incineration system, off-gas treatment system, and related instrumentation and controls are being provided by International Waste Energy Systems (IWES) which is responsible for design, construction, startup, and performances testing

  2. Online operations optimization of waste incineration plants. Phase 3: Control concept and demonstration; Online driftsoptimering af affaldsfyrede anlaeg. Fase 3: Reguleringskoncept og demonstration. Hovedrapport ver. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Rassing Stoltze, K.; Solberg, B.; Hansen, Lars Henrik (DONG Energy (Denmark)); Cramer, J.; Andreasen, L.B. (FORCE Technology (Denmark)); Nymann Thomsen, S.; West, F. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund (Denmark)); Clausen, S.; Fateev, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The long-term vision of the project is to develop a system for online optimisation of waste incineration. The fundamental idea is to base the system on advanced measuring technique, dynamic process models and advanced control technique. In the present phase 3 project the intention is to implement several of the improvement measures specified in phase 2 - both at Haderslev CHP Plant and at Reno-Nord - and not least evaluate the results from the two widely different plants. In addition to that, it is essential to test the new NIR camera system online at Reno-Nord and to carry out a complete measuring campaign where dynamic characteristics are pursued and must be compared with similar tests from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant. The measuring campaign at Reno-Nord was performed differently from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant, i.e. at Reno-Nord both traditional manual steps in series with input (pusher, grate, primary air) and manual control and pseudo random parallel pulse effects of all input with partly automatic control were performed. Pulse effects are made automatically from a sequence in the control room. The new method requires considerably less involvement from operating staff and engineers during the tests, and it is capable of producing good model estimation data as the control will automatically lead the incineration back to the fixed incineration point. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to follow the quality of the boiler responses in the process because of several concurrent step effects. Therefore, another data processing is necessary to be able to estimate the correct dynamic models and extract dynamic furnace characteristics. However, the potential of the new method is that it can be activated directly by the operating staff from the control room and that it is capable of operating for a long time with eg considerably different fuel types. As to modelling, both SISO (single input single output) and MIMO (multi input multi output) model estimates

  3. Interactive firing and control station simulation of a waste incineration plant with grate firing; Interaktive Feuerungsbetriebs- und Leitstandssimulation einer Abfallverbrennungsanlage mit Rostfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boller, M.; Urban, A.I. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    In the course of several years` work in the area of waste engineering a model was developed which maps the dynamic behaviour of the plant from waste delivery to deslagging, crude gas output, and steam generation, thus providing a unique solution in terms of function and scope. This was made possible by the use of the semi-empirical approach of ``System Dynamics``. The approach presupposes that the model has already been adapted to reality by means of comparative studies. Expensive as it is, this procedure is necessary for waste incineration plants because theoretical analyses can never model the behaviour of the plant as a whole but only individual stages. [Deutsch] Durch mehrjaehrige Arbeiten ist im Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik ein Modell einer Abfallverbrennungsanlage enstanden, welches das dynamische Verhalten der Anlage von der Abfallaufgabe bis zur Entschlackung, dem Rohgasausgang und der Dampfproduktion abbildet und damit vom Umfang und der Funktion einmalig ist. Dies war moeglich, da der halbempirische Ansatz `System Dynamics` gewaehlt wurde, der das Anpassen des Modells an die Realitaet durch vergleichende Untersuchungen voraussetzt. Eine solche Vorgehensweise ist zwar aufwendig, im Bereich der MVA aber notwendig, da sich mit theoretischen Analysen nie das gesamte Anlagenverhalten erfassen laesst, sondern immer nur einzelne Ausschnitte. (orig.)

  4. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1991-04-01

    In the 1960's, much effort was expended on cleaning up the air and water. Air Quality and Water Quality Acts were written and inpleinented in many states and coninunities. New products such as unleaded gasoline and water base paints were developed to aid in minimizing pollution. Conversion from oil fired combustion systems to natural gas fired for comfort and industrial heating was the normal practice. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed. There was concern on how to safely dispose of hazardous wastes. Indiscriminate dumping of chemical process wastes had been the practice since the birth of the chemical industry in the USA. Land dumping, inadequate landfills, and river-ocean dumping were the most economical ways to dispose of chemical wastes. Processes that would have reduced or eliminated wastes were disregarded as being too costly. Many of the major chemical companies who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  5. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, Leo S., E-mail: leo.morf@bd.zh.ch [Baudirektion Kanton Zürich, Amt für Abfall, Wasser, Energie und Luft, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Haupt, Melanie [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland); Skutan, Stefan [Bachema AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel [Zentrum für nachhaltige Abfall-und Ressourcennutzung ZAR, Hinwil (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  6. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morf, Leo S.; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  7. Development of an incineration system for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.

    1989-01-01

    NUKEM GmbH (W. Germany) has developed and built some plants for treatment of radioactive waste. In cooperation with Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and on the basis of non-nuclear incineration plants, NUKEM has designed and built a new incineration plant for low level radioactive solid waste. The main features of the plant are improvement of the waste handling during feeding, very low particulate load downstream the incinerator and simple flue-gas cleaning system. This process is suitable for treatment of waste generated above all in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO 2 per tonne of waste combusted

  9. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  10. Inhibitory effect of high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhao; Dang, Yan; Li, Caihua; Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sdzlab@126.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations inhibit anaerobic treatment of leachate. • Inhibitory effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations on anaerobic granular sludge is reversible. • High NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations inhibit bioactivities of microorganisms instead of survival. - Abstract: Fresh leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants generally contains extremely high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration which could inhibit the bioactivity of microorganisms. The inhibitory effect of high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a MSW incineration plant in China has been investigated in this study. The inhibition processes was studied by both static tests and a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the microorganisms in anaerobic granular sludge was inhibited with the NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration increasing to 1000 mg/L in static tests. As well the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the methane yield decreased in the EGSB reactor, while the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the anaerobic granular sludge increased with NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration rising to 1000 mg/L, without any rebounding during 30 days of operation. Decreasing NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration to 500 mg/L in influent, the COD removal efficiency recovered to about 85% after 26 days. 1000 mg/L of NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N in leachate was suggested to be the inhibition threshold in EGSB reactor. High-throughput sequencing results showed little changes in microbial communities of the sludge for a high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration, indicating that the survival of most microorganisms was not affected under such a condition. It inhibited the bioactivity of the microorganisms, resulting in decrease of the COD removal efficiency.

  11. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Organic Trace Compounds as Emisions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification - Part 2. Toxicological and ecotoxicological classification; Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung. T. 2. Humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1998-02-01

    In this report (`Organic Trace Compounds as Emissions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicologial Classification - Part 2: Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification`) emissions of organic compounds, measured from German municipal waste incineration plants, are compared with toxicological and ecotoxicological data, limits and threshold values and environmental baseline levels. Emission data of other combustion processes are integrated if available. A modern waste incineration plant, observing German emission regulations, emits less of most substances reported here than other industrial processes or e.g. the combustion of wood or coal. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht (`Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung - Teil 2: Humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung`) werden die realen organischen Emissionen von Muellverbrennungsanlagen in groesstmoeglicher stofflicher Differenzierung toxikologisch eingeordnet. Hierzu werden die Daten mit human-/oekotoxikologischen Kenngroessen, Grenz- und Orientierungswerten sowie mit der Hintergrundbelastung verglichen und die inhalative Zusatzbelastung wird berechnet. Diese liegt fuer alle Stoffe im Bereich von 10{sup -9} bis 10{sup -1} Prozent. Eine Ausnahme bilden die Phthalsaeureester mit einem Spitzenwert fuer die Zusatzbelastung von 6,5%. Wenn vorhanden, werden die Emissionsdaten von anderen Verbrennungsprozessen mit in die Einordnung aufgenommen. Von vielen Substanzklassen wird bei einer Abfallverbrennungsanlage, die die Grenzwerte der 17. BImSchV einhaelt, weniger an die Umgebungsluft abgegeben als bei anderen industriellen Prozessen oder z.B. bei der Verbrennung von Kohle oder Holz. (orig.)

  13. Commercial Cyclone Incinerator Demonstration Program: April-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, the first program objective, NRC review of the Feasibility Plan, was achieved, and work began on the second objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Potential applications for the cyclone incinerator have been investigated. The feasibility plan for the incinerator system was reviewed with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Following a series of cold checkout burns, implementation of the feasibility plan was begun with the start of laboratory-scale experiments. Inconel 601 is being investigated as a material of construction for the incinerator burn chamber

  14. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  15. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  16. Fundamental adsorption characteristics of carbonaceous adsorbents for 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in a model gas of an incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2005-08-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents such as activated carbon have been used to reduce the emission of organic pollutants from incineration plants. However, with this method, the amount and type of adsorbent to be used are based only on empirical results, which may lead to overuse of the adsorbents. The fundamental adsorption characteristics of several kinds of activated carbon, activated coke, and carbide wood were examined using 1 ,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene as an adsorbate. The removal performance and various equilibrium adsorption characteristics of these adsorbents were analyzed using laboratory-scale adsorption equipment. The equilibrium adsorption amount increased by a factor of 1.9-3.2 at 150 degrees C compared with that at 190 degrees C. The effect of the moisture content on adsorption capacity was relatively small in comparison with that of the temperature. The micropore volume for pore diameters of 2 nm or less was the most important factor governing the adsorption capacity for all adsorbents. Activated carbon showed superior adsorption ability compared to activated coke and carbide wood, although all adsorbents were sufficient for practical use.

  17. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  18. Guidelines and checklist for the energetic optimization of municipal waste incinerator plants; Anleitung mit Checkliste zur Energieoptimierung von Kehrichtverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, S.

    2005-07-01

    In municipal waste treatment plants energy is produced by burning the waste in a boiler. The hot flue gases from the boiler are cooled when they transfer their heat energy to steam passing through nearby pipes. This heated steam, in turn, not only transfers its energy to a turbogenerator to produce electricity, but is also used for district heating (hot water and/or steam). The electricity from the turbogenerator is used for the plant's own needs and surplus power is sold to the public grid. The overall energy efficiency of individual plants vary from under 20% for pure generation of electricity to over 70% for combined heat and power generation and year-round utilisation of heat. A rough evaluation of the existing statistical data of Swiss waste treatment plants shows that both the generation of electricity and implementation of district heating have a considerable potential for optimisation. The generation of electricity has a considerable optimisation potential realisable by not only lowering the plant's own electricity consumption, but also by increasing the efficiency of the electricity generation itself. This report offers a summary of solutions for overall optimisation and provides a catalogue of measures including checklists for the individual plant areas, allowing improvement measures to be systematically determined. The checklists are thus an aid allowing fast estimation of the optimisation potential. (author)

  19. Gaseous emissions from industrial processes: Municipal solid waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassitto, L.; Gallarini, V.; Magnani, P.; Rizzi, A. (Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Impianti Condizionamento e Fisica Tecnica Artea, Milan (Italy))

    A survey of European Communities proposed air pollution standards is coupled with an examination of the technical feasibility of building and operating municipal solid waste incineration plants that can successfully meet those standards. The results of the analysis indicate that modern incineration plants equipped with cogeneration and current-technology materials and energy recovery systems offer a significant contribution to meeting Italian national energy requirements and contemporaneously provide a decisive answer to the pressing need for safe and effective urban area waste disposal. The paper cautions however any final decision making must be based on extensive cost benefit analyses to determine the optimum combination of incinerator plant energy production and pollution control systems.

  20. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  1. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  2. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  3. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  4. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Studsvik incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzler, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Studsvik Incinerator is a Faurholdt designed, multi-stage, partial pyrolysis, controlled-air system taken into operation in 1976. The incinerator was initially operated without flue-gas filtration from 1976 until 1979 and thereafter with a bag-house filter. The Studsvik site has been host to radioactive activities for approximately 30 years. The last 10 years have included on site incineration of more than 3,000 tons of LLW. During this time routine sampling for activity has been performed, of releases and in the environment, to carefully monitor the area. The author discusses records examined to determine levels of activity prior to incinerator start-up, without and with filter

  7. K-BREF(Korean BAT reference document) development : BAT and BAT-AELs for large combustion plants and waste incinerators in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Heungmin; Lee, Daegyun; Park, Jaehong

    2017-04-01

    Since the initial environmental policy namely "Regulation on assigning license for environmental pollutant emission facilities" was introduced in 1971, the previous environmental policy that assign licenses on emission facilities of each pollutant has been implementing in Korea. From this, economic standard and environmental quality of Korea are recognized as level of developed countries, even though various development activities for industrialization. However, amount of pollutant, emission route and emission source are increasing with development of various industries, and citizens recognition for environment have been changed as well. Thus, ministry of environment of Korea needs systematic policy based on scientific grounds for conversion of paradigm. For this, ministry of environment was introduced new policy namely "integrated pollution prevention and control(IPPC)", and it will be implemented from 2017 in Korea. IPPC is established for considering environment, economic and efficiency: 10 licenses on each pollutant emission will be integrated to one license, and it can be expected simplification for business licensing process. As well, this policy can be upgraded and processed while considering characteristics on location and industry types, in the future. However, to conduct this system harmoniously, policy demanders have to apply integrated control system to their facilities. Especially, the first applied industries by IPPC are two industries, such as large combustion plants for power generation and waste incineration facilities. Therefore, ministry of environment has to publish technical guideline books firstly for those industries, and they were named to "BAT reference document(BREF)". In this study, essential information for BREFs publishment, that is including emission levels, best available technique(BAT) and so on was investigated. In addition, the BAT-associated emission levels (BAT-AELs) of each industry were set using emission data obtained from

  8. Incineration conference 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1990 incineration conference. The proceedings are organized under the following headings: Regulations- international comparison, Current trends in facility design, Oxygen enhancement, Metals, Off-gas treatment, Operating experience: transportable, Materials, Operating experience: R/A and mixed, Incineration of specific wastes, Medical waste management, Ash qualification, Ash solidification/ immobilization, Innovative technologies, Operating experience : medical waste, Instrumentation and monitoring, process control and modeling, Risk assessment/management, Operating considerations

  9. Refusal to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Operational experience with Seibersdorf low-level incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information about an excess air incinerator which burned low level β and γ wastes (also α up to determined limits). The incinerator was started up in 1980 and it is clear that in a technical plant of such magnitude, some changes and alterations will be needed to be overcome according to the experiences of operation. This paper - after a short description of the incinerator plant itself - gives a summary of some of the operation and the changes which are made in the plant according to these facts. A partial redesign of the incinerator plant in the first half of 1985 resulted in a very satisfying new design, which proved its superiority during the runs in 1985 and 1986

  11. Children with pervasive refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.

  12. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  14. Clean burn: Incinerators get more efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, G.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and accuracy of today's new breed of incinerators is discussed. The latest of these units are capable of delivering 99.99 per cent combustion efficiency with no visible flame, black smoke or detectable odour. Near-complete combustion is achieved with incineration because of the very high temperatures reached in the enclosed combustion chamber as a combination of temperature, time for burning, and a good mix of gases and oxygen. Controlling these inputs is the key to efficient incineration, as is high quality fibre refractory lining; control means control of the stack top temperature, which will affect what comes out of the top water and how well the combustion byproducts are dispersed. Until recently, incinerators have not been highly regarded by the oil industry. However, with the growing concerns about greenhouse gases, carcinogens and in response to increasing regulations aimed at reducing venting and flaring, incinerators are coming into their own. Today they are seen more and more frequently in well testing, coalbed methane testing, at battery sites and at gas plants

  15. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in fly ash and bottom ash of biomass incineration plants in relation to the operating temperature and unburned carbon content.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnář, Z.; Mercl, F.; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    563-564, SEP 1 (2016), s. 53-61 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : PAHs * biomass combustion * ashes * incineration temperature * combustibles Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  16. Municipal waste processing: Technical/economic comparison of composting and incineration options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertanza, G.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this paper which assessed the state-of-the-art of municipal waste composting and incineration technologies indicated that the advanced level of available technologies in this field now allows the realization of reliable and safe plants. This second part of the paper deals with the economics of the composting and incineration options. Cost benefit analyses using the discounted cash flow method are made for waste processing plants featuring composting alone, incineration only and mixed composting and incineration. The economic analyses show that plants employing conventional composting techniques work well for the case of exclusively organic waste materials. Incineration schemes are shown to be economically effective when they incorporate suitable energy recovery systems. The integrated composting-incineration waste processing plant appears to be the least attractive option in terms of economics. Current R ampersand D activities in this field are being directed towards the development of systems with lower environmental impacts and capital and operating costs

  17. Controlled air incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1960 to 1970, incineration was recognized as an economical method of solid waste disposal with many incinerators in operation through the country. During this period a number of legislation acts began to influence the solid waste disposal industry, namely, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965; Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1968; Resource Recovery Act of 1970; and Clean Air Act of 1970. This period of increased environmental awareness and newly created regulations began the closure of many excess air incineration facilities and encouraged the development of new controlled air, also known as Starved-Air incinerator systems which could meet the more stringent air emission standards without additional emission control equipment. The Starved-Air technology initially received little recognition because it was considered unproven and radically different from the established and accepted I.I.A. standards. However, there have been many improvements and developments in the starved-air incineration systems since the technology was first introduced and marketed, and now these systems are considered the proven technology standard

  18. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  19. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  20. Incineration technology for alpha-bearing radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, Friedlich; Pfeiffer, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Since 1971 the Karlsruhe Research Center has developed and operated plants for the incineration of radioactive waste. Three incineration plants for pure β/γ solid, α-bearing solid and radioactive liquid waste have been successfully utilized during last two decades. Recently more than 20 year-old β/γ plant was shut down with the economic point of view, mainly due to the recently reduced volume of burnable β/γ waste. Burnable β/γ solid waste is now being treated with α-bearing waste in a α solid incineration plant. The status of incineration technology for α-bearing waste and other radioactive waste treatment technologies, which are now utilized in Karlsruhe Research Center, such as conditioning of incineration ash, supercompaction, scrapping, and decontamination of solid radioactive waste, etc. are introduced in this presentation. Additionally, operational results of the recently installed new dioxin adsorber and fluidized-bed drier for scrubber liquid in α incineration plant are also described in this presentation. (author) 1 tab., 13 figs

  1. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  2. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  3. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  4. An incinerator for combustable radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingquan; Jiang Yun; Zhang Yinsheng; Chen Boling; Zhang Shihang

    1989-01-01

    An incinerator has been built up in Shanghai. In this paper, the devices of the incinerator, main parameters of the process, and the results of non-radioactive waste and simulated radwaste combustion tests were contributed. That provides reference information for radwaste treatment with incineration process

  5. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-01-01

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator

  6. Radioactive waste incineration system cold demonstration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Masahiro; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Koyama, Shigeru; Nagae, Madoka; Seike, Yasuhiko; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Kenji; Manabe, Kyoichi

    1984-12-01

    To demonstrate Waste Incineration System (WIS) which our company has been licensed by Combustion Engineering Inc., USA we installed a demonstration test plant in our Hiratsuka Research Laboratory and started the demonstration test on January 1984. One of the characteristics of this system is to be able to process many kinds of wastes with only one system, and to get high volume reduction factors. In our test plant, we processed paper, cloth, wood, polyethylene sheets as the samples of solid combustible wastes and spent ion exchange resins with incineration and processed condensed liquid wastes with spray drying. We have got good performances and enough Decontamination Factor (DF) data for the dust control equipment. In this paper, we introduce this demonstration test plant and report the test results up to date. (author).

  7. Incineration in the nuclear field. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    1993-01-01

    The operation of power reactors, like that of fuel fabrication and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, generated substantial quantities of waste. A large share of this waste is low- and medium-level waste, which is also combustible. Similarly, a number of institutes, laboratories, and hospitals, in the course of their activities, generated waste which a portion is radioactive and combustible. The chief advantage of incineration is to minimize the volume of burnable waste treated, and to produce a residue termed 'ash'. SGN has built up 25 years of experience in this field. The incinerators have been designed and the incineration processes are specially studied by SGN

  8. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters

  9. Organic trace substances as emissions from incineration plants and their humane toxicological and eco-toxicological classification. Organic emissions; Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung. T. 1. Organische Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Wiedmann, T.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1998-02-01

    This report (`Organic Trace Compounds as Emissions of Incineration Plants and their Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Classification - Part 1: Organic Emissions`) describes the reaction pathways in the flame chemistry of organic materials. Possible organic products of incomplete combustion formed at the trace level in various processes are summarized. The emissions of organic compounds from municipal waste incineration plants are named in detail and compared to those of other combustion processes, like e.g. the combustion of coal, sewage sludge or fuels. Quantitative figures are given if available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Arbeitsbericht (`Organische Spurenstoffe als Emissionen aus Verbrennungsanlagen und deren humantoxikologische und oekotoxikologische Einordnung - Teil 1: Organische Emissionen`) werden die grundlegenden chemischen Prozesse bei der unvollstaendigen Verbrennung von organischem Material beschrieben und die dabei als Spurenstoffe entstehenden Substanzklassen benannt. Im Tabellenteil werden die Emissionen von organischen Verbindungen aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen qualitativ und quantitativ mit den Emissionen bei anderen thermischen Prozessen - z.B. Verbrennung von Kohle, Klaerschlamm oder Treibstoffen - verglichen. Dabei wurde auf groesstmoegliche stoffliche Differenzierung und vollstaendige Erfassung der Emissionen geachtet. (orig.)

  10. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  11. Behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of radioactively contaminated wastes from decontamination activities in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazutaka; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Osako, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies. The source of radiocesium in DW-FA is chiefly small particles derived from DW and DW-BA blown into the flue gas, not the deposition of gaseous synthesized radiocesium compounds on the surfaces of ash particles in the flue gas as observed in CMSW incineration. This source difference causes the behavior of radiocesium during waste incineration to differ between DW and CMSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  13. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  14. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  15. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coal as a supplemental heat source in sludge incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, G J; Bergstedt, D C

    1979-07-01

    The use of coal as a supplemental fuel in multiple hearth sludge incineration was investigated; how sulphur lump coal was added to dewatered sludge being fed to the furnace, reducing incinerator oil requirements by 70%. With full-scale retrofit of the treatment plant total annual costs for coal supplemental feeding would be 161,000 dollars, but oil savings would be 240,000 dollars.

  17. High temperature slagging incineration of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbrabant, R.; Van de Voorde, N.

    1987-01-01

    The SCK/CEN, as the treatment center for the low level radioactive waste in Belgium, develops appropriate treatment systems for different kinds of wastes. The technical concept of the high temperature slagging incineration system has been developed and improved. The construction of the first demonstration plant was initiated in 1974. Since then the system has been operated regularly and further developed with the view to industrial operations. Now it handles about 5 tons of waste in a week. The waste which is treated consists of low level beta/gamma and alpha-contaminated radioactive waste. Because of the special characteristics the system is thought to be an excellent incineration system for industrial hazardous waste as well. Recently the SCK/CEN has received the authorization to treat industrial hazardous waste in the same installation. Preliminary tests have been executed on special waste products, such as PCB-contaminated liquids, with excellent incineration results. Incineration efficiency up to 99.9999% could be obtained. The paper presents the state of the art of this original The SCK/CEN-technology and gives the results of the tests done with special hazard

  18. Volume reduction of low- and medium-level waste by incineration/calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear installations generate large quantities of low- and medium-level radwaste. This waste comes from various installations in the fuel cycle, reactor operation, research institute, hospitals, nuclear plate dismantling, etc.. TECHNICATOME did the project development work for the incineration plant of PIERRELATE (France) on behalf of COGEMA (Compagnie Generale des d'Etudes Technique). This plant has been in active service since November 1987. In addition, TECHNICATOME was in charge of the incinerator by a turnkey contract. This incinerator was commissioned in 1992. For a number of years, TECHNICATOME has been examining, developing and producing incineration and drying/calcination installations. They are used for precessing low- and medium-level radwaste

  19. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara; Allegrini, Elisa; Lombardi, Francesco; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i.e. global warming and mineral abiotic resource depletion) and toxic impact categories (i.e. human toxicity and ecotoxicity) were assessed. The system boundaries included BA transport from the incineration/gasification plants to the landfills and road construction sites, leaching of potentially toxic metals from the BA, the avoided extraction, crushing, transport and leaching of virgin raw materials for the road scenarios, and material and energy consumption for the construction of the landfills. To provide a quantitative assessment of the leaching properties of the two types of BA, experimental leaching data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission modeling. The LCA results showed that for both types of BA, landfilling was associated with the highest environmental impacts in the non-toxicity related categories. For the toxicity

  20. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  1. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluidized bed incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility is being designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot unit and represents a scale-up of nine. Title I engineering is at least 70 percent complete

  3. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, October 1977--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and processes for immobilization of wastes generated at nuclear facilities are undergoing development. After minor piping modifications to eliminate dust collecting points, a pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator run of 225 continuous hours was successfully completed in a demonstration of component reliability. Vitrification of incinerator ash and other wastes is now being accomplished using a pilot scale unit developed as a continuous flow process

  4. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  5. Incineration by accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 15 n/cm 2 .s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.)

  6. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  7. Experimentation with a prototype incinerator for beta-gamma waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test facility for the incineration of suspect and low-level beta-gamma waste has been built and operated at the Savannah River Laboratory. The processing steps include waste feeding, incineration, ash residue packaging, and off-gas cleanup. Demonstration of the full-scale (180 kg/hr) facility with nonradioactive, simulated waste is currently in progress. At the present time, over nine metric tons of material including rubber, polyethylene, and cellulose have been incinerated during three burning campaigns. A comprehensive test program of solid and liquid waste incineration is being implemented. The data from the research program is providing the technical basis for a phase of testing with low-level beta-gamma waste generated at the Savannah River Plant

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  9. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  10. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Florestan, J.; Waldura, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the methods used to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes is incineration. Incineration also allows combustible organic wastes to be transformed into inert matter that is stable from the physico-chemical viewpoint and ready to be conditioned for long-term stockage. The quality of the ashes obtained (low carbon content) depends on the efficiency of combustion. A good level of efficiency requires a combustion yield higher than 99% at the furnace door. Removal efficiency is defined as the relation between the CO 2 /CO + CO 2 concentrations multiplied by 100. This implies a CO concentration of the order of a few vpm. However, the gases produced by an incineration facility can represent a danger for the environment especially if toxic or corrosive gases (HCL,NO x ,SO 2 , hydrocarbons...) are given off. The gaseous effluents must therefore be checked after purification before they are released into the atmosphere. The CO and CO 2 measurement gives us the removal efficiency value. This value can also be measured in situ at the door of the combustion chamber. Infrared spectrometry is used for the various measurements: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for the off-gases, and diode laser spectrometry for combustion

  11. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO x emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO 2 -eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO 2 -eq, with 294 kg CO 2 -eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO x process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available

  12. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  13. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  14. Progress on radioactive waste slurry incineration with oxygen and steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.; Hayashi, M.; Oda, I.; Nonaka, N.; Kuwayama, K.; Shigeta, T.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive waste (radwaste) slurry generated from the nuclear power plant operation, such as spent ion-exchange resins (powdered, bead), fire-retardant oils including phosphate ester and concentrated laundry (by the wet method) liquid waste, has been stored in an untreated condition on the plant site. Recently, since the Condensate Filter Demineralizer (CFD) has been applied in advanced BWR plants, the discharged volume of untreated spent powered resin slurry has been increasing steadily. TEE and NCE have been developing an effective new volume reduction system to treat this radwaste slurry based on an innovative incineration concept. The new system is called the IOS process, the feature of which is incineration with oxygen and steam admixture instead of conventional air. The IOS process, which consists mainly of high heat load incineration with slurry atomization, and combustion gas cooling and condensation by the wet method, has several advantages which are summarized in this paper

  15. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators

  16. Development and testing of prototype alpha waste incinerator off-gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test program is in progress at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to confirm and develop incinerator design technology for an SRP production Alpha Waste Incinerator (AWI) to be built in the mid-1980's. The Incinerator Components Test Facility (ICTF) is a full-scale (5 kg/h), electrically heated, controlled-air prototype incinerator built to burn nonradioactive solid waste. The incinerator has been operating successfully at SRL since March 1979 and has met or exceeded all design criteria. During the first 1-1/2 years of operation, liquid scrubbers were used to remove particulates and hydrochloric acid from the incinerator exhaust gases. A dry off-gas system is currently being tested to provide data to Savannah River Plant's proposed AWI

  17. Environmental impact and human health risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator: a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;analysis;Benzofurans;cancer epidemiology;Dioxins;Environmental Exposure;Environmental Health;Environmental Monitoring;Hazardous Waste;Humans;Incineration;metabolism;Refuse Disposal;Research;Risk Assessment;Spain;Toxicology. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) 4 years after regular operation of the...

  18. Utilization of washery dirt and mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, D; Schieder, T

    1975-10-02

    Washery dirt and mine refuse may be used without processing as road ballast, embankments and dykes, and for filling gravel pits and subsidence areas. The properties required in road ballast are outlined. For the top portions of embankments and for frost protection layers, washery dirt must be processed to remove particles of the wrong size. Methods of heat treatment are listed, and the chemical composition of the dirt is discussed. Because of its different chemical composition, large particles are preferable to fine dirt for some applications, even if they have to be crushed. Tree planting experiments on spoilbanks are described.

  19. State of art in incineration technology of radioactive combustible solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1984-01-01

    The features of incineration treatment as the method of treating radioactive wastes are the effect of volume reduction and inorganic stabilization (change to ash). The process of incineration treatment is roughly divided into dry process and wet process. But that in practical use is dry incineration by excess air combustion or suppressed combustion. The important things in incineration techniques are the techniques of exhaust gas treatment as well as combustion techniques. In Europe and USA, incineration has been practiced in laboratories and reprocessing plants for low level combustible solids, but the example of application in nuclear power stations is few. In Japan, though the fundamental techniques are based on the introduction from Europe, the incineration treatment of combustible solids has been carried out in laboratories, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel production facilities and also nuclear power stations. The techniques of solidifying ash by incineration and the techniques of incinerating spent ion exchange resin are actively developed, and the development of the treatment of radioactive wastes in the lump including incineration also is in progress. (Kako, I.)

  20. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N 2 O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N 2 O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N 2 O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N 2 O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N 2 O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N 2 O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N 2 O emissions.

  1. The estimation of N2O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-01

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N(2)O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N(2)O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N(2)O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N(2)O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153g-N(2)O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N(2)O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N(2)O emissions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  3. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  4. The incineration of low-level radioactive waste: A report for the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.W.

    1990-06-01

    This report is a summary of the contemporary use of incineration technology as a method for volume reduction of LLW. It is intended primarily to serve as an overview of the technology for waste management professionals involved in the use or regulation of LLW incineration. It is also expected that organizations presently considering the use of incineration as part of their radioactive waste management programs will benefit by gaining a general knowledge of incinerator operating experience. Specific types of incineration technologies are addressed in this report, including designation of the kinds of wastes that can be processed, the magnitudes of volume reduction that are achievable in typical operation, and requirements for ash handling and off-gas filtering and scrubbing. A status listing of both US and foreign incinerators provides highlights of activities at government, industry, institutional, and commercial nuclear power plant sites. The Federal and State legislative structures for the regulation of LLW incineration are also described. 84 refs., 33 tabs

  5. Incineration process for plutonium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.J.; Longuet, T.; Cartier, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1992-01-01

    A reprocessing plant with an annual throughput of 1600 metric tons of fuel generates 50 m 3 of incinerable α-contaminated waste. The reference treatment currently adopted for these wastes is to embed them in cement grout, with a resulting conditioned waste volume of 260 m 3 . The expense of mandatory geological disposal of such volumes justifies examination of less costly alternative solutions. After several years of laboratory and inactive pilot-scale research and development, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has developed a two-step incineration process that is particularly suitable for α-contaminated chlorinated plastic waste. A 4 kg-h -1 pilot unit installed at the Marcoule Nuclear Center has now logged over 3500 hours in operation, during which the operating parameters have been optimized and process performance characteristics have been determined. Laboratory research during the same period has also determined the volatility of transuranic nuclides (U, Am and Pu) under simulated incineration conditions. A 100 g-h -1 laboratory prototype has been set up to obtain data for designing the industrial pilot facility

  6. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions using RDF (refused derived fuel) at a Chinese cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  7. Feasibility study on energy conservation and reduction of CO2 emissions using RDF (refused derived fuel) at a Chinese cement plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in China for energy saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction by introducing the energy-saving and alternative energy technologies in cement plants. The cement plant selected for the feasibility study is Shanghai Plant of Shanghai Allied Cement Co., Ltd. (SAC), for RDF receive and supply facility, chlorine bypass facility, exhaust heat power generation facility and RDF production facility. The study results indicate that the exhaust power generation can save energy of 4,700 tons/y as crude, or energy saving rate of 25.5%, and that replacing part of coal by RDF and exhaust power generation can reduce CO2 emissions by 25,500 and 18,500 tons/y, respectively. For the investment recovery, it is estimated that the investment can be recovered in 9 years, and the project value is 81.399 million Yuan with the initial investment and project profit in each year discounted to the present value. These results fail to satisfy the SAC's investment standards. (NEDO)

  8. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incineration. 761.70 Section 761.70... and Disposal § 761.70 Incineration. This section applies to facilities used to incinerate PCBs... regular intervals of no longer than 15 minutes. (4) The temperatures of the incineration process shall be...

  9. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Mitsubishi--Lurgi fluidized bd incinerator with pre-drying hearths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Y; Senshu, A; Mishima, K; Sato, T; Honda, H

    1979-02-01

    For a better disposal of a steadily increasing volume of sludges with energy conservation it is essential to develop an effective and energy-saving incinerator. The fluidized bed incinerator now widely used for the disposal of sludges has many superior features as compared with the conventional vertical multiple-hearth incinerator, but, on the other hand, has a defect, that is, a large fuel consumption. This is due to the fact that the fluidized bed incinerator has generally low drying efficiency notwithstanding its excellent burning characteristics with minimum excess air. The feasibility of fuel saving by installing sludge pre-drying hearths and an exhaust gas recirculation system additionally on the conventional fluidized bed incinerator and conducted incineration tests on various kinds of sludges, using a 1500 kg/h pilot plant equipped with the incinerator is examined. As the result, the Mitsubishi--Lurgi fluidized bed incinerator with high efficiency multiple pre-drying hearths which consumes less fuel was developed. Part of the incineration test results are presented.

  11. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  12. Evaluation of the risk for heavy metals and dioxin from the incineration plant of urban solid wastes; Evaluacion del riesgo por exposicion a metales pesados y dioxinas emitidos por una planta incineradora de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J.L.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1997-12-31

    Public fear of dioxin and cancer has heightened the controversy surrounding municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. Concern about MSW incineration has focused especial attention on the emissions of dioxins together with metals, as potential sources of human exposure to these toxics. This paper provides data on the assessment of the human health risks for the population living in the neighbourhood of a modern MSW incinerator. Results show that food is the major source of human exposure to metals and dioxin, while MSW incineration is not a principal source of human exposure. The authors conclude suggesting that studies on the background levels of metals and dioxin in the vicinity of new MSW incinerators are essentials. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Incinerator for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.H.; Hootman, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburn chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary a magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber. (author)

  14. Waste treatment activities incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The waste management policy at SRP is to minimize waste generation as much as possible and detoxify and/or volume reduce waste materials prior to disposal. Incineration is a process being proposed for detoxification and volume reduction of combustion nonradioactive hazardous, low-level mixed and low-level beta-gamma waste. Present operation of the Solvent Burner Demonstration reduces the amount of solid combustible low-level beta-gamma boxed waste disposed of by shallow land burial by approximately 99,000 ft 3 per year producing 1000 ft 3 per year of ash and, by 1988, will detoxify and volume reduce 150,000 gallons or organic Purex solvent producing approximately 250 ft 3 of ash per year

  15. Recycling of plastic packaging material from separate collection from the dual system Germany. Current LCA results compared to disposal in thermal waste incineration plants; Werkstoffliche Verwertung von Verpackungskunststoffen aus der Getrenntsammlung Dualer Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyde, Michael; Gerke, Gilian; Muehle, Sarah [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft und Rohstoffe (DKR) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Due to the implementation of the European waste framework directive into German law it is discussed which contribution waste incineration makes to resource protection and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A number of players question if it is still contemporary to adhere to recycling as a priority. The following article compares today's recycling of separately collection of plastics waste from the German packaging recovery system and the disposal in thermal waste treatment plants under ecological aspects. The separate collected of packaging waste materials is a prerequisite of high quality recycling. If this were to be abandoned and - hypothetically - this waste stream would be disposed in thermal waste treatment plants in Germany, significant drawbacks in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demand would arise. This is shown in a study conducted by the Institute fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung (ifeu) in Heidelberg. Further it could be proved that there is still optimization potential in the recycling market that has been developed over the last two decades in Germany. However, to max this potential significantly depends on stable political framework requirements. The following article underlines that recycling and high quality energy recovery cause remarkable savings of CO{sub 2}-emissions and energy. (orig.)

  16. Criticality management organization in the alpha incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillard, D.; Thiebaut, C.; Poinso, J.Y.; Huin, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Valduc Research Center, which reports to the CEA's Military applications Division, generates solid wastes contaminated with alpha emitters in the operation of its installations. An incineration plant has been built to treat these contaminated wastes. Criticality risk prevention is based on limiting the mass of active material undergoing treatment in the facility. A balance is compiled continuously by calculating the difference between the mass of active material entering the facility and the mass leaving it. Due to measurement uncertainties, the balance must be zeroed periodically by cleaning and drainage of all the equipment and the absence of holdup in the components must be checked. (authors)

  17. High temperature filter for incinerator gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Francois; Brion, Jacques; Cousin, Michel; Delarue, Roger

    1969-01-01

    This note describes a regenerable filter for the hot filtering of incinerator gases. The filter is made of several wire gauze candles coated with asbestos fibers as filtering medium. Unburnt products, like carbon black, terminate their combustion on the filter, reducing the risk of clogging and enhancing the operation time to several hundreds of hours between two regeneration cycles. The filter was tested on a smaller scale mockup, and then on an industrial pilot plant with a 20 kg/h capacity during a long duration. This note describes the installation and presents the results obtained [fr

  18. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  20. Incineration: efficient, economical and environmental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant improvements in incinerator design and technology resulting in optimal performance, increased reliability and reduced capital and operating costs are discussed. The objective of the discussion is to draw attention to incineration as a cost effective and environmentally responsible means of disposing of the waste products generated by the oil and gas industry, while improving air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. The main point put forward is that because the global warming potential of methane is 21 times greater than that of carbon dioxide, the complete combustion potential of incineration, combined with the fact that incineration requires significantly less fuel gas to combust low heat content streams, offers significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved air quality

  1. Evaluation of gaseous emissions produced in the tests on the demonstration plant for sludge drying and incineration; Valutazione delle emissioni gassose prodotte nelle prove sull'impianto dimostrativo di essiccamento e di incenerimento di fanghi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Antonacci, R. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Bari (Italy); Mininni, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Rome (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Incineration is a valid alternative to other more diffused disposal systems (agricultural use, landfill), when they cannot be applied due to high pollutants concentrations or other unforeseeable constraints. However, it can cause severe air pollution by inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs) pollutants, particulate, NO{sub x}, CO and acidic compounds; this fact has raised public concern about incineration and has hindered a wider application of this practice. Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council realised a demonstration plant mainly consisting of a fluidized bed furnace, a rotary kiln furnace, a dryer with heat recovery section, particulate and acidic compounds removal apparatuses, and set up a research programme to demonstrate that incineration is a safe operation and can comply the relevant legislation, as far as organic and inorganic micropollutants are concerned. A total of 40 tests were carried out (30 with the fluidized bed furnace and 10 with rotary kiln one) treating dewatered sludges (in many cases with the addition of high chlorinated compounds and Cu salts) or dried ones, under different operating conditions (furnace temperature, after-burner temperature, chlorine concentration). Particulate concentrations, and consequently heavy metals concentrations, at the stack resulted in any case under legal limits. As far as conventional pollutants are concerned, only HCl and CO overcame sometimes standards, mainly due to temporary operating up-sets. PAHs concentration resulted quite constant, thus demonstrating that tests were operated in steady-state and satisfactory conditions. Also dioxins and furans overcame sometimes standards, but no correlation was found with more severe tests conditions; it happened when plant up-set conditions occurred. Operation resulted quite satisfactory, but dryer operation required constant operators attention. In rotary kiln furnace a build up of solidified ashes occurred in counter

  2. Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  3. Identification and characteristics of vaccine refusers

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Feifei; Mullooly, John P; Goodman, Mike; McCarty, Maribet C; Hanson, Ann M; Crane, Bradley; Nordin, James D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...

  4. Waste incineration, Part I: Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Based upon an overview of the technology of incineration and the nature of hospital waste, HHMM offers the following suggestions: Old retort or other excess air incinerators should be replaced regardless of age. Even if emissions control equipment and monitoring devices can be retrofitted, excess-air incinerators are no longer cost-effective in terms of capacity, fuel consumption, and heat recovery. Audit (or have a specialist audit) your waste stream thoroughly. Consult a qualified engineering company experienced in hospital installations to get a system specified as exactly as possible to your individual conditions and needs. Make sure that the capacity of your incinerator will meet projections for future use. Anticipate the cost of emissions control and monitoring devices whether your state currently requires them or not. Make sure that your incinerator installation is engineered to accept required equipment in the future. Develop a strong community relations program well in advance of committing to incinerator installation. Take a proactive position by inviting your neighbors in during the planning stages. Be sure the contract governing incinerator purchase and installation has a cancellation clause, preferably without penalties, in case community action or a change in state regulations makes installation and operation impractical. The technology is available to enable hospitals to burn waste effectively, efficiently, and safely. HHMM echoes the concerns of Frank Cross--that healthcare facilities, as well as regional incinerators and municipalities, show the same concern for environmental protection as for their bottom lines. When emissions are under control and heat is recovered, both the environment and the bottom line are healthier.

  5. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  6. 33 CFR 401.89 - Transit refused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transit refused. 401.89 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.89 Transit refused. (a) An officer may refuse to allow a vessel to transit when, (1) The vessel is not equipped in accordance with §§ 401.5 to...

  7. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (α = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (α = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (α = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250 kg of coal per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO(2) and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits in mitigating global warming, whereas incineration with a mass of coal can avoid more impacts to acidification, photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment because of increased electricity substitution and reduced emission from coal power plants. The "Emission standard of air pollutants for thermal power plants (GB13223-2011)" implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO(2) and NO(x) emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese political reduction targets. Results indicate that heavy metal and acidic gas emissions should be given more attention in waste incineration. This study provides scientific support for the management of MSW systems dominated by incineration with auxiliary coal in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Refusal to pay electricity bill is illegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de

  10. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  11. Operation of a pilot incinerator for solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory-scale incinerator (0.5 kg waste/hr) was built and operated for more than 18 months as part of a program to adapt and confirm technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid wastes, which are contaminated with about 0.3 Ci/kg of alpha-emitting transuranium (TRU) nuclides (Slide 1). About 4000 packages of simulated nonradioactive wastes were burned, including HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, resins, and other types of solid combustible waste from plutonium finishing operations. Throughputs of more than 3 kg/hr for periods up to 4 hours were demonstrated. The incinerator was oerated at temperatures above 750 0 C for more than 7700 hours during a period of 12 months, for an overall availability of 88%. The incinerator was shut down three times during the year: once to replace the primary combustion chamber electrical heater, and twice to replace oxidized electrical connectors to the secondary chamber heaters. Practical experience with this pilot facility provided the design basis for the full-size (5 kg waste/hr) nonradioactive test incinerator, which began operation in March 1979

  12. A comparative study of PCDD/F emissions from medical and industrial waste incinerators in Medellin-Colombia (South America)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristizabal, B; Montes, C; Cobo, M [Antioquia Univ., Medellin (Colombia); Abad, E; Rivera, J [CID-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Ecotechnologies

    2004-09-15

    Municipal waste management often combines different strategies such as recycling, composting, thermal treatment or landfill disposal. In Colombia, urban solid waste is landfill disposed but, industrial and medical wastes are incinerated. The total medical and pathological wastes generated in this zone are about 1643 ton/year from which 1022 ton/year are incinerated in six plants operating in Medellin metropolitan area. As a result, new regulations governing stack gas emissions have been enforced with the aim of reducing air pollutant emissions. Few incinerators are equipped with a gas-cleaning system and thus, most do not have any cleaning system. Medical waste incineration has been recognized as one of the major known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF). To the best of our knowledge, there are not reports about emissions of dioxins and furans from the incineration sector in Colombia. The first aim of this work was to evaluate PCDD/PCDF emissions from the largest incinerators operating in Medellin (Colombia). In this contribution we report results obtained from three incinerators (A, B and C). The incinerated waste in plant A consisted of polymerization sludge, whereas in plants B and C medical and pathological residues were incinerated. Common medical wastes include dirty bandages, culture dishes, plastic, surgical gloves and instruments (including needles) as well as human tissue.

  13. Design Of Fluidized-bed Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book tells of design of fluidized-bed incinerator, which includes outline of fluidized-bed incinerator such as definition, characteristic, structure of principle of incineration and summary of the system, facilities of incinerator with classification of incinerator apparatus of supply of air, combustion characteristic, burnup control and point of design of incinerator, preconditioning facilities on purpose, types and characteristic of that system, a crusher, point of design of preconditioning facilities, rapid progress equipment, ventilation equipment, chimney facilities, flue gas cooling facilities boiler equipment, and removal facility of HCI/SOX and NOX.

  14. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities, April--September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process the types of waste expected from nuclear facilities. An air classification system has been developed to separate tramp metal from shredded combustible solid waste prior to the waste being fed to a fluidized-bed pilot-plant incinerator. Used organic ion exchange resin with up to 55 percent water has been effectively burned in the fluidized bed incinerator. Various methods of feeding waste into the incinerator were investigated as alternatives to the present compression screw; an extrusion ram was found to suffer extensive damage from hard particles in tested waste. A bench-scale continuous waste immobilization process has been operated and has produced glass from incinerator residue and other types of waste materials

  15. Incineration of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, W; Hempelmann, W; Krause, H

    1976-06-01

    In 1971 a large incineration plant started operation in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. This plant is serving for routine incineration of up to 100 kg of combustible radioactive solids or 40 l of contaminated organic liquids and oils per hour. A dry off-gas cleaning system has been developed for this installation in which the fumes are cleaned by ceramic filter candles. After passing the filtering system and cooling, the off-gas is discharged directly through a stack. The activity concentration in the off-gas is measured by a continuous monitoring system. The ashes arising from the incineration are mixed with cement grout and filled into 200 l-drums. By this way approximately one drum of fixed ashes results from 100 drums of combustible wastes. During the first four years of operation, more than 4,000 m/sup 3/ of combustible solids and about 60 m/sup 3/ organic solvents have been incinerated in the plant. The operating experiences are presented.

  16. Flaring versus thermal incineration of waste gases in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarski, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The efficient combustion of waste gases at oil processing plants, battery or well sites is discussed. Several problem situations are examined, field test results are reviewed, and custom design systems are explained including modifications to systems to conserve fuel. It is shown that combustion of waste gases in fuel efficient thermal incinerators is a practical means of disposal, particularly for sour or toxic gas of low heating value. These gases contain noxious compounds that may cause odours or adverse health effects. Results of a field tests of a portable in-situ incinerator show that compared to flaring (to oxide waste gas), incineration is a more efficient form of waste management. Emission tests also prove the superior performance of incineration. The feasibility of incinerating oil storage tank vapours was also demonstrated. Tests were also conducted with a fuel-efficient Glycol Still Off-Gas Incinerator which was developed to control toxic waste emissions. Glycol dehydration removes water vapour from natural gas. The key compounds that are removed by glycol are aromatic hydrocarbons or BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and sulphur compounds. The main design considerations for any incinerator are temperature, turbulence and residence time. An incinerator exit temperature of 760 degrees C is generally needed to reduce sulphur compounds. 2 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Alpha waste incineration prototype incinerator and industrial project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Meyere, A.

    1988-01-01

    To meet our requirements with respect to the processing of solid alpha wastes, a pilot cold incinerator has been used for R and D. This unit has a capacity of 5 kg/hr. The main objectives assigned to this incineration process are: a good reduction factor, controlled combustion, ash composition compatible with plutonium recovery, limited secondary solid and fluid wastes, releases within the nuclear and chemical standards, and in strict observance of the confinement and criticality safety rules. After describing the process we will discuss the major results of the incineration test campaigns with representative solid wastes (50 % PVC). We will then give a description of an industrial project with a capacity of 7 kg/hr, followed by a cost estimate

  18. Dioxin body burden of persons living near incinerators and sintering plants: results from Belgium; Evaluation de la charge corporelle en dioxines des riverains d'incinerateurs et de la siderurgie: resultats d'une etude realisee en Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et de Medecine du Travail, Faculte de Medecine, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Focant, J.F.; Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. de [Liege Univ., Lab. de Spectrometrie de Masse (CART) (Belgium)

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on local residents' exposure to dioxines and coplanar PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI), one in an industrial area and the other in a rural zone, and two sintering plants, all located in Wallonia (Belgium). In all, 142 volunteers subjects living around these facilities and 63 volunteer referents from an unpolluted rural area were recruited and compared. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that furnished information about dietary habits, smoking habits, anthropometric characteristics, residential history and health status. They also provided blood samples under fasting conditions so that the body burden of dioxines (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) and coplanar PCBs could be assessed. After adjustment for co-variates determined by multiple linear regression analysis, serum concentrations of dioxines and coplanar PCBs in subjects living in the vicinity of the MSWI in the industrial area and of the sintering plants were similar to those of referents. In contrast, subjects living in the vicinity of the rural MSWI had significantly higher serum levels of dioxines (geometric mean, 38 vs 24 pg TEQ/g fat, p{<=}0.0001) and coplanar PCBs (geometric mean, 10.8 vs 7.0 pg TEQ/g fat, p{<=}0.05). Age-adjusted dioxin levels in referents did not vary with local animal fat consumption, but dioxin concentrations in subjects living around the MSWIs correlated positively with their intake of local animal fat, with levels almost doubled in subjects with the highest intake. These results show that the dioxines and coplanar PCBs emitted by MSWIs can indeed accumulate in the body of residents who consume animal products of local origin. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of low-level solid radioactive waste generated by a large hospital and disposed of with ordinary refuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, L.; Pedroli, G.; Monciardini, M.; Bianchi, L.; Novario, R.; Beretta, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Lombardy region some hospitals have recently been reported to the local authorities because of the presence of radioactivity in hospital refuse sent to the municipal tips for incineration. On various occasions the refuse collectors coming from the hospitals had to return with their refuse as traces of radioactivity were detected at the entrance to the tips equipped with monitoring systems. Hospitals administering radioactive substances for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes produce radioactive waste mainly in solid and liquid form. This waste is principally present in patient excreta and in contaminated materials. Radioactive waste present in patient excreta is normally disposed of through the sewage system provided that the concentration limits and annual activity stipulated by law are respected. The contaminated materials coming from the departments that carry out radioisotopic investigations and therapy with unsealed sources can be collected separately and sent to a tip after a period of storage to permit radioactive decay. However, part of the radioactive waste escapes all checks and inevitably mixes with normal refuse or with special hospital refuse that is not considered radioactive. This occurs in the case of: 1. excreta from patients who are not hospitalised after a radioisotopic investigation and materials contaminated by the excreta; 2. excreta from hospitalised patients which are eliminated outside the nuclear medicine and radiotherapy departments; 3. contaminated materials produced with unsealed sources in hospital departments other than those of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy; The waste indicated in point 1 is probably the main problem in ecological terms as the patients who are not hospitalised eliminate radioactive excreta into domestic sewage systems and can also contaminate materials that are disposed of with normal household refuse. In this case any solution to the problem would seriously affect diagnostic activities carried out in the

  20. Envirotoxins from waste incineration - how does the supervision work?; Miljoegifter fraan avfallsfoerbraenningen - hur fungerar tillsynen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Incineration of household wastes has increased rapidly in Sweden during the last few years, and new plants are being built. The volume of residues from waste incineration is expected to grow from 450,000 tons in 1999 to 1,100,000 tons in 2008. The National Audit Office (SNAO) has made an inquiry into the supervision by responsible authorities of incineration plants and landfills in order to how the environmental legislation is applied in practise. The investigation includes case studies of six incineration plants and seven landfills where the residues from the plants are disposed. The supervision is part of a complex system made up of state, local and private actors who all have a responsibility for applying the environmental legislation. SNAO has found serious shortcomings in the operational supervision of all incineration plants studied and several landfills concerning the risk of toxins leaching into the environment. SNAO also points at the lack of knowledge at the Swedish EPA regarding the potential environmental problems of incineration residues and the need for evaluation of the supervisory function. SNAO recommends that the government take an initiative for making more detailed demands in the environmental legislation, and that the Swedish EPA should improve its knowledge about the quality of the operational supervision in accordance with the legislation.

  1. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  2. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  3. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  4. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge during Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph; Voegelin, Andreas; Pradas del Real, Ana; Sarret, Geraldine; Mueller, Christoph R; Kaegi, Ralf

    2016-04-05

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) discharged into the municipal sewer system largely accumulate in the sewage sludge. Incineration and agricultural use are currently the most important strategies for sewage sludge management. Thus, the behavior of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration is essential for a comprehensive life cycle analysis and a more complete understanding of the fate of Ag-NP in the (urban) environment. To address the transformation of Ag-NP during sewage sludge incineration, we spiked metallic Ag(0)-NP to a pilot wastewater treatment plant and digested the sludge anaerobically. The sludge was then incinerated on a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor in a series of experiments under variable conditions. Complementary results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EM-EDX) analysis revealed that Ag(0)-NP transformed into Ag2S-NP during the wastewater treatment, in agreement with previous studies. On the basis of a principal component analysis and subsequent target testing of the XAS spectra, Ag(0) was identified as a major Ag component in the ashes, and Ag2S was clearly absent. The reformation of Ag(0)-NP was confirmed by EM-EDX. The fraction of Ag(0) of the total Ag in the ashes was quantified by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XAS spectra, and values as high as 0.8 were found for sewage sludge incinerated at 800 °C in a synthetic flue gas atmosphere. Low LCF totals (72% to 94%) indicated that at least one relevant reference spectrum was missing in the LCF analysis. The presence of spherical Ag-NP with a diameter of incineration, as demonstrated in this study, needs to be considered in the life cycle assessment of engineered Ag-NP.

  5. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  7. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  8. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  9. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z Waste Incinerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    The 232-Z Waste Incinerator at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive (NDA) measurements performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loadings in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glovebox, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements, following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork, resulted in markedly higher assay value for the incinerator glovebox itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part because of attenuation due to fire brick, which could not be seen easily and which had been reported to not be present. NaI detector based measurements were used to map the deposits. Extended count times, using high resolution Ge detectors helped estimate the isotopic composition of the plutonium and quantify the deposits. Experiments were performed using a Ge detector to obtain adequate corrections for the high attenuation of the incinerator glovebox. Several neutron detectors and detector configurations were employed to understand and quantify the neutron flux. Due to the disparity that was anticipated to occur between the gamma ray and neutron assay results, radiation modeling was used to try to reconcile the divergent results. This was a third aspect of the team's effort, utilizing computer modeling to resolve discrepancies between measurement methods

  10. Incineration facility for radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls and other wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The statement assesses the environmental impacts associated with the construction of an incineration facility and related support facilities for the disposal of hazardous organic waste materials (including PCBs) which are contaminated with trace quantities of low-assay enriched uranium. The proposed action includes the incineration facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee and storage, packaging, and shipping facilities at the Gaseous Diffusion Plants in Paducah, KY, and Portsmouth, OH; hazardous organic wastes from these plants and from the Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratories would be shipped to the proposed incineration facility. Impacts assessed include the effects of the project on air and water quality, on socioeconomic conditions, on public and occupational health and safety, and on ecology. Additionally, the statement presents an assessment of the potential impacts from accidents at the incineration facility or during transportation of the waste materials to the facility. The major impact identified was the potential for short-term occupational exposure to high concentrations of PCBs in smoke during the worst credible accident; mitigation of this impact will be addressed during the final design of the proposed facility. Alternatives which were assessed include no action, chemical destruction processes, and alternative transportation routes; all would have greater adverse impact or would increase the risk of an accident with the potential for adverse impact. The alternatives of commercial disposal, alternative sites, multiple incinerators, and alternative modes were eliminated from detailed analysis either because they are not feasible or because preliminary analysis showed that they would have clearly more adverse impact upon the environment than the proposed action

  11. School Refusal: Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Bahali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Children regularly and voluntarily go to school in order to fulfill the expectations of society from them to continue their education or schooling. School continuation has been made compulsory by laws. Nonetheless, contrary to popular belief, for some children it is distressing to go to school. These children have difficulty continuing school and/or refuse to go to school. Today school refusal is defined as a child’s inability to continue school for reasons, such as anxiety and depression. The prevalence of school refusal has been reported to be approximately 1% in school-age children and 5% in child psychiatry samples. The prevalence of school refusal is similar among boys and girls. School refusal can occur at any time throughout the child’s academic life and at all socio-economic levels. School refusal is considered a symptom rather than a clinical diagnosis and can manifest itself as a sign of many psychiatric disorders, with anxiety disorders predominant. Separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and adjustment disorder with anxiety symptoms are the most common disorders co-occurring with school refusal. While separation anxiety disorder is associated with school refusal in younger children, other anxiety disorders, especially phobias, are associated with school refusal in adolescents. Children who have parents with psychiatric disorders have a higher incidence of school refusal, and psychiatric disorders are more frequently seen in adult relatives of children with school refusal, which supports a significant role of genetic and environmental factors in th etiology of school refusal. School refusal is a emergency state for child mental health. As it leads to detrimental effects in the short term and the long term, it should be regarded as a serious problem. The long-lasting follow-up studies of school refusing children have revealed that these children have a higher incidence of

  12. The incineration of solid radioactive waste: a centralized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernborg, G.; Broden, K.; Oehrn, G.

    1985-01-01

    Almost all the combustible low-level β- and γ-radioactive waste from Sweden, and even some waste from German nuclear power plants, is treated in an incineration plant at Studsvik. To date most of the ash has been put into 100-litre drums, which in turn have been put in 200-litre drums with concrete in between. Recently, methods have been developed and equipment installed for homogeneous solidification of the ash into concrete. Over the years since the start-up of the plant in 1976 the incinerator has worked with a high availability factor. Personnel doses and activity releases to the environment are well below limits set by regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  13. Development and prospects of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    With the lack of space for new landfills, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is playing an increasingly important role in municipal solid waste management in China. The literatures on certain aspects of incineration plants in China are reviewed in this paper, including the development and status of the application of MSW incineration technologies, the treatment of leachate from stored MSW, air pollution control technologies, and the status of the fly-ash control method. Energy policy and its promotion of MSW-to-energy conversion are also elucidated.

  14. Incineration as an effective means in Malaysian municipal solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifah, A.S.A.K.; Subari, F.; Zainal Abidin, H.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is in dire need of an alternative to current method in municipal solid waste treatment. An industrial pilot plant incinerator has been constructed at Universiti Teknologi Mara Shah Alam campus. A study has been performed to investigate the performance of the locally developed and manufactured rotary kiln incinerator. On the overall, the temperature profiles are well in agreement with species concentration observed. The emission quality satisfy the air pollution standards and on the overall the rotary kiln incinerator shows great potential in municipal solid waste treatment. (Author)

  15. Comparison of slagging pyrolysis and molten salt incinerators for treating TRU waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    For the comparison, it is assumed that the waste product is required to meet the acceptance criteria of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, i.e., low leachability. Slagging pyrolysis incinerates combustible waste and melts noncombustible waste; the resulting slag forms a glass of low leachability. In the molten salt incinerator, combustion occurs at low temperatures with no accumulation of explosive gases, but the waste must have been previously sorted into combustibles and noncombustibles and then shredded. The economics, safety, and technical features are compared. Advantages, disadvantages, and areas of technical uncertainty of the two systems are listed. Development costs and schedules for the two types of incinerators are discussed

  16. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  17. Accumulative behavior of radioactive cesium during the incineration of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuhara, Shinji; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Maeseto, Tomoharu; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Osako, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the long-term accumulation behavior of radioactive cesium (r- Cs) in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants is important for safety management of them. In this study, first, not only air dose rate but also r-Cs activity in wall adhesion dust at different point in the inside of a MSW incineration plant were measured. The results showed that higher amounts of the Cs were observed in the surface layer of refractory and that higher air dose ratios were obtained in the upstream region in incineration process. However, the Cs content of adhered dust onto the surface material of incineration equipment was higher in downstream than upstream because of the decrease of flue gas temperature. (author)

  18. Measuring gas-residence times in large municipal incinerators, by means of a pseudo-random binary signal tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Jones, B.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of measuring gas-residence time in large incinerators was studied by the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus tracer response technique at the Sheffield municipal solid-waste incinerator (35 MW plant). The steady-state system was disturbed by the superimposition of small fluctuations in the form of a pseudo-random binary sequence of methane pulses, and the response of the incinerator was determined from the CO 2 concentration in flue gases at the boiler exit, measured with a specially developed optical gas analyser with a high-frequency response. For data acquisition, an on-line PC computer was used together with the LAB Windows software system; the output response was then cross-correlated with the perturbation signal to give the impulse response of the incinerator. There was very good agreement between the gas-residence time for the Sheffield MSW incinerator as calculated by computational fluid dynamics (FLUENT Model) and gas-residence time at the plant as measured by the PRBS tracer technique. The results obtained from this research programme clearly demonstrate that the PRBS stimulus tracer response technique can be successfully and economically used to measure gas-residence times in large incinerator plants. It also suggests that the common commercial practice of characterising the incinerator operation by a single-residence-time parameter may lead to a misrepresentation of the complexities involved in describing the operation of the incineration system. (author)

  19. Lime helps establish crownvetch on coal-breaker refuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj; Edward A. Sowa

    1976-01-01

    A study was begun in 1965 to determine the effect of lime fertilizer, and mulch on the establishment and growth of crownvetch crowns planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse. After 7 years the lime application had by far the strongest effect. Both 2.5 and 5.0 tons per acre increased survival and ground cover manyfold, and both treatments were equally beneficial from...

  20. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  1. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  2. Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    An effective process reducing volume of radioactive wastes is incineration of combustible wastes. Appropriate design of the off-gas treatment system is necessary to ensure that any releases of airborne radionuclides into the environment are kept below acceptable limits. In many cases, the off-gas system must be designed to accommodate chemical constituents in the gas stream. The purpose of this publication is to provide the most up-to-date information regarding off-gas treatment as well as an account of some of the developments so as to aid users in the selection of an integrated system for a particular application. The choice of incinerator/off-gas system combination depends on the wastes to be treated, as well as other factors, such as regulatory requirements. Current problems and development needs are discussed. Following comprehensive discussions of the various factors affecting a choice, various incinerator and off-gas treatment systems are recommended for the various types of wastes that may be treated: low PVC content solid, high PVC content solid, organic liquid and resins. The economics or costs of the off-gas system and an evaluation of the overall cost effectiveness of incineration or direct burial is not discussed in detail. This publication is specifically directed toward technical aspects and addresses: incineration types and origin, sources and characteristics of off-gas streams; descriptions of available technologies for off-gas treatment; basic component design requirements and component description; operational experience of plants in active operation and their current practices; legal aspects and safety requirements; remaining problems to be solved and development trends in plant design and component structure. This report seeks to broaden and enhance the understanding of the developed technology and to indicate areas where improvements can be made by further research and development. 110 refs

  3. Gas generation in incinerator ash; Gasbildning i aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Lindeberg, Johanna; Rodin, Aasa; Oehrstroem, Anna; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan

    2006-02-15

    In recent years, explosions have occurred in certain phases of ash handling in Sweden. Investigations have revealed that hydrogen may have been present in all cases. The hydrogen is believed to be generated by chemical reactions of aluminium and other metals within the ash in the presence of water. The purpose with this study is to increase the knowledge of gas generation of incinerator ash. Thereby, guides for appropriate ash management can be introduced and the risk for further explosions prevented. The study has comprised analyses of the ash properties, such as chemical and physical composition and the pH, of ash from 14 incineration plants (mostly waste incineration plants). Different fractions of ash materials representing different parts of the process in each plant have been analysed. Furthermore, the fuel and the technical differences between the plants have been analysed. A tool for measuring the gas generation in the laboratory has been developed and the gas generation of the different ash materials at natural and increased pH was measured. Gas analyses and thermodynamic calculations have also been performed. The results showed that: bottom ash from fluidised bed boilers generated small amounts of gas at increased pH, much smaller amounts than the idle pass, cyclone and filter ash did, bottom ash from grate fired boilers generated more gas at increased pH than their cyclone ash and filter ash, with exception of the Linkoeping plant, all bio waste incineration plants generated ash with low gas generation potential, all fly ash materials with a gas generation potential of more than 10 l/kg originated from municipal waste incineration plants, filter ash that had been stored in oxygen rich environment generated significant less gas than fresh filter ash of the same origin, hardly any other gases were generated apart from hydrogen (very small amounts of acetone, furane, benzene and most likely methane were detected in some of the ash materials), there were no

  4. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  5. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  6. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R; Giribone, P; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  7. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  8. Environmental assessment of waste incineration in a life-cycle-perspective (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Bhander, Gurbakhash S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2008-02-01

    A model for life-cycle assessment of waste incinerators is described and applied to a case study for illustrative purposes. As life-cycle thinking becomes more integrated into waste management, quantitative tools for assessing waste management technologies are needed. The presented model is a module in the life-cycle assessment model EASEWASTE. The module accounts for all uses of materials and energy and credits the incinerator for electricity and heat recovered. The energy recovered is defined by the user as a percentage of the energy produced, calculated on the lower heating value of the wet waste incinerated. Emissions are either process-specific (related to the amount of waste incinerated) or input-specific (related to the composition of the waste incinerated), while mass transfer to solid outputs are governed by transfer coefficients specified by the user. The waste input is defined by 48 material fractions and their chemical composition. The model was used to quantify the environmental performance of the incineration plant in Aarhus, Denmark before and after its upgrading in terms of improved flue gas cleaning and energy recovery. It demonstrated its usefulness in identifying the various processes and substances that contributed to environmental loadings as well as to environmental savings. The model was instrumental in demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery system not only for electricity but also heat from the incinerator.

  9. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  10. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  11. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  12. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert van Leeuwen; Marli Huijer

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed

  13. [Refusal of nursing care, the legal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    The refusal of nursing care forms part of the freedom offered to anyone wanting to refuse, consciously and knowingly, any form of nursing care such as washing, the taking of medication or hospitalisation. However, limits are fixed by law as well as by case law. Are we totally free in the expression of our will? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine caregivers' refusal of preventive medical and dental care for children. Prevalence rates of topical fluoride refusal based on dental records and caregiver self-reports were estimated for children treated in 3 dental clinics in Washington State. A 60-item survey was administered to 1024 caregivers to evaluate the association between immunization and topical fluoride refusal. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). The prevalence of topical fluoride refusal was 4.9% according to dental records and 12.7% according to caregiver self-reports. The rate of immunization refusal was 27.4%. In the regression models, immunization refusal was significantly associated with topical fluoride refusal (dental record PRR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 1.96; P refuse both immunizations and topical fluoride (P refusal of immunizations is associated with topical fluoride refusal. Future research should identify the behavioral and social factors related to caregiver refusal of preventive care with the goal of developing multidisciplinary strategies to help caregivers make optimal preventive care decisions for children.

  15. Incineration of technological waste contaminated with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, C.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Cartier, R.; Durec, J.P.; Afettouche, R.

    1990-01-01

    A large R and D programme is in progress at the CEA on alpha-bearing waste incineration. The program is developed in the laboratory and a pilot plant including the following aspects: physico-chemical characterization of wastes, study of thermal decomposition of wastes, laboratory study of generated gases (first with inactive then with active wastes), development of an industrial pilot plant with inactive wastes, study of corrosion resistance of material (laboratory and pilot plant), study and qualification of nuclear measurements on wastes, ashes and equipment [fr

  16. Status report: waste incineration and fixation for Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing Division of the Department of Energy (July--December 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; White, J.W.; Johnson, A.J.; Fong, L.Q.; Teter, A.R.; Chung, S.F.

    1977-01-01

    Fluidized bed incineration and waste fixation processes are being used to process the types of wastes expected from nuclear fuel reprocessing and production plants. Test incineration runs have been made on two types of wastes: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and tributyl phosphate-solvent solutions. Laboratory-scale vitrification equipment was used to produce glass pellets from incinerator ash and blends of other expected waste streams. Computer modeling gave an expected product integrity life of over 2,000 years

  17. Incineration and flue gas cleaning in China - a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Xuguan; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2010-01-01

    Waste incineration is rapidly developing in China. Different technologies are proposed for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Hazardous Waste (HW), and Medical Waste (MW). The required technologies are either imported, or developed locally. Some data are cited to illustrate these rapid developments. Incinerator flue gas arises at rather limited scale (10,000-100,000 Nm 3 /h), compared to power generation, yet the number of pollutants to be counted with is huge: dust and grit, acid gases, NO x , selected heavy metals, aerosols and nanoparticles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and dioxins. Major options in flue gas cleaning can be derived from Best Available Technologies (BAT), as were developed in the European Union. Hence, E.U. practice is analyzed in some detail, by considering the present situation in selected E.U. countries (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium). A comparison is made with China. Also, the situation in Japan is examined. Based on this wide experience, a number of technical suggestions regarding incineration, flue gas cleaning, and emission control are formulated. Also, the possibility of co incineration is considered. Starting from the particular experience of Zhejiang University (as a designer of Fluid Bed and Rotary Kiln plant, with large experience in Fluid Bed processes, coal firing, gasification and pyrolysis, and actively monitoring thermal units throughout China) some specific Case Studies are examined, e.g., a fluidized bed incinerator and its gas cleaning system (MSWI and HWI from ITPE). Some attention is paid to the potential threats in China from uncontrolled combustion sources. As a conclusion, some recommendations are formulated regarding flue gas cleaning in Developing Nations at large and in China in particular. (author)

  18. Probabilistic and technology-specific modeling of emissions from municipal solid-waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Annette; Peyer, Fabio; Salzmann, Christoph; Saner, Dominik

    2011-04-15

    The European legislation increasingly directs waste streams which cannot be recycled toward thermal treatment. Models are therefore needed that help to quantify emissions of waste incineration and thus reveal potential risks and mitigation needs. This study presents a probabilistic model which computes emissions as a function of waste composition and technological layout of grate incineration plants and their pollution-control equipment. In contrast to previous waste-incineration models, this tool is based on a broader empirical database and allows uncertainties in emission loads to be quantified. Comparison to monitoring data of 83 actual European plants showed no significant difference between modeled emissions and measured data. An inventory of all European grate incineration plants including technical characteristics and plant capacities was established, and waste material mixtures were determined for different European countries, including generic elemental waste-material compositions. The model thus allows for calculation of country-specific and material-dependent emission factors and enables identification and tracking of emission sources. It thereby helps to develop strategies to decrease plant emissions by reducing or redirecting problematic waste fractions to other treatment options or adapting the technological equipment of waste incinerators.

  19. Waste incineration and immobilization for nuclear facilities. Status report, April-September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.; Williams, P.M.; Burkhardt, S.C.; Ledford, J.A.; Gallagher, K.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The fluidized bed incinerator and waste immobilization processes are being developed to process various liquid and solid wastes that are generated by a nuclear facility. The versatility of the incinerator liquid waste handling system has been enhanced by recent changes made in the pumping and related piping system. Tributyl phosphate-solvent incineration has been evaluated thoroughly using the pilot plant fluidized bed incinerator. Vitrified glass pellets were made to determine operating parameters of a resistance-heated reactor and to produce samples for testing. Procedures were developed for testing the product pellets. A simplified start-up procedure was devised as development continued on a second type of reactor, the Joule-heated melter

  20. Development of thermal conditioning technology for Alpha-containment wastes: Alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Seon; Jeong, Myeong Soo

    1999-03-01

    As the first step of a 3-year project named 'development of alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology', the basic information and data were reviewed, while focusing on establishment of R and D direction to develop the final goal, self-supporting treatment of α- wastes that would be generated from domestic nuclear industries. The status on α waste incineration technology of advanced states was reviewed. A conceptual design for α waste incineration process was suggested. Besides, removal characteristics of volatile metals and radionuclides in a low-temperature dry off-gas system were investigated. Radiation dose assessments and some modification for the Demonstration-scale Incineration Plant (DSIP) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were also done

  1. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Development of thermal conditioning technology for Alpha-containment wastes: Alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Seon; Jeong, Myeong Soo

    1999-03-01

    As the first step of a 3-year project named 'development of alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology', the basic information and data were reviewed, while focusing on establishment of R and D direction to develop the final goal, self-supporting treatment of {alpha}- wastes that would be generated from domestic nuclear industries. The status on {alpha} waste incineration technology of advanced states was reviewed. A conceptual design for {alpha} waste incineration process was suggested. Besides, removal characteristics of volatile metals and radionuclides in a low-temperature dry off-gas system were investigated. Radiation dose assessments and some modification for the Demonstration-scale Incineration Plant (DSIP) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were also done.

  3. USDOE radioactive waste incineration technology: status review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Taboas, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Early attempts were made to incinerate radioactive wastes met with operation and equipment problems such as feed preparation, corrosion, inadequate off-gas cleanup, incomplete combustion, and isotope containment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) continues to sponsor research, development, and the eventual demonstration of radioactive waste incineration. In addition, several industries are developing proprietary incineration system designs to meet other specific radwaste processing requirements. Although development efforts continue, significant results are available for the nuclear community and the general public to draw on in planning. This paper presents an introduction to incineration concerns, and an overview of the prominent radwaste incineration processes being developed within DOE. Brief process descriptions, status and goals of individual incineration systems, and planned or potential applications are also included

  4. The early days of incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  5. Drying and incineration of wastewater sludge. Experiences and perspectives based on the development in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, N.; Bruus, J.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the recent development within sludge disposal in Denmark, where the traditional disposal for agricultural use has changed to other disposal routes. One of the main routes is the thermal treatment, drying and/or incineration. The great majority of WWTP's in Denmark are small and middle-sized plants, which is why these plants are in focus. Drying and incineration concepts adapted to this size of plants have been developed, and the experience has shown that these concepts are sustainable in all main respects, i.e. energy utilisation, environment, operation etc. (author)

  6. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  7. Study on incinerating method of leather scraps and recovery of chromium f om incinerated residues. Kakusetsu no nensho hoho no kento narabi ni nensho nokoribun kara no chromium no kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, H. (Showa Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan) Tokyo Toritsu Hikaku Gijutsu Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Imai, T. (Tokyo Toritsu Hikaku Gijutsu Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-05

    In Japan, it is the present situation that most of chromium contained side refuse generated in the leather manufacturing process are treated by means of using them for landfilling or incineration, etc. Even confining to the grownup oxhides and cowhides imported from North America, its total amount is 125,000t in terms of anhydride equivalent, hence it is estimated that about 1.14t of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discharged in the way mentioned above as a chromium tanning agent. Since Japan imports almost all chromium material from overseas, it is desirable to recover chromium from the above incinerated residues. In this article, based on the study results in the past concerning the recovery of chromium from incineration of leather scraps, an experimental furnace of the retorting two stage incineration system was experimentally built and a wet alkali scrubber and a hot water boiler utilizing combustion exhaust gas heat were installed. And by using them, the fuel condition to reduce the harmful gas component and the removal effect to be made with the scrubber, the chemical composition of the incinerated residues and its utilization, etc. were examined. As a result, by the above system, it was found that chromium could be recovered and reutilized. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A7 to A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with the influence of kiln treatment on incineration bottom ash leaching; the influence of kiln treatment on corrosive species in deposits; operational strategy for rotary kiln; alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate. (Author)

  9. Incineration and flue gas treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of an international symposium on Incineration and Flue Gas Treatment Technologies, held at Sheffield University in July 1997. Papers from each of the six sessions cover the behaviour of particles in incinerator clean-up systems, pollution control technologies, the environmental performance of furnaces and incinerators, controlling nitrogen oxide emissions, separation processes during flue gas treatment and regulatory issues relating to these industrial processes. (UK)

  10. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  11. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  12. Environmental impacts of waste incineration in a regional system (Emilia Romagna, Italy) evaluated from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morselli, Luciano; De Robertis, Claudia; Luzi, Joseph; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano

    2008-01-01

    The advisability of using incineration, among the other technologies in Municipal Solid Waste Management, is still a debated issue. However, technological evolution in the field of waste incineration plants has strongly decreased their environmental impacts in the last years. A description of a regional situation in Northern Italy (Emilia Romagna Region) is here presented, to assess the impacts of incinerators by the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and to stress the most impacting steps in incineration process. The management of solid residues and heavy metal emission resulted the most important environmental concerns. Furthermore, a tentative comparison with the environmental impact of landfill disposal, for the same amount of waste, pointed out that incineration process must be considered environmentally preferable

  13. Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted

  14. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  15. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location

  16. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Incineration ashes conditioning by isostatic pressing and melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-bearing solid incineration wastes are conditioned for two principal reasons: to enhance the quality of the finished product for long-term storage, and to reduce the total waste volume. Isostatic pressing parameters were defined using containers 36 mm in diameter; the physicochemical properties of the compacted ashes were determined with 140 mm diameter containers and industrial feasibility was demonstrated with a large (300 mm diameter) container. Two types of ashes were used: ashes fabricated at Marcoule (either in devices developed by the CEA for the MELOX project with a standard MELOX composition, or by direct incineration at COGEMA's UP1 plant) and fly ash from a domestic waste incinerator. A major engineering study was also undertaken to compare the three known ash containment processes: isostatic pressing, melting, and cement-resin matrix embedding. The flowsheet, operational chronology and control principles were detailed for each process, and a typical plant layout was defined to allow comparisons of both investment and operating costs

  18. Use of wet FGD material for revegetation of an abandoned acidic coal refuse pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafi, S.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Wet FGD material has a neutralizing potential of 15% CaCO 3 . These properties may make it a beneficial amendment for revegetation of hyper-acidic coal refuse. In greenhouse and field experiments, coal refuse (pH = 2.5) was amended with wet FGD (300, 500, and 700 tons/acre). Amendment with FGD was as effective as agricultural lime (AL) in increasing refuse pH and decreasing soluble Al and Fe. Addition of compost to the FGD further increased pH and decreased soluble Al and Fe. Downward transport of Ca was greater with FGD than AL, but FGD did not increase leachate concentrations of S. Amendment with FGD increased refuse, leachate and plant tissue concentrations of B. Other trace elements were not increased by FGD. In the greenhouse, plant growth was similar with AL and FGD except during the first three months when AL produced more growth than FGD. The initial growth suppression by FGD was likely due to high soluble salts, and possibly by high B concentrations. During the first year of the field experiment plant growth was greater with FGD than with AL. In both the field and greenhouse experiments compost increased plant growth when combined with FGD. These experiments show revegetation of toxic coal refuse and improvement in drainage water quality is possible by amendment with FGD. Revegetation success will be improved by combined amendment with FGD and compost

  19. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1985-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  20. Solid waste treatment volume reduction by compaction or incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigreux, B.; Carpentier, S.

    1986-01-01

    A short presentation is made of various techniques available for volume reduction by compaction of solid waste produced during nuclear plant operation. A long industrial experience has been accumulated in France on such compactors. Incineration is the most performing method of volume reduction for combustible waste. The CEA Group and SGN have developed a very reliable, simple and safe incinerator which operates with excess air and at high temperature. Sorting and feeding of the waste, ash discharge and transportation to the conditioning unit, gas treatment, are included in the system. The adding of a programmable controller makes it fully automated. The system is described with some detail and recent performance measurements are given [fr

  1. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  2. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  3. When does food refusal require professional intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, Terence M.; Farrow, Claire V.; Martin, Clarissa I.; Isherwood, Elaine; Halford, Jason C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Food refusal can have the potential to lead to nutritional deficiencies, which increases the risk of a variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Deciding when food refusal requires professional intervention is complicated by the fact that there is a natural and appropriate stage in a child's development that is characterised by increased levels of rejection of both previously accepted and novel food items. Therefore, choosing to intervene is difficult, which if handled badly can ...

  4. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Determination of the optimal area of waste incineration in a rotary kiln using a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a mathematical model to determine the flux of incinerated waste in terms of its calorific values. The model is applicable in waste incineration systems equipped with rotary kilns. It is based on the known and proven energy flux balances and equations that describe the specific losses of energy flux while considering the specificity of waste incineration systems. The model is universal as it can be used both for the analysis and testing of systems burning different types of waste (municipal, medical, animal, etc.) and for allowing the use of any kind of additional fuel. Types of waste incinerated and additional fuel are identified by a determination of their elemental composition. The computational model has been verified in three existing industrial-scale plants. Each system incinerated a different type of waste. Each waste type was selected in terms of a different calorific value. This allowed the full verification of the model. Therefore the model can be used to optimize the operation of waste incineration system both at the design stage and during its lifetime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Status and perspectives of municipal solid waste incineration in China: A comparison with developed regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Sukun; Hai, Jing; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid expansion of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, the applicability, technical status, and future improvement of MSW incineration attract much attention in China. This paper aims to be a sensible response, with the aid of a comparison between China and some representative developed regions including the EU, the U.S., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan area. A large number of up-to-date data and information are collected to quantitatively and impartially support the comparison, which covers a wider range of key points including spatial distribution, temporal evolution, technologies, emissions, and perspectives. Analysis results show that MSW incineration is not an outdated choice; however, policy making should prevent the potentially insufficient utilization of MSW incinerators. The structure of MSW incineration technologies is changing in China. The ratio of plants using fluidized bed is decreasing due to various realistic reasons. Decision-makers would select suitable combustion technologies by comprehensive assessments, rather than just by costs. Air pollution control systems are improved with the implementation of China's new emission standard. However, MSW incineration in China is currently blamed for substandard emissions. The reasons include the particular elemental compositions of Chinese MSW, the lack of operating experience, deficient fund for compliance with the emission standard, and the lack of reliable supervisory measures. Some perspectives and suggestions from both technical and managerial aspects are given for the compliance with the emission standard. This paper can provide strategic enlightenments for MSW management in China and other developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk identification for PPP waste-to-energy incineration projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jinbo; Song, Danrong; Zhang, Xueqing; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is regarded as a renewable energy source. In China, the sharp increase of MSW has precipitated the rapid growth of waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration plants. Private capital has been getting into the WTE incineration industry through the public–private partnership (PPP) arrangement. Due to the large construction cost and the long concession period commonly associated with this arrangement, a number of failures have emerged in PPP WTE incineration projects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the key risks of PPP WTE incineration projects in China and study the strategies for managing these risks by drawing experience and learning lessons from these projects. First, we analyzed the MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies, and the development of PPP WTE incineration projects in China. Second, we identified ten key risks through interviews, surveys and visits to some selected projects, and provided detailed analysis of these risks. Lastly, we developed response strategies for these risks from the perspectives of both public and private sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies in China. • Through case study on PPP WTE incineration projects, ten key risks are identified. • Response strategies for key risks are developed

  8. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  9. Introduction of a waste incineration tax. Effects on the Swedish waste flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlin, Jenny [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekvall, Tomas [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 5302, SE-40014 Goeteborg (Sweden); Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan [Profu AB, Goetaforsliden 13, SE-43134 Moelndal (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    A tax on waste-to-energy incineration of fossil carbon in municipal solid waste from households was introduced in Sweden on July 1, 2006. The tax has led to higher incineration gate fees. One of the main purposes with the tax is to increase the incentive for recycling of materials, including biological treatment. We investigate whether and to what extent this effect can be expected. A spreadsheet model is developed in order to estimate the net marginal cost of alternative waste treatment methods, i.e., the marginal cost of alternative treatment minus avoided cost of incineration. The value of the households' time needed for source separation is discussed and included. The model includes the nine largest fractions, totalling 85% (weight), of the household waste currently being sent to waste incineration: food waste, newsprint, paper packaging, soft and hard plastic packaging, diapers, yard waste, other paper waste, and non-combustible waste. Our results indicate that the incineration tax will have the largest effect on biological treatment of kitchen and garden waste, which may increase by 9%. The consequences of an incineration tax depend on: (a) the level of the tax, (b) whether the tax is based on an assumed average Swedish fossil carbon content or on the measured carbon content in each incineration plant, (c) institutional factors such as the cooperation between waste incinerators, and (d) technological factors such as the availability of central sorting of waste or techniques for measurement of fossil carbon in exhaust gases, etc. Information turns out to be a key factor in transferring the governing force of the tax to the households as well improving the households' attitudes towards material recycling. (author)

  10. Introduction of a waste incineration tax. Effects on the Swedish waste flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, Jenny; Ekvall, Tomas; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    A tax on waste-to-energy incineration of fossil carbon in municipal solid waste from households was introduced in Sweden on July 1, 2006. The tax has led to higher incineration gate fees. One of the main purposes with the tax is to increase the incentive for recycling of materials, including biological treatment. We investigate whether and to what extent this effect can be expected. A spreadsheet model is developed in order to estimate the net marginal cost of alternative waste treatment methods, i.e., the marginal cost of alternative treatment minus avoided cost of incineration. The value of the households' time needed for source separation is discussed and included. The model includes the nine largest fractions, totalling 85% (weight), of the household waste currently being sent to waste incineration: food waste, newsprint, paper packaging, soft and hard plastic packaging, diapers, yard waste, other paper waste, and non-combustible waste. Our results indicate that the incineration tax will have the largest effect on biological treatment of kitchen and garden waste, which may increase by 9%. The consequences of an incineration tax depend on: (a) the level of the tax, (b) whether the tax is based on an assumed average Swedish fossil carbon content or on the measured carbon content in each incineration plant, (c) institutional factors such as the cooperation between waste incinerators, and (d) technological factors such as the availability of central sorting of waste or techniques for measurement of fossil carbon in exhaust gases, etc. Information turns out to be a key factor in transferring the governing force of the tax to the households as well improving the households' attitudes towards material recycling. (author)

  11. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 'Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States', the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD 50 < 10 μg/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants

  12. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  13. Operation of a prototype high-level alpha solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.; Warren, J.H.; Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1979-01-01

    A full-scale (5 kg waste/hour) controlled-air incinerator is presently being tested as part of a program to develop technology for incineration of Savannah River Plant solid transuranic wastes. This unit is designed specifically to incinerate relatively small quantities of solid combustible wastes that are contaminated up to 10 5 times the present nominal 10 nCi/g threshold value for such isotopes as 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 242 Cm and 252 Cf. Automatic feed preparation and incinerator operation and control have been incorporated into the design to simulate the future plant design which will minimize operator radiation exposure. Over 250 kg of nonradioactive wastes characteristic of plutonium finishing operations have been incinerated at throughputs exceeding 5 kg/hr for periods up to 6 hours. Safety and reliability were major design objectives. Upon completion of an initial experimental phase to determine process sensitivity and flexibility, the facility will be used to develop bases for the production unit's safety analysis report, technical standards, and operating procedures. An ultimate use of the experimental unit will be the testing of actual production unit components and the training of Savannah River Plant operating personnel

  14. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  15. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  16. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  17. The benefits of flue gas recirculation in waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Giuseppe; Verdone, Nicola; Bravi, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Flue gas recirculation in the incinerator combustion chamber is an operative technique that offers substantial benefits in managing waste incineration. The advantages that can be obtained are both economic and environmental and are determined by the low flow rate of fumes actually emitted if compared to the flue gas released when recirculation is not conducted. Simulations of two incineration processes, with and without flue gas recirculation, have been carried out by using a commercial flowsheeting simulator. The results of the simulations demonstrate that, from an economic point of view, the proposed technique permits a greater level of energy recovery (up to +3%) and, at the same time, lower investment costs as far as the equipment and machinery constituting the air pollution control section of the plant are concerned. At equal treatment system efficiencies, the environmental benefits stem from the decrease in the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Throughout the paper reference is made to the EC legislation in the field of environmental protection, thus ensuring the general validity in the EU of the foundations laid and conclusions drawn henceforth. A numerical example concerning mercury emission quantifies the reported considerations and illustrates that flue gas recirculation reduces emission of this pollutant by 50%.

  18. An overview of a nuclear waste incinerator's erection and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohai; Zhou Lianquan; Wang Peiyi; Yang Liguo; Zhang Xiaobin; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Dong Jingling; Zheng Bowen; Qiu Mingcai

    2004-01-01

    An incinerator for combustible nuclear waste, with spent oil and graphite included, was established. The processes are briefly described, which combines pyrolysis-incineration of solid, spray-incineration of oils and fixed bed incineration of graphite, followed by off-gas treatment employing both dry and wet means. The results from non-active and active trial run are also reported

  19. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funari, Valerio; Meisel, Thomas; Braga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m 2 /a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m 2 /a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  20. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides....... The overall environmental performance of the Danish system was better than the Italian, mainly because of higher heat recovery at the Danish plant. Flue gas cleaning at the Italian plant was, however, preferable to the Danish, indicating that efficient flue gas cleaning may provide significant benefits...... contradictory results if these local conditions are not properly accounted for. The importance of regional differences and site-specific data, and choice of LCA model itself, was evaluated by assessment of two waste incinerators representing northern and southern Europe (Denmark and Italy) based on two...

  1. Medication Refusal: Resident Rights, Administration Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Danielle R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2017-12-01

    Occasionally, residents actively or passively refuse to take medications. Residents may refuse medication for a number of reasons, including religious beliefs, dietary restrictions, misunderstandings, cognitive impairment, desire to self-harm, or simple inconvenience. This action creates a unique situation for pharmacists and long-term facility staff, especially if patients have dementia. Residents have the legal right to refuse medications, and long-term care facilities need to employ a process to resolve disagreement between the health care team that recommends the medication and the resident who refuses it. In some cases, simple interventions like selecting a different medication or scheduling medications in a different time can address and resolve the resident's objection. If the medical team and the resident cannot resolve their disagreement, often an ethics consultation is helpful. Documenting the resident's refusal to take any or all medications, the health care team's actions and any other outcomes are important. Residents' beliefs may change over time, and the health care team needs to be prepared to revisit the issue as necessary.

  2. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  3. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  4. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  5. Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants in workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Meihuan; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Rongfa; Zhuang, Xi; Lin, Ying; Ren, Mingzhong

    2018-06-01

    Urinary metabolites of phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in workers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and an incineration plant, in order to assess the PFR exposure risks of workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) were the most frequently detected chemicals (82-93%). The median concentrations of BCEP, BDCIPP, and DPHP were 1.77, 0.23, and 0.70 ng/mL, and 1.44, 0.22, and 0.11 ng/mL in samples from the e-waste site and the incineration plant, respectively. Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was detected in all samples from the incineration plant, with a median level of 0.30 ng/mL. The concentrations of BDCIPP (r = -0.31, p waste site. Negative and significant correlations were also observed between the concentrations of BCEP (r = -0.42, p incineration plant. No gender differences were observed in levels of PFR metabolites in urine samples (p > 0.05). Concentrations of BDCIPP in female were significantly correlated with occupational exposure time (r = -0.507, p  0.05). Overall, the workers with occupational exposure to PFRs had different profiles of urinary PFR metabolites. The age, occupational exposure time, and gender seemed not to be main factors mediating the exposure to PFRs for workers occupied with e-waste recycling and incineration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant

  7. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  8. Performance history of the WERF incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Bohrer, H.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    As society's environmental conscience grows, diverse political economical, and social contentions cloud the issue of proper waste management. However, experience at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) demonstrates clearly that incineration is an effective component in responsible, long-term waste management. Using a simple but safe design, the WERF incinerator has successfully reduced the volume of low-level beta/gamma waste. This paper discusses some of the achievements and problems experienced during operation of the WERF incinerator

  9. Dioxins in processes of incineration of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez John; Espinel Jorge; Ocampo Alonso; Londono Carlos

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a door to come into the subject of dioxins, which is a little bit known in Colombia. In this way, in order to clarify and to get a wider knowledge about dioxins and waste incineration process, it has been divided in three main sections. The first one gives a basic information about origin, effects on the human health and a chemical definition of dioxins; in the second one the main kind of incinerator processes are given to know, also a deeper knowledge of reaction formation. The last part emphasizes options to control dioxins emissions in incineration systems

  10. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  11. Radwaste incineration, is it ready for use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The incinerator installed at JAERI in 1973 has the record of being operated continually for eight years without noticeable damage even in the refractories. We are convinced that it can be used for along period of time. These incinerators in Japan are now regarded as the useful and reliable waste management facilities, though they are processing the restricted sorts of wastes, such as low level ombustible solids and oils. In the future, incinerators of these types are supposed to increase in number in Japan, and they will continue to contribute as an important volume reduction measure which can also convert the wastes to chemically stable substances

  12. Current status of research on school refusal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido J. Inglés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available School refusal behavior refers to the avoidance of a child attending school and/or persistent difficulty staying in the classroom throughout the school day. Based on a review of the scientific literature, the aim of this study is to describe the current state of research on school refusal, differentiating between the findings and progress made in Spain from those achieved in the international field. For this purpose, the significance of this phenomenon, in addition to associated risk factors and variables, will be reviewed in the child and youth population. In turn, the commonly used assessment methods and most recommended treatment proposals, mainly based on cognitive behavioral therapy, are discussed. The results reveal several gaps and subjects for debate in some areas of knowledge about school refusal behavior, with differences being found between Spanish and international studies. In conclusion, future studies and challenges in this field are required.

  13. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  14. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  15. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T Cd = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required

  16. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  17. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Refuse-fueled power generation introduction technology, etc. Part 2. Survey of general refuse-fueled power generation; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Haikibutsu hatsuden donyu gijutsu chosa to - Ippan haikibutsu hatsuden chosa Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were conducted of the effect on waste quality of the Law for Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging, diffusion of PFI (private finance initiative) involving refuse-fueled power generation, recycling of slag, etc. Questionnairing was conducted for the survey of the effect on waste of the effectuation of the recycling law, size of population supplying the waste and the amount actually incinerated, actually measured data of the composition of incinerated waste, assorted collection programs, amount reducing measures, and the like. Studies were made as to if the empirical formulas applied in the survey of the preceding fiscal year would remain applicable after the coming into force of the recycling law. In the survey of PFI popularization, it was found that the rate it was taken into account for concrete projects was so low as 13.8% though most of the autonomous bodies had cognizance of PFI. It was requested that it be clearly stipulated that 'the conventional subsidies and grants apply also to PFI projects.' In the survey of conversion of residue into molten slag in refuse-fueled power generation and its reuse, four kinds of slag specimens were examined for physical properties, elution, and analyzed for ingredients, and then it was found that they posed no problems like heavy metal elution. (NEDO)

  18. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  19. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  20. Protection of HCl dew point corrosion in municipal incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S.; Tsuruta, T.; Maeda, N.

    1976-12-01

    HCl dew point corrosion is often observed on the components of municipal incinerators used for burning wastes which contain polyvinyl chloride. In order to solve the problem, the relation between concentrations of gaseous HCl and the corresponding dew points as well as concentrations of condensed HCl, was investigated. A series of HCl dipping tests for the materials concerned was performed and the dip test results were compared with in-plant tests. As a result it was concluded that HCl dew point corrosion can be reliably predicted from measurements of HCl concentrations in the water and in the gas and the partial pressure of the saturated steam at the dew point.

  1. FY 1999 report on the results of the development of technology of the environmentally friendly next generation small incinerator; 1999 nendo kankyo taio jisedai kogata shokyakuro gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of a next generation small incinerator of low dioxin emission. Concretely, the technology to be developed is for a next generation small incinerator of low dioxin emission in which the exhaust gas treatment system enabling various kinds of heat utilization is connected to the small incinerator mixing the fixed bed two stage combustion technology of industrial waste use low dioxin oxygen concentration control system and the high performance industrial furnace heat storage combustion technology. The trial-manufactured small incinerator has characteristics as follows: The incinerator can complement the decrease in efficiency in the wide-area refuse collection. It can remarkably reduce the emission of environmental pollutants such as CO2. It contributes to reduction in CO2 emission and reduction in fossil fuel consumption amount by effective utilization of exhaust heat. The incinerator is lower in price than the existing one of low dioxin emission type. The subjects are verification of the overall effect of the lower dioxin emission, verification of effects of reduction in CO2 emission and reduction in fossil fuel consumption amount by heat utilization, and study of the spread/promotion system. The report contains items of the development of an environmentally friendly next generation small incinerator and the evaluation survey for the commercialization, and photos as supplementary data. (NEDO)

  2. Giving waste a hot time [incineration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruickshank, Andrew.

    1986-01-01

    High temperature incineration technology, as an effective way of managing both solid wastes and sludges, is described. The process, developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is detailed. (U.K.)

  3. Los Alamos controlled-air incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) require that PCBs in concentrations greater than 500 ppM be disposed of in EPA-permitted incinerators. Four commercial incineration systems in the United States have EPA operating permits for receiving and disposing of concentrated PCBs, but none can accept PCBs contaminated with nuclear materials. The first section of this report presents an overview of an EPA-sponsored program for studying PCB destruction in the large-scale Los Alamos controlled-air incinerator. A second major FY 1983 program, sponsored by the Naval Weapons Support Center, Crane, Indiana, is designed to determine operating conditions that will destroy marker smoke compounds without also forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known or suspected to be carcinogenic. We discuss the results of preliminary trial burns in which various equipment and feed formulations were tested. We present qualitative analyses for PAHs in the incinerator offgas as a result of these tests

  4. CO2 laser-aided waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Guiberteau, P.; Caminat, P.; Bournot, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lasers are widely employed in laboratories and in certain industrial applications, notably for welding, cutting and surface treatments. This paper describes a new application, incineration, which appears warranted when the following features are required: high-temperature incineration (> 1500 deg C) with close-tolerance temperature control in an oxidizing medium while ensuring containment of toxic waste. These criteria correspond to the application presented here. Following a brief theoretical introduction concerning the laser/surface interaction, the paper describes the incineration of graphite waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides. Process feasibility has been demonstrated on a nonradioactive prototype capable of incinerating 10 kg -h-1 using a 7 kW CO 2 laser. An industrial facility with the same capacity, designed to operate within the constraints of an alpha-tight glove box environment, is now at the project stage. Other types of applications with similar requirements may be considered. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  5. Some notes about radioactive wastes incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.

    1984-01-01

    A general review about the most significant techniques in order to incinerate radioactive wastes by controlled air, acid digestion, fluidized bed, etc., is presented. These features are briefly exposed in the article through feed preparation, combustion effectiveness, etc. (author)

  6. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  7. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  8. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-31

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2,900,000 MWh of electricity, of which 2,200,000 MWh were sold to Electricité de France (EDF) and 9,100,000 MWh of heat, of which 7,200,000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance.

  9. Incineration of municipal and assimilated wastes in France: Assessment of latest energy and material recovery performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, Erwan; Berthier, Francine; Luszezanec, Audrey; Nicolas, Florence

    2007-01-01

    Incineration has an important place in waste management in France. In 2003, around 130 incineration plants have treated 12.6 Mt of non-dangerous waste, mainly composed of household waste (10.8 Mt), non-dangerous waste from industry, business, services (1.0 Mt), sewage sludge (0.2 Mt) or clinical waste (0.1 Mt). The incineration of these wastes generated 3.0 Mt of bottom ash of which 2.3 Mt were used for roads construction and 0.2 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metal were recycled. It also produced 2 900 000 MWh of electricity, of which 2 200 000 MWh were sold to Electricite de France (EDF) and 9 100 000 MWh of heat, of which 7 200 000 MWh were sold to private or public users. These French incinerators of non-hazardous waste are currently being thoroughly modernized, thus making possible the consolidation and the enhancement of their environmental and energy performance. This process is related to the implementation of the European Directive 2000/76/CE whose expiration date is 28 December 2005. Upon request of ADEME, the engineering company GIRUS has realised the first technical and economical evaluation of works necessary to bring incinerators into compliance. The financial estimations, carried out in 30 June 2003, show that the investments to be devoted could reach 750 million euros. This assessment shed new light on the situation of non-hazardous waste incinerators, including an identification and a rank ordering for each incinerator of the most frequent and the most complex non-conformities to be solved in term of cost and delay. At last, this assessment gives the solutions for each non-compliance

  10. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and soli...

  11. Waste incineration, a high-tech industry. ''Wohltaetig ist des Feuers Macht'' (F.Schiller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogg, H.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, pollutant emissions from waste incineration plants have been reduced to one tenth to one hundredth of the former values; in the case of dioxins, even down to one four-hundredth. Even in the most unfavourable circumstances, the additional pollution is in the range of the normal background level. (orig.) [de

  12. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Incineration or Recycling of Dutch Household Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); R. van Koppen (Rick); E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); P. Nillesen (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe cost-effectiveness of plastic recycling is compared to energy recovery from plastic incineration in a waste-to-energy plant using data for the Netherlands. Both options have specific benefits and costs. The benefits of recycling are the avoidance of both CO2 that otherwise would be

  13. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  14. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and Stack concentration of Hg were less than 0.4 microg/Nm(3). Since Hg emissions were at low concentrations, Hg in soil from atmospheric fallout near this incinerator including uptake by local weeds were very low ranging from non detectable to 399 micro g/kg. However, low but elevated levels of Hg (76-275 micro g/kg) were observed in surface soil and deeper layers (0-40 cm) in the predominant downwind direction of incinerator over a distance of between 0.5-5 km. Soil Hg concentrations measured from a reference/background track opposite of the prevailing wind direction were lower ranging between 7-46 micro g/kg. Nevertheless, the trend of Hg build up in soil was clearly seen in the wet season only, suggesting that wet deposition process is a major Hg pollution source. Hg concentrations in the sea bottom sediment collected next to the last station track was small with values between 35-67 micro g/kg. Based upon the overall findings, in terms of current potential environmental risk

  15. Process engineering design of pathological waste incinerator with an integrated combustion gases treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, A F

    2007-06-25

    Management of medical wastes generated at different hospitals in Egypt is considered a highly serious problem. The sources and quantities of regulated medical wastes have been thoroughly surveyed and estimated (75t/day from governmental hospitals in Cairo). From the collected data it was concluded that the most appropriate incinerator capacity is 150kg/h. The objective of this work is to develop the process engineering design of an integrated unit, which is technically and economically capable for incinerating medical wastes and treatment of combustion gases. Such unit consists of (i) an incineration unit (INC-1) having an operating temperature of 1100 degrees C at 300% excess air, (ii) combustion-gases cooler (HE-1) generating 35m(3)/h hot water at 75 degrees C, (iii) dust filter (DF-1) capable of reducing particulates to 10-20mg/Nm(3), (iv) gas scrubbers (GS-1,2) for removing acidic gases, (v) a multi-tube fixed bed catalytic converter (CC-1) to maintain the level of dioxins and furans below 0.1ng/Nm(3), and (vi) an induced-draft suction fan system (SF-1) that can handle 6500Nm(3)/h at 250 degrees C. The residence time of combustion gases in the ignition, mixing and combustion chambers was found to be 2s, 0.25s and 0.75s, respectively. This will ensure both thorough homogenization of combustion gases and complete destruction of harmful constituents of the refuse. The adequate engineering design of individual process equipment results in competitive fixed and operating investments. The incineration unit has proved its high operating efficiency through the measurements of different pollutant-levels vented to the open atmosphere, which was found to be in conformity with the maximum allowable limits as specified in the law number 4/1994 issued by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the European standards.

  16. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  17. Air curtain incinerator equipment performance evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    About 50 tonnes of oil-contaminated debris and related wood products were successfully incinerated in a 10-h performance evaluation of a mobile air curtain incinerator. The test was conducted to evaluate the incinerator's ability to combust oil-contaminated trash and debris obtained from oil spill sites. The operating principle of the apparatus involves a diesel engine driving an air blower to deliver ca 20,000 scfm of air into a 5-m long manifold angled at a 30{degree} slope into an incineration tank. A bottomhole aerator is lowered to the bottom of the tank and compressed air is injected into the aerator to control burn efficiency. The blower is engaged once the debris in the tank is burning sufficiently after starting a fire in the debris. The air curtain effect created by the air deflecting off the opposite wall from the blower manifold and bouncing off the bottom and up the side of the incineration tank results in repeated combustion of the gases, thereby significantly reducing the degree of visible smoke emission. The unit is capable of incinerating ca 5 tonnes/h and of generating ca 16 m{sup 3}/h of hot water which can be used for flushing spill sites and cleaning shorelines. 12 figs.

  18. 8. European sewage and refuse symposium. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The subject of the 8. European Sewage and Refuse Symposium is covered under the following headings: collection and control in sewers, industrial waste water management, pretreatment, combined treatment, special cases, industrial waste water sludges disposal and the European waste business. (orig./BBR)

  19. [Professionals' training and refusal of nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    A patient's refusal of nursing care concerns the caregivers. Future professionals must be prepared for it and student nurses are trained to deal with such situations. It is also important to empower patients and support them in their choice. This article presents the example of the Haute École Robert Schuman in Libramont, Belgium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  1. Analysis of operating costs a Low-Level Mixed Waste Incineration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghry, S.L.; Salmon, R.; Hermes, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    By definition, mixed wastes contain both chemically hazardous and radioactive components. These components make the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes expensive and highly complex issues because the different regulations which pertain to the two classes of contaminants frequently conflict. One method to dispose of low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) is by incineration, which volatizes and destroys the organic (and other) hazardous contaminants and also greatly reduces the waste volume. The US Department of Energy currently incinerates liquid LLMW in its Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located at the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This incinerator has been fully permitted since 1991 and to date has treated approximately 7 x 10 6 kg of liquid LLMW. This paper presents an analysis of the budgeted operating costs by category (e.g., maintenance, plant operations, sampling and analysis, and utilities) for fiscal year 1994 based on actual operating experience (i.e., a ''bottoms-up'' budget). These costs provide benchmarking guidelines which could be used in comparing incinerator operating costs with those of other technologies designed to dispose of liquid LLMW. A discussion of the current upgrade status and future activities are included in this paper. Capital costs are not addressed

  2. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  3. Solidification of ash from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, W.A.; Albenesius, E.L.; Becker, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The safe disposal of both high-level and low-level radioactive waste is a problem of increasing national attention. A full-scale incineration and solidification process to dispose of suspect-level and low-level beta-gamma contaminated combustible waste is being demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The stabilized wasteform generated by the process will meet or exceed all future anticipated requirements for improved disposal of low-level waste. The incineration process has been evaluated at SRL using nonradioactive wastes, and is presently being started up in SRP to process suspect-level radioactive wastes. A cement solidification process for incineration products is currently being evaluated by SRL, and will be included with the incineration process in SRP during the winter of 1984. The GEM alumnus author conducted research in a related disposal solidification program during the GEM-sponsored summer internship, and upon completion of the Masters program, received full-time responsibility for developing the incineration products solidification process

  4. Marketing of fuels - energy from refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedale, A W

    1986-03-01

    Ways of utilising low grade materials, achieving market acceptance and proving their technical and financial viability are discussed. Alternative ways in which wastes can be used to produce energy are outlined covering the incineration process whereby heat normally lost in the waste gases after the combustion of waste materials is recovered to produce heat and sometimes electricity, waste shredding and use in fluidised bed boilers, and combustion of waste pellets. Employment of utilities company and innovative and energetic approach to marketing are considered.

  5. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  6. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. ► Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. ► Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. ► Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  7. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  8. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  9. Incineration of contaminated oil from Sellafield - 16246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, Craig; Cassidy, Helen; Stenmark, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studsvik have been incinerating Low Level Waste (LLW) at its licensed facility in Sweden since the mid-1970's. This process not only enables the volume of waste to be significantly reduced but also produces an inert residue suitable for final disposal. The facility has historically incinerated only solid dry LLW, however in 2008 an authorisation was obtained to permit the routine incineration of LLW contaminated oil at the facility. Prior to obtaining the authorisation to incinerate oils and other organic liquids - both from clean-up activities on the Studsvik site and on a commercial basis - a development program was established. The primary aims of this were to identify the optimum process set-up for the incinerator and also to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the appropriate environmental and radiological parameters would be maintained throughout the new process. The final phase of the development program was to incinerate a larger campaign of contaminated oil from the nuclear industry. A suitable accumulation of oil was identified on the Sellafield site in Cumbria and a commercial contract was established to incinerate approximately 40 tonnes of oil from the site. The inventory of oil chosen for the trial incineration represented a significant challenge to the incineration facility as it had been generated from various facilities on-site and had degraded significantly following years of storage. In order to transport the contaminated oil from the Sellafield site in the UK to the Studsvik facility in Sweden several challenges had to be overcome. These included characterisation, packaging and international transportation (under a Transfrontier Shipment (TFS) authorisation) for one of the first transports of liquid radioactive wastes outside the UK. The incineration commenced in late 2007 and was successfully completed in early 2008. The total volume reduction achieved was greater than 97%, with the resultant ash packaged and returned to the UK (for

  10. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings or...

  11. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person owning...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the...

  13. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District Manager...

  14. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of air...

  15. 25 CFR 135.6 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.6 Section 135.6 Indians... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT Charges Assessed Against Irrigation District Lands § 135.6 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to the United States to refuse the delivery of water to each of the said...

  16. Refusal Skill Ability: An Examination of Adolescent Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Birnel, Sara; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether refusal assertion as defined by a proven drug prevention program was associated with adolescent perceptions of effectiveness by comparing two sets of coded responses to adolescent videotaped refusal role-plays (N = 63). The original set of codes was defined by programmatic standards of refusal assertion and the…

  17. Persian Speakers' Use of Refusal Strategies across Politeness Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the preferred refusal strategies in Persian. 3047 refusals collected by 108 field workers as well as 376 refusals collected through face to face interviews were analyzed and classified according to the descriptions proposed by Liao (1994) and Liao and Bresnahan (1996). The frequencies of the resulting direct and…

  18. Primary care pediatricians' perceptions of vaccine refusal in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zachi; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Drabik, Anna; Gerber, Andreas; Miron, Dan

    2011-03-01

    An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as refusing parents.

  19. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  20. 25 CFR 135.23 - Refusal of water delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal of water delivery. 135.23 Section 135.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES CONSTRUCTION ASSESSMENTS, CROW... District § 135.23 Refusal of water delivery. The right is reserved to refuse the delivery of water to any...

  1. 19 CFR 12.114 - Release or refusal of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release or refusal of delivery. 12.114 Section 12... delivery. If the completed Notice of Arrival directs the port director to release the shipment of... directs the port director to refuse delivery of the shipment, the shipment shall be refused delivery and...

  2. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  3. Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsang Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WtE incineration technology is widely used to solve the energy supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation problems in urban areas. In Taiwan, there are new laws and regulations that would affect greenhouse gas management of WtE incineration plants. This research aims to identify or raise key issues to be promoted for WtE incineration plants due to existing management systems and complex issues mixed with GHG, energy, and solid waste treatment. This study utilizes inventory analysis and social LCA (SLCA approach on GHG management of WtE incineration plants in Taiwan to systematically identify materiality issues to be promoted. According to the results of materiality analysis for SLCA, this study generalizes four stakeholders, nine subcategories, and their 15 inventory indicators; and concludes that, among assessment results of 15 inventory indicators, three indicators are at a high level, four at a medium level, and eight at a low level. In total, 12 materiality issues are recognized. This study suggests WtE incineration plants should consider the following materiality issues with respect to priority: a systematic database and calculation methods, the goal and criteria of the laws and regulations, technology development toward circular economy and promotion activity or opportunity for local community and organization level.

  4. Management of atmospheric pollutants from waste incineration processes: the case of Bozen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Marco; Tirler, Werner; Angelucci, Giulio; Zardi, Dino; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2013-03-01

    This article presents the case study of a waste incinerator located in a region rich in natural and environmental resources, and close to the city of Bozen, where there are about 100,000 inhabitants. Local authorities paid special attention to the effect of the plant on human health and the surrounding environment. Indeed, among the measures adopted to control the emissions, in 2003 an automatic sampling system was installed specifically to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions during the complete operation time of the plant. The continuous sampling system was coupled directly to aerosol spectrometers for the determination of fine and ultra-fine particles in the emissions of the plant. The measurement results suggest that the waste incineration plant of Bozen is not a significant source of PCDD/F, or fine and ultra-fine particles. Immission measurements from other monitoring systems confirmed these results.

  5. Theoretical aspects of solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations that may be incorporated into the design basis of a prototype incinerator for solid transuranic wastes are described. It is concluded that primary pyrolysis followed by secondary afterburning is a very unattractive incineration strategy unless waste resource recovery is a process goal. The absence of primary combustion air leads to poor waste dispersion with associated diffusion and conduction limitations rendering the process inefficient. Single step oxidative incineration is most attractive when volume reduction is of primary importance. The volume of this type of incinerator (including afterburner) should be relatively much smaller than the pyrolysis type. Afterburning is limited by soot oxidation when preceded by pyrolysis, but limited by turbulent mixing when preceded by direct solid waste oxidation. In either case, afterburner temperatures above 1300 0 K are not warranted. Results based on a nominal solid waste composition and anticipated throughput indicate that NO/sub x/, HF, and SO 2 will not exceed the ambient air quality standards. Control of radioactive particulates, which can be achieved by multiple HEPA filtration, will reduce the conventional particulate emission to the vanishing point. Chemical equilibrium calculations also indicate that chlorine and to a lesser extent fluorine may be precipitated out in the ash as sodium salts if a sufficient flux of sodium is introduced into the incinerator

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  7. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  8. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  9. Use for refuse of shale carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1917-09-25

    A process is disclosed for using the refuse from the carbonization of bituminous shales in the preparation of light building material, characterized in that the pulverized material is mixed wet with a light filler, formed in a mold, and burned with or without the addition of clay or with the addition of binding and preserving material, preparing the mold from the pulverized material in the cold.

  10. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  11. Copper leaching of MSWI bottom ash co-disposed with refuse: effect of short-term accelerated weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lianghu; Guo, Guangzhai; Shi, Xinlong; Zuo, Minyu; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Aihua; Zhao, Youcai

    2013-06-01

    Co-disposal of refuse with municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (IBA) either multi-layered as landfill cover or mixed with refuse could pose additional risk to the environment because of enhanced leaching of heavy metals, especially Cu. This study applied short-term accelerated weathering to IBA, and monitored the mineralogical and chemical properties of IBA during the weathering process. Cu extractability of the weathered IBA was then evaluated using standard leaching protocols (i.e. SPLP and TCLP) and co-disposal leaching procedure. The results showed that weathering had little or no beneficial effect on Cu leaching in SPLP and TCLP, which can be explained by the adsorption and complexation of Cu with DOM. However, the Cu leaching of weathered IBA was reduced significantly when situated in fresh simulated landfill leachate. This was attributed to weakening Cu complexation with fulvic acid or hydrophilic fractions and/or intensifying Cu absorption to neoformed hydr(oxide) minerals in weathered IBA. The amount of total leaching Cu and Cu in free or labile complex fraction (the fraction with the highest mobility and bio-toxicity) of the 408-h weathered IBA were remarkably decreased by 86.3% and 97.6% in the 15-day co-disposal leaching test. Accelerated weathering of IBA may be an effective pretreatment method to decrease Cu leaching prior to its co-disposal with refuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  13. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  14. Technological process of a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Qiu Mingcai; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Zhang Xiaobin; Lu Xiaowu; Dong Jingling; Wang Xujin; Li Chuanlian; Yang Baomin

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the technological process of a multi-purpose radwaste incineration system. It is composed of three parts: pretreatment, incinerating and clean up of off-gas. The waste that may be treated include combustible solid waste, spent resins and oils. Technological routes of the system is pyrolysis incinerating for solid waste, spray incinerating for spent oils, combination of dry-dust removing and wet adsorption for cleaning up off-gas

  15. Treatment of solid radioactive waste: The incineration of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, F.; Hempelmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear facilities produce large quantities of burnable solid radioactive waste which incineration can reduce in volume and change into a form capable of ultimate storage. Experiments over many years were carried out at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center to determine the boundary conditions for the design and construction of incineration plants for radioactive waste. On the basis of those experiments a test facility was started up in 1971. This operating facility consists of a shaft furnace lined with ceramics with a downstream series of ceramic flue gas filters. In 1976 the plant was exchanged by the installation of a pilot facility for burning organic solvents and of a flue gas scrubber. The plant has so far been in operation for more than 28000 hours and has processed in excess of 1500 to of solid and some 300 m 3 of liquid low level radioactive wastes. Various repairs and interventions were carried out without greatly impairing availability, which was 81 % on the average. The plant design is being used by various licensees in Japan and Europe; three plants are either in operation or completed, three more are under construction or in the planning stage. On the basis of the available process an incineration plant for alpha contaminated waste will be built at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in the next few years. (orig.)

  16. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  17. Improvement of environmentally relevant qualities of slags from waste-to-energy plants; Verbesserung der umweltrelevanten Qualitaeten von Schlacken aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwast, Holger [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Riemann, Axel [RSP GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    This expert opinion describes options for improving slag quality (further measures for processing slag, as well as improvements of grate firing in terms of firing-technology), to ensure a slag recovery that is as sustainable as possible. In the context of this project, the term ''slag'' serves as a synonym for solid incineration residues that are generated during the incineration of wastes or of refuse derived fuels and that are separated there (e.g. from the deslagger). The term ''slags'' is also used as a synonym for grate ashes. The main focus of this expertise is on resource and climate protection issues with respect to slag processing. Resource protection refers to the saving of resources and natural raw materials, such as, for example, water and metal ores. Climate protection in this context means CO{sub 2} mitigation through a high specific net energy generation in waste incineration plants, as well as a reduced energy use due to avoided new production of metals, which can be recycled from slag processing. The main measure for improving climate and resource protection in slag processing consists therefore of separating as much metal as possible from slags. By recycling those separated slags, the energy that is needed for the extraction from ores and the raw material ore itself can be saved. This advantage in terms of energy, however, can be partially compensated by the energy use potentially needed for the improvement of slag processing. Further important aspects include the protection of water and soils, as well as the suitability of processed slag for an adequate recovery. These last criteria, however, are not central for this expertise. Currently, 69 municipal solid waste incinerators, hereinafter referred to as Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants, and 23 refuse derived fuel (RDF) power plants with grate firing are in operation in Germany. Their total capacity amounts to more than 21 million Mg per year. Another 13 RDF

  18. A new incinerator for burning radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallek, H.; Laser, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new two stage incinerator for burning radioactive waste consisting of a pyrolysis chamber and an oxidation chamber is described. The fly ash is retained in the oxidation chamber by high temperature filter mats. The capacity of the installed equipment is about 100 kg/h. Waste with different composition and different calorific value were successfully burnt. The operation of the incinerator can easily be controlled by addition of a primary air stream to the pyrolysis chamber and a secondary air stream to the oxidation chamber. During continuous operation the CO and C (organic) content is below 100 ppm and 50 ppm, respectively. The burn-out of the ash is very good. After minor changes the incinerator may be suitable for burning of α-bearing waste

  19. Requirements for permitting a mixed waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichon, M.; Feldman, J.; Serne, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The consideration, design, selection and operation of any incinerator depends primarily on characteristic quality (ultimate and proximate analyses) and quantity to the waste to be incinerated. In the case of burning any combination of mixed hazardous, biomedical and radioactive low level waste, specific federal and generic state environmental regulatory requirements are outlined. Combustion chamber temperature and waste residence time requirements will provide the rest of the envelope for consideration. Performance requirements must be balanced between the effects of time and temperature on destruction of the organic waste and the vaporization and possible emission of the inorganic waste components (e.g., toxic metals, radioactive inorganics) as operating conditions and emission levels will be set in state and federal regulatory permits. To this end the complete characterization of the subject waste stream must be determined if an accurate assessment of incineration effectiveness and impact are to be performed

  20. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  1. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alpha waste incinerator at the Cea Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The Cea/Valduc has brought into operation an incinerator for alpha waste. The incineration is in two steps. The first one is a pyrolysis under reduction atmosphere in a furnace at 550 celsius degrees and the second one is a calcination under oxidizing atmosphere of the pyrolysis residue in a furnace at 900 celsius degrees. The ashes have less than 1% of carbon. The gas coming from incineration become oxidized at 1100 Celsius degrees, then are cooled, filtered to eliminate any track of radioactivity. Then, they are cleaned with a neutralisation process. The facility reduces the volume of waste in a factor 20. The capacity of treatment is 7 kg/h. The annual capacity is 30 m 3 . The investment represents 70 millions of francs and the cost of functioning is 2 M F by year. (N.C.)

  3. Secondary incinerator for radioactive gaseous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Masuda, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A vessel incorporated with packings, in which at least either of the packings and the vessel is put to induction-heating by high frequency induction coils, is disposed in a flow channel of radioactive gaseous wastes exhausted from a radioactive waste incinerator. The packings include metals such as stainless pipes and electroconductive ceramics such as C-SiC ceramics. Since only electricity is used as an energy source, in the secondary incinerator for the radioactive gaseous wastes, it can be installed in a cell safely. In addition, if ceramics are used, there is no worry of deterioration of the incinerator due to organic materials, and essential functions are not lowered. (T.M.)

  4. Exergy analysis of aluminum recovery from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Allegrini, Elisa; Laner, D.

    Two main challenges, associated with the recovery of aluminum from state-of-the-art municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, are yield as well as quality losses of metallic aluminum due to particle surface oxidation and presence of impurities. Yet, in the framework of life cycle assessment...... (LCA) a direct measure for expressing the quality of primary and secondary resources is missing. In view of a possible solution, exergy has been proposed as a concept to evaluate the quality of resources. In this paper, LCA and exergy analyses for two waste treatment approaches are conducted...... in parallel to each other, with a goal to evaluate the added value of exergy for LCA studies in the resource recovery context. The functional unit is the treatment of 1 ton MSW. Two alternative approaches for recovering aluminum from MSW directed to a waste-to-energy plant are considered. A) MSW is treated...

  5. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  6. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or process...

  7. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, R A; Silbergeld, E K

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy.

  8. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment or disposal by incineration. 20.2004 Section 20... § 20.2004 Treatment or disposal by incineration. (a) A licensee may treat or dispose of licensed material by incineration only: (1) As authorized by paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) If the material...

  9. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator

  10. Addition of liquid waste incineration capability to the INEL's low-level waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, E.M.; Clark, D.P.; McFee, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid waste system has recently been installed in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In this paper, aspects of the incineration system such as the components, operations, capabilities, capital cost, EPA permit requirements, and future plans are discussed. The principal objective of the liquid incineration system is to provide the capability to process hazardous, radioactively contaminated, non-halogenated liquid wastes. The system consists primarily of a waste feed system, instrumentation and controls, and a liquid burner, which were procured at a capital cost of $115,000

  11. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  12. Experience with refuse-fuelled industrial heating power stations during licensing, construction and operation. Continental heating power plant, Korbach; Erfahrungen mit EBS-Industrieheizkraftwerken in Genehmigung, Bau und Betrieb. Industrieheizkraftwerk Continental, Korbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, F. [MVV Energie Industrial Solutions West GmbH, Sollingen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In this project, all licensing-relevant boundary conditions of the site were clarified beforehand and were taken into account in the conception of the plant. Particular regard was given to the fact that the plant will be sited in a water protection area and to the area's pre-pollution history. The licensing procedure showed that the stipulations of the 17. BImSchV and other protective regulations are insufficient in the opinion of some citizens, who expect a deterioration of their living conditions and even health problems arising from a technical systems that are not state of the art. The legal representatives of the concerned citizens assume a lack of basic data and wrong assumptions for the licensing procedure. Greater transparence by better advance information may lead to a more objective discussion but it cannot quench citizens' fears. (orig.)

  13. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  14. Noncondensable hydrogen sulfide incineration with brine scrubbing air emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, W.B.; Goddard, C.B.; McClain, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the technical and institutional feasibility of incinerating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contained in geothermal noncondensable gases, and the use of geothermal brine for sulfur dioxide scrubbing and absorption as an Air Emissions Control System (AECS), for geothermal power plant, that have been documented through engineering analysis in the Phase I grant study funded through the California Department of Health Services (DOHS), Hazardous Materials Reduction Grant Program and hosted by California Energy Company (CECI). Grant funding for Phase II now has been approved to proceed with the project through the pilot plant design phase. This innovative AECS does not necessitate the use of hazardous materials or produce hazardous wastes. Cost savings were documented compared to injection pump operation or conventional AECS without the use of hazardous materials. The phase II project is to design, improve, research and develop a source reduction demonstration pilot plant geothermal noncondensable H2S incineration AECS

  15. Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kajiwara, Natsuko

    2014-12-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of HBCDs and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of HBCDs contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively. In which γ-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and α-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total HBCDs in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. HBCDs were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and α-, β-, and γ-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total HBCDs in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ngmN(-3), respectively. HBCDs were also not detected (incineration process with destruction efficiencies of more than 99.9999 for both of EPS and XPS cases. For PBDD/DFs, the levels detected in the bottom and fly ash samples were very low (0.028 ng g(-1) at maximum). In the case of XPS-added experiment, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF were determined in the flue gas at levels (0.05-0.07 ng mN(-3)) slightly over the detection limits in the environmental emission gas samples, suggesting HBCDs in XPS are possibly a precursor of detected PBDD/DFs. Operational care should be taken when the ratio of HBCD-containing polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just

  16. Did we choose the best one? A new site selection approach based on exposure and uptake potential for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirarslan, K Onur; Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2016-08-01

    Ecological problems arising after the construction and operation of a waste incineration plant generally originate from incorrect decisions made during the selection of the location of the plant. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the selection method for the location of a new municipal waste incineration plant can be improved by using a dispersion modelling approach supported by geographical information systems and multi-criteria decision analysis. Considering this aim, the appropriateness of the current location of an existent plant was assessed by applying a pollution dispersion model. Using this procedure, the site ranking for a total of 90 candidate locations and the site of the existing incinerator were determined by a new location selection practice and the current place of the plant was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. This ranking, made without the use of modelling approaches, was re-evaluated based on the modelling of various variables, including the concentration of pollutants, population and population density, demography, temporality of meteorological data, pollutant type, risk formation type by CALPUFF and re-ranking the results. The findings clearly indicate the impropriety of the location of the current plant, as the pollution distribution model showed that its location was the fourth-worst choice among 91 possibilities. It was concluded that the location selection procedures for waste incinerators should benefit from the improvements obtained by the articulation of pollution dispersion studies combined with the population density data to obtain the most suitable location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Waste incineration with production of clean and reliable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlas, Martin; Tous, Michal; Klimek, Petr; Bebar, Ladislav [Brno University of Technology, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering (UPEI VUT Brno), Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Discussion about utilization of waste for energy production (waste-to-energy, WTE) has moved on to next development phase. Waste fired power plants are discussed and investigated. These facilities focus on electricity production whereas heat supply is diminished and operations are not limited by insufficient heat demand. Present results of simulation prove that increase of net electrical efficiency above 20% for units processing 100 kt/year (the most common ones) is problematic and tightly bound with increased investments. Very low useful heat production in Rankine-cycle based cogeneration system with standard steam parameters leads to ineffective utilization of energy. This is documented in this article with the help of newly developed methodology based on primary energy savings evaluation. This approach is confronted with common method for energy recovery efficiency evaluation required by EU legislation (Energy Efficiency - R1 Criteria). New term highly-efficient WTE is proposed and condition under which is the incinerator classified as highly efficient are specified and analyzed. Once sole electricity production is compelled by limited local heat demand, application of non-conventional arrangements is highly beneficial to secure effective energy utilization. In the paper a system where municipal solid waste incinerator is integrated with combined gas-steam cycle is evaluated in the same manner. (orig.)

  18. Leaching of solidified TRU-contaminated incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Leach rate and cumulative fractional releases of plutonium were determined for a series of laboratory-scale waste forms containing transuranic (TRU) contaminated incinerator ash. The solidification agents from which these waste forms were produced are commercially available materials for radioactive waste disposal. The leachants simulate groundwaters with chemical compositions that are indiginous to different geological media proposed for repositories. In this study TRU-contaminated ash was incorporated into waste forms fabricated with portland type I cement, urea-formaldehyde, polyester-styrene or Pioneer 221 bitumen. The ash was generated at the dual-chamber incinerator at the Rocky Flats Plant. These waste forms contained between 1.25 x 10 -2 and 4.4 x 10 -2 Ci (depending on the solidification agent) of mixed TRU isotopes comprised primarily of 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Five leachant solutions were prepared consisting of: (1) demineralized water, (2) simulated brine, (3) simplified sodium-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaCl/liter), (4) simplified calcium-dominated groundwater (30 meq CaCl 2 /liter), and (5) simplified bicarbonate-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaHCO 3 /liter). Cumulative fractional releases were found to vary significantly with different leachants and solidification agents. In all cases waste forms leached in brine gave the lowest leach rates. Urea-formaldehyde had the greatest release of radionuclides while polyester-styrene and portland cement had approximately equivalent fractional releases. Cement cured for 210 days retained radionuclides three times more effectively than cement cured only 30 days

  19. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  20. Acid gas control process and apparatus for waste fired incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, P.Z.; Stepan, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for reducing noxious emission produced in a waste material incinerator. It comprises incinerating solid waste material in a furnace section of the waste material incinerator; providing an additive to an additive supply storage unit; conveying the additive to an additive injection means that communicates with the furnace section of the waste material incinerator; injecting the additive into a turbulent reaction zone of the furnace section such that acid gas content, acid dewpoint temperature and the level of corrosion in the incinerator are reduced

  1. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. ► Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. ► Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. ► Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. ► Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  2. Incineration of wastes from nuclear installations with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the Juelich Research Center a two-stage incineration process has been developed which, due to an integral thermal treatment stage, is most suitable for the incineration of heterogeneous waste material. The major advantages of this technique are to be seen in the fact that mechanical treatment of the waste material is no longer required and that off gas treatment is considerably facilitated. (orig.) [de

  3. Vaccine refusal - what we need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes

    2018-04-12

    Opposition to vaccines is not a new event, and appeared soon after the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in the late 18th century. The purpose of this review is to educate healthcare professionals about vaccine hesitancy and refusal, its causes and consequences, and make suggestions to address this challenge. A comprehensive and non-systematic search was carried out in the PubMed, LILACS, and ScieLo databases from 1980 to the present day, using the terms "vaccine refusal," "vaccine hesitancy," and "vaccine confidence." The publications considered as the most relevant by the author were critically selected. The beliefs and arguments of the anti-vaccine movements have remained unchanged in the past two centuries, but new social media has facilitated the dissemination of information against vaccines. Studies on the subject have intensified after 2010, but the author did not retrieve any published studies to quantify this behavior in Brazil. The nomenclature on the subject (vaccine hesitancy) was standardized by the World Health Organization in 2012. Discussions have been carried out on the possible causes of vaccine hesitancy and refusal, as well as on the behavior of families and health professionals. Proposals for interventions to decrease public doubts, clarify myths, and improve confidence in vaccines have been made. Guides for the health care professional to face the problem are emerging. The healthcare professional is a key element to transmit information, resolve doubts and increase confidence in vaccines. They must be prepared to face this new challenge. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

    2013-11-01

    The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (ξ), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (η), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with η=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, η=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with η=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, η=5.2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  6. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  7. CLOSURE OF A DIOXIN INCINERATION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mobile Incineration System, whihc was operated at the Denney Farm site in southwestern Miissouri between October 1985 and June 1989, treated almost six million kilograms of dioxin-contaminated wastes from eight area sites. At the conclusi...

  8. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. 40 CFR 65.148 - Incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temperature monitoring device shall be installed in the fire box or in the ductwork immediately downstream of the fire box in a position before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (ii) Where a catalytic incinerator is used, temperature monitoring devices shall be installed in the gas stream immediately before...

  10. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Waste Incineration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Baxter, D.; Martinec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2006), s. 78-90 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * waste * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2006

  11. EIA for a waste incinerator in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2017-01-01

    A planned new waste incinerator will be located in an area which is at risk of flooding – a risk that will increase under climate change. During public hear- ings as part of the project’s EIA, inclusion of climate risks was requested. This led to mitigation measures which will decrease the risk...

  12. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial

  13. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  14. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  15. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes.

  16. The Valduc waste incineration facility starts operations (iris process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateauvieux, H.; Guiberteuau, P.; Longuet, T.; Lannaud, J.; Lorich, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the operation of its facilities the Valduc Research Center produces alpha-contaminated solid waste and thus decided to build an incineration facility to treat the most contaminated combustible waste. The process selected for waste incineration is the IRIS process developed by the CEA at the Marcoule Nuclear Research Center. The Valduc Center asked SGN to build the incineration facility. The facility was commissioned in late 1996, and inactive waste incineration campaigns were run in 1997. The operator conducted tests with calibrated radioactive sources to qualify the systems for measuring holdup of active material from outside the equipment. Chlorinated waste incineration test runs were performed using the phosphatizing process developed by the Marcoule Research Center. Inspections performed after these incineration runs revealed the complete absence of corrosion in the equipment. Active commissioning of the facility is scheduled for mid-1998. The Valduc incinerator is the first industrial application of the IRIS process. (author)

  17. Research paper 2000-B-1: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directive (89/429) in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S.

    2000-07-01

    This paper constitutes a contribution to the project 'IMPOL - The Implementation of EU Environmental Policies: Efficiency Issues'. The paper deals with the implementation of the EU Directives directed at atmospheric emissions from new (89/369/EEC) and existing (89/429/EEC) municipal waste incineration plants in France. The goal of this paper is twofold: a historic review of the implementation processes and their evaluation following economic criteria of environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency. The focus is on the implementation of the Directives' requirements towards existing municipal waste incineration plants, i.e. those plants having received their operation licence after December 1, 1990. For France we find a general picture of poor compliance. This result has to be differentiated, though: the current compliance rate of plants of a capacity above 6 t/h is almost 100% (although compliance often came late) while the majority of smaller plants does not comply with the Directive's requirements. With a waste incineration park of about 250 plants currently, many of which are very small plants and only treat weak amounts of waste, France constitutes an exception compared to other European countries. A further specific characteristic of France is the high share of waste incineration in total waste treatment (especially in the big cities) which amounts to almost 40%. The outline of the paper is the following: chapter two gives some context information on the French municipal waste incineration plant park and its structure, on the development of waste quantities, on the legal framework and on available subsidy schemes. Chapter three assesses environmental effectiveness, i.e. goal attainment and factors explaining the results. Chapter four comprises the assessment of cost efficiency. Chapter five contains the historic review, i.e. a characterisation of the implementation process, and chapter six concludes, linking the characterisation of

  18. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of resource recovery from waste incineration residues--the case of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, J; Lederer, J; Purgar, A; Winterstetter, A; Rechberger, H; Winter, F; Laner, D

    2015-03-01

    Solid residues generated at European Waste to Energy plants contain altogether about 69,000 t/a of Zn, of which more than 50% accumulates in air pollution control residues, mainly boiler and filter ashes. Intensive research activities aiming at Zn recovery from such residues recently resulted in a technical scale Zn recovery plant at a Swiss waste incinerator. By acidic leaching and subsequent electrolysis this technology (FLUREC) allows generating metallic Zn of purity>99.9%. In the present paper the economic viability of the FLUREC technology with respect to Zn recovery from different solid residues of waste incineration has been investigated and subsequently been categorised according to the mineral resource classification scheme of McKelvey. The results of the analysis demonstrate that recovery costs for Zn are highly dependent on the costs for current fly ash disposal (e.g. cost for subsurface landfilling). Assuming current disposal practice costs of 220€/ton fly ash, resulting recovery costs for Zn are generally higher than its current market price of 1.6€/kg Zn. With respect to the resource classification this outcome indicates that none of the identified Zn resources present in incineration residues can be economically extracted and thus cannot be classified as a reserve. Only for about 4800 t/a of Zn an extraction would be marginally economic, meaning that recovery costs are only slightly (less than 20%) higher than the current market price for Zn. For the remaining Zn resources production costs are between 1.5 and 4 times (7900 t/a Zn) and 10-80 times (55,300 t/a Zn) higher than the current market value. The economic potential for Zn recovery from waste incineration residues is highest for filter ashes generated at grate incinerators equipped with wet air pollution control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences between "refusers" and "non-refusers" in a psychological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1972-01-01

    Administered the ABV (Amsterdam Biographical Questionnaire) and the LOS (Leadership Concept Scale) to 98 students. The directions indicated that the Ss need not comply with the requirement to complete the LOS. 21 Ss failed to avail themselves of this permission and were labeled "refusers" (A). Their

  1. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assign...

  2. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m{sup 2}/a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m{sup 2}/a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  3. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: The case study of a new Italian incineration line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, A.; Mazzi, A.; Niero, M.; Boatto, T.

    2009-01-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  4. The use of coal refuse bike substratoun in cultivate techniques without soils; Utilizacion de los Esteriles de Carbon como Sustratos en Cultivos sin Suelo 2 Fase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Coal refuse poses several problems as regards both their storage and environmental impact: landscape alteration, pollution, high costs, an increasing difficulty in finding appropriate places for storage, etc. Therefore, the companies HUMOSA, HORPLASA and the C. S. I. C. Centre for Environmental Sciences carried out a joint study financed by OCICARBON. This study, completing other ones carried out previously, was aimed at determining the use as both a soilless medium for growing other vegetables than tomatoes and a basic component for container gardening. Then, based on previous experiments, two types of coal refuse were selected: coal refuse from dumps and burnt coal refuse. The characterization of the coal refuse was carried out and the investigation-line was established: (I) the adaption of techniques and know-how obtained up to that moment to the production of kidney beans faba de la granja, green beans and pepper; (II) to study the possibilities of coal refuse as basic components of substrates for container gardening of decorative outdoor plants different from the already investigated conifers in order examine thoroughly the cultivation techniques and, in particular, the methods of fertilization by irrigation. Exhaustive controls were carried out with both types of cultivation using as reference other cultivations with conventional substrates. The results obtained proved that coal refuse can be used as soilles growing medium for vegetables and for container gardening of decorative plants.

  5. Marketization of refuse collection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

      Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social and envir......  Danish municipalities' outsourcing and contracting of refuse collection are framed by a complex set of ideologies and objectives, besides regulation. Both at EU-level and at national level extreme demands for marketization of the public sector are counter-weighed by demands for social...... and environmental considerations associated with the superior goal of sustainable development. In the EU regulative complex developments in normative and legal regulation of social and environmental requirements to member-states' performance have co-existed with tough requirements to ensure open competition...... in public authorities contracting. In the latest edition of the procurement directive it has been clarified that public authorities' commitment of private service-providers to social and environmental requirements by contracting is perfectly legitimate. At national level the municipalities when contracting...

  6. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  7. 40 CFR 60.2886 - What is a new incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a new incineration unit? 60... Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction is Commenced After December 9, 2004, or for Which... incineration unit? (a) A new incineration unit is an incineration unit subject to this subpart that meets...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2015 - What is a new incineration unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a new incineration unit? 60... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction Is Commenced After November 30, 1999 or for... is a new incineration unit? (a) A new incineration unit is an incineration unit that meets either of...

  9. Defense waste cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October--March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The cyclone incinerator developed at Mound has proven to be an effective tool for waste volume reduction. During the first half of FY-1979, efforts have been made to increase the versatility of the system. Incinerator development was continued in three areas. Design changes were drafted for the present developmental incinerator to rectify several minor operational deficiencies of the system. Improvements will be limited to redesign unless installation is required to prove design or to permit implementation of other portions of the plan. The applications development portion of the feasibility plan is focused upon expanding the versatility of the incinerator. An improved delivery system was installed for burning various liquids. An improved continuous feed system was installed and will be demonstrated later this year. Late in FY-1979, work will begin on the conceptual design of a production cyclone incinerator which will handle nonrecoverable TRU waste, and which will fully demonstrate the capabilities of the cyclone incinerator system. Data generated in past years and during FY-1979 are being collected to establish cyclone incineration effects on solids, liquids, and gases in the system. Data reflecting equipment life cycles and corrosion have been tabulated. Basic design criteria for a cyclone incinerator system based on developmental work on the incinerator through FY-1979 have been assembled. The portion of the material dealing with batch-type operation of the incinerator will be published later this year

  10. Utilization of light water reactors for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work a potential of incineration of excess Pu in LWR's is investigated. In order to maintain the economic viability of the Pu incineration option it should be carried out by the existing power plants without additional investment for plant modifications. Design variations are reduced to the fuel cycle optimization, i.e. fuel composition may be varied to achieve optimal Pu destruction. Fuel mixtures considered in this work were based either on uranium or thorium fertile materials and Pu as a fissile component. The slightly enriched U fuel cycle for a typical pressurized water reactor was considered as a reference case. The Pu content of all fuels was adjusted to assure the identical cycle length and discharged burnup values. An equilibrium cycle was simulated by performing cluster burnup calculations. The material composition data for the whole core was estimated based on the core, fuel and cycle parameters. The annual production of Pu of a standard PWR with 1100 MWe output is about 298 kg. The same core completely loaded with the MOX fuel is estimated to consume 474 kg of Pu, mainly fissile isotopes. The MOX-239 fuel type (pure Pu-239) shows a potential toreduce the initial total Pu inventory by 220 kg/year and fissile Pu inventory by 420 kg/year. TMOX and TMOX-239 are based on Th-232 as a fertile component of the fuel, instead of U-238. The amount of Pu destroyed per year for both cases is significantly higher than that of U-based fuels. Especially impressive is the reduction in fissile Pu inventory: more than 900 kg/year. (author)

  11. Operational readiness review for the TSCA incinerator start-up at the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Kiang, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator at Oak Ridge K-25 Site was designed in the early 1980's as a treatment alternative for the increasing quantities of radioactive mixed waste accumulating from gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) operations. The waste feed principally contains low assay uranium and PCBs, although listed solvents and heavy metal containing sludges have also be incinerated. Construction was completed in 1986 and the unit underwent an extensive series of tests and trial burns, because of the following unique characteristics: the incinerator treats radioactive mixed wastes; increased size of the incinerator for greater waste throughout and treatment capacity; expansion of the waste acceptance criteria to include materials and radionuclides from non-GDP operations, such as ORNL and Y-12; modifications and improvement to the Air Pollution Control (APC) system; treatment of large quantities and concentrations of PCB containing materials; projected longevity of operation (40 years); humid, Eastern location with a high, annual precipitation. The incinerator was initially fired in July, 1986. The full performance testing (with the APC) and DOE acceptance of the facility occurred a year later. The trial burn period lasted from 1988 through 1990. Numerous equipment problems were initially encountered, including excessive draft fan wear and failure. These problems have been overcome, the facility is fully permitted, DOE provided authorization for full operations in 1991, and, to date, over two million pounds of mixed waste have been incinerated, with an average volume reduction factor of approximately nine. This paper discusses the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Readiness Review for the incinerator. (author)

  12. Research and development and its importance for eco-efficient waste incineration - a review and an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehlow, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Research and development played a paramount role for waste incineration from the early beginning. The development of suited combustion systems, of measures to control dioxin formation in and emission from waste incineration plants, the simplification of gas cleaning processes while maintaining their environmental quality and the inertnesses of hazardous residues like filter ashes are few examples to illustrate this importance. There are still areas which need further research and development support, e.g. the optimisation of energy recovery or the final disposal of soluble APC residues. (author)

  13. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste by refuse derived fuel production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaz Saheri; Noorezlin Ahmad Baseri; Masoud Aghajani Mir; Malmasi Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is so beneficial both for the energy and for the positive environmental implications. Mainly related to the saving of primary energy derived from fossil fuel. Malaysia as a fast growing population country has the average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated around 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and it has been increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Regarding characterization exercise, the main parts of the Malaysian MSW were found to be food, paper and plastic, which made up almost 80 % of the waste by weight. Furthermore, the average moisture content of the MSW was about 55 %, making incineration a challenging mission. In addition waste sectors in Malaysia contributes to 1.3 million ton of CH 4 compare to total CH 4 emission which is 2.2 MT. In order to overcome waste problem considering other technical, environmental and economical methods seems to be necessarily. Resource recovery centers recovers the maximum proportion of recyclable and recoverable resources from the mixed municipal solid waste .The resource recovery process itself is one of the step-by-step segregation and elimination of all non-combustibles , and separation of the combustibles in the desired form of fuel for good combustion. Then, a further mechanical separation process converts combustible materials to refuse derived fuel (RDF) with moisture content between 20 and 30 % and an average calorific fuel value of about 3450 kcal/kg. So, the aim of this paper is taking into account resource recovery from waste using refuse derived fuel as a secondary resource with regarding advantages and disadvantages of this kind of energy production in Malaysia as a developing country. (author)

  14. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  16. 14 CFR 121.586 - Authority to refuse transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to refuse transportation. 121.586 Section 121.586 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... transportation. (a) No certificate holder may refuse transportation to a passenger on the basis that, because the...

  17. School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention within School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary B.

    Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…

  18. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing of...

  19. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are...

  20. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See 412...